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Sample records for 3-dimensional computational analysis

  1. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Bart; Janssen, Stein; Mellema, Jos; Ring, David

    2016-05-01

    Olecranon fractures have variable size of the proximal fragment, patterns of fragmentation, and subluxation of the ulnohumeral joint that might be better understood and categorized on the basis of quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis. Mayo type I fractures are undisplaced, Mayo type II are displaced and stable, and Mayo type III are displaced and unstable. The last is categorized into anterior and posterior dislocations. The purpose of this study was to further clarify fracture morphology between Mayo type I, II, and III fractures. Three-dimensional models were created for a consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures that were evaluated with computed tomography. We determined the total number of fracture fragments, the volume and articular surface area of each fracture fragment, and the degree of displacement of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. Displaced olecranon fractures were more comminuted than nondisplaced fractures (P = .02). Displaced fractures without ulnohumeral subluxation were smallest in terms of both volume (P < .001) and articular surface involvement (P < .001) of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. There was no difference in average displacement of the proximal fragment between displaced fractures with and without ulnohumeral subluxation (P = .74). Anterior olecranon fracture-dislocations created more displaced (P = .04) and smaller proximal fragments than posterior fracture-dislocations (P = .005), with comparable fragmentation on average (P = .60). The ability to quantify volume, articular surface area, displacement, and fragmentation using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography should be considered when increased knowledge of fracture morphology and fracture patterns might be useful. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Image analysis and superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Styner, Martin A.; Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques can provide valuable information to clinicians and researchers. But as we move from traditional 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric analysis to new 3D techniques, it is often necessary to compare 2D with 3D data. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides simulation tools that can help bridge the gap between image types. CBCT acquisitions can be made to simulate panoramic, lateral, and posteroanterior cephalometric radioagraphs so that they can be compared with preexisting cephalometric databases. Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics include initial diagnosis and superimpositions for assessing growth, treatment changes, and stability. Three-dimensional CBCT images show dental root inclination and torque, impacted and supernumerary tooth positions, thickness and morphology of bone at sites of mini-implants for anchorage, and osteotomy sites in surgical planning. Findings such as resorption, hyperplasic growth, displacement, shape anomalies of mandibular condyles, and morphological differences between the right and left sides emphasize the diagnostic value of computed tomography acquisitions. Furthermore, relationships of soft tissues and the airway can be assessed in 3 dimensions. PMID:16679201

  3. Normal fetal urine production rate estimated with 3-dimensional ultrasonography using the rotational technique (virtual organ computer-aided analysis).

    PubMed

    Touboul, Cyril; Boulvain, Michel; Picone, Olivier; Levaillant, Jean-Marc; Frydman, René; Senat, Marie-Victoire

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hourly fetal urine production rates (HFUPRs) and establish a nomogram by measuring bladder volumes with 3-dimensional ultrasound. Fetal urine bladder volume was estimated in 167 normal singleton pregnancies with neither oligohydramnios nor polyhydramnios, at a gestational age of 20-41 weeks. HFUPR was estimated in a regression analysis that included at least 3 volumes calculated during the filling phase with the Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) technique. We estimated interoperator variability for HFUPR less than 10 mL/h and HFUPR greater than 10 mL/h. Fetal urine production rates at 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks were 7.5, 22.2, 56.1, and 125.1 mL/h, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interoperator variability were 99.2% for HFUPR less than 10 mL/hour and 97.1% for HFUPR greater than 10 mL/h. Prenatal measurement of HFUPR with 3-dimensional VOCAL ultrasound is reproducible and may help to determine the cause and prognosis of amniotic fluid volume abnormalities.

  4. Airway Wall Area Derived from 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis Differs among Lung Lobes in Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tho, Nguyen Van; Trang, Le Thi Huyen; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Emiko; Ryujin, Yasushi; Kanda, Rie; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Goto, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Kentaro; Higami, Yuichi; Seto, Ruriko; Nagao, Taishi; Oguma, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lan, Le Thi Tuyet; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background It is time-consuming to obtain the square root of airway wall area of the hypothetical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (√Aaw at Pi10), a comparable index of airway dimensions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), from all airways of the whole lungs using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis. We hypothesized that √Aaw at Pi10 differs among the five lung lobes and √Aaw at Pi10 derived from one certain lung lobe has a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs in smokers. Methods Pulmonary function tests and chest volumetric CTs were performed in 157 male smokers (102 COPD, 55 non-COPD). All visible bronchial segments from the 3rd to 5th generations were segmented and measured using commercially available 3-dimensional CT analysis software. √Aaw at Pi10 of each lung lobe was estimated from all measurable bronchial segments of that lobe. Results Using a mixed-effects model, √Aaw at Pi10 differed significantly among the five lung lobes (R2 = 0.78, P<0.0001). The Bland-Altman plots show that √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left upper lobe had a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs, while √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left lower lobe did not. Conclusion In male smokers, CT-derived airway wall area differs among the five lung lobes, and airway wall area derived from the right or left upper lobe is representative of the whole lungs. PMID:24865661

  5. Osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum: lesion size and pattern analysis using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography and mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Rens; Oosterhoff, Jacobien H; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Doornberg, Job N; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Eygendaal, Denise; Oh, Luke S

    2017-09-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the reliability of a quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography (Q3DCT) technique for measurement of the capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) surface area, to analyze OCD distribution using a mapping technique, and to investigate associations between Q3DCT lesion quantification and demographic characteristics and/or clinical examination findings. We identified patients with capitellar OCD who presented to our orthopedic sports medicine practice between January 2001 and January 2016 and who had undergone a preoperative computed tomography scan (slice thickness ≤1.25 mm). A total of 17 patients with a median age of 15 years (range, 12-23 years) were included in this study. Three-dimensional polygon models were reconstructed after osseous structures were marked in 3 planes. Surface areas of the OCD lesion as well as the capitellum were measured. Observer agreement was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Heat maps were created to visualize OCD distribution. Measurements of the OCD surface area showed almost perfect intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.99; confidence interval [CI], 0.98-0.99) and interobserver agreement (ICC, 0.93; CI, 0.86-0.97). Measurements of the capitellar surface area also showed almost perfect intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.97;CI, 0.91-0.99) and interobserver agreement (ICC, 0.86; CI, 0.46-0.96). The median OCD surface area was 101 mm(2) (range, 49-217 mm(2)). On the basis of OCD heat mapping, the posterolateral zone of the capitellum was most frequently affected. OCDs in which the lateral wall was involved were associated with larger lesion size (P = .041), longer duration of symptoms (P = .030), and worse elbow extension (P = .013). The ability to quantify the capitellar OCD surface area and lesion location in a reliable manner using Q3DCT and a mapping technique should be considered when detailed knowledge of lesion size and location is desired

  6. Site and Severity of the Increased Humeral Retroversion in Symptomatic Baseball Players: A 3-dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Itami, Yasuo; Mihata, Teruhisa; Shibano, Koji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Humeral retroversion in baseball players is greater in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder. However, the site and severity of the humeral rotational deformity remain unclear. To evaluate the site of side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion in baseball players and the severity of these changes through 3-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) bone models. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. From 2008 to 2014, we studied 25 baseball players (12 pitchers, 13 fielders) who underwent surgery for throwing-related injuries (shoulder injury, 15 players; elbow injury, 10 players). The mean age (±SD) at the time of surgery was 20.0 ± 5.9 years. A reconstructed 3D CT model of the entire humerus was divided into 15 segments of equal height (overall mean, 21.4 ± 1.0 mm). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion in each segment was calculated by superimposing the model of the dominant side over the mirror-image model of the nondominant side. The overall mean increase in humeral retroversion was 13.0° ± 6.2° on the dominant side. Significant side-to-side differences in retroversion were present throughout the humerus. The largest side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was seen at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles (2.5° ± 4.3°) and around the proximal physis (2.5° ± 1.4°). At the insertions of shoulder capsule and rotator cuff tendons, the superior half of the humeral head was more retroverted than the inferior half (P < .0001). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was significantly greater in the pitchers (16.2° ± 5.1°) than in the fielders (10.0° ± 5.7°) (P = .009), particularly at the proximal physis. Baseball players exhibited significant side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion at multiple sites throughout the humerus, including the proximal humerus near the epiphyseal plate and at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles, the middle of the humeral shaft, and

  7. Airway growth and development: a computerized 3-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Stephen A; Jacobson, Richard; Khalessi, Sadri

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in the normal upper airway during growth and development using 3-dimensional computer analysis from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data to provide a normative reference. The airway size and respiratory mode are known to have a relationship to facial morphology and the development of a malocclusion. The use of CBCT, 3-dimensional imaging, and automated computer analysis in treatment planning allows the upper airway to be precisely evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the growth of the airway using 3-dimensional analysis and CBCT data from age 6 through old age, in 1300 normal individuals. The airway size and length increase until age 20 at which time a variable period of stability occurs. Next, the airway at first decreases slowly in size and then, after age 40, more rapidly. Normative data are provided in the present study for age groups from 6 to 60 years in relation to the airway total volume, smallest cross-sectional area and vertical length of the airway. This 3-dimensional data of the upper airway will provide a normative reference as an aid in the early understanding of respiration and dentofacial anatomy, which will help in early treatment planning. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Intracranial Structure Volumes in Fetuses With Growth Restriction by 3-Dimensional Sonography Using the Extended Imaging Virtual Organ Computer-Aided Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Carolina Rabachini; Zamarian, Ana Cristina Perez; Araujo Júnior, E; Cavalcante, Rafael Oliveira; Simioni, Christiane; Silva, Carolina Pacheco; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado

    2015-08-01

    To assess intracranial structure volumes by 3-dimensional (3D) sonography in fetuses with growth restriction. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional case-control study involving 59 fetuses with growth restriction (38 fetuses with estimated weight <3rd percentile and 21 fetuses with estimated weight between 3rd and 10th percentiles, according to Hadlock et al [Radiology 1984; 150:535-540]) and 54 controls between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. The following fetal intracranial structure volumes were assessed: cerebellum, brain, and frontal region. The volume was assessed by 3D sonography using the extended imaging virtual organ computer-aided analysis method with 10 sequential planes. Analysis of variance was used to compare fetal groups. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Statistical significance between the brain, frontal region, and cerebellar volumes and a relationship between the frontal region and the brain in fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile and controls were observed (P < .001; P < .001; and P = .002; and P = .008, respectively). Good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was observed for the fetal brain, frontal region, and cerebellar volumes, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.998, 0.997, 0.997, 0.999, 0.997, and 0.998, respectively. The intracranial structure volumes assessed by 3D sonography using the extended imaging virtual organ computer-aided analysis method were reduced in fetuses with growth restriction (estimated weight <3rd percentile). © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Impact of cavity and infiltration on pulmonary function and health-related quality of life in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-dimensional analysis of regenerative endodontic treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    EzEldeen, Mostafa; Van Gorp, Gertrude; Van Dessel, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the regeneration potential of dental tissues after regenerative endodontic treatment (RET). Nevertheless, a standard method for the evaluation of RET outcome is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized quantitative method for RET outcome analysis based on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) volumetric measurements. Five human teeth embedded in mandibular bone samples were scanned using both an Accuitomo 170 CBCT machine (Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a SkyScan 1174 micro-computed tomographic (μCT) system (SkyScan, Antwerp, Belgium). For subsequent clinical application, clinical data and low-dose CBCT scans (preoperatively and follow-up) from 5 immature permanent teeth treated with RET were retrieved. In vitro and clinical 3-dimensional image data sets were imported into a dedicated software tool. Two segmentation steps were applied to extract the teeth of interest from the surrounding tissue (livewire) and to separate tooth hard tissue and root canal space (level set methods). In vitro and clinical volumetric measurements were assessed separately for differences using Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the relation and agreement between the segmented CBCT and μCT volumes. The results showed no statistical differences and strong agreement between CBCT and μCT volumetric measurements. Volumetric comparison of the root hard tissue showed significant hard tissue formation. (The mean volume of newly formed hard tissue was 27.9 [±10.5] mm(3) [P < .05]). Analysis of 3-dimensional data for teeth treated with RET offers valuable insights into the treatment outcome and patterns of hard tissue formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Superheater Headers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey , California THE SIS 8l~ 9 7l. 3-Dl"IE:"SIO:"AL STRESS .’\\:"A LYSIS OF SLI’ERllb\\TER IIEADUlS by...ra"’l Element ’\\o ProJeCt ’o Task :-.: o Work Ln1t Accession :\\o ~ :, , ;, ;,. · .. ,., , .:., .. ·· """’ 3-DI\\IE’SIO:\\.\\l STRESS A:\\,\\1 \\’SIS OF...c~ : 22~0fliceS:-,ml>ol A9Ci l ’ndassified T245450 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimlted. 3·Dimensional Stress Analysis of

  12. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography measurements of coronoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David

    2015-03-01

    Using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography (Q3DCT) modeling, we tested the null hypothesis that there was no difference in fracture fragment volume, articular surface involvement, and number of fracture fragments between coronoid fracture types and patterns of traumatic elbow instability. We studied 82 patients with a computed tomography scan of a coronoid fracture using Q3DCT modeling. Fracture fragments were identified and fragment volume and articular surface involvement were measured within fracture types and injury patterns. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the Q3DCT data of the coronoid fractures. Fractures of the coronoid tip (n = 45) were less fragmented and had the smallest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with anteromedial facet fractures (n = 20) and base fractures (n = 17). Anteromedial facet and base fractures were more fragmented than tip fractures, and base fractures had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with tip and anteromedial facet fractures. We found similar differences between fracture types described by Regan and Morrey. Furthermore, fractures associated with terrible triad fracture dislocation (n = 42) had the smallest fragment volume, and fractures associated with olecranon fracture dislocations (n = 17) had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with the other injury patterns. Analyzing fractures of the coronoid using Q3DCT modeling demonstrated that fracture fragment characteristics differ significantly between fracture types and injury patterns. Detailed knowledge of fracture characteristics and their association with specific patterns of traumatic elbow instability may assist decision making and preoperative planning. Quantitative 3DCT modeling can provide a more detailed understanding of fracture morphology, which might guide decision making and implant development. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  13. Optimization of Anteromedial Portal Femoral Tunnel Drilling With Flexible and Straight Reamers in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Brian; Collins, Michael J; Arns, Thomas A; Zuke, William A; Khair, Michael; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Inoue, Nozomu

    2017-05-01

    To use 3-dimensional custom CAD technology to evaluate how knee flexion angle affects femoral tunnel length and distance to the posterior wall when using curved and straight guides for drilling through the anteromedial portal (AMP). Six cadaveric knees were placed in an external fixator at various degrees of flexion (90°, 110°, 125°, and maximum 135° to 140°). Computed tomography scans were obtained at all flexion points for 3-dimensional point-cloud models. Using custom CAD software, surgical guides through the AMP were replicated along with virtual tunnels at each flexion angle. Distance from the posterior cortex and tunnel dimensions were collected after 8-mm and 10-mm tunnel creation. At 90° of flexion, the average tunnel length down the posterior aspect of 8-mm tunnel was 25.0 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.2-33.8) and 12.0 mm (95% CI 7.3-16.7) for curved and straight guides, respectively; 31.0 mm (95% CI 26.8-35.2) and 28.6 mm (95% CI 24.8-32.4) at 110°; 33.8 mm (95% CI 30.1-37.5) and 31.1 mm (95% CI 26.8-35.4) at 125°; and 35.0 mm (95% CI 34.1-35.9) and 35.5 mm (95% CI 34.2-36.8) with maximal flexion. Values between curved and straight guides are significantly different (P < .001), with straight guides breaching the posterior wall at 90° and 110° of flexion in some specimens. The average distance to the posterior wall cortex was 0.9 mm (95% CI -1.5 to 3.3) and -0.6 mm (95% CI -2.3 to 1.1) for curved and straight guides, respectively, at 90° of flexion (P = .014); 2.3 mm (95% CI -0.2 to 4.8) and -0.1 mm (95% CI -2.4 to 2.2) at 110° (P = .001); 4.4 mm (95% CI 2.8-6.0) and 3.9 mm (95% CI 1.9-5.9) at 125° (P = .299); and 6.7 mm (95% CI 6.2-7.2) and 8.3 mm (95% CI 6.1-10.5) at maximal flexion (P = .184). Posterior wall blowout was noted when using 10-mm straight guides at both 90° (2 specimens) and 110° (3 specimens). Using 10-mm curved guides posterior blowout was noted in 1 specimen at 90°. Maximum footprint

  14. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  15. Is volumetric 3-dimensional computed tomography useful to predict histological tumour invasiveness? Analysis of 211 lesions of cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Kei; Menju, Toshi; Chen, Fengshi; Kubo, Takeshi; Muro, Shigeo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Ohata, Keiji; Sowa, Terumasa; Nakanishi, Takao; Cho, Hiroyuki; Neri, Shinya; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to use Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of computed tomography (CT) images to predict pathological lymph node metastasis and tumour invasiveness of cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma on 3D evaluations. METHODS Preoperative CT images of 211 lesions of surgically resected cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively examined. The tumour size was calculated in 1D, 2D and 3D views. Tumours with −300 HU and over were defined as ‘solid tumours’, and those between −800 and −301 HU were defined as ‘ground glass opacity tumours’. Tumours with −800 HU and over were assumed to be the whole tumour entity. The proportion of ‘solid tumour’ within the whole tumour entity was also calculated as the ‘solid tumour ratio’. These were compared with pathological information. RESULTS Solid tumour size and ratio were positively correlated with microscopic invasion to pleura, vessels and lymphatics in all dimensional evaluations. Pathological lymph node metastases were also well predicted by solid tumour size and ratio in all dimensional evaluations. The P-values for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 1D, 1D ×2, 2D and 3D evaluations were: solid tumour size P = 0.013, 0.014 and 0.032; and solid tumour ratio 0.016, 0.0032 and <0.0001. In comparisons of 1D, 2D and 3D evaluations, ‘solid tumour size’ of the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC to detect pathological lymph node metastases was not significant. However, strikingly, the 3D solid tumour ratio was found to be significantly more accurate for the prediction of pathological lymph node metastases than the 1D and 2D solid tumour ratios on ROC evaluation (AUC: 1D 0.736, 2D 0.803 and 3D 0.882; P-values for the AUC comparisons were P = 0.013 for 3D versus 1D and P = 0.022 for 3D versus 2D). The correlations of subtypes of adenocarcinoma and the 3D solid tumour ratio were also investigated. Subtypes of adenocarcinoma were well correlated with the 3D solid

  16. Unification of color postprocessing techniques for 3-dimensional computational mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Bruce Charles

    1985-01-01

    To facilitate the understanding of complex three-dimensional numerical models, advanced interactive color postprocessing techniques are introduced. These techniques are sufficiently flexible so that postprocessing difficulties arising from model size, geometric complexity, response variation, and analysis type can be adequately overcome. Finite element, finite difference, and boundary element models may be evaluated with the prototype postprocessor. Elements may be removed from parent models to be studied as independent subobjects. Discontinuous responses may be contoured including responses which become singular, and nonlinear color scales may be input by the user for the enhancement of the contouring operation. Hit testing can be performed to extract precise geometric, response, mesh, or material information from the database. In addition, stress intensity factors may be contoured along the crack front of a fracture model. Stepwise analyses can be studied, and the user can recontour responses repeatedly, as if he were paging through the response sets. As a system, these tools allow effective interpretation of complex analysis results.

  17. Novel 3-dimensional analysis to evaluate temporomandibular joint space and shape.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Renie; Oberoi, Snehlata; Wiley, David F; Woodhouse, Christian; Tallman, Melissa; Tun, Wint Wint; McNeill, Charles; Miller, Arthur J; Hatcher, David

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and validate a novel semiautomated method for 3-dimensional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) space and condylar and articular shapes using cone-beam computed tomographic data. The protocol for 3-dimensional analysis with the Checkpoint software (Stratovan, Davis, Calif) was established by analyzing cone-beam computed tomographic images of 14 TMJs representing a range of TMJ shape variations. Upon establishment of the novel method, analysis of 5 TMJs was further repeated by several investigators to assess the reliability of the analysis. Principal components analysis identified 3 key components that characterized how the condylar head shape varied among the 14 TMJs. Principal component analysis allowed determination of the minimum number of landmarks or patch density to define the shape variability in this sample. Average errors of landmark placement ranged from 1.15% to 3.65%, and none of the 121 landmarks showed significant average errors equal to or greater than 5%. Thus, the mean intraobserver difference was small and within the clinically accepted margin of error. Interobserver error was not significantly greater than intraobserver error, indicating that this is a reliable methodology. This novel semiautomatic method is a reliable tool for the 3-dimensional analysis of the TMJ including both the form and the space between the articular eminence and the condylar head. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Navigation in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Ashwin; Drittenbass, Lisca; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Stern, Richard; Assal, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery has developed dramatically during the past 2 decades. This article describes the use of intraoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography and navigation in foot and ankle surgery. Traditional imaging based on serial radiography or C-arm-based fluoroscopy does not provide simultaneous real-time 3-dimensional imaging, and thus leads to suboptimal visualization and guidance. Three-dimensional computed tomography allows for accurate intraoperative visualization of the position of bones and/or navigation implants. Such imaging and navigation helps to further reduce intraoperative complications, leads to improved surgical outcomes, and may become the gold standard in foot and ankle surgery. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e1005-e1010.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Computer aided-designed, 3-dimensionally printed porous tissue bioscaffolds for craniofacial soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zopf, David A; Mitsak, Anna G; Flanagan, Colleen L; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential of an integrated, image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3-dimensional (3D) printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Multidisciplinary effort encompassing 2 academic institutions. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) computed tomography scans were segmented and utilized in image-based CAD to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture were produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months' duration. Auricular and nasal constructs with several types of microporous architecture were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in an excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histological analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native-appearing cartilaginous growth that respected the boundaries of the scaffold. Integrated, image-based CAD and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. Sonographic Measurement of Cervical Volume in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preterm Birth Using a Geometric Formula for a Frustum Versus 3-Dimensional Automated Virtual Organ Computer-Aided Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed I; Aldhaheri, Sarah R; Rodriguez-Kovacs, Javier; Narasimhulu, Deepa; Putra, Manesha; Minkoff, Howard; Haberman, Shoshana

    2017-06-06

    To compare cervical volume measurements by 3-dimensional (3D) sonography using Virtual Organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) versus a manual method using a geometric formula for a frustum. We included 142 asymptomatic pregnant women at 16 to 24 weeks gestation at high risk for preterm birth. With a Voluson 730 Expert system (GE Healthcare), they underwent 2-dimensional (2D) transvaginal sonographic cervical length measurements and 3D cervical volume acquisition. The stored volumes were processed by VOCAL on a surface tablet. Cervical volume was manually calculated from the 2D images by using the formula V = 1/3 × π × h × (r1(2)  + r2(2)  + r1 × r2), where V represents cervical volume; π was approximated as 3.14159; h, cervical length; r1, radius at the internal os; and r2, radius at the external os. Cervical volume was lower when obtained manually than by VOCAL, with a coefficient of variation of 30%, a mean difference of 10.1 ± 14.9 cm(3) (P < .0001), and a poor interclass correlation coefficient of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.78). Both methods had good reproducibility; however, VOCAL had wider limits of agreement. A positive correlation was found between both methods (r = 0.63; P < .0001). No correlation was found between cervical length by 2D transvaginal ultrasound and cervical volume by the VOCAL technique (r = 0.06; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22) or cervical volume by the manual method (r = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.39). The cervix represents a frustum (truncated cone, r1 is not equal to r2) in shape rather than a cylinder. Both methods are reproducible; VOCAL is less reliable but provides higher values of cervical volume. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Biopsy Using Real-time 3-dimensional Single-photon Emission Computed Tomographic Guidance in Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Prada, Sara; Delgado-Sanchez, Elsa; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In endometrial cancer, the histopathological analysis of the lymphatic nodes is essential to establish a correct prognosis and tailored adjuvant treatment. It is well-known that patients with early-stage endometrial cancer have a low incidence of nodal disease. In this group, systematic lymphadenectomy is not recommended. To improve the detection rate of sentinel nodes in clinical practice, new techniques are emerging like real-time 3-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. We report our experience using this innovative technique for intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes in endometrial cancer. The real-time 3-dimensional SPECT sentinel node biopsy seems to be feasible and accurate in endometrial cancer although further studies are needed to set the precision and predictive values compared with the current differed SPECT techniques and blue dye techniques. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative computed tomography and 3-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Larson, A Noelle; Santos, Edward R G; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles G T; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Mielke, Cary H; Guidera, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study reporting the use of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) and image-guided navigation system for the placement of pedicle screws in pediatric compared with adult patients. To evaluate the accuracy of open pedicle screw placement in pediatric patients using intraoperative CT and 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation. Pedicle screws are widely used in children for the correction of spinal deformity. Navigation systems and intraoperative CT are now available as an adjunct to fluoroscopy and anatomic techniques for placing pedicle screws and verifying screw position. From 2007 to 2010, 984 pedicle screws were placed in a consecutive series cohort of 50 pediatric patients for spinal deformity correction with the use of intraoperative CT (O-arm, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO) and a computerized navigation system (Stealth, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO). The primary outcome measure for this study is redirection or removal of screw on the basis of the intraoperative CT imaging. During the study period, 1511 screws were placed in adult patients using the same image guidance system. A total of 984 pedicle screws were implanted using real-time navigation, with a mean of 20 screws per patient (range: 2-34). On the basis of intraoperative CT, 35 screws (3.6%) were revised (27 redirected and 8 removed), representing a 96.4% accuracy rate. No patients returned to the operating room because of screw malposition.Of the 1511 screws placed in adult patients, 28 (1.8%) were revised intraoperatively for malposition on CT imaging, for an overall 98.2% accuracy rate. Screw revision thus was more common in the pediatric population (P = 0.008). However, the pediatric screw accuracy rate is significantly higher than the findings from a recent meta-analysis of predominantly nonnavigated screws in children, reporting a 94.9% accuracy rate (P = 0.03). We report 96.4% accuracy in pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative CT and a 3D navigation

  3. Global energetics analysis using 3-dimensional normal mode decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kung, Ernest C.

    1986-01-01

    The Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) analysis of the FGGE observations for a 25-day period in January 1979 is examined using the normal mode energetics scheme. The results from the energetics analysis are compared with the data of Tanaka (1985). Kinetic energy spectra of the barotropic mode in the meridional-mode and frequency domains, and the total diabatic process are studied. It is observed that there are significant differences between GLAS and GFDL analyses results in the barotropic energy of gravity modes and the normal energetics scheme is applicable as a diagnostic tool.

  4. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  5. Sex Differences in Patients With CAM Deformities With Femoroacetabular Impingement: 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Quantification.

    PubMed

    Yanke, Adam B; Khair, M Michael; Stanley, Robert; Walton, David; Lee, Simon; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro; Espinosa Orias, Alejandro A; Inoue, Nozomu; Nho, Shane J

    2015-12-01

    To determine if significant differences exist between male and female CAM deformities using quantitative 3-dimensional (3D) volume and location analysis. Retrospective analysis of preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans for 138 femurs (69 from male patients and 69 from female patients) diagnosed with impingement from November 2009 to November 2011 was completed. Those patients who presented with hip complaints and had a history, physical examination (limited range of motion, positive impingement signs), plain radiographs (anteroposterior pelvis, 90° Dunn view, false profile view), and magnetic resonance images consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and in whom a minimum of 6 months of conservative therapy (oral anti-inflammatory agents, physical therapy, and activity modification) had failed were indicated for arthroscopic surgery and had a preoperative CT scan. Scans were segmented, converted to point cloud data, and analyzed with a custom-written computer program. Analysis included mean CAM height and volume, head radius, and femoral version. Differences were analyzed using an unpaired t test with significance set at P < .05. Female patients had greater femoral anteversion compared with male patients (female patients, 15.5° ± 8.3°; male patients, 11.3° ± 9.0°; P = .06). Male femoral head radii were significantly larger than female femoral heads (female patients, 22.0 ± 1.3 mm; male patients, 25.4 ± 1.3 mm; P < .001). Male CAM height was significantly larger than that in female patients (female patients, 0.66 ± 0.61 mm; male patients, 1.51 ± 0.75 mm; P < .001). Male CAM volume was significantly larger as well (male patients, 433 ± 471 mm(3); female patients, 89 ± 124 mm(3); P < .001). These differences persisted after normalizing height (P < .001) and volume (P < .001) to femoral head radius. Average clock face distribution was from the 1:09 o'clock position ± the 2:51 o'clock position to the 3:28 o'clock position ± the 1:59 o

  6. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  7. The effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics model for medical education.

    PubMed

    Battulga, Bayanmunkh; Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-07-09

    Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures.

  8. MAPAG: a computer program to construct 2- and 3-dimensional antigenic maps.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, R C; Retegui, L A; Roguin, L P

    1994-01-01

    The contact area between an antibody (Ab) and the antigen (Ag) is called antigenic determinant or epitope. The first step in the characterization of an Ag by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is to map the relative distribution of the corresponding epitopes on the Ag surface. The computer program MAPAG has been devised to automatically construct antigenic maps. MAPAG is fed with a binary matrix of experimental data indicating the ability of paired MAb to bind or not simultaneously to the Ag. The program is interactive menu-driven and allows the user an easy data handling. MAPAG utilizes iterative processes to construct and to adjust the final map, which is graphically shown as a 2- or a 3-dimensional model. Additionally, the antigenic map obtained can be optionally modified by the user or readjusted by the program. The suitability of MAPAG was illustrated by running experimental data from literature and comparing antigenic maps constructed by the program with those elaborated by the investigators without the assistance of a computer. Furthermore, since some MAb could present negative allosteric effects leading to misinterpretation of data, MAPAG has been provided with an approximate reasoning module to solve such anomalous situations. Results indicated that the program can be successfully employed as a simple, fast and reliable antigenic model-builder.

  9. Superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models of growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. C.; Heymann, Gavin; Cornelis, Marie A.; DeClerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate a new method for superimposition of 3-dimensional (3D) models of growing subjects. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after Class III malocclusion orthopedic treatment with miniplates. Three observers independently constructed 18 3D virtual surface models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of 3 patients. Separate 3D models were constructed for soft-tissue, cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular surfaces. The anterior cranial fossa was used to register the 3D models of before and after treatment (about 1 year of follow-up). Results Three-dimensional overlays of superimposed models and 3D color-coded displacement maps allowed visual and quantitative assessment of growth and treatment changes. The range of interobserver errors for each anatomic region was 0.4 mm for the zygomatic process of maxilla, chin, condyles, posterior border of the rami, and lower border of the mandible, and 0.5 mm for the anterior maxilla soft-tissue upper lip. Conclusions Our results suggest that this method is a valid and reproducible assessment of treatment outcomes for growing subjects. This technique can be used to identify maxillary and mandibular positional changes and bone remodeling relative to the anterior cranial fossa. PMID:19577154

  10. Correlation of 3D Shift and 3D Tilt of the Patella in Patients With Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella and Healthy Volunteers: An In Vivo Analysis Based on 3-Dimensional Computer Models.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuzo; Toritsuka, Yukiyoshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Horibe, Shuji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shino, Konsei

    2017-08-01

    The concepts of lateral deviation and lateral inclination of the patella, characterized as shift and tilt, have been applied in combination to evaluate patellar malalignment in patients with patellar dislocation. It is not reasonable, however, to describe the 3-dimensional (3D) positional relation between the patella and the femur according to measurements made on 2-dimensional (2D) images. The current study sought to clarify the relation between lateral deviation and inclination of the patella in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella (RDP) by redefining them via 3D computer models as 3D shift and 3D tilt. Descriptive laboratory study. Altogether, 60 knees from 56 patients with RDP and 15 knees from 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. 3D shift and tilt of the patella were analyzed with 3D computer models created by magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained at 10° intervals of knee flexion (0°-50°). 3D shift was defined as the spatial distance between the patellar reference point and the midsagittal plane of the femur; it is expressed as a percentage of the interepicondylar width. 3D tilt was defined as the spatial angle between the patellar reference plane and the transepicondylar axis. Correlations between the 2 parameters were assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The patients' mean Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.895 ± 0.186 (range, -0.073 to 0.997; median, 0.965). In all, 56 knees (93%) had coefficients >0.7 (strong correlation); 1 knee (2%), >0.4 (moderate correlation); 2 knees (3%), >0.2 (weak correlation); and 1 knee (2%), <0.2 (no correlation). The mean correlation coefficient of the healthy volunteers was 0.645 ± 0.448 (range, -0.445 to 0.982; median, 0.834). A statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of the correlation coefficients between the patients and the healthy volunteers ( P = .0034). When distribution of the correlation coefficients obtained by the 3D analyses was compared with that

  11. Comparison of 3-dimensional spinal reconstruction accuracy: biplanar radiographs with EOS versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana A; Doan, Josh; Newton, Peter O

    2012-07-15

    Experimental study for systematic evaluation of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from low-dose digital stereoradiography. To assess the accuracy of EOS (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions compared with 3D computed tomography (CT) and the effect spine positioning within the EOS unit has on reconstruction accuracy. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity, but 3D morphological analyses are still rare. A new low-dose radiation digital stereoradiography system (EOS) was previously evaluated for intra/interobserver variability, but data are limited for 3D reconstruction accuracy. Three synthetic scoliotic phantoms (T1-pelvis) were scanned in upright position at 0°, ±5°, and ±10° of axial rotation within EOS and in supine position using CT. Three-dimensional EOS reconstructions were superimposed on corresponding 3D computed tomographic reconstructions. Shape, position, and orientation accuracy were assessed for each vertebra and the entire spine. Additional routine planer clinical deformity measurements were compared: Cobb angle, kyphosis, lordosis, and pelvic incidence. Mean EOS vertebral body shape accuracy was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (maximum 4.7 mm), with 95% confidence interval of 1.7 mm. Different anatomical vertebral regions were modeled well with root-mean-square (RMS) values from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. Position and orientation accuracy of each vertebra were high: RMS offset was 1.2 mm (maximum 3.7 mm) and RMS axial rotation was 1.9° (maximum 5.8°). There was no significant difference in each of the analyzed parameters (P > 0.05) associated with varying the rotational position of the phantoms in EOS machine. Planer measurements accuracy was less than 1° mean difference for pelvic incidence, Cobb angle (mean 1.6°/maximum 3.9°), and sagittal kyphosis (mean less than 1°, maximum 4.9°). The EOS image acquisition and reconstruction software provides accurate 3D spinal representations of scoliotic spinal deformities. The results of this study provide spinal

  12. Cerebral Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revealed by 3-Dimensional Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee-Hong; Emery, Derek; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction. Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS. PMID:27064416

  13. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG) is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn's disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE) and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE) in Crohn's disease patients in a state of remission. Thirteen Crohn's patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn's disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn's disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn's disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn's disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.

  14. Computation of transonic potential flow about 3 dimensional inlets, ducts, and bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyhner, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was developed and a computer code, P465 Version A, written for the prediction of transonic potential flow about three dimensional objects including inlet, duct, and body geometries. Finite differences and line relaxation are used to solve the complete potential flow equation. The coordinate system used for the calculations is independent of body geometry. Cylindrical coordinates are used for the computer code. The analysis is programmed in extended FORTRAN 4 for the CYBER 203 vector computer. The programming of the analysis is oriented toward taking advantage of the vector processing capabilities of this computer. Comparisons of computed results with experimental measurements are presented to verify the analysis. Descriptions of program input and output formats are also presented.

  15. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  16. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  18. Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Zachary; Susarla, Srinivas; Troulis, Maria; Kaban, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish normative data for airway size and shape and to evaluate differences associated with age and sex using 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging. Patients being evaluated by computed tomography (CT) for pathologic conditions not related to the airway were included. Using 3-D Slicer (Harvard Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA), a software program, digital 3-D CT reconstructions were made and parameters of airway size analyzed: volume (VOL), surface area (SA), length (L), mean cross-sectional area (mean CSA), minimum retropalatal (RP), minimum retroglossal (RG), minimum cross-sectional area (min CSA), and lateral (LAT) and anteroposterior (AP) retroglossal airway dimensions. Evaluation of airway shape included LAT/AP and RP/RG ratios, uniformity (U), and sphericity, a measure of compactness (Psi). Children were stratified by stage of dentition: primary, 0 to 5 years; mixed, 6 to 11 years; permanent, 12 to 16 years; and adults, older than 16 years. Differences in airway parameters by age and sex were analyzed. Forty-six CT scans (31 males) were evaluated. Adults had larger (VOL, SA, L, mean CSA, and LAT), more elliptical (increased LAT/AP, P = 0.01), less uniform (U, P = 0.02), and less compact (decreased Psi, P = 0.001) airways than children. Among children, those in the permanent dentition demonstrated greater VOL (P < 0.01), SA (P < 0.01), L (P < 0.01), and mean CSA (P < 0.01) than those in the primary dentition. There were no gender differences in airway parameters. Understanding differences in 3-D airway size and morphology by age may serve as a basis for evaluation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and may help to predict and to evaluate outcomes of treatment.

  19. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  20. Fast Apriori-based Graph Mining Algorithm and application to 3-dimensional Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshio; Washio, Takashi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Motoda, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi

    Apriori-based Graph Mining (AGM) algorithm efficiently extracts all the subgraph patterns which frequently appear in graph structured data. The algorithm can deal with general graph structured data with multiple labels of vartices and edges, and is capable of analyzing the topological structure of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze graph structured data for a 3-dimensional coordinate by AGM. In this method the distance between each vertex of a graph is calculated and added to the edge label so that AGM can handle 3-dimensional graph structured data. One problem in our approach is that the number of edge labels increases, which results in the increase of computational time to extract subgraph patterns. To alleviate this problem, we also propose a faster algorithm of AGM by adding an extra constraint to reduce the number of generated candidates for seeking frequent subgraphs. Chemical compounds with dopamine antagonist in MDDR database were analyzed by AGM to characterize their 3-dimensional chemical structure and correlation with physiological activity.

  1. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  2. Use of 3-dimensional computed tomography to detect a barium-masked fish bone causing esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Atsushi; Tagami, Takashi; Kim, Shiei; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating esophageal foreign bodies and detecting perforation. However, when evaluation is difficult owing to the previous use of barium as a contrast medium, 3-dimensional CT may facilitate accurate diagnosis. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of esophageal perforation. Because barium had been used as a contrast medium for an esophagram performed at a previous hospital, horizontal CT and esophageal endoscopy could not be able to identify the foreign body or characterize the lesion. However, 3-dimensional CT clearly revealed an L-shaped foreign body and its anatomical relationships in the mediastinum. Accordingly, we removed the foreign body using an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The foreign body was the premaxillary bone of a sea bream. The patient was discharged without complications.

  3. Designing and manufacturing an auricular prosthesis using computed tomography, 3-dimensional photographic imaging, and additive manufacturing: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Peter; Garnes, Jonathan; Roman, Norberto; Petrich, Anton; Grant, Gerald T

    2011-02-01

    The method of fabricating an auricular prosthesis by digitally positioning a mirror image of the soft tissue, then designing and using rapid prototyping to produce the mold, can reduce the steps and time needed to create a prosthesis by the traditional approach of sculpting either wax or clay. The purpose of this clinical report is to illustrate how the use of 3-dimensional (3-D) photography, computer technology, and additive manufacturing can extensively reduce many of the preliminary procedures currently used to create an auricular prosthesis. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system of facial motion: an establishment and reliability test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs.

  5. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  6. Role of the Animator in the Generation of 3-Dimensional Computer Generated Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedge, John Christian

    This master's thesis investigates the relationship between the traditional animator and the computer as computer animation systems allow them to apply traditional skills with a high degree of success. The advantages and disadvantages of traditional animation as a medium for expressing motion and character are noted, and it is argued that the…

  7. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  8. Automated 3-dimensional aortic annular assessment by multidetector computed tomography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Morice, Marie-Claude; Bouvier, Erik; Leong, Tora; Hayashida, Kentaro; Lefèvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Romano, Mauro; Chevalier, Bernard; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Farge, Arnaud; Cormier, Bertrand; Garot, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility, and predictive value for post-procedural aortic regurgitation (AR) of an automated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) post-processing imaging software, 3mensio Valves (version 5.1.sp1, 3mensio Medical Imaging BV, the Netherlands), in the assessment of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Accurate pre-operative aortic annulus measurements are crucial for patients undergoing TAVI. One hundred five patients undergoing MDCT screening before TAVI were evaluated. Aortic annular measurement was compared between automated 3mensio Valves software and manual data post-processing software on a dedicated workstation; we analyzed the discrimination value of annulus measurement for post-procedural AR in 44 recipients of a self-expanding valve. The automated 3mensio Valves software showed good concordance with manual MDCT measurements as demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis. The automated software provided equally good reproducibility as manual measurement, especially for measurement of aortic annulus area (intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients 0.98 vs. 0.97, interobserver 0.98 vs. 0.95). In 44 patients after implantation of a self-expanding valve, the valve diameter/CT-measured geometric mean annulus diameter ratio by automated 3mensio Valves software showed moderate and better discrimination ability in predicting post-procedural AR compared with manual measurement (p = 0.12, area under the curve 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.91, area under the curve 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.50 to 0.86, respectively). The automated 3mensio Valves software demonstrated reliable, reproducible aortic annulus measurement and better predictive value for post-procedural AR, suggesting important clinical implications for pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing TAVI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Relationship between proximal femoral and acetabular alignment in normal hip joints using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Buller, Leonard T; Rosneck, James; Monaco, Feno M; Butler, Robert; Smith, Travis; Barsoum, Wael K

    2012-02-01

    The bony architecture of the hip depends upon functional adaptation to mechanical usage via the dynamic interaction between the acetabulum and femoral head. Acetabular retroversion is thought to be a contributing factor of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Studies of pathological hip joints suggest proximal femoral anatomy compensates for acetabular retroversion. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a predictable relationship exists between proximal femoral and acetabular angles, age, and gender in normal hip joints. We hypothesized that, through functional adaptation to mechanical loading, a complementary developmental relationship exists between the acetabulum and proximal femur. Descriptive laboratory study. The femoral neck version, femoral neck shaft angle, acetabular version, acetabular inclination, and center edge angle were measured in 230 normal hip joints in 115 adults using 3-dimensional reconstruction software. Correlations between the angles, age, and gender were examined using the methods of stepwise regression and backward elimination. Regarding side-to-side comparison and variability, there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides in the average value of each angle measurement. The correlations specifically between angles, age, and gender were similar on the left and right sides for all pairs except femoral version and acetabular inclination. Regarding significant findings of the study, a positive correlation (P < .05) was found between femoral version and acetabular version (0.38° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and acetabular version (0.21° to 1°). A negative correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and age (-0.17° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between acetabular version and female gender (2.6° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between center edge angle and female gender (2.8° to 1°). A

  10. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.

  11. Interactive 3-dimensional segmentation of MRI data in personal computer environment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S S; Lee, C U; Choi, B G; Saiviroonporn, P

    2001-11-15

    We describe a method of interactive three-dimensional segmentation and visualization for anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in a personal computer environment. The visual feedback necessary during 3-D segmentation was provided by a ray casting algorithm, which was designed to allow users to interactively decide the visualization quality depending on the task-requirement. Structures such as gray matter, white matter, and facial skin from T1-weighted high-resolution MRI data were segmented and later visualized with surface rendering. Personal computers with central processing unit (CPU) speeds of 266, 400, and 700 MHz, were used for the implementation. The 3-D visualization upon each execution of the segmentation operation was achieved in the order of 2 s with a 700 MHz CPU. Our results suggest that 3-D volume segmentation with semi real-time visual feedback could be effectively implemented in a PC environment without the need for dedicated graphics processing hardware.

  12. A 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes-Euler code for blunt-body flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The shock-layer flowfield is obtained with or without viscous and heat-conducting dissipations from the conservative laws of fluid dynamics equations using a shock-fitting implicity finite-difference technique. The governing equations are cast in curvilinear-orthogonal coordinates and transformed to the domain between the shock and the body. Another set of equations is used for the singular coordinate axis, which, together with a cone generator away from the stagnation point, encloses the computation domain. A time-dependent alternating direction implicit factorization technique is applied to integrate the equations with local-time increment until a steady solution is reached. The shock location is updated after the flowfield computation, but the wall conditions are implemented into the implicit procedure. Innovative procedures are introduced to define the initial flowfield, to treat both perfect and equilibrium gases, to advance the solution on a coarse-to-fine grid sequence, and to start viscous flow computations from their corresponding inviscid solutions. The results are obtained from a grid no greater than 28 by 18 by 7 and converged within 300 integration steps. They are of sufficient accuracy to start parabolized Navier-Stokes or Euler calculations beyond the nose region, to compare with flight and wind-tunnel data, and to evaluate conceptual designs of reentry spacecraft.

  13. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    SciTech Connect

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  14. Estimation of Nasal Tip Support Using Computer-Aided Design and 3-Dimensional Printed Models

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Eric; Maducdoc, Marlon; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Palpation of the nasal tip is an essential component of the preoperative rhinoplasty examination. Measuring tip support is challenging, and the forces that correspond to ideal tip support are unknown. OBJECTIVE To identify the integrated reaction force and the minimum and ideal mechanical properties associated with nasal tip support. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three-dimensional (3-D) printed anatomic silicone nasal models were created using a computed tomographic scan and computer-aided design software. From this model, 3-D printing and casting methods were used to create 5 anatomically correct nasal models of varying constitutive Young moduli (0.042, 0.086, 0.098, 0.252, and 0.302 MPa) from silicone. Thirty rhinoplasty surgeons who attended a regional rhinoplasty course evaluated the reaction force (nasal tip recoil) of each model by palpation and selected the model that satisfied their requirements for minimum and ideal tip support. Data were collected from May 3 to 4, 2014. RESULTS Of the 30 respondents, 4 surgeons had been in practice for 1 to 5 years; 9 surgeons, 6 to 15 years; 7 surgeons, 16 to 25 years; and 10 surgeons, 26 or more years. Seventeen surgeons considered themselves in the advanced to expert skill competency levels. Logistic regression estimated the minimum threshold for the Young moduli for adequate and ideal tip support to be 0.096 and 0.154 MPa, respectively. Logistic regression estimated the thresholds for the reaction force associated with the absolute minimum and ideal requirements for good tip recoil to be 0.26 to 4.74 N and 0.37 to 7.19 N during 1- to 8-mm displacement, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study presents a method to estimate clinically relevant nasal tip reaction forces, which serve as a proxy for nasal tip support. This information will become increasingly important in computational modeling of nasal tip mechanics and ultimately will enhance surgical planning for rhinoplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

  15. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  16. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Kong, Shi-Bei

    2017-08-01

    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional connection dynamics of {s}{o}(1,2), spanned by {L-+, L-2, L+2 } instead of {L01, L02, L12 }, is first conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system. The symmetry of the system is clearly presented. A null coframe with 3 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables. All constraints and their consistency conditions, the solutions of Lagrange multipliers as well as the equations of motion are presented. There is no physical degree of freedom in the system. The Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime is discussed as an example to check the analysis. Unlike the ADM formalism, where only non-degenerate geometries on slices are dealt with and the Ashtekar formalism, where non-degenerate geometries on slices are mainly concerned though the degenerate geometries may be studied as well, in the present formalism the geometries on the slices are always degenerate though the geometries for the spacetime are not degenerate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275207 and 11690022

  17. Influence of standardization on the precision (reproducibility) of dental cast analysis with virtual 3-dimensional models.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Chung, Onejune; Park, Seojung; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Sachdeva, Rohit C L; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-03-01

    Virtual 3-dimensional (3D) models obtained by scanning of physical casts have become an alternative to conventional dental cast analysis in orthodontic treatment. If the precision (reproducibility) of virtual 3D model analysis can be further improved, digital orthodontics could be even more widely accepted. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of "standardization" of the target points for dental cast analysis using virtual 3D models. Physical plaster models were also measured to obtain additional information. Five sets of dental casts were used. The dental casts were scanned with R700 (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) and REXCAN DS2 3D (Solutionix, Seoul, Korea) scanners. In this study, 3 system and software packages were used: SureSmile (OraMetrix, Richardson, Tex), Rapidform (Inus, Seoul, Korea), and I-DEAS (SDRC, Milford, Conn). Without standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and the Rapidform software (0.39 mm ± 0.07). With standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and measurements with a digital caliper (0.099 mm ± 0.01), and this difference was significantly greater (P <0.05) than the 2 other mean difference values. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that the mean differences "WITH" standardization were significantly lower than those "WITHOUT" standardization for all systems, software packages, or methods. The results showed that elimination of the influence of usability or habituation is important for improving the reproducibility of dental cast analysis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new platform for serological analysis based on porous 3-dimensional polyethylene sinter bodies.

    PubMed

    Alasel, Mohammed; Keusgen, Michael

    2017-10-25

    A new sensitive and selective platform, three-dimensional immunosensor, has been developed for a rapid serological diagnosis; detection of a Borrelia infection was considered as a model assay. The immunosensor is based on a 3-dimensional (3D) porous solid surface (sinter body) with dimensions of 2×2.5mm where a recombinant variable lipoprotein surface-exposed protein (VlsE; Borrelia-antigen) is immobilized by different techniques. The sinter body served as a robust and inexpensive carrier, which facilitated a successful hydrophobic adsorption as well as covalent immobilization of the antigen with sufficient amounts of on the surface. Because of sinter body's porosity, the detection could be performed in an immune affinity flow system based on a little disposable plastic column. The flow of reagents through the column is advantageous in terms of reducing the non-specific interaction and shortening the test time. Furthermore, three labels were tested for a colorimetric detection: i) a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled secondary antibody, ii) nanoparticles based on Sudan IV, and iii) gold nanoparticles modified with protein A. HRP secondary labeled antibody provides the most sensitive test, 1000 fold dilution of serum sample can be clearly detected in only 20min. Gold nanoparticles modified with protein A were used as a direct label or as a catalyst for reduction of silver ions. Direct detection with gold nanoparticles provides short time of analysis (5min) while detection of metallic silver required longer time (12min) but with improved sensitivity. Nanoparticles based on Sudan IV showed high background and were less favorable. The assay is distinctive because of the rapid analysis time with all used labels, longest 20min. Compared to classical serological methods for Borrelia diagnosis, the developed method offers a simple, rapid and reliable tool of analysis with minimal cost and can be easily transferred to other infectious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  19. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm.

  20. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  1. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Armstrong, Charles W.; Rankin, James M.; Rogers, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. Design and Setting: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. Subjects: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. Measurements: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. Results: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. Conclusions: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time. PMID:12937432

  2. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Armstrong, Charles W; Rankin, James M; Rogers, Burton

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. DESIGN AND SETTING: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. SUBJECTS: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. RESULTS: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. CONCLUSIONS: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time.

  3. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Applicability of 3-Dimensional Quantitative Coronary Angiography-Derived Computed Fractional Flow Reserve for Intermediate Coronary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Kyoichiro; Otsuka, Masato; Kataoka, Shohei; Kahata, Mitsuru; Kumagai, Asako; Inoue, Koji; Koganei, Hiroshi; Enta, Kenji; Ishii, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-23

    Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a newly developed image-based index for estimating fractional flow reserve (FFR).Methods and Results:We analyzed 151 coronary arteries with intermediate stenosis in 142 patients undergoing wire-based FFR measurement using dedicated software. Predefined contrast flow QFR, which was derived from 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3-D QCA) withThrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts, was compared with FFR as a reference. QFR had good correlation (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and agreement (mean difference: 0.01±0.05) with FFR. After applying the FFR cut-off ≤0.8, the overall accuracy rate of QFR ≤0.8 was 88.0%. On receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve was 0.93 for QFR. In contrast, 3-D QCA-derived anatomical indices had insufficient correlation with FFR and diagnostic performance compared with QFR. QFR had good correlation and agreement with FFR and high diagnostic performance in the evaluation of intermediate coronary stenosis, suggesting that QFR may be an alternative tool for estimating myocardial ischemia.

  5. Predictive value of preoperative 3-dimensional computer tomography measurement of semitendinosus tendon harvested for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Masanori; Deie, Masataka; Sunagawa, Toru; Adachi, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative measurement of the semitendinosus tendon (ST) by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT), before using ST as the substitute in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Cross-sectional study to compare anatomic findings with clinical findings. The study involved 28 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using autogenous ST graft. Preoperative 3-D CT images of ST were obtained with a multidetector-row CT scanner, and rendered qualitatively by the volume-rendering technique. The length and cross-sectional area of ST measured with 3-D CT were compared with the length of the harvested ST and the cross-sectional area of the grafted quadrupled tendon. The total length of ST measured with 3-D CT ranged from 220.3 to 285.4 mm, with a mean (+/- SD) of 248.0 +/- 17.1 mm, and that measured at surgery ranged from 230.0 to 290.0 mm, with a mean of 257.1 +/- 16.5 mm. These 2 values showed a close positive correlation (gamma = 0.634, P = .002). The cross-sectional area of ST measured with 3-D CT ranged from 4.29 to 18.5 mm2 with a mean of 11.9 +/- 4.6 mm2, and that of the substitute measured at surgery ranged from 28.3 to 56.7 mm2 with a mean of 45.5 +/- 6.9 mm2). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ST measured by CT and the areas of ST measured during surgery. Preoperative 3-D CT imaging predicts the length of ST. These findings support the measurement of ST length by 3-D CT as a useful tool for planning ACL reconstructive surgery and for providing important preoperative information to patients. Level III, diagnostic study.

  6. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Natenstedt, Jerry J; Streekstra, Geert J; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Gerards, Rogier M; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new ankle brace in limiting only the motion of combined inversion and plantar flexion. Controlled laboratory study. In 12 patients who received and used the new ankle brace, the mobility of the joints was measured with a highly accurate and objective in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) stress test. Primary outcomes were the ranges of motion as expressed by helical axis rotations without and with the ankle brace between the following extreme positions: dorsiflexion to plantar flexion, and combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion. Rotations were acquired for both talocrural and subtalar joints. A paired Student t test was performed to test the significance of the differences between the 2 conditions (P ≤ .05). The use of the ankle brace significantly restricted the rotation of motion from combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion in both the talocrural (P = .004) and subtalar joints (P < .001). No significant differences were found in both joints for the motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. The 3D CT stress test confirmed that under static and passive testing conditions, the new ankle brace limits the inversion-plantar flexion motion that is responsible for most ankle sprains without limiting plantar flexion or dorsiflexion. This test demonstrated its use in the objective evaluation of braces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Input generator for Denton 3-dimensional turbomachine-blade-row analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.; Wood, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A users manual is presented for a computer program that prepares the bulk of the input data set required for the Denton three dimensional turbomachine blade row analysis code. The Denton input is generated from a minimum of geometry and flow variable information by using cubic spline curve fitting procedures. The features of the program are discussed. The input is described and special instructions are included to assist in its preparation. Sample input and output are included.

  8. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  9. Computed Tomography-Based 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analyses of Various Types of Plates Placed for a Virtually Reduced Unilateral Condylar Fracture of the Mandible of a Patient.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Horita, Satoshi; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate stresses in various types of plates placed for a virtually reduced unilateral condylar fracture of the mandible using computed tomography-based 3-dimensional finite element (FE) models of a patient to select the optimal plate system. A computed tomography-based FE model of the mandible of a patient with a unilateral condylar fracture was constructed. The fracture was virtually reduced and fixed with 1 straight titanium plate; 2 straight titanium plates; 2 straight poly-L-lactic acid plates; and 4-hole (box), 5-hole (strut), and 7-hole (lambda) condylar plates. Stresses developing in these plates were analyzed by applying 478.1 N of bite force at the first molar of the contralateral side of the mandible. The magnitudes of tensile stress were within the tensile strength in all types of plates. However, the magnitudes of compressive stress in 1 straight titanium plate and 2 straight poly-L-lactic acid plates were beyond the compressive strength. The tensile and compressive stresses of the 5-hole (strut) plate were the smallest among the 3 types of condylar plates. Fixation by 2 straight titanium plates or any type of condylar plate was biomechanically indicated for the condylar fracture of this patient. Among these plates, the 5-hole (strut) plate was considered optimal. FE analysis is useful in selecting the optimal fixation method in the individual patient. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Bearing of Nielsen Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shinji; Heya, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koji; Yoshikawa, Osamu

    In 1995, the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake caused a large amount of destruction and structural failures. One example, whose mechanism is not fully clear, is the fracture of a bridge bearing of a Nielsen type bridge that does not occur under the ordinary static or dynamic loading conditions. The fracture probably resulted from very high stress due to an unexpected dynamic mechanism. In this paper, the 3-dimensional dynamic behavior of a Nielsen type bridge was analyzed by assuming a collision between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing, which might have occurred in the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. The numerical results show that an impact due to a relative velocity of 5˜6m/s between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing generates a stress sufficient to cause a fracture in the upper bearing. The observed features of the actual fracture surface was also simulated fairly closely.

  11. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  12. Intuitive Facial Imaging Method for Evaluation of Postoperative Swelling: A Combination of 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Laser Surface Scanning in Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Shigeki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shimozato, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative facial swelling after orthognathic surgery may be prolonged and of concern in some patients. In recent years, there have been several reports of analysis of postoperative facial swelling by volume data; however, such evaluations cannot exclude the possibility of error in the measured point because there are no clear anatomic landmarks on the cheek. Three-dimensional laser scanning is a noninvasive tool that can be used to measure surface changes in soft tissue over time. The aim of this study was to quantify postoperative swelling in orthognathic surgery by fusing surface scanned images with skin images reconstructed from 3-dimensional computed tomography data and identifying a set of reference points on the bone. The study comprised 30 patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. Facial scans were obtained with the Artec Eva Scan imaging system (Data Design, Aichi, Japan) at 9 time points from before surgery to 6 months postoperatively. Postoperative scan images were compared with the baseline facial scan obtained 6 months postoperatively. On average, 66% of the initial postoperative edema subsided in 1 month. After 3 months, only 5% of the swelling remained. There were statistically significant correlations between subcutaneous tissue thickness and swelling (P < .0001). We were able to monitor facial swelling after orthognathic surgery with very high precision using the described method. Subcutaneous tissue thickness is an important determinant of facial swelling. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A 3-dimensional accuracy analysis of chairside CAD/CAM milling processes.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Gabriel; Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2014-12-01

    Milling is a central and important aspect of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. High milling accuracy reduces the time needed to adapt the workpiece and provides restorations with better longevity and esthetic appeal. The influence of different milling processes on the accuracy of milled restorations has not yet been reviewed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different milling processes on the accuracy of ceramic restorations. Four groups of partial crowns were milled (each n = 17): Three groups in a 4-axial milling unit: (1) 1-step mode and Step Bur 12S (12S), (2) 1-step mode and Step Bur 12 (1Step), (3) 2-step mode and Step Bur 12 (2Step), and (4) one group in a 5-axial milling unit (5axis). The milled occlusal and inner surfaces were scanned and superimposed over the digital data sets of calculated restorations with specialized difference analysis software. The trueness of each restoration and each group was measured. One-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test was used to compare the data (α = .05). The highest trueness for the inner surface was achieved in group 5axis (trueness, 41 ± 15 μm, P<.05). The 4-axial milling unit exhibited trueness at settings ranging from 61 μm (2Step) to 96 μm (12S). For the occlusal surface, the highest trueness was achieved with group 5axis (trueness, 42 ± 10 μm). The 4-axial milling unit exhibited trueness at settings ranging from 55 μm (1Step) to 76 μm (12S). Restorations milled with a 5-axial milling unit have a higher trueness than those milled with a 4-axial milling unit. A rotary cutting instrument with a smaller diameter results in a more accurate milling process. The 2-step mode is not significantly better than the 1-step mode. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics. PMID:28105122

  15. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics.

  16. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  17. Relationship of craniofacial morphology in 3-dimensional analysis of the pharynx.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Danieli Moura; Kurita, Lúcio Mitsuo; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Pharynx dimensions may vary according to the position and morphology of the mandible. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that craniofacial morphology affects pharyngeal volume and its cross-sectional areas. Seventy-four subjects (38 men, 36 women) aged 18 to 56 years (mean ± SD 32.8 ± 1.8 years) were scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography unit and had facial profile photographs taken. All participants were classified according to skeletal anteroposterior (Class II and Class III) and vertical facial patterns (brachyfacial, mesofacial, and dolichofacial). Facial profile analyses and pharyngeal volume and cross-sectional area determinations were performed. The soft palate cross-sectional area of the oropharynx was significantly greater in the Class III patients. The upper facial third (trichion to soft tissue glabella/facial height) correlated negatively with pharyngeal volume and with soft palate cross-sectional area in the oropharynx. Alternatively, the midfacial third (soft tissue glabella to subnasale/facial height) correlated positively with soft palate cross-sectional area of the oropharynx. No significant differences across sexes and facial patterns regarding pharyngeal volume were found (P >0.05). The soft palate cross-sectional area is larger in skeletal Class III subjects. It seems that analysis of the facial profile focusing on the proportions of the facial thirds allows for inferences on pharyngeal dimensions. However, anteroposterior skeletal facial type and vertical facial pattern do not seem to affect pharyngeal volume. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BOPACE 3-D (the Boeing Plastic Analysis Capability for 3-dimensional Solids Using Isoparametric Finite Elements)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.

  19. Prosthesis-guided implant restoration of an auricular defect using computed tomography and 3-dimensional photographic imaging technologies: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuming; Leng, Xu; Zheng, Yaqi; Zhang, Dapeng; Wu, Guofeng

    2015-02-01

    The concept of prosthesis-guided implantation has been widely accepted for intraoral implant placement, although clinicians do not fully appreciate its use for facial defect restoration. In this clinical report, multiple digital technologies were used to restore a facial defect with prosthesis-guided implantation. A simulation surgery was performed to remove the residual auricular tissue and to ensure the correct position of the mirrored contralateral ear model. The combined application of computed tomography and 3-dimensional photography preserved the position of the mirrored model and facilitated the definitive implant-retained auricular prosthesis.

  20. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  1. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  2. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  3. Quantitative analysis of 3-dimensional facial soft tissue photographic images: technical methods and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Vikrum; Gutman, Boris; Bar, Ehab; Alghamdi, Suha; Tetradis, Sotirios; Lusis, Aldons J; Eskin, Eleazar; Moon, Won

    2015-01-01

    The recent advent of 3D photography has created the potential for comprehensive facial evaluation. However, lack of practical true 3D analysis of the information collected from 3D images has been the factor limiting widespread utilization in orthodontics. Current evaluation of 3D facial soft tissue images relies on subjective visual evaluation and 2D distances to assess facial disharmony. The objectives of this project strive to map the surface and define boundaries of 3D facial soft tissue, modify mathematical functions to average multiple 3D facial images, and mathematically average 3D facial images allowing generation of color-coded surface deviation relative to a true average. Collaboration headed by UCLA Orthodontics with UCLA Neuroimaging was initiated to modify advanced brain mapping technology to accurately map the facial surface in 3D. 10 subjects were selected as a sample for development of the technical protocol. 3dMD photographic images were segmented, corrected using a series of topology correcting algorithms, and process to create close meshes. Shapes were mapped to a sphere using conformal and area preserving maps, and were then registered using a spherical patch mapping approach. Finally an average was created using 7-parameter procrustes alignment. Size-standardized average facial images were generated for the sample population. A single patient was then superimposed on the average and color-coded displacement maps were generated to demonstrate the clinical applicability of this protocol. Further confirmation of the methods through 3D superimposition of the initial (T0) average to the 4 week (T4) average was completed and analyzed. The results of this investigation suggest that it is possible to average multiple facial images of highly variable topology. The immediate application of this research will be rapid and detailed diagnostic imaging analysis for orthodontic and surgical treatment planning. There is great potential for application to

  4. Relevance of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass volumetry using 3-dimensional gastric computed tomography with gas to predict weight loss at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Robert, Maud; Pechoux, Albane; Marion, Denis; Laville, Martine; Gouillat, Christian; Disse, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Causes of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) failures are still controversial. Literature data suggest that gastric pouch or gastrojejunal anastomosis distentions over time could be a key factor. Making the hypothesis that progressive distention of RYGB volumes is 1 of the main factors of weight loss failure, the aim of our study was to evaluate bypass volumes changes using repeated 3-dimensional gastric computed tomography with gas and the possible negative correlation with weight loss results at 1 year. Thirty-nine patients eligible for RYGB were prospectively included. Gastric bypass volumes were assessed at 3 and 12 months postsurgery performing 3-dimensional gastric computed tomography with gas and weight loss outcomes were recorded during the first postoperative year. There was no loss to follow up. Mean % excess body mass index lost (%EBMIL) at 1 year was 66.7%. Seven patients (17.9%) did not reach Reinhold criteria and were considered as RYGB failures. We found no linear correlation between the 1 year %EBMIL and mean values of the gastric pouch (r=.01; P=.94), and the neo stomach (r=.09 ; P=.57) at 3 months. Revisional surgery was correlated negatively with %EBMIL at 1 year. Weight loss at 1 year does not seem to be correlated to RYGB volume changes. Behavioral factors probably play a major role in weight loss failure. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Solution of Poisson equations for 3-dimensional grid generations. [computations of a flow field over a thin delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for generating three dimensional, finite difference grids about complicated geometries by using Poisson equations is developed. The inhomogenous terms are automatically chosen such that orthogonality and spacing restrictions at the body surface are satisfied. Spherical variables are used to avoid the axis singularity, and an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) solution scheme is used to accelerate the computations. Computed results are presented that show the capability of the method. Since most of the results presented have been used as grids for flow-field computations, this is indicative that the method is a useful tool for generating three-dimensional grids about complicated geometries.

  6. Impact of dental and zygomatic implants on stress distribution in maxillary defects: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis study.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Yaluğ, Suat; Korkmaz, Turan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in the bone around dental and zygomatic implants for 4 different implant-supported obturator prostheses designs in a unilaterally maxillary defect using a 3-dimensional finite element stress analysis. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the human unilateral maxillary defect was constructed. Four different implant-supported obturator prostheses were modeled; model 1 with 2 zygomatic implants and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 2 zygomatic implants and 2 dental implants, model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants and 3 dental implants, and model 4 with 1 zygomatic implant and 3 dental implants. Bar attachments were used as superstructure. A 150-N vertical load was applied in 3 different ways, and von Mises stresses in the cortical bone around implants were evaluated. When the models (model 1-3) were compared in terms of number of implants, all of the models showed similar highest stress values under the first loading condition, and these values were less than under model 4 conditions. The highest stress values of models 1-4 under the first loading condition were 8.56, 8.59, 8.32, and 11.55 Mpa, respectively. The same trend was also observed under the other loading conditions. It may be concluded that the use of a zygomatic implant on the nondefective side decreased the highest stress values, and increasing the number of dental implants between the most distal and most mesial implants on the nondefective side did not decrease the highest stress values.

  7. Importance of 3-Dimensional Geometric Analysis in the Assessment of the Athlete’s Heart

    PubMed Central

    Schiros, Chun G; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Sanagala, Thriveni; Zha, Wei; McGiffin, David C; Bamman, Marcas M; Gupta, Himanshu; Lloyd, Steven G; Denney, Thomas S; Dell’Italia, Louis J

    2013-01-01

    How the left ventricular (LV) remodels in response to a high volume stimulus is important in evaluating the endurance athlete’s heart. Marathoners and patients with isolated, moderate chronic compensated mitral regurgitation (MR) represent physiologic and pathologic forms of eccentric LV remodeling in response to intermittent and chronic volume overload, respectively. We therefore performed magnetic resonance imaging with tissue tagging and three-dimensional data analysis at rest in 19 marathoners (39±10 years, 47% female), 17 patients with isolated MR without coronary artery disease or medical therapy (46±5 years, 53% female), and 24 controls (45±8 years, 50% female). Marathoners and MR patients had ~35% greater LV end-diastolic (ED) volume index, ~ 50% greater end-systolic (ES) volume index and ~ 34% great LV stroke volume index (P<0.0001) vs. controls. However, marathoners’ hearts had increased long axis length, while MR hearts did not differ from controls. MR hearts had greater LV global and apex sphericity vs. marathoners and controls (P<0.0001). Marathoners had normal LV mass/volume ratio and wall thickness while these were significantly decreased in the MR group. In marathoners, LV baseline work rate was similar to controls and higher in MR vs. controls. In conclusion, marathoners’ hearts achieve elevated resting stroke volume with adherence to an elliptical shape defined by 3D geometry and mass/volume. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of LV geometry and mass to volume may be important in the evaluation of the athlete’s heart. PMID:23332597

  8. Virtual rehabilitation in an activity centre for community-dwelling persons with stroke. The possibilities of 3-dimensional computer games.

    PubMed

    Broeren, Jurgen; Claesson, Lisbeth; Goude, Daniel; Rydmark, Martin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to place a virtual reality (VR) system, designed to assess and to promote motor performance in the affected upper extremity in subjects after stroke, in a nonhospital environment. We also wanted to investigate if playing computer games resulted in improved motor function in persons with prior stroke. The intervention involved 11 patients after stroke who received extra rehabilitation by training on a computer 3 times a week during a 4-week period. The control group involved 11 patients after stroke who continued their previous rehabilitation (no extra computer training) during this period. The mean age of all was 68 years (range = 47-85) and the average time after stroke 66 months (range = 15-140). The VR training consisted of challenging games, which provided a range of difficulty levels that allow practice to be fun and motivating. An additional group of 11 right-handed aged matched individuals without history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses served as reference subjects. All the participants reported that they were novel computer game players. After an initial introduction they learned to use the VR system quickly. The treatment group demonstrated improvements in motor outcome for the trained upper extremity, but this was not detected in real-life activities. The results of this research suggest the usefulness of computer games in training motor performance. VR can be used beneficially not only by younger participants but also by older persons to enhance their motor performance after stroke. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery for skeletal class III malocclusions: a case series study using 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonjung; Chun, Youn-Sic; Kang, Nara; Kim, Minji

    2012-12-01

    Postsurgical changes of the airway have become a great point of interest and often have been reported to be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea after mandibular setback surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional volumetric changes in the upper airway space of patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct Class III malocclusions. This study was performed retrospectively in a group of patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery for Class III malocclusion and had full cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images taken before surgery and 1 day, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The upper and lower parts of the airway volume and the diameters of the airway were measured from 2 different levels. Presurgical measurements and the amount of surgical correction were evaluated for their effect on airway volume. Data analyses were performed by analysis of variance and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The subjects included 21 patients (6 men and 15 women; mean age, 22.7 yrs). The surgeries were Le Fort I impaction (5.27 ± 2.58 mm impaction from the posterior nasal spine) and mandibular setback surgery (9.20 ± 4.60 mm set back from the pogonion). No statistically significant differences were found in the total airway volume for all time points. In contrast, the volume of the upper part showed an increase (12.35%) and the lower part showed a decrease (14.07%), with a statistically significant difference 6 months after surgery (P < .05). Predictor variables affecting the upper and lower parts of the airway volume were presurgical A point to Nasion-perpendicular (A to N-perp) and vertical surgical correction of the pogonion and the posterior nasal spine (P < .05). Bimaxillary surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion affected the morphology by increasing the upper part and decreasing the lower part of the airway, but not the total volume. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

  10. Flow convergence flow rates from 3-dimensional reconstruction of color Doppler flow maps for computing transvalvular regurgitant flows without geometric assumptions: An in vitro quantitative flow study.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Shiota, T; Delabays, A; Teien, D; Zhou, X; Sinclair, B; Pandian, N G; Sahn, D J

    1999-12-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a 3-dimensional method for direct measurement of flow convergence (FC) region surface area and for quantitating regurgitant flows with an in vitro flow system. Quantitative methods for characterizing regurgitant flow events such as flow convergence with 2-dimensional color flow Doppler imaging systems have yielded variable results and may not be accurate enough to characterize those more complex spatial events. Four differently shaped regurgitant orifices were studied: 3 flat orifices (circular, rectangular, triangular) and a nonflat one mimicking mitral valve prolapse (all 4 orifice areas = 0.24 cm(2)) in a pulsatile flow model at 8 to 9 different regurgitant flow rates (10 to 50 mL/beat). An ultrasonic flow probe and meter were connected to the flow model to provide reference flow data. Video composite data from the color Doppler flow images of the FC were reconstructed after computer-controlled 180 degrees rotational acquisition was performed. FC surface area (S cm(2)) was calculated directly without any geometric assumptions by measuring parallel sliced flow convergence arc lengths through the FC volume and multiplying each by the slice thickness (2.5 to 3.2 mm) over 5 to 8 slices and then adding them together. Peak regurgitant flow rate (milliliters per second) was calculated as the product of 3-dimensional determined S (cm(2)) multiplied by the aliasing velocity (centimeters per second) used for color Doppler imaging. For all of the 4 shaped orifices, there was an excellent relationship between actual peak flow rates and 3-dimensional FC-calculated flow rates with the direct measurement of the surface area of FC (r = 0.99, mean difference = -7.2 to -0.81 mL/s, % difference = -5% to 0%), whereas a hemielliptic method implemented with 3 axial measurements of the flow convergence zone from 2-dimensional planes underestimated actual flow rate by mean difference = -39.8 to -18.2 mL/s, % difference = -32% to -17% for any

  11. A Comparison of 2- and 3-dimensional Healing Assessment after Endodontic Surgery Using Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Volumes or Periapical Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Tom; Sonntag, David; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of healing after endodontic microsurgery using 2-dimensional (2D) periapical films versus 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. The healing of 51 teeth from 44 patients was evaluated using Molven's criteria (2D) and modified PENN 3D criteria. The absolute area (2D) and volume (3D) changes of apical lesions preoperatively and at follow-up were calculated by segmentation using OsiriX software (Pixmeo, Bernex, Switzerland) and ITK-Snap (free software). There was a significant difference between the mean preoperative lesion volumes of 95.34 mm(3) (n = 51, standard deviation [SD] ±196.28 mm(3)) versus 6.48 mm(3) (n = 51, SD ±17.70 mm(3)) at follow-up (P < .05). The mean volume reduction was 83.7%. Preoperatively, mean lesion areas on periapical films were 13.55 mm(2) (n = 51, SD ±18.80 mm(2)) and 1.83 mm(2) (n = 51, SD ±.68 mm(2)) at follow-up (P < .05). According to Molven's criteria, 40 teeth were classified as complete healing, 7 as incomplete healing, and 4 as uncertain healing. Based on the modified PENN 3D criteria, 33 teeth were classified as complete healing, 14 as limited healing, 1 as uncertain healing, and 3 as unsatisfactory healing. The variation in the distribution of the 2D and 3D healing classifications was significantly different (P < .05). Periapical healing statuses incomplete healing or uncertain healing according to Molven's criteria could be clearly classified using 3D criteria. CBCT analysis allowed a more precise evaluation of periapical lesions and healing of endodontic microsurgery than periapical films. Significant differences existed between the 2 methods. Over the observation period, the mean periapical lesion sizes significantly decreased in volume. Given the correct indications, the use of CBCT imaging may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of healing of endodontic surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  12. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  13. Training Performance in Diagnosis of Congenital Uterine Anomalies With 3-Dimensional Sonography: A Learning Curve Cumulative Summation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pascual, M Angela; Alcazar, Juan Luís; Graupera, Betlem; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Guerriero, Stefano; Mallafre, Anna; de Lorenzo, Cristina; Hereter, Lourdes

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated learning curve cumulative summation (CUSUM) of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies and the deviations of the level of trainees' performance at the control-stage CUSUM. First-year (R1), second-year (R2), and third-year (R3) residents in obstetrics and gynecology received a training program to learn how to analyze 3D sonographic volumes and to classify congenital uterine anomalies. Each trainee worked on 155 3D sonographic volumes from preselected patients. Their results were evaluated by learning curve CUSUM and standard CUSUM. The time for each volume analysis was calculated for the expert examiner and the trainees. Trainees R1, R2, and R3 reached competence at the 85th, 58th, and 40th evaluations, respectively, with success rates of 80%, 81%, and 85%, and kept the process under control with error levels of less than 4.5% until the end of the test. The trainees significantly reduced the average time of the evaluation per volume (P < .001). Learning curve CUSUM provided quantitative indicators of the learning evolution of 3D sonography for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies by obstetrics and gynecology residents. The training received by the residents was adequate for diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies using 3D sonography. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography resolves the 3-dimensional morphology of the cardiac conduction system in mammalian hearts.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Robert S; Boyett, Mark R; Hart, George; Nikolaidou, Theodora; Cai, Xue; Corno, Antonio F; Alphonso, Nelson; Jeffery, Nathan; Jarvis, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    The general anatomy of the cardiac conduction system (CCS) has been known for 100 years, but its complex and irregular three-dimensional (3D) geometry is not so well understood. This is largely because the conducting tissue is not distinct from the surrounding tissue by dissection. The best descriptions of its anatomy come from studies based on serial sectioning of samples taken from the appropriate areas of the heart. Low X-ray attenuation has formerly ruled out micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as a modality to resolve internal structures of soft tissue, but incorporation of iodine, which has a high molecular weight, into those tissues enhances the differential attenuation of X-rays and allows visualisation of fine detail in embryos and skeletal muscle. Here, with the use of a iodine based contrast agent (I(2)KI), we present contrast enhanced micro-CT images of cardiac tissue from rat and rabbit in which the three major subdivisions of the CCS can be differentiated from the surrounding contractile myocardium and visualised in 3D. Structures identified include the sinoatrial node (SAN) and the atrioventricular conduction axis: the penetrating bundle, His bundle, the bundle branches and the Purkinje network. Although the current findings are consistent with existing anatomical representations, the representations shown here offer superior resolution and are the first 3D representations of the CCS within a single intact mammalian heart.

  15. Facial soft-tissue analysis of Korean adults with normal occlusion using a 3-dimensional laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Baik, Hyoung-Seon; Jeon, Jai-Min; Lee, Hwa-Jin

    2007-06-01

    Developments in computer technology have made the 3-dimensional (3D) diagnosis of facial soft tissues possible, opening the window for 3D soft-tissue evaluation in orthodontic treatment planning and posttreatment results. Korean adults (30 men, 30 women) with normal occlusion were scanned with a 3D laser scanner, and 3D facial images were made with the Rapidform 2004 program (Inus Technology, Seoul, Korea). Reference planes in the facial soft tissues of the 3D image were established, and a 3D coordinate system (X-axis, left/right; Y-axis, superior/inferior; Z-axis, anterior/posterior) was established; 29 measurement points were assigned on the 3D image, and 39 linear measurements, 8 angular measurements, and 29 linear distance ratios were obtained. Significant differences between the sexes were found in nasofrontal angle (men, 142 degrees; women, 147 degrees) and transverse nasal prominence (men, 112 degrees; women, 116 degrees) (P <.05). Transverse upper lip prominence was 107 degrees in the men and 106 degrees in the women, and transverse mandibular prominence was 76 degrees in both sexes. The distance between lower lip vermilion border (Li) and Me' was 0.4 times mandibular body length (Me' - Go'), and mouth height was also 0.4 times the mouth width. The linear distance ratios from the coronal reference plane to fronto-temporal point, zygomatic point, pronasale, upper lip point, labrale inferior, and soft-tissue menton were -1, -1, 1, 0.5, 0.5, and -0.6, respectively. These data could be guidelines for the 3D evaluation of the facial image, because the 3D facial model constructed by the averaged coordinate values could be a template for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  16. Femoral Graft-Tunnel Angles in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Analysis with 3-Dimensional Models and Cadaveric Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Chun, Yong-Min; Moon, Hong-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Won

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare four graft-tunnel angles (GTA), the femoral GTA formed by three different femoral tunneling techniques (the outside-in, a modified inside-out technique in the posterior sag position with knee hyperflexion, and the conventional inside-out technique) and the tibia GTA in 3-dimensional (3D) knee flexion models, as well as to examine the influence of femoral tunneling techniques on the contact pressure between the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel and the graft. Materials and Methods Twelve cadaveric knees were tested. Computed tomography scans were performed at different knee flexion angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 120°). Femoral and tibial GTAs were measured at different knee flexion angles on the 3D knee models. Using pressure sensitive films, stress on the graft of the angulation of the femoral tunnel aperture was measured in posterior cruciate ligament reconstructed cadaveric knees. Results Between 45° and 120° of knee flexion, there were no significant differences between the outside-in and modified inside-out techniques. However, the femoral GTA for the conventional inside-out technique was significantly less than that for the other two techniques (p<0.001). In cadaveric experiments using pressure-sensitive film, the maximum contact pressure for the modified inside-out and outside-in technique was significantly lower than that for the conventional inside-out technique (p=0.024 and p=0.017). Conclusion The conventional inside-out technique results in a significantly lesser GTA and higher stress at the intra-articular aperture of the femoral tunnel than the outside-in technique. However, the results for the modified inside-out technique are similar to those for the outside-in technique. PMID:23709438

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Beg, Muhammad S.; Das, Prajnan; Meyer, Jeffrey

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for anal cancer and determine disease, patient, and treatment parameters that influence the result. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision model was designed with the various disease states for the base case of a 65-year-old patient with anal cancer treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Health states accounting for rates of local failure, colostomy failure, treatment breaks, patient prognosis, acute and late toxicities, and the utility of toxicities were informed by existing literature and analyzed with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, mean costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) for IMRT and 3D-CRT were $32,291 (4.81) and $28,444 (4.78), respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $128,233/QALY for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that IMRT was cost-effective in 22%, 47%, and 65% of iterations at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions: In our base model, IMRT was a cost-ineffective strategy despite the reduced acute treatment toxicities and their associated costs of management. The model outcome was sensitive to variations in local and colostomy failure rates, as well as patient-reported utilities relating to acute toxicities.

  18. The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J; Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K; Levack, Melissa M; Shang, Eric K; Pouch, Alison M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; Yushkevich, Paul A; Hung, Judy; Mariani, Massimo A; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Gleason, Thomas G; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A; Woo, Y Joseph; Cheung, Albert T; Gillespie, Matthew J; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Two-dimensional echocardiography annular diameter and tethering parameters were measured in the apical 2- and 4-chamber views. A customized protocol was used to assess 3-dimensional annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. Recurrence (grade ≥2) was assessed with 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional annular geometry were similar in all patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional leaflet tethering were significantly higher in patients with recurrence (n = 13) when compared with patients without recurrence (n = 37). Multivariate logistic regression revealed preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 32.0° (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P = .002) and preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00; P < .001). The predictive value of the 3-dimensional geometric multivariate model can be augmented by adding basal aneurysm/dyskinesis (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00; P < .001). Preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle is a stronger predictor of ischemic mitral regurgitation recurrence after annuloplasty than preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior

  19. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  20. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  1. Clinical application of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg disease) with microfat grafting techniques using 3-dimensional computed tomography and 3-dimensional camera.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyung Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Kim, Hoon; Chung, In Wook; Lee, Kang Woo; Lee, Hyo Bo; Park, Eun Jung; Jung, Jae Seob; Shin, Il Seob; Ra, Jeong Chan; Choi, Jong Woo

    2012-09-01

    Parry-Romberg disease is a rare condition that results in progressive hemifacial atrophy, involving the skin, dermis, subcutaneous fat, muscle, and, finally, cartilage and bone. Patients have been treated with dermofat or fat grafts or by microvascular free flap transfer. We hypothesized that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may improve the results of microfat grafting through enhancing angiogenesis. We evaluated the utility of ASC in microfat grafting of patients with Parry-Romberg disease by measuring the change in the hemifacial volumes after injection of ASCs with microfat grafts or microfat grafts alone. In April 2008, this investigation was approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board of the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) that monitor investigator-initiated trials. Between May 2008 and January 2009, 10 volunteers with Parry-Romberg disease (5 men and 5 women; mean age, 28 y) were recruited; 5 received ASC and microfat grafts and 5 received microfat grafts only. The mean follow-up period was 15 months. Adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from abdominal fat by liposuction and were cultured for 2 weeks. On day 14, patients were injected with fat grafts alone or plus (in the test group) 1 × 10 ASCs. Patients were evaluated postoperatively using a 3-dimensional camera and 3-dimensional CT scans, and grafted fat volumes were objectively calculated. Successful outcomes were evident in all 5 patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs, and the survival of grafted fat was better than in patients receiving microfat grafts alone. Before surgery, the mean difference between ipsilateral and contralateral hemiface volume in patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs was 21.71 mL decreasing to 4.47 mL after surgery. Overall resorption in this ASC group was 20.59%. The mean preoperative difference in hemiface volume in those receiving microfat grafts alone was 8.32 mL decreasing to 3.89 mL after surgery. Overall

  2. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D) System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP) Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Malik, Malika Amattullah; Arab, Aarthi; Hill, Matthew Thomas; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D) mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP) in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR). The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased survival rate in

  3. Optic Strut and Para-clinoid Region – Assessment by Multi-detector Computed Tomography with Multiplanar and 3 Dimensional Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Ravikiran, S.R.; Kumar, Ashvini; Chavadi, Channabasappa; Pulastya, Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate thickness, location and orientation of optic strut and anterior clinoid process and variations in paraclinoid region, solely based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images with multiplanar (MPR) and 3 dimensional (3D) reconstructions, among Indian population. Materials and Methods Ninety five CT scans of head and paranasal sinuses patients were retrospectively evaluated with MPR and 3D reconstructions to assess optic strut thickness, angle and location, variations like pneumatisation, carotico-clinoid foramen and inter-clinoid osseous ridge. Results Mean optic strut thickness was 3.64mm (±0.64), optic strut angle was 42.67 (±6.16) degrees. Mean width and length of anterior clinoid process were 10.65mm (±0.79) and 11.20mm (±0.95) respectively. Optic strut attachment to sphenoid body was predominantly sulcal as in 52 cases (54.74%) and was most frequently attached to anterior 2/5th of anterior clinoid process, seen in 93 sides (48.95%). Pneumatisation of optic strut occurred in 23 sides. Carotico-clinoid foramen was observed in 42 cases (22.11%), complete foramen in 10 cases (5.26%), incomplete foramen in 24 cases (12.63%) and contact type in 8 cases (4.21%). Inter-clinoid osseous bridge was seen unilaterally in 4 cases. Conclusion The study assesses morphometric features and anatomical variations of paraclinoid region using MDCT 3D and multiplanar reconstructions in Indian population. PMID:26557589

  4. The use of a 3-dimensional computed tomography bone database to evaluate the risk of distal contact between the rasp tip and the endosteal cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Connor, Emmalynn; Cowie, Jonathan G; Wuestemann, Thies; Howell, Jonathan R; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Crawford, Ross W

    2016-12-01

    To use a 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) bone database to evaluate the risk of distal contact between the rasp tip and the endosteal cortical bone. Using a 3-dimensional CT bone database, the rasps for Exeter stems of 125 mm in length and body size 1, with a femoral offset of 37.5, 44, or 50 mm were compared with those for Exeter stems of 150 mm in length and same body size with the corresponding femoral offset. Rasp geometry was determined using an engineering drawing software. Of the 631 femurs in the database, 238 (187 Caucasian and 51 Asian) were of appropriate femoral offset and proximal body size to receive a stem with an offset of 37.5, 44, or 50 mm. Of these, 145 (115 Caucasian and 30 Asian) femurs were of champagne-flute type; the prevalence was comparable between the 2 populations (61% vs. 59%, p=0.729). When using the 150-mm rasp, 70 (55 Caucasian and 15 Asian) of the 238 femurs had distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex; the prevalence was comparable between the 2 populations (29% vs. 29%, relative risk=1.0, p=1.0). Distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex occurred more commonly in champagne-flute-type femurs than other femurs in the anteroposterior plane (28% [41/145] vs. 2% [2/93], relative risk=13.1, p<0.001) and in the mediolateral plane (27% [39/145] vs. 14% [13/93], relative risk=1.92, p=0.019). When using the 125-mm rasp, only one femur (with a canal flare index of 4.52) had distal contact in the mediolateral plane with an offset of 37.5 mm. Distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex occurred more often with the 150-mm rasp than the 125-mm rasp in both planes (p<0.001). The use of a shorter stem may enhance anatomic fit in patients with a narrow femoral canal and prevent distal contact between the rasp and femoral cortex.

  5. Repeatability of choku-tsuki and oi-tsuki in shotokan karate: a 3-dimensional analysis with thirteen black-belt karateka.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Turci, M; Grassi, G P; Fragnito, N; Serrao, G; Ferrario, V F

    2001-06-01

    13 black-belt karateka performed two different standardized counter-offensive techniques. The trajectories of selected body landmarks were studied by using a computerized image analyzer that allows a 3-dimensional reconstruction of standardized movements. The repeatability of both karate techniques was quantified for each participant. Analysis confirmed that more experienced karateka obtained the best repeatability, as already demonstrated in a preliminary study conducted with a smaller sample of less experienced participants.

  6. Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Repeatability and Reliability of EOS 3-Dimensional Imaging Analysis Software.

    PubMed

    Demzik, Alysen L; Alvi, Hasham M; Delagrammaticas, Dimitri E; Martell, John M; Beal, Matthew D; Manning, David W

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying ideal component position for the acetabulum and stem during total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been described by many methods. A new imaging method using low-dose digital stereoradiography, the EOS imaging system, is a biplanar low-dose X-ray system that allows for 3-dimensional modeling of lower limbs and semiautomated measurement of pelvic parameters and implant alignment. Twenty-five patients who underwent primary THA by a single surgeon between October 2014 and December 2014 were retrospectively selected. Only patients with unilateral THA without associated spine pathologies were included, totaling 16 right hips and 9 left hips. There were 8 men and 17 women in the cohort, with a mean age of 67 years (range, 53-82). Three individuals performed measurements of pelvic parameters and implant alignment on 3 separate occasions. An interclass correlation of >0.75 was accepted as evidence of excellent agreement and a confirmation of measurement reliability. Before reviewing patient radiographs, 4 pelvic phantom models were analyzed using the EOS 3-dimensional software to verify accuracy. All anatomic and implant measurements performed by the 3 independent reviewers showed interobserver and intraobserver agreement with interclass correlation >0.75. Three-dimensional modeling of hip implants with the EOS imaging system is a reasonable option for the evaluation of component position after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Navigation in Spine Surgery; A Concise Guide to Eliminate Fluoroscopy Using a Portable Intraoperative Computed Tomography 3-Dimensional Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Lang, Gernot; Lian, Xiaofeng; Berlin, Connor; Janssen, Insa; Jada, Ajit; Alimi, Marjan; Härtl, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Portable intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) with integrated 3-dimensional navigation (NAV) offers new opportunities for more precise navigation in spinal surgery, eliminates radiation exposure for the surgical team, and accelerates surgical workflows. We present the concept of "total navigation" using iCT NAV in spinal surgery. Therefore, we propose a step-by-step guideline demonstrating how total navigation can eliminate fluoroscopy with time-efficient workflows integrating iCT NAV into daily practice. A prospective study was conducted on collected data from patients undergoing iCT NAV-guided spine surgery. Number of scans, radiation exposure, and workflow of iCT NAV (e.g., instrumentation, cage placement, localization) were documented. Finally, the accuracy of pedicle screws and time for instrumentation were determined. iCT NAV was successfully performed in 117 cases for various indications and in all regions of the spine. More than half (61%) of cases were performed in a minimally invasive manner. Navigation was used for skin incision, localization of index level, and verification of implant position. iCT NAV was used to evaluate neural decompression achieved in spinal fusion surgeries. Total navigation eliminates fluoroscopy in 75%, thus reducing staff radiation exposure entirely. The average times for iCT NAV setup and pedicle screw insertion were 12.1 and 3.1 minutes, respectively, achieving a pedicle screw accuracy of 99%. Total navigation makes spine surgery safer and more accurate, and it enhances efficient and reproducible workflows. Fluoroscopy and radiation exposure for the surgical staff can be eliminated in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo 3-dimensional analysis of scapular and glenohumeral kinematics: comparison of symptomatic or asymptomatic shoulders with rotator cuff tears and healthy shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Takehiro; Matsuki, Keisuke; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yu; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Yamazaki, Hironori; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Masuda, Yoshitada; Umekita, Hideo; Banks, Scott A; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-11-01

    Alteration in shoulder kinematics has been suggested as one cause of symptoms in shoulders with rotator cuff tears (RCTs). However, only a few studies comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic RCTs using kinematic analysis have been performed. The purpose of this study was to compare 3-dimensional (3D) scapular and glenohumeral kinematics during scapular-plane abduction among symptomatic RCTs, asymptomatic RCTs, and healthy shoulders. This study included 7 healthy shoulders in subjects with a mean age of 62 years, 5 symptomatic RCTs in subjects with a mean age of 70 years, and 7 asymptomatic RCTs in subjects with a mean age of 67 years. All shoulders with RCTs had medium-sized tears (1-3 cm in the coronal plane) that were confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Biplane fluoroscopic images during scapular-plane abduction were recorded, and computed tomography-derived 3D bone models were matched with the silhouettes of the bones on the fluoroscopic images using 3D/2-dimensional model-image registration techniques. Angular values of the scapula and glenohumeral kinematics were compared among the 3 groups. Posterior tilt of the scapula was significantly smaller in the symptomatic RCTs (3.1° ± 1.8°) than in healthy shoulders (10.4° ± 0.8°) (P = .049). The humerus of the symptomatic shoulders was less externally rotated relative to the scapula throughout the activity than the healthy shoulders and asymptomatic RCTs (P = .006 and P = .028 respectively). However, there were no kinematic differences between the asymptomatic RCTs and healthy shoulders. Kinematic changes in symptomatic RCTs might be associated with development of symptoms. Improvement of these kinematic changes may be a key to successful conservative treatment for symptomatic RCTs. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  10. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Glenoid Bone Loss Is Equivalent to 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Quantification: Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Yanke, Adam B; Shin, Jason J; Pearson, Ian; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-04-01

    To assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 and 3 tesla [T]) to quantify glenoid bone loss in a cadaveric model compared with the current gold standard, 3D computed tomography (CT). Six cadaveric shoulders were used to create a bone loss model, leaving the surrounding soft tissues intact. The anteroposterior (AP) dimension of the glenoid was measured at the glenoid equator and after soft tissue layer closure the specimen underwent scanning (CT, 1.5-T MRI, and 3-T MRI) with the following methods (0%, 10%, and 25% defect by area). Raw axial data from the scans were segmented using manual mask manipulation for bone and reconstructed using Mimics software to obtain a 3D en face glenoid view. Using calibrated Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images, the diameter of the glenoid at the equator and the area of the glenoid defect was measured on all imaging modalities. In specimens with 10% or 25% defects, no difference was detected between imaging modalities when comparing the measured defect size (10% defect P = .27, 25% defect P = .73). All 3 modalities demonstrated a strong correlation with the actual defect size (CT, ρ = .97; 1.5-T MRI, ρ = .93; 3-T MRI, ρ = .92, P < .0001). When looking at the absolute difference between the actual and measured defect area, no significance was noted between imaging modalities (10% defect P = .34, 25% defect P = .47). The error of 3-T 3D MRI increased with increasing defect size (P = .02). Both 1.5- and 3-T-based 3D MRI reconstructions of glenoid bone loss correlate with measurements from 3D CT scan data and actual defect size in a cadaveric model. Regardless of imaging modality, the error in bone loss measurement tends to increase with increased defect size. Use of 3D MRI in the setting of shoulder instability could obviate the need for CT scans. The goal of our work was to develop a reproducible method of determining glenoid bone loss from 3D MRI data and hence

  11. Correction in malrotation of the scapula and muscle transfer for the management of severe Sprengel deformity: static and dynamic evaluation using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Katsuhisa; Suenaga, Naoki; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Oizumi, Naomi; Minami, Akio; Funakoshi, Tadanao

    2013-03-01

    The clinical results of surgical procedures for severe Sprengel deformity have been uncertain. To obtain improved elevation, we consider that it is necessary to realign the lateral border of the scapula for upward rotation. The purposes of the current study were to evaluate the clinical results and range of motion of the scapula after such realignment. Seven cases of Sprengel deformity of Cavendish grade 3 or 4 were treated surgically and then clinically evaluated and examined using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT). (Two boys and 5 girls aged 50.9 ± 15.4 mo, mean ± SD at the time of operation.) The mean follow-up was 53.1 months (range, 12 to 92 mo). After the omovertebral bone and the superomedial side of the scapula were removed, the levator scapulae and rhomboids were reattached to wrap around the scapula at maximum upward rotation to assist in maintaining this position. Cavendish and Rigault grades were used for evaluation of postoperative appearance. The superior displacement and rotation of the scapula were measured on the trunk posterior view using 3D CT. The relationship between improvement in the range of motion and radiologic change were analyzed statistically. The postoperative flexion (97.9 ± 12.9 to 160 ± 11.5 degrees) and abduction (99.3 ± 13.0 to 161.4 ± 15.7 degrees) were significantly improved compared with the mean preoperative values (P < 0.0001). 3D CT revealed that in all patients the malrotation of the scapula was improved postoperatively. The current study shows that successful realignment of the scapula led to these improved clinical results. Our procedure has advantages not only for recovery of the range of motion but also for reducing the characteristic lump in the web of the neck. However, our procedure has an inherent limitation related to asymmetric shoulder level and width. 3D CT may be useful for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. Level IV-case series.

  12. A 3 dimensional assessment of the depth of tumor invasion in microinvasive tongue squamous cell carcinoma - A case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Byatnal, Aditi; Natarajan, Jayalakshmi; Shenoy, Satish; Kamath, Asha; Hunter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the depth of tumor invasion (DI) in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) of the tongue is critical to prognosis. An arithmetic model is generated to determine a reliable method of measurement of DI and correlate this with the local recurrence. Material and Methods Tumor thickness (TT) and DI were measured in tissue sections of 14 cases of MISCC of the tongue, by manual ocular micrometer and digital image analysis at four reference points (A, B, C, and D). The comparison of TT and DI with relevant clinicopathologic parameters was assessed using Mann Whitney U test. Reliability of these methods and the values obtained were compared and correlated with the recurrence of tumors by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. 3D reconstruction of the lesion was done on a Cartesian coordinate system. X face was on the YZ plane and Z face was on the XY plane of the coordinate system. Results Computer generated 3D model of oral mucosa in four cases that recurred showed increased DI in the Z coordinate compared to the XY coordinate. The median DI measurements between XY and Z coordinates in these cases showed no significant difference (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, p = 0.068). Conclusions The assessment of DI in 3 dimensions is critical for accurate assessment of MISCC and precise DI allows complete removal of tumor. Key words:Depth of invasion, tumor thickness, microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26449426

  13. Reproducibility of the International Endometrial Analysis Group Color Score for Assigning the Amount of Flow Within the Endometrium Using Stored 3-Dimensional Volumes.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Juan Luis; Pascual, María Ángela; Ajossa, Silvia; de Lorenzo, Cristina; Piras, Alba; Hereter, Lourdes; Juez, Leire; Fabbri, Paola; Graupera, Betlem; Guerriero, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    To estimate intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility for assigning an International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) group color score for endometrial vascularization on color Doppler imaging. Sixty-eight endometrial 3-dimensional volumes from endometrial color Doppler assessments of women with different endometrial disorders were evaluated by 8 different examiners (4 skilled examiners and 4 obstetric and gynecologic trainees). One skilled examiner who did not participate in the assessments selected the 68 volumes from a database to select a balanced number of each IETA score. Each examiner evaluated the 68 endometrial volumes to assign the IETA color score (1, absence of vascularization; 2, low vascularization; 3, moderate vascularization; or 4, abundant vascularization) using tomographic ultrasound imaging. The analysis was repeated 4 weeks later, and interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility was analyzed by calculating the weighted κ index. The second of the measurements made by each observer was used to estimate interobserver reproducibility. The intraobserver reproducibility was very good for all examiners, with a weighted κ index ranging from 0.84 to 0.91. The interobserver reproducibility was good or very good for all estimated comparisons, with a weighted κ index ranging from 0.77 to 0.96, regardless of experience level. The reproducibility of assigning the IETA color score for assessing endometrial vascularization using 3-dimensional volumes is good or very good regardless of the experience of the examiner. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Human intraoral harvested mesenchymal stem cells: characterization, multilineage differentiation analysis, and 3-dimensional migration of natural bone mineral and tricalcium phosphate scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lohberger, Birgit; Payer, Michael; Rinner, Beate; Bartmann, Christina; Stadelmeyer, Elke; Traunwieser, Elisabeth; DeVaney, Trevor; Jakse, Norbert; Leithner, Andreas; Windhager, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was the establishment of a minimally invasive technique of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) harvesting and a predictable isolation and cultivation method on 2 different bone substitutes used as potential scaffolds. Human MSCs isolated from the posterior maxilla were characterized by flow cytometric analysis. After in vitro expansion, cells were cultured and differentiated toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in 2-dimensional cultures and on natural bone mineral of bovine origin and β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds. Three-dimensional growth was analyzed using live cell staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. MSCs from all patients demonstrated the same immunophenotype, with expression of CD73, CD90, and CD105 but no expression of CD45, CD34, CD14, CD11, and HLA-DR. The potential of MSCs for multilineage differentiation along osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lines was shown. Based on knowledge of the characteristics of the cells, a method was established to increase MSC expansion efficiency and seeding conditions on each scaffold. Results of the in vitro characterization and laser scanning microscopy visualized the 3-dimensional growth of MSCs on the 2 scaffold types. The present data showed that intraoral MSCs can be cultured predictably under 2- and 3-dimensional conditions, have proved multiple potencies, and thus seem to be potential candidates for tissue engineering approaches in maxillofacial reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Control Point Analysis comparison for 3 different treatment planning and delivery complexity levels using a commercial 3-dimensional diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Abdellatif, Ady; Gaede, Stewart

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the use of “Control Point Analysis” (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) to analyze and compare delivered volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for 3 different treatment planning complexity levels. A total of 30 patients were chosen and fully anonymized for the purpose of this study. Overall, 10 lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), 10 head-and-neck (H and N), and 10 prostate VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle{sup 3} and delivered on a Varian linear accelerator (LINAC). The delivered dose was measured using ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). Each plan was analyzed using “Sun Nuclear Corporation (SNC) Patient 6” and “Control Point Analysis.” Gamma passing percentage was used to assess the differences between the measured and planned dose distributions and to assess the role of various control point binning combinations. Of the different sites considered, the prostate cases reported the highest gamma passing percentages calculated with “SNC Patient 6” (97.5% to 99.2% for the 3%, 3 mm) and “Control Point Analysis” (95.4% to 98.3% for the 3%, 3 mm). The mean percentage of passing control point sectors for the prostate cases increased from 51.8 ± 7.8% for individual control points to 70.6 ± 10.5% for 5 control points binned together to 87.8 ± 11.0% for 10 control points binned together (2%, 2-mm passing criteria). Overall, there was an increasing trend in the percentage of sectors passing gamma analysis with an increase in the number of control points binned together in a sector for both the gamma passing criteria (2%, 2 mm and 3%, 3 mm). Although many plans passed the clinical quality assurance criteria, plans involving the delivery of high Monitor Unit (MU)/control point (SBRT) and plans involving high degree of modulation (H and N) showed less delivery accuracy per control point compared with plans with low MU/control point and low degree of modulation (prostate)

  16. Morphology of the Insertions of the Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament and Posterior Oblique Ligament Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Saigo, Takaaki; Tajima, Goro; Kikuchi, Shuhei; Yan, Jun; Maruyama, Moritaka; Sugawara, Atsushi; Doita, Minoru

    2017-02-01

    To describe the insertions of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) and posterior oblique ligament (POL) and their related osseous landmarks. Insertions of the sMCL and POL were identified and marked in 22 unpaired human cadaveric knees. The surface area, location, positional relations, and morphology of the sMCL and POL insertions and related osseous structures were analyzed on 3-dimensional images. The femoral insertion of the POL was located 18.3 mm distal to the apex of the adductor tubercle (AT). The femoral insertion of the sMCL was located 21.1 mm distal to the AT and 9.2 mm anterior to the POL. The angle between the femoral axis and femoral insertion of the sMCL was 18.6°, and that between the femoral axis and the POL insertion was 5.1°. The anterior portions of the distal fibers of the POL were attached to the fascia cruris and semimembranosus tendon, whereas the posterior fibers were attached to the posteromedial side of the tibia directly. The tibial insertion of the POL was located just proximal and medial to the superior edge of the semimembranosus groove. The tibial insertion of the sMCL was attached firmly and widely to the tibial crest. The mean linear distances between the tibial insertion of the POL or sMCL and joint line were 5.8 and 49.6 mm, respectively. This study used 3-dimensional images to assess the insertions of the sMCL and POL and their related osseous landmarks. The AT was identified clearly as an osseous landmark of the femoral insertions of the sMCL and POL. The tibial crest and semimembranosus groove served as osseous landmarks of the tibial insertions of the sMCL and POL. By showing further details of the anatomy of the knee, the described findings can assist surgeons in anatomic reconstruction of the sMCL and POL. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of different abutment connection designs on the stress distribution around five different implants: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Balik, Ali; Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Keskin, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    The stability of the bone-implant interface is required for the long-term favorable clinical outcome of implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation. The implant failures that occur after the functional loading are mainly related to biomechanical factors. Micro movements and vibrations due to occlusal forces can lead to mechanical complications such as loosening of the screw and fractures of the abutment or implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the strain distributions in the connection areas of different implant-abutment connection systems under similar loading conditions. Five different implant-abutment connection designs from 5 different manufacturers were evaluated in this study. The investigation was performed with software using the finite element method. The geometrical modeling of the implant systems was done with CATIA virtual design software. The MSC NASTRAN solver and PATRAN postprocessing program were used to perform the linear static solution. According to the analysis, the implant-abutment connection system with external hexagonal connection showed the highest strain values, and the internal hexagonal implant-abutment connection system showed the lowest strain values. Conical + internal hexagonal and screw-in implant abutment connection interface is more successful than other systems in cases with increased vertical dimension, particularly in the posterior region.

  18. A 2-year follow-up of changes after bimaxillary surgery in patients with mandibular prognathism: 3-dimensional analysis of pharyngeal airway volume and hyoid bone position.

    PubMed

    Shin, Je-Hwa; Kim, Min-Ah; Park, In-Young; Park, Yang-Ho

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to use 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate how the upper airway and hyoid bone position changed after orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusions and to analyze the relations among upper airway changes, the change in the position of the hyoid bone, and postsurgical stability. CBCT scans were obtained from 15 patients with mandibular prognathism before surgery (T0), 6 months after surgery (T1), 1 year after surgery (T2), and 2 years after surgery (T3). Positional displacement of the hyoid bone was assessed using the coordinates at T0, T1, T2, and T3. In addition, the volume of each patient's pharyngeal airway was measured. Differences in CBCT scans at the established time points were determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the relations among changes in hyoid bone position, airway volume, and skeletal reference points. The hyoid bone moved backward at 6 months after surgery (T0 to T1), and the total volume of the pharyngeal airway was considerably decreased at the same time points. At 1 year after surgery (T1 to T2), although the hyoid moved more posteriorly and the total volume of the pharyngeal airway was decreased, the changes were not major. At 2 years after surgery, the hyoid bone moved anteriorly and the size of the upper pharyngeal airway was increased (T2 to T3). The hyoid bone moved posteriorly and the pharyngeal airway volume was decreased at 6 months after bimaxillary surgery. These measurements had a tendency to recover at 2 years postoperatively. The decrease in pharyngeal airway volume was not correlated with positional changes of the hyoid bone. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre- and postoperative evaluation of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return: by 3-dimensional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Crestanello, Juan A; Daniels, Curt; Franco, Veronica; Raman, Subha V

    2010-01-01

    The pre- and postoperative evaluation of anomalous pulmonary venous return usually requires multiple invasive and noninvasive tests in order to obtain complete anatomic and functional data. Conversely, in a single setting, either cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging or cardiovascular computed tomography can sufficiently reveal this information in adult patients. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return who underwent preoperative and postoperative evaluation by either method alone, and we discuss the benefits and limitations of each technique.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of an offset implant configuration in the posterior maxilla with external hexagon implant platform: A 3-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2017-09-01

    Slight offset of the central implant in 3-unit implant-supported prostheses has been reported to improve biomechanical behavior. However, studies that assessed the effects of an offset implant configuration in the posterior maxilla are scarce. The purpose of this 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis was to assess the effects of splinting in 3-unit implant-supported prostheses with varying implant positions (straight-line or offset configuration) in terms of the stress/strain distribution on bone tissue and the stress distribution on abutment screws. Three 3D models were used to simulate a posterior maxilla bone block (type IV): straight-line implants supporting single crowns (model M1), straight-line implants supporting 3-unit splinted fixed dental prosthesis (model M2), and an offset implant configuration supporting 3-unit splinted fixed dental prosthesis (model M3). The applied forces were 400 N axially and 200 N obliquely. The type of implant platform simulated was an external hexagon. von Mises stress on the abutment screws was measured, and the maximum principal stress and microstrain values were used to perform cortical bone tissue analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey honest significant differences post hoc test were used to determine the significance of the results and interactions among the main variables (α=.05). In all models, oblique load increased the stress on abutment screws and bone tissue and the microstrain on bone tissue. Model M3 decreased the stress concentration on the abutment screws and bone tissue. With regard to microstrain distribution, model M3 had the smallest values, and M1 and M2 had similar values. Splinting associated with an offset implant configuration was effective for decreasing the stress on abutment screws and bone tissue and the microstrain on bone tissue. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer analysis of arteriograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, R. H.; Armstrong, J. H.; Beckenbach, E. B.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.; Sanmarco, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer system has been developed to quantify the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery. The analysis involves first scanning and digitizing angiographic film, then tracking the outline of the arterial image and finally computing the relative amount of roughness or irregularity in the vessel wall. The image processing system and method are described.

  2. Computer analysis of arteriograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, R. H.; Armstrong, J. H.; Beckenbach, E. B.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.; Sanmarco, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer system has been developed to quantify the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery. The analysis involves first scanning and digitizing angiographic film, then tracking the outline of the arterial image and finally computing the relative amount of roughness or irregularity in the vessel wall. The image processing system and method are described.

  3. 3-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor computers - Part II: direct data-space inverse solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.

  4. The 3-dimensional miniplate is more effective than the standard miniplate for the management of mandibular fractures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wei, Bo; Li, Yuxiang; Gu, Dawei; Yin, Guochao; Wang, Bo; Xu, Dehui; Zhang, Xuebing; Kong, Daliang

    2017-02-14

    The study aimed to determine the superiority between 3-dimensional (3D) miniplate and standard miniplate for mandibular fractures (MFs) treatment. Controversial results on the use of standard miniplate and 3D miniplate have remained for management of MFs. Several electronic databases were retrieved up to September 2014 to identify eligible studies. The quality of studies was assessed, and the relative risk (RR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed to measure the effect size. Subgroup analyses by different fracture regions and different 3D miniplate sizes were performed. Publication bias was measured by a funnel plot. There were 13 studies included for the meta-analysis, consisting of 593 participants. The 3D miniplate achieved significant lower incidences of malocclusion (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.77, P = 0.004) and hardware failure (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.74, P = 0.008) than the standard miniplate. There were no significant differences between the two miniplates on the incidence of the remaining outcomes: wound dehiscence, infection, paresthesia, and nonunion/malunion. Subgroup analyses indicated that 3D miniplate caused a lower hardware failure than standard with the size of 8 or 10 holes (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66, P = 0.006). Besides, publication bias was not detected. The 3D miniplate is superior to the standard miniplate on the reduction of postoperative complication rates for the management of MFs. More holes in the 3D miniplate might contribute to a successful treatment.

  5. Novel 3-dimensional motion analysis method for measuring the lumbar spine range of motion: repeatability and reliability compared with an electrogoniometer.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Michio; Ogata, Naoshi; Yozu, Arito; Sumitani, Masahiko; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Repeatability and reliability for measuring methods for real-time lumbar range of motion. We established a novel set of marker positions for 3-dimensional motion analysis (VICON system) to determine lumbar spine range of motion (LROM) and lumbar motion precisely; we compared the repeatability and reliability of VICON system with those of an electrogoniometer. The assessment of the LROM using x-ray is still one of the most precise methods, despite the radiation exposure. To avoid this, alternative methods, such as the VICON system and electrogoniometer, have been widely used. No study has reported the repeatability and reliability of LROM measurements using a VICON system and electrogoniometer. The VICON system and electrogoniometer measured LROM and lumbar motion in 7 healthy males during 7 days. Differences between both systems were analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability and reliability of the LROM measurements was assessed using coefficients of multiple correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients, respectively. Standard error of measurement was calculated to quantify the systematic error in LROM measurements. The mean maximum LROM values using the VICON system/electrogoniometer were 42°/52° for flexion, 17°/24° for extension, 16°/16° for lateral bending, and 8°/2° for axial rotation, respectively. Between VICON system and the electrogoniometer, Bland-Altman plots revealed no discrepancies in LROM values except for flexion.Coefficients of multiple correlations for LROM showed excellent repeatability. LROM measurements with VICON system showed excellent reliability for flexion and extension and fair-to-good reliability for other motions. LROM measurements with the electrogoniometer showed excellent reliability for flexion and fair-to-good reliability for other motions. Except for axial rotation, maximum intraclass correlation coefficients using VICON system were more reliable than the electrogoniometer for measuring lumbar motion. VICON

  6. General design method for 3-dimensional, potential flow fields. Part 2: Computer program DIN3D1 for simple, unbranched ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanitz, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The general design method for three-dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow developed in part 1 of this report is applied to the design of simple, unbranched ducts. A computer program, DIN3D1, is developed and five numerical examples are presented: a nozzle, two elbows, an S-duct, and the preliminary design of a side inlet for turbomachines. The two major inputs to the program are the upstream boundary shape and the lateral velocity distribution on the duct wall. As a result of these inputs, boundary conditions are overprescribed and the problem is ill posed. However, it appears that there are degrees of compatibility between these two major inputs and that, for reasonably compatible inputs, satisfactory solutions can be obtained. By not prescribing the shape of the upstream boundary, the problem presumably becomes well posed, but it is not clear how to formulate a practical design method under this circumstance. Nor does it appear desirable, because the designer usually needs to retain control over the upstream (or downstream) boundary shape. The problem is further complicated by the fact that, unlike the two-dimensional case, and irrespective of the upstream boundary shape, some prescribed lateral velocity distributions do not have proper solutions.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Visitors' Experiences and Knowledge Acquisition between a 3Dimensional Online and a Real-World Art Museum Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D' Alba, Adriana; Jones, Greg; Wright, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the fall of 2011 and the spring of 2012 which explored the use of existing 3D virtual environment technologies by bringing a selected permanent museum exhibit displayed at a museum located in central Mexico into an online 3Dimensional experience. Using mixed methods, the research study analyzed knowledge…

  8. Comparative Analysis of Visitors' Experiences and Knowledge Acquisition between a 3Dimensional Online and a Real-World Art Museum Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D' Alba, Adriana; Jones, Greg; Wright, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the fall of 2011 and the spring of 2012 which explored the use of existing 3D virtual environment technologies by bringing a selected permanent museum exhibit displayed at a museum located in central Mexico into an online 3Dimensional experience. Using mixed methods, the research study analyzed knowledge…

  9. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  10. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function by 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunyan; Chen, Jiang; Yang, Jun; Tang, Li; Chen, Xin; Li, Nan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive analysis of the clinical utility of 3-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography for left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Literature searches were conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China BioMedicine databases on relevant articles published before October 1, 2012. Crude standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Seven case-control studies were included with a total of 375 patients with CHF and 181 healthy control participants. Meta-analysis results showed that the LV ejection fraction in the patients was significantly lower than in the controls (standardized mean difference, -4.62; 95% CI, -6.19 to -3.04), whereas the LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) in the patients were higher than in the controls (LVEDV: standardized mean difference, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.44; LVESV: standardized mean difference, 2.04, 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.78). The results also indicated that the patients had a greater delay in the standard deviation of the time to peak area tracking and the maximum difference in the time to peak area tracking in the 16 LV segments than the controls (standard deviation of the time to peak area tracking: standardized mean difference, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.29; maximum difference in the time to peak area tracking: standardized mean difference, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.58 to 4.93). Furthermore, global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain were also significantly impaired in the patients compared to the controls (longitudinal strain: standardized mean difference, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.11 to 4.39; circumferential strain: standardized mean difference, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.15 to 4.27; radial strain: standardized mean difference, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.45 to 3.14). This meta-analysis suggests that LV function in patients with CHF can be noninvasively and objectively measured by 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography.

  11. Evaluation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion techniques in the rat by in-vitro 3-dimensional micro- and nano computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. Methods 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm)3 or nano-CT at 500 nm3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. The arterial vascular volume fraction and gray scale attenuation was determined and the significance of differences in measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Results Micro-CT provided quantitative information on vascular morphology. Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased significantly (p < 0.001), independently of the number of macrospheres, and was comparable to the suture method. We established gray scale measurements by which focal cerebral ischemia could be radiographically categorized (p < 0.001). Nano-CT imaging demonstrates collateral perfusion related to different occluded vessel territories after macrosphere perfusion. Conclusion Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. PMID:20509884

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the 3-Dimensional Morphology of the Upper Lip Configuration at the Completion of Facial Expressions in Healthy Japanese Young Adults and Patients With Cleft Lip.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kouzou; Nozoe, Etsuro; Okawachi, Takako; Ishihata, Kiyohide; Nishinara, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Norifumi

    2016-09-01

    To develop criteria for the analysis of upper lip configuration of patients with cleft lip while they produce various facial expressions by comparing the 3-dimensional (3D) facial morphology of healthy Japanese adults and patients with cleft lip. Twenty healthy adult Japanese volunteers (10 men, 10 women, controls) without any observed facial abnormalities and 8 patients (4 men, 4 women) with unilateral cleft lip and palate who had undergone secondary lip and nose repair were recruited for this study. Facial expressions (resting, smiling, and blowing out a candle) were recorded with 2 Artec MHT 3D scanners, and images were superimposed by aligning the T-zone of the faces. The positions of 14 specific points were set on each face, and the positional changes of specific points and symmetry of the upper lip cross-section were analyzed. Furthermore, the configuration observed in healthy controls was compared with that in patients with cleft lip before and after surgery. The mean absolute values for T-zone overlap ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 mm. Positional changes of specific points in the controls showed that the nose and lip moved backward and laterally upward when smiling and the lips moved forward and downward medially when blowing out a candle; these movements were bilaterally symmetrical in men and women. In patients with cleft lip, the positional changes of the specific points were minor compared with those of the controls while smiling and blowing out a candle. The left-versus-right symmetry of the upper lip cross-section exceeded 1.0 mm in patients with cleft lip, which was markedly higher than that in the controls (0.17 to 0.91 mm). These left-versus-right differences during facial expressions were decreased after surgery. By comparing healthy individuals with patients with cleft lip, this study has laid the basis for determining control values for facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  13. Computer-Assisted 3-Dimensional Reconstructions of Scaphoid Fractures and Nonunions With and Without the Use of Patient-Specific Guides: Early Clinical Outcomes and Postoperative Assessments of Reconstruction Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Andreas; Mauler, Flavien; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Nagy, Ladislav; Fürnstahl, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    To present results regarding the accuracy of the reduction of surgically reconstructed scaphoid nonunions or fractures using 3-dimensional computer-based planning with and without patient-specific guides. Computer-based surgical planning was performed with computed tomography (CT) data on 22 patients comparing models of the pathological and the opposite uninjured scaphoid in 3 dimensions. For group 1 (9 patients), patient-specific guides were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing technology. During surgery, the guides were used to define the orientation of the reduced fragments. The scaphoids in group 2 (13 patients) were reduced with the conventional freehand technique. All scaphoids in both groups were fixed with a headless compression screw or K-wires, and all bone defects (except one) were filled with autologous bone grafts or vascularized grafts. Postoperative CT scans were acquired 2 or more months after the operations to monitor consolidation and compare the final result with the preoperative plan. The clinical results and accuracy of the reconstructions were compared. In group 1, 8 of 9 scaphoids healed after 2 to 6 months, and partial nonunion after 9 months was observed in one patient. In group 2, 11 of 13 scaphoids healed between 2 and 34 months whereas 2 scaphoids did not consolidate. Comparison of the preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional data revealed an average residual displacement of 7° (4° in flexion-extension, 4° in ulnar-radial deviation, and 3° in pronation-supination) in group 1. In group 2, residual displacement after surgery was 26° (22° in flexion-extension, 12° in ulnar-radial deviation, and 7° in pronation-supination). The difference in the accuracy of reconstruction was significant. Although the scaphoid is small, patient-specific guides can be used to perform scaphoid reconstructions. When the guides were used, the reconstructions were significantly more anatomic compared with those resulting from the

  14. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Ruellas, Antonio C O; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this article are to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article's online version for viewing and downloading using the reader's software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader's software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. When submitting manuscripts, authors can now upload 3D models that will allow readers to

  15. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  16. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  17. The value of FDG-PET/CT by using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection software analysis in the differential diagnosis of dementia.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Esra; Ekmekçioğlu, Özgül; Görtan, Fatma Arzu; Engin Akcan, Zeynep Funda; Erkan, Melih Engin; Emül, Haci Murat; Halaç, Metin; Çermik, Tevfik Fikret; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively reevaluate brain fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging studies with 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (NEUROSTAT) software in order to detect changes in regional brain metabolism and to find out its contribution to the final diagnosis. A total of 48 cases were included in this study. According to clinical evaluation and neuropsychometric test results, there were 17 (35%) patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD), 17 (35%) patients with probable frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 14 (30%) patients with undefined advanced dementia. Brain FDG-PET imaging studies were interpreted visually and also using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection. Clinic and PET findings were consistent in 20 patients and inconsistent in 14 patients. When consensus diagnosis was taken as the reference, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-PET imaging were 93%, 85%, 90%, 90%, and 89% respectively, for AD diagnosis. The same values were 85%, 93%, 90%, 89%, and 90%, respectively, for FTD definition. Using automatized programs that enable quantitative evaluation of regional brain glucose metabolism, in addition to visual evaluation, may increase diagnostic efficiency, as well as minimize interobserver and/or intercenter variability.

  18. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Dong, Daming; Du, Xiaofan; Zheng, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost. PMID:27782074

  19. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Dong, Daming; Du, Xiaofan; Zheng, Wengang

    2016-10-22

    Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  20. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Conventional 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Assessing Canine Sacral and Pelvic Fractures by Radiologists, Orthopedic Surgeons, and Veterinary Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Senthirajah, Sri Kumar Jamie; Nemanic, Sarah; Baltzer, Wendy; Warnock, Jennifer; Hollars, Katelyn; Lee, Scott S; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    To determine, using 3 groups of evaluators of varying experience reading orthopedic CT studies, if 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) provides a more accurate and time efficient method for diagnosis of canine sacral and pelvic fractures, and displacements of the sacroiliac and coxofemoral joints compared with 2-dimensional computed tomography (2D-CT). Retrospective clinical and prospective study. Dogs (n = 23): 12 dogs with traumatic pelvic fractures, 11 canine cadavers with pelvic trauma induced by a lateral impactor. All dogs had a 2D-CT exam of the pelvis and subsequent 3D-CT reconstructions from the 2D-CT images. Both 2D-CT and 3D-CT studies were anonymized and randomly presented to 2 veterinary radiologists, 2 veterinary orthopedic surgeons, and 2 veterinary medical students. Evaluators classified fractures using a confidence scale and recorded the duration of evaluation for each modality and case. 3D-CT was a more time-efficient technique for evaluation of traumatic sacral and pelvic injuries compared with 2D-CT in all evaluator groups irrespective of experience level reading orthopedic CT studies. However, for radiologists and surgeons, 2D-CT was the more accurate technique for evaluating sacral and pelvic fractures. 3D-CT improves sacral and pelvic fracture diagnosis when added to 2D-CT; however, 3D-CT has a reduced accuracy for evaluation of sacral and pelvic fractures if used without concurrent evaluation of 2D-CT images. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Scientific visualization of 3-dimensional optimized stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The design techniques and physics analysis of modern stellarator configurations for magnetic fusion research rely heavily on high performance computing and simulation. Stellarators, which are fundamentally 3-dimensional in nature, offer significantly more design flexibility than more symmetric devices such as the tokamak. By varying the outer boundary shape of the plasma, a variety of physics features, such as transport, stability, and heating efficiency can be optimized. Scientific visualization techniques are an important adjunct to this effort as they provide a necessary ergonomic link between the numerical results and the intuition of the human researcher. The authors have developed a variety of visualization techniques for stellarators which both facilitate the design optimization process and allow the physics simulations to be more readily understood.

  2. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  3. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  4. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  5. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  6. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  7. Effect of Foot Hyperpronation on Lumbar Lordosis and Thoracic Kyphosis in Standing Position Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Based Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Farokhmanesh, Khatere; Shirzadian, Toraj; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Shahri, Mina Neyakan

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical observations, foot hyperpronation is very common. Excessive pronation (hyperpronation) can cause malalignment of the lower extremities. This most often leads to functional and structural deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. Thirty five healthy subjects (age range, 18030 years) were asked to stand on 4 positions including a flat surface (normal position) and on wedges angled at 10, 15, and 20 degrees. Sampling was done using simple random sampling. Measurements were made by a motion analysis system. For data analysis, the SPSS software (ver. 18) using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The eversion created by the wedges caused a significant increase in lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. The most significant change occurred between two consecutive positions of flat surface and the first wedge. The t-test for repeated measures showed a high correlation between each two consecutive positions. The results showed that with increased bilateral foot pronation, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased as well. In fact, each of these results is a compensation phenomenon. Further studies are required to determine long-term results of excessive foot pronation and its probable effect on damage progression. PMID:25169004

  8. Effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in standing position using 3-dimensional ultrasound-based motion analysis system.

    PubMed

    Farokhmanesh, Khatere; Shirzadian, Toraj; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Shahri, Mina Neyakan

    2014-06-17

    Based on clinical observations, foot hyperpronation is very common. Excessive pronation (hyperpronation) can cause malalignment of the lower extremities. This most often leads to functional and structural deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. Thirty five healthy subjects (age range, 18030 years) were asked to stand on 4 positions including a flat surface (normal position) and on wedges angled at 10, 15, and 20 degrees. Sampling was done using simple random sampling. Measurements were made by a motion analysis system. For data analysis, the SPSS software (ver. 18) using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The eversion created by the wedges caused a significant increase in lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. The most significant change occurred between two consecutive positions of flat surface and the first wedge. The t-test for repeated measures showed a high correlation between each two consecutive positions. The results showed that with increased bilateral foot pronation, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased as well. In fact, each of these results is a compensation phenomenon. Further studies are required to determine long-term results of excessive foot pronation and its probable effect on damage progression.

  9. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  10. Computed tomography-based finite element analysis to assess fracture risk and osteoporosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computer technique of structural stress analysis and developed in engineering mechanics. FEA has developed to investigate structural behavior of human bones over the past 40 years. When the faster computers have acquired, better FEA, using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been developed. This CT-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) has provided clinicians with useful data. In this review, the mechanism of CT/FEA, validation studies of CT/FEA to evaluate accuracy and reliability in human bones, and clinical application studies to assess fracture risk and effects of osteoporosis medication are overviewed. PMID:26309819

  11. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  12. Upregulated expression of La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 and collagen type I gene following water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation in a 3-dimensional human epidermal tissue culture model as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2017-02-27

    Water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation can induce various biological effects, as our previous clinical, histological, and biochemical investigations have shown. However, few studies that examined the changes thus induced in gene expression. The aim was to investigate the changes in gene expression in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal tissue culture exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to assess gene expression levels in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal model composed of normal human epidermal cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. The water filter allowed 1000-1800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1400-1500 nm wavelengths, and cells were exposed to 5 or 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 10 J/cm(2) . A DNA microarray with over 50 000 different probes showed 18 genes that were upregulated or downregulated by at least twofold after irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that, relative to control cells, the gene encoding La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6), which regulates collagen expression, was significantly and dose-dependently upregulated (P < 0.05) by water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared exposure. Gene encoding transcripts of collagen type I were significantly upregulated compared with controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates the ability of water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation to stimulate the production of type I collagen. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  14. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  15. Influence of Alveolar Bone Loss and Cement Layer Thickness on the Biomechanical Behavior of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Incisors: A 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behavior of a weakened incisor, this study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution caused by different alveolar bone heights and cement layer thickness. A finite element analysis was conducted for this investigation. An intact maxillary central incisor was initially modeled, and the bone of the models was modified in order to simulate 4 levels of bone height: BL0 (no bone loss), BL1 (1/3 bone loss), BL2 (1/2 bone loss), and BL3 (2/3 bone loss). These teeth models were remodeled with a fiber post at 2 different cement thicknesses and restored with a ceramic crown; "A" refers to the well-adapted fiber post (0.3 mm) and "B" to the nonadapted fiber post (1 mm), resulting in 12 models. RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) cement was simulated for the cementation of the crowns and fiber posts for all groups. Numeric models received a load of 100 N on the lingual surface. All materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Numeric models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and results were expressed in maximum principal stress. For fiberglass posts, cement, and dentin, the highest stress concentration occurred in the groups with increased bone loss. For cortical bone, the highest values were for the groups with 1/3 bone loss. A greater thickness of cement layer concentrates more stress. More bone loss and greater CLT were the influential factors in concentrating the stress. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Movement within foot and ankle joint in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a 3-dimensional ultrasound analysis of medial gastrocnemius length with correction for effects of foot deformation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), a limited range of motion of the foot (ROM), limits gait and other activities. Assessment of this limitation of ROM and knowledge of active mechanisms is of crucial importance for clinical treatment. Methods For a comparison between spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) children and typically developing children (TD), medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon complex length was assessed using 3-D ultrasound imaging techniques, while exerting externally standardized moments via a hand-held dynamometer. Exemplary X-ray imaging of ankle and foot was used to confirm possible TD-SCP differences in foot deformation. Results SCP and TD did not differ in normalized level of excitation (EMG) of muscles studied. For given moments exerted in SCP, foot plate angles were all more towards plantar flexion than in TD. However, foot plate angle proved to be an invalid estimator of talocrural joint angle, since at equal foot plate angles, GM muscle-tendon complex was shorter in SCP (corresponding to an equivalent of 1 cm). A substantial difference remained even after normalizing for individual differences in tibia length. X-ray imaging of ankle and foot of one SCP child and two typically developed adults, confirmed that in SCP that of total footplate angle changes (0-4 Nm: 15°), the contribution of foot deformation to changes in foot plate angle (8) were as big as the contribution of dorsal flexion at the talocrural joint (7°). In typically developed individuals there were relatively smaller contributions (10 -11%) by foot deformation to changes in foot plate angle, indicating that the contribution of talocrural angle changes was most important. Using a new estimate for position at the talocrural joint (the difference between GM muscle–tendon complex length and tibia length, GM relative length) removed this effect, thus allowing more fair comparison of SCP and TD data. On the basis of analysis of foot plate angle and GM relative length as a function

  17. Computer analysis of railcar vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlaminck, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Computer models and techniques for calculating railcar vibrations are discussed along with criteria for vehicle ride optimization. The effect on vibration of car body structural dynamics, suspension system parameters, vehicle geometry, and wheel and rail excitation are presented. Ride quality vibration data collected on the state-of-the-art car and standard light rail vehicle is compared to computer predictions. The results show that computer analysis of the vehicle can be performed for relatively low cost in short periods of time. The analysis permits optimization of the design as it progresses and minimizes the possibility of excessive vibration on production vehicles.

  18. Infants’ Representations of 3-Dimensional Occluded Objects

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa; Armstrong, Jennifer; Alexander, Gerianne

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants’ looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants’ representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants’ looking patterns in a novel manner and by comparing infants’ looking at a simple display in which a single 3-dimensional (3-D) object moves along a continuous trajectory to a more complex display in which two 3-D objects undergo trajectories that are interrupted behind an occluder. Six-month-old infants saw an occlusion sequence in which a ball moved along a linear path, disappeared behind a rectangular screen, and then a ball (ball-ball event) or a box (ball-box event) emerged at the other edge. An eye-tracking system recorded infants’ eye-movements during the event sequence. Results from examination of infants’ attention to the occluder indicate that during the occlusion interval infants looked longer to the side of the occluder behind which the moving occluded object was located, shifting gaze from one side of the occluder to the other as the object(s) moved behind the screen. Furthermore, when events included two objects, infants attended to the spatiotemporal coordinates of the objects longer than when a single object was involved. These results provide clear evidence that infants’ visual tracking is different in response to a one-object display than to a two-object display. Furthermore, this finding suggests that infants may require more focused attention to the hidden position of objects in more complex multiple-object displays and provides additional evidence that infants represent the spatial location of moving occluded objects. PMID:20926138

  19. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  20. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  1. Distributed Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, Justin

    2002-11-11

    DDACE is a C++ object-oriented software library for the design and analysis of computer experiments. DDACE can be used to generate samples from a variety of sampling techniques. These samples may be used as input to a application code. DDACE also contains statistical tools such as response surface models and correlation coefficients to analyze input/output relationships between variables in an application code. DDACE can generate input values for uncertain variables within a user's application. For example, a user might like to vary a temperature variable as well as some material variables in a series of simulations. Through the series of simulations the user might be looking for optimal settings of parameters based on some user criteria. Or the user may be interested in the sensitivity to input variability shown by an output variable. In either case, the user may provide information about the suspected ranges and distributions of a set of input variables, along with a sampling scheme, and DDACE will generate input points based on these specifications. The input values generated by DDACE and the one or more outputs computed through the user's application code can be analyzed with a variety of statistical methods. This can lead to a wealth of information about the relationships between the variables in the problem. While statistical and mathematical packages may be employeed to carry out the analysis on the input/output relationships, DDACE also contains some tools for analyzing the simulation data. DDACE incorporates a software package called MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), developed by Jerome Friedman. MARS is used for generating a spline surface fit of the data. With MARS, a model simplification may be calculated using the input and corresponding output, values for the user's application problem. The MARS grid data may be used for generating 3-dimensional response surface plots of the simulation data. DDACE also contains an implementation of an

  2. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  3. Computer vision in microstructural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  4. Quantitative comparison of operative skill using 2- and 3-dimensional monitors during laparoscopic phantom tasks.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Masayasu; Kanaji, Shingo; Otake, Yoshito; Harada, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Hiasa, Yuta; Sato, Yoshinobu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    The recent development of stereoscopic images using 3-dimensional monitors is expected to improve techniques for laparoscopic operation. Several studies have reported technical advantages in using 3-dimensional monitors with regard to operative accuracy and working speed, but there are few reports that analyze forceps motions by 3-dimensional optical tracking systems during standardized laparoscopic phantom tasks. We attempted to develop a 3-dimensional motion analysis system for assessing laparoscopic tasks and to clarify the efficacy of using stereoscopic images from a 3-dimensional monitor to track forceps movement during laparoscopy. Twenty surgeons performed 3 tasks (Task 1: a simple operation by the dominant hand, Task 2: a simple operation using both hands, Task 3: a complicated operation using both hands) under 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems. We tracked and recorded the motion of forceps tips with an optical marker captured by a 3-dimensional position tracker. We analyzed factors such as forceps path lengths, operation times, and technical errors for each task and compared the results of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional monitors. Mean operation times and technical errors were improved significantly for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system compared with the 2-dimensional system; in addition, mean path lengths for the forceps tips were shorter for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system. We found that stereoscopic images using a 3-dimensional monitor improved operative techniques with regard to increased accuracy and shorter path lengths for forceps movement, which resulted in a shorter operation time for basic phantom laparoscopic tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadid, A.; Lin, W.; Ascoli, E.; Barson, S.; Sindir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial products operate in a dynamic flow environment and the aerodynamically generated noise has become a very important factor in the design of these products. In light of the importance in characterizing this dynamic environment, Rocketdyne has initiated a multiyear effort to develop an advanced general-purpose Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis System (CAAS) to address these issues. This system will provide a high fidelity predictive capability for aeroacoustic design and analysis. The numerical platform is able to provide high temporal and spatial accuracy that is required for aeroacoustic calculations through the development of a high order spectral element numerical algorithm. The analysis system is integrated with well-established CAE tools, such as a graphical user interface (GUI) through PATRAN, to provide cost-effective access to all of the necessary tools. These include preprocessing (geometry import, grid generation and boundary condition specification), code set up (problem specification, user parameter definition, etc.), and postprocessing. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the feasibility of such a system and to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm through numerical examples. Computations of vortex shedding noise were carried out in the context of a two-dimensional low Mach number turbulent flow past a square cylinder. The computational aeroacoustic approach that is used in CAAS relies on coupling a base flow solver to the acoustic solver throughout a computational cycle. The unsteady fluid motion, which is responsible for both the generation and propagation of acoustic waves, is calculated using a high order flow solver. The results of the flow field are then passed to the acoustic solver through an interpolator to map the field values into the acoustic grid. The acoustic field, which is governed by the linearized Euler equations, is then calculated using the flow results computed

  6. Influence of different setups of the Frankfort horizontal plane on 3-dimensional cephalometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo Mologni Gonçalves Dos; De Martino, José Mario; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2017-08-01

    The Frankfort horizontal (FH) is a plane that intersects both porions and the left orbitale. However, other combinations of points have also been used to define this plane in 3-dimensional cephalometry. These variations are based on the hypothesis that they do not affect the cephalometric analysis. We investigated the validity of this hypothesis. The material included cone-beam computed tomography data sets of 82 adult subjects with Class I molar relationship. A third-party method of cone-beam computed tomography-based 3-dimensional cephalometry was performed using 7 setups of the FH plane. Six lateral cephalometric hard tissue measurements relative to the FH plane were carried out for each setup. Measurement differences were calculated for each pair of setups of the FH plane. The number of occurrences of differences greater than the limits of agreement was counted for each of the 6 measurements. Only 3 of 21 pairs of setups had no occurrences for the 6 measurements. No measurement had no occurrences for the 21 pairs of setups. Setups based on left or right porion and both orbitales had the greatest number of occurrences for the 6 measurements. This investigation showed that significant and undesirable measurement differences can be produced by varying the definition of the FH plane. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary patient-reported outcomes analysis of 3-dimensional radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy on the high-dose arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0126 prostate cancer trial.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Deborah W; Hunt, Daniel; Michalski, Jeff M; Bosch, Walter R; Galvin, James M; Amin, Mahul; Xiao, Canhua; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Patel, Malti; Chafe, Susan; Rodrigues, George; Lau, Harold; Duclos, Marie; Baikadi, Madhava; Deshmukh, Snehal; Sandler, Howard M

    2015-07-15

    The authors analyzed a preliminary report of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among men who received high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 0126 (a phase 3 dose-escalation trial) with either 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). Patients in the 3D-CRT group received 55.8 gray (Gy) to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles and were allowed an optional field reduction; then, they received 23.4 Gy to the prostate only. Patients in the IMRT group received 79.2 Gy to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. PROs were assessed at 0 months (baseline), 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months and included bladder and bowel function assessed with the Functional Alterations due to Changes in Elimination (FACE) instrument and erectile function assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Analyses included the patients who completed all data at baseline and for at least 1 follow-up assessment, and the results were compared with an imputed data set. Of 763 patients who were randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm, 551 patients and 595 patients who responded to the FACE instrument and 505 patients and 577 patients who responded to the IIEF were included in the completed and imputed analyses, respectively. There were no significant differences between modalities for any of the FACE or IIEF subscale scores or total scores at any time point for either the completed data set or the imputed data set. Despite significant reductions in dose and volume to normal structures using IMRT, this robust analysis of 3D-CRT and IMRT demonstrated no difference in patient-reported bowel, bladder, or sexual functions for similar doses delivered to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles with IMRT compared with 3D-CRT delivered either to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles or to the prostate alone. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Virtual 3-dimensional preoperative planning with the dextroscope for excision of a 4th ventricular ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Anil, S M; Kato, Y; Hayakawa, M; Yoshida, K; Nagahisha, S; Kanno, T

    2007-04-01

    Advances in computer imaging and technology have facilitated enhancement in surgical planning with a 3-dimensional model of the surgical plan of action utilizing advanced visualization tools in order to plan individual interactive operations with the aid of the dextroscope. This provides a proper 3-dimensional imaging insight to the pathological anatomy and sets a new dimension in collaboration for training and education. The case of a seventeen-year-old female, being operated with the aid of a preoperative 3-dimensional virtual reality planning and the practical application of the neurosurgical operation, is presented. This young lady presented with a two-year history of recurrent episodes of severe, global, throbbing headache with episodes of projectile vomiting associated with shoulder pain which progressively worsened. She had no obvious neurological deficits on clinical examination. CT and MRI showed a contrast-enhancing midline posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Utilizing virtual imaging technology with the aid of a dextroscope which generates stereoscopic images, a 3-dimensional image was produced with the CT and MRI images. A preoperative planning for excision of the lesion was made and a real-time 3-dimensional volume was produced and surgical planning with the dextroscope was made and the lesion excised. Virtual reality has brought new proportions in 3-dimensional planning and management of various complex neuroanatomical problems that are faced during various operations. Integration of 3-dimensional imaging with stereoscopic vision makes understanding the complex anatomy easier and helps improve decision making in patient management.

  9. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Yan, Yan; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Bosch, Walter R.; Winter, Kathryn; Galvin, James M.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Morton, Gerard C.; Parliament, Matthew B.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  10. [3-dimensional computer animation--a new medium for supporting patient education before surgery. Acceptance and assessment of patients based on a prospective randomized study--picture versus text].

    PubMed

    Hermann, M

    2002-05-01

    The rigorous implementation of clear preoperative information is mandatory for the patient's understanding, acceptance and written informed consent to all diagnostic and surgical procedures. In the present study, I evaluated whether new media are suitable for conveying basic information to patients; I analysed the merits of computerized animation to illustrate a difficult treatment process, i.e., the progressive steps of a thyroid operation, in comparison to the use of conventional flyers. 3D animation software was employed to illustrate the basic anatomy of the thyroid and the larnyx; the principle of thyroidectomy was explained by visualizing the surgical procedure step by step. Finally, the possible complications that may result from the intraoperative manipulations were also visually explained. Eighty patients entered a prospective randomisation: on the day before surgery, group 1 watched the computer animation, whereas group 2 was given the identical information in a written text (= standard flyer). The evaluation included a questionnaire with scores of 1-5, rating the patients' understanding, subjective and objective knowledge, emotional factors like anxiety and trust, and the willingness to undergo an operation. Understanding of and subjective knowledge about the surgical procedure and possible complications, the degree of trust in professional treatment, the reduction in anxiety and readiness for the operation were significantly better after watching the computer animation than after reading the text. However, active knowledge did not improve significantly. The interest in the preoperative information was high in both groups. The benefit of computer animation was enhanced in a second inquiry; patients who had only read the text had a significant improvement in parameters after an additional exposure to the video animation. Preoperative surgical information can be optimized by presenting the operative procedure via computer animation. Nowadays, several types

  11. Cellular Changes of Stem Cells in 3-Dimensional Culture.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew P; Hou, Bo

    2017-06-12

    During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level. We also wanted to test the practicality of an in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system. We implemented a 3-dimensional cell culture model. The sample was composed of isolated mouse mesenchymal prefibroblast bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of 6- to 8-week-old wild-type C57BL6 mice. The cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated hydrogels along with fibrin and nodulin growth factors. The variables tested were a no-force model (control) and a force model. The force model required two 0.1-mm suture pins put through one 0.25-cm length of cell-gel matrix. After the experiments were run to completion, the samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm along the long axis for the force construct and encompassing the entire circular area of the control construct. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at 5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 models. The force model had longer and straighter primary cilia, less apoptosis, and an increase in cell proliferation. In addition, the shape of the cells was markedly different after the experiment. The results of the study suggest cells put under tensile stress have the ability to mechanically sense the environment to provide improved adaptation. Our work also confirms the usefulness of the in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system to mimic in vivo applications. Published by Elsevier

  12. Video Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Video-Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and testing video-based sensors for automated spacecraft guidance for several years, and the next generation of video sensor will have tracking rates up to 100 Hz and will be able to track multiple reflectors and targets. The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) developed over the past several years has performed well in testing and met the objective of being used as the terminal guidance sensor for an automated rendezvous and capture system. The first VGS was successfully tested in closed-loop 3-degree-of-freedom (3- DOF) tests in 1989 and then in 6-DOF open-loop tests in 1992 and closed-loop tests in 1993-4. Development and testing continued, and in 1995 approval was given to test the VGS in an experiment on the Space Shuttle. The VGS flew in 1997 and in 1998, performing well for both flights. During the development and testing before, during, and after the flight experiments, numerous areas for improvement were found. The VGS was developed with a sensor head and an electronics box, connected by cables. The VGS was used in conjunction with a target that had wavelength-filtered retro-reflectors in a specific pattern, The sensor head contained the laser diodes, video camera, and heaters and coolers. The electronics box contained a frame grabber, image processor, the electronics to control the components in the sensor head, the communications electronics, and the power supply. The system works by sequentially firing two different wavelengths of laser diodes at the target and processing the two images. Since the target only reflects one wavelength, it shows up well in one image and not at all in the other. Because the target's dimensions are known, the relative positions and attitudes of the target and the sensor can be computed from the spots reflected from the target. The system was designed to work from I

  13. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  14. Labial morphology: a 3-dimensional anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Rosati, Riccardo; Peretta, Redento; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2009-09-01

    To develop a noninvasive 3-dimensional method to evaluate labial morphology and to assess gender-related differences in healthy young adults. Dental and lip impressions of 11 men and 10 women aged 21 to 34 years, with sound, full, permanent dentition were obtained. The models were digitized and 3-dimensional virtual reproductions obtained. The labial thickness, vermilion area, and volume of the upper and lower lips were measured from the digital reconstructions. The male and female data were compared using Student's t test. The mean lip thickness was significantly larger (P = .02) in men (14.3 mm) than in women (12.3 mm). The lower lip was thicker than the upper lip. The vermilion width was larger in men (75 mm) than in women (70 mm), and no differences were found for vermilion height (10 mm). In the upper lip, the height/width ratio was significantly larger in women (14.1%) than in men (12.3%). The vermilion surface area was slightly larger in men than in women (upper lip area: women, 467 mm(2); men, 501 mm(2); lower lip area: women, 491 mm(2); men, 569 mm(2)). The labial volume was significantly larger in men (upper lip, 2,390 mm(3); lower lip, 2,902 mm(3)) than in women (upper lip, 1,743 mm(3); lower lip, 1,764 mm(3); P = .021). The upper/lower lip area and volume ratios were similar in the 2 genders. Overall, men had larger lips than women. The inferior lip height/width ratio was similar in both genders, and men had a relatively thinner upper lip than women.

  15. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  16. Classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Geng Qiaozhi; Ren Mingming; Chen Zhiqi

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras. To begin with, we give some properties on (n+3)-dimensional n-Lie algebras. Then based on the properties, we obtain the classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras.

  17. A Petaflops Era Computing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Frank S.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers a study of the potential for petaflops (1O(exp 15) floating point operations per second) computing. This study was performed within the year 1996 and should be considered as the first step in an on-going effort. 'Me analysis concludes that a petaflop system is technically feasible but not feasible with today's state-of-the-art. Since the computer arena is now a commodity business, most experts expect that a petaflops system will evolve from current technology in an evolutionary fashion. To meet the price expectations of users waiting for petaflop performance, great improvements in lowering component costs will be required. Lower power consumption is also a must. The present rate of progress in improved performance places the date of introduction of petaflop systems at about 2010. Several years before that date, it is projected that the resolution limit of chips will reach the now known resolution limit. Aside from the economic problems and constraints, software is identified as the major problem. The tone of this initial study is more pessimistic than most of the Super-published material available on petaflop systems. Workers in the field are expected to generate more data which could serve to provide a basis for a more informed projection. This report includes an annotated bibliography.

  18. Personal computer accelerates dam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Slopek, R.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Analyzing the stability of a dam can require several months of calculations - depending upon the number of dam cross sections and the variety of loadings that are studied. Monenco Consultants Limited, an engineering firm with its head office in Calgary, Alberta, has evaluated the safety of existing dams at more than 40 water resource developments in the last 20 years. Realizing the complexity of these evaluations, Monenco engineers were interested in developing techniques that would reduce the hours of professional time required for stability calculations, and therefore the cost to the dams owners. The firm eventually developed a microcomputer program for its engineers to use in the stability analysis of concrete gravity dams and two spread-sheets to use with the program for analyzing uplift and internal stresses. Using the computer programs cuts man-hours spent in analysis by about 75 percent and reduces the possibility of error in multiple calculations. Ultimately, the programs allow the engineer to spend more time in detailed analysis of a structure during a safety evaluation and less time performing tedious calculations.

  19. Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, Frank, III; Wobick, Craig; Chapman, Kirt; McCloud, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Personal Computer Transport Analysis Program (PCTAP) is C++ software used for analysis of thermal fluid systems. The program predicts thermal fluid system and component transients. The output consists of temperatures, flow rates, pressures, delta pressures, tank quantities, and gas quantities in the air, along with air scrubbing component performance. PCTAP s solution process assumes that the tubes in the system are well insulated so that only the heat transfer between fluid and tube wall and between adjacent tubes is modeled. The system described in the model file is broken down into its individual components; i.e., tubes, cold plates, heat exchangers, etc. A solution vector is built from the components and a flow is then simulated with fluid being transferred from one component to the next. The solution vector of components in the model file is built at the initiation of the run. This solution vector is simply a list of components in the order of their inlet dependency on other components. The component parameters are updated in the order in which they appear in the list at every time step. Once the solution vectors have been determined, PCTAP cycles through the components in the solution vector, executing their outlet function for each time-step increment.

  20. Improving Perceptual Skills with 3-Dimensional Animations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Janet Faye; Brander, Julianne Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)

  1. Computer graphics in aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computer graphics and its application to aerodynamic analyses on a routine basis is outlined. The mathematical modelling of the aircraft geometries and the shading technique implemented are discussed. Examples of computer graphics used to display aerodynamic flow field data and aircraft geometries are shown. A future need in computer graphics for aerodynamic analyses is addressed.

  2. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  3. Accuracy and Early Clinical Outcome of 3-Dimensional Planned and Guided Single-Cut Osteotomies of Malunited Forearm Bones.

    PubMed

    Roner, Simon; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas; Fürnstahl, Philipp

    2017-09-06

    To investigate the reduction accuracy of 3-dimensional planned single-cut osteotomies (SCOTs) of the forearm that were performed using patient-specific guides. A retrospective analysis of SCOTs performed between 2012 and 2014 was performed. Ten patients (age, 15-59 years) with 6 malunions of the ulna and 6 malunions of the radius were identified. The reduction accuracy was assessed by comparing the 3-dimensional preoperative plan of each osteotomy with the superimposed bone model extracted from postoperative computed tomography data. The difference was assessed by 3-dimensional angle and in all 6 degrees of freedom (3 translations, 3 rotations) with respect to an anatomical coordinate system. Wrist range of motion and grip strength was assessed after a mean of 16.7 months and compared with the preoperative measurements. On average, the 12 SCOTs demonstrated excellent accuracy of the reduction with respect to rotation (ie, pronation/supination, 4.9°; flexion/extension, 1.7°; ulnar/radial angulation, 2.0°) and translation (ie, proximal/distal, 0.8 mm; radial/ulnar, 0.8 mm; dorsal/palmar, 0.8 mm). A mean residual 3-dimensional angle of 5.8° (SD, 3.6°) was measured after surgery. All 6 patients operated on for reasons of a reduced range of motion demonstrated improved symptoms and increased movement (from 20° to 80°). In the patients with unstable/painful distal radioulnar joint, 3 were totally free of complaints and 1 patient showed residual pain during sports. A SCOT combined with patient-specific guides is an accurate and reliable technique to restore normal anatomy in multiplanar deformities of the forearm. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Grid computing in image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Klaus; Görtler, Jürgen; Borkenfeld, Stephan; Kayser, Gian

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic surgical pathology or tissue–based diagnosis still remains the most reliable and specific diagnostic medical procedure. The development of whole slide scanners permits the creation of virtual slides and to work on so-called virtual microscopes. In addition to interactive work on virtual slides approaches have been reported that introduce automated virtual microscopy, which is composed of several tools focusing on quite different tasks. These include evaluation of image quality and image standardization, analysis of potential useful thresholds for object detection and identification (segmentation), dynamic segmentation procedures, adjustable magnification to optimize feature extraction, and texture analysis including image transformation and evaluation of elementary primitives. Grid technology seems to possess all features to efficiently target and control the specific tasks of image information and detection in order to obtain a detailed and accurate diagnosis. Grid technology is based upon so-called nodes that are linked together and share certain communication rules in using open standards. Their number and functionality can vary according to the needs of a specific user at a given point in time. When implementing automated virtual microscopy with Grid technology, all of the five different Grid functions have to be taken into account, namely 1) computation services, 2) data services, 3) application services, 4) information services, and 5) knowledge services. Although all mandatory tools of automated virtual microscopy can be implemented in a closed or standardized open system, Grid technology offers a new dimension to acquire, detect, classify, and distribute medical image information, and to assure quality in tissue–based diagnosis.

  5. Investigation of Measurement Condition for 3-Dimensional Spectroscopy by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohigashi, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Ito, A.; Shinohara, K.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-06-01

    A sample cell for performing computed tomography (CT) was developed. The 3-dimensional (3D) structure of polystyrene spheres was observed and the fluctuation of reconstructed linear absorption coefficients (LAC) was 9.3%. To improve the quality of data in 3D spectro-microscopy, required measurement condition is discussed.

  6. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Methods Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant

  7. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cole A; Miller, Steven F; da Fontoura, Clarissa S G; Wehby, George L; Amendt, Brad A; Holton, Nathan E; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes DUSP6,ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1AJUBA, SNAI3SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant after the Bonferroni

  8. Computer-Based Linguistic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, James R.

    Noam Chomsky's transformational-generative grammar model may effectively be translated into an equivalent computer model. Phrase-structure rules and transformations are tested as to their validity and ordering by the computer via the process of random lexical substitution. Errors appearing in the grammar are detected and rectified, and formal…

  9. Bimolecular dynamics by computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    As numerical tools (computers and display equipment) become more powerful and the atomic structures of important biological molecules become known, the importance of detailed computation of nonequilibrium biomolecular dynamics increases. In this manuscript we report results from a well developed study of the hydrogen bonded polypeptide crystal acetanilide, a model protein. Directions for future research are suggested. 9 references, 6 figures.

  10. Comparison between Radiographic (2-dimensional and 3-dimensional) and Histologic Findings of Periapical Lesions Treated with Apical Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Bingisser, Andreas C; Reichart, Peter A; Sendi, Pedram; Bosshardt, Dieter D; von Arx, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance of 2- and 3-dimensional radiography and histopathology in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Patients were consecutively enrolled in this study provided that preoperative periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging of the tooth to be treated with apical surgery were performed. The periapical lesional tissue was histologically analyzed by 2 blinded examiners. The final histologic diagnosis was compared with the radiographic assessments of 4 blinded observers. The initial study material included 62 teeth in the same number of patients. Four lesions had to be excluded during processing, resulting in a final number of 58 evaluated cases (31 women and 27 men, mean age = 55 years). The final histologic diagnosis of the periapical lesions included 55 granulomas (94.8%) and 3 cysts (5.2%). Histologic analysis of the tissue samples from the apical lesions exhibited an almost perfect agreement between the 2 experienced investigators with an overall agreement of 94.83% (kappa = 0.8011). Radiographic assessment overestimated cysts by 28.4% (cone-beam computed tomographic imaging) and 20.7% (periapical radiography), respectively. Comparing the correlation of the radiographic diagnosis of 4 observers with the final histologic diagnosis, 2-dimensional (kappa = 0.104) and 3-dimensional imaging (kappa = 0.111) provided only minimum agreement. To establish a final diagnosis of an apical radiolucency, the tissue specimen should be evaluated histologically and specified as a granuloma (with/without epithelium) or a cyst. Analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiographic images alike results only in a tentative diagnosis that should be confirmed with biopsy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  12. 3-Dimensional simulation of the grain formation in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M. ); Tintillier, R. . Dept. Materiaux et Procedes-Direction Technique)

    1994-03-01

    A 3-dimensional (3-D) probabilistic model which has been developed previously for the prediction of grain structure formation during solidification is applied to thin superalloy plates produced using the investment-casting process. This model considers the random nucleation and orientation of nuclei formed at the mold surface and in the bulk of the liquid, the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips, and the preferential growth directions of the dendrite trunks and arms. In the present study, the grains are assumed to nucleate at the surface of the mold only. The computed grain structures, as observed in 2-dimensional (2-D) sections made parallel to the mold surface, are compared with experimental micrographs. The grain densities are then deduced as a function of the distance from the mold surface for both the experiment and the simulation. It is shown that these values are in good agreement, thus, providing validation of the grain formation mechanisms built into the 3-D probabilistic model. Finally, this model is further extended to more complex geometries and the 3-D computed grain structure of an equiaxed turbine-blade airfoil is compared with the experimental transverse section micrograph.

  13. Computer Aided Data Analysis in Sociometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeheine, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    A computer program which analyzes sociometric data is presented. The SDAS program provides classical sociometric analysis. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis techniques may be combined with the MSP program. (JKS)

  14. Computer assistance in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Dusold, L R; Roach, J A

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory computer links are a key part of acquisition, movement, and interpretation of certain types of data. Remote information retrieval from databases such as the Chemical Information System provides the analyst with structural and toxicological information via a laboratory terminal. Remote processing of laboratory data by large computers permits the application of pattern recognition techniques to the solution of complex multivariate problems such as the detection of food adulteration.

  15. Computer Recognition and Analysis of Photogrammetric Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Airlines of Australia, Library Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Civil Aviation Authority Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd, Victoria...RESEARCH LABORATORY MELBOURNE, VICTORIA Aircraft Structures Technical Memorandum 549 COMPUTER RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TARGETS by B.A...TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Aircraft Structures Technical Memorandum 549 COMPUTER RECOGNITION AND ANALYSIS OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC

  16. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  17. The usefulness of 3-dimensional endoscope systems in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Yuichi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    The image quality and performance of 3-dimensional video image systems has improved along with improvements in technology. However, objective evaluation on the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems is insufficient. Therefore, we decided to investigate the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems using the objective endoscopic surgery technology evaluating apparatus that we have developed, the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD). The participants were 28 student volunteers enrolled in Hiroshima University (17 men and 11 women, age: median 22.5, range 20-25), with no one having experienced endoscopic surgery training. Testing was carried out by dividing the subjects into two groups to initially carry out HUESAD with 2-dimensional video imaging (N = 14) and with 3-dimensional video imaging (N = 14). Questionnaires were carried out along with the investigation regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. The task was carried out for approximately 15 min regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. Lastly, the Mental Rotation Test, which is a standard space perception ability test, was used to evaluate the space perception ability. No difference was observed in the nauseous and uncomfortable feeling of practitioners between the two groups. Regarding smoothness, no difference was observed between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging (p = 0.8665). Deviation (space perception ability) and approaching time (accuracy) were significantly lower with 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging. Moreover, the approaching time (accuracy) significantly improved in 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging in the group with low space perception ability (p = 0.0085). Objective evaluation using HUESAD and subjective evaluation by questionnaire revealed that endoscopic surgery techniques significantly improved in 3-dimensional video

  18. Review of 3-Dimensional Printing on Cranial Neurosurgery Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Vakharia, Vejay N; Vakharia, Nilesh N; Hill, Ciaran S

    2016-04-01

    Shorter working times, reduced operative exposure to complex procedures, and increased subspecialization have resulted in training constraints within most surgical fields. Simulation has been suggested as a possible means of acquiring new surgical skills without exposing patients to the surgeon's operative "learning curve." Here we review the potential impact of 3-dimensional printing on simulation and training within cranial neurosurgery and its implications for the future. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a comprehensive search of PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. In total, 31 studies relating to the use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing within neurosurgery, of which 16 were specifically related to simulation and training, were identified. The main impact of 3D printing on neurosurgical simulation training was within vascular surgery, where patient-specific replication of vascular anatomy and pathologies can aid surgeons in operative planning and clip placement for reconstruction of vascular anatomy. Models containing replicas of brain tumors have also been reconstructed and used for training purposes, with some providing realistic representations of skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, dura, normal brain, and tumor tissue. 3D printing provides a unique means of directly replicating patient-specific pathologies. It can identify anatomic variation and provide a medium in which training models can be generated rapidly, allowing the trainee and experienced neurosurgeon to practice parts of operations preoperatively. Future studies are required to validate this technology in comparison with current simulators and show improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Arterial Wall Enhancement for Differentiation of Parent Artery Disease from Small Artery Disease: Comparison between Histogram Analysis and Visual Analysis on 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced T1-Weighted Turbo Spin Echo MR Images at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Tae-Won; Hwang, Eo-Jin; Koo, Jaseong; Shin, Yong Sam; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the histogram analysis and visual scores in 3T MRI assessment of middle cerebral arterial wall enhancement in patients with acute stroke, for the differentiation of parent artery disease (PAD) from small artery disease (SAD). Materials and Methods Among the 82 consecutive patients in a tertiary hospital for one year, 25 patients with acute infarcts in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included in this study including 15 patients with PAD and 10 patients with SAD. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo spin echo MR images with black-blood preparation at 3T were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The degree of MCA stenosis, and visual and histogram assessments on MCA wall enhancement were evaluated. A statistical analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracy between qualitative and quantitative metrics. Results The degree of stenosis, visual enhancement score, geometric mean (GM), and the 90th percentile (90P) value from the histogram analysis were significantly higher in PAD than in SAD (p = 0.006 for stenosis, < 0.001 for others). The receiver operating characteristic curve area of GM and 90P were 1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.00). Conclusion A histogram analysis of a relevant arterial wall enhancement allows differentiation between PAD and SAD in patients with acute stroke within the MCA territory. PMID:28246519

  20. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  1. Computer assisted yarding cost analysis.

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Mifflin

    1980-01-01

    Programs for a programable calculator and a desk-top computer are provided for quickly determining yarding cost and comparing the economics of alternative yarding systems. The programs emphasize the importance of the relationship between production rate and machine rate, which is the hourly cost of owning and operating yarding equipment. In addition to generating the...

  2. The Computer and Curriculum Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Andrew R.

    Curriculum designers have derived data for instructional purposes from 1) the subject matter, 2) society, and 3) the learner. The computer plays an instrumental role in individualizing the presentation of curriculum derived from these sources. Research on instruction has concerned itself with devising material for individual needs and adapting…

  3. Characteristics of intra-left atrial flow dynamics and factors affecting formation of the vortex flow – analysis with phase-resolved 3-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Takehara, Yasuo; Sano, Makoto; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Masataka; Wakayama, Tetsuya; Alley, Marcus; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2015-01-01

    The intra-left atrial (LA) blood flow from pulmonary veins (PVs) to the left ventricle (LV) changes under various conditions and might affect global cardiac function. By using phase-resolved 3-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D-Flow), the intra-LA vortex formation was visualized and the factors affecting the intra-LA flow dynamics were examined. Thirty-two patients with or without organic heart diseases underwent 4D-Flow and transthoracic echocardiography. The intra-LA velocity vectors from each PV were post-processed to delineate streamline and pathline images. The vector images revealed intra-LA vortex formation in 20 of 32 patients. All the vortices developed during the late systolic and early diastolic phases and were directed counter-clockwise when viewed from the subjects' cranial side. The flow vectors from the right PVs lengthened predominantly toward the mitral valves and partly toward the LA appendage, whereas those from the left PVs directed rightward along the posterior wall and joined the vortex. Patients with vortex had less organic heart diseases, smaller LV and LA volume, and greater peak flow velocity and volume mainly in the left PVs, although the flow directions from each PV or PV areas did not differ. 4D-Flow can clearly visualize the intra-LA vortex formation and analyze its characteristic features. The vortex formation might depend on LV and LA volume and on flow velocity and volume from PVs.

  4. Accuracy of 3-dimensional curvilinear measurements on digital models with intraoral scanners.

    PubMed

    Mack, Spencer; Bonilla, Tammy; English, Jeryl D; Cozad, Benjamin; Akyalcin, Sercan

    2017-09-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate and compare the digital dental models generated from 2 commercial intraoral scanners with manual measurements when performing 3-dimensional surface measurements along a curved line (curvilinear). Dry mandibles (n = 61) with intact dentition were used. The mandibles were digitized using 2 chair-side intraoral scanners: Cadent iTero (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif) and Lythos Digital Impression system (Ormco, Orange, Calif). Digitized 3-dimensional models were converted to individual stereolithography files and used with commercial software to obtain the curvilinear measurements. Manual measurements were carried out directly on the mandibular teeth. Measurements were made on different locations on the dental arch in various directions. One-sample t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. To further graphically examine the accuracy between the different methods, Bland-Altman plots were computed. The level of significance was set at P <0.05. There were no significant differences between any of the paired methods; this indicated a certain level of agreement between the methods tested (P >0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed no fixed bias of 1 approach vs the other, and random errors were detected in all comparisons. Although the mean biases of the digital models obtained by the iTero and Lythos scanners, when compared with direct caliper measurements, were low, the comparison of the 2 intraoral scanners yielded the lowest mean bias. No comparison displayed statistical significance for the t scores; this indicated the absence of proportional bias in these comparisons. The intraoral scanners tested in this study produced digital dental models that were comparatively accurate when performing direct surface measurements along a curved line in 3 dimensions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  6. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  7. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  8. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-12

    software in which polygon meshes, accurate freeform, non-uniform rationale B-spline surfaces, and geometrically accurate solid models were created...position for a laser scan using a novel morphometric analysis for orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Max Surg 2000; 29(2): 86-90. Vig PS, Showfety KJ

  9. IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R.; Caplinger, J.; Taylor, L.; Lawton , P.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program titled, "IUE Data Analysis Software for Personal Computers" awarded under Astrophysics Data Program NRA 92-OSSA-15. The work performed was completed over a 2-year period starting in April 1994. As a result of the project, 450 IDL routines and eight database tables are now available for distribution for Power Macintosh computers and Personal Computers running Windows 3.1.

  10. Massive Contingency Analysis with High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-07-26

    Contingency analysis is a key function in the Energy Management System (EMS) to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures based on state estimates. Contingency analysis is also extensively used in power market operation for feasibility test of market solutions. Faster analysis of more cases is required to safely and reliably operate today’s power grids with less marginal and more intermittent renewable energy sources. Enabled by the latest development in the computer industry, high performance computing holds the promise of meet the need in the power industry. This paper investigates the potential of high performance computing for massive contingency analysis. The framework of "N-x" contingency analysis is established and computational load balancing schemes are studied and implemented with high performance computers. Case studies of massive 300,000-contingency-case analysis using the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model are presented to illustrate the application of high performance computing and demonstrate the performance of the framework and computational load balancing schemes.

  11. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  12. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  13. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  14. Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

  15. Advanced 3-dimensional planning in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ferroli, Paolo; Tringali, Giovanni; Acerbi, Francesco; Schiariti, Marco; Broggi, Morgan; Aquino, Domenico; Broggi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades, medical applications of virtual reality technology have been developing rapidly, ranging from a research curiosity to a commercially and clinically important area of medical informatics and technology. With the aid of new technologies, the user is able to process large amounts of data sets to create accurate and almost realistic reconstructions of anatomic structures and related pathologies. As a result, a 3-diensional (3-D) representation is obtained, and surgeons can explore the brain for planning or training. Further improvement such as a feedback system increases the interaction between users and models by creating a virtual environment. Its use for advanced 3-D planning in neurosurgery is described. Different systems of medical image volume rendering have been used and analyzed for advanced 3-D planning: 1 is a commercial "ready-to-go" system (Dextroscope, Bracco, Volume Interaction, Singapore), whereas the others are open-source-based software (3-D Slicer, FSL, and FreesSurfer). Different neurosurgeons at our institution experienced how advanced 3-D planning before surgery allowed them to facilitate and increase their understanding of the complex anatomic and pathological relationships of the lesion. They all agreed that the preoperative experience of virtually planning the approach was helpful during the operative procedure. Virtual reality for advanced 3-D planning in neurosurgery has achieved considerable realism as a result of the available processing power of modern computers. Although it has been found useful to facilitate the understanding of complex anatomic relationships, further effort is needed to increase the quality of the interaction between the user and the model.

  16. Distributed computing and nuclear reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.; Derstine, K.L.; Blomquist, R.N.

    1994-03-01

    Large-scale scientific and engineering calculations for nuclear reactor analysis can now be carried out effectively in a distributed computing environment, at costs far lower than for traditional mainframes. The distributed computing environment must include support for traditional system services, such as a queuing system for batch work, reliable filesystem backups, and parallel processing capabilities for large jobs. All ANL computer codes for reactor analysis have been adapted successfully to a distributed system based on workstations and X-terminals. Distributed parallel processing has been demonstrated to be effective for long-running Monte Carlo calculations.

  17. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Freeman, Mark; Gera, Dinesh

    2001-11-06

    In the current fiscal year FY01, several CFD simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of moisture in biomass/coal, particle injection locations, and flow parameters on carbon burnout and NO{sub x} inside a 150 MW GEEZER industrial boiler. Various simulations were designed to predict the suitability of biomass cofiring in coal combustors, and to explore the possibility of using biomass as a reburning fuel to reduce NO{sub x}. Some additional CFD simulations were also conducted on CERF combustor to examine the combustion characteristics of pulverized coal in enriched O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environments. Most of the CFD models available in the literature treat particles to be point masses with uniform temperature inside the particles. This isothermal condition may not be suitable for larger biomass particles. To this end, a stand alone program was developed from the first principles to account for heat conduction from the surface of the particle to its center. It is envisaged that the recently developed non-isothermal stand alone module will be integrated with the Fluent solver during next fiscal year to accurately predict the carbon burnout from larger biomass particles. Anisotropy in heat transfer in radial and axial will be explored using different conductivities in radial and axial directions. The above models will be validated/tested on various fullscale industrial boilers. The current NO{sub x} modules will be modified to account for local CH, CH{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3} radicals chemistry, currently it is based on global chemistry. It may also be worth exploring the effect of enriched O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment on carbon burnout and NO{sub x} concentration. The research objective of this study is to develop a 3-Dimensional Combustor Model for Biomass Co-firing and reburning applications using the Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics Code.

  18. [3-dimensional photogrammetry assessment of facial contours].

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, D; Gäbel, H; Schettler, D

    1997-02-01

    In Germany, three-dimensional non-invasive measurement techniques are not in routine use for medical purposes. Completely integrated applications of photogrammetric technology are lacking. The results of clinical examination, X-rays and pre- and postoperative photographs from different angles have been used for medical analysis. In an interdisciplinary research project we tested the general applicability of photogrammetric measurement systems. We examined patients with malformations of the mandible-maxilla complex by taking pictures of the face. In order to assess the surface structure we projected regular patterns onto the surface. We calculated about 500 points on the surface with accuracy better than 0.2 mm. Graphical analyses of measurement results are presented in clinically relevant form. We produce representations of the faces in auto-CAD by means of regular meshes which allow views from any perspective, longitudinal and lateral sections. In addition to calculating angles, distances, surfaces and volumes, visualisation of shape is a useful aid in documentation and quantification of changes of soft tissue of the human face under surgery treatment.

  19. Economic Analysis. Computer Simulation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    A multimedia course in economic analysis was developed and used in conjunction with the United States Naval Academy. (See ED 043 790 and ED 043 791 for final reports of the project evaluation and development model.) This volume of the text discusses the simulation of behavioral relationships among variable elements in an economy and presents…

  20. Computer Programs for Settlement Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT TASK U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station 6 AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Automatic Data Processing Center P. 0. Box 631... area being loaded is wide compared to the depth of the compressible soil, the load should be considered as uniformly distributed. Loading conditions...uniformly loaded rectangular areas and embankment loads are to be used in the analysis. (For input of embankment loads, see Appendix A.) (b) Item 2

  1. DFT computational analysis of piracetam.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Gunasekaran, S; Seshadri, S; Gnanasambandan, T

    2014-11-11

    Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of piracetam is calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO/NLMO analysis. The calculation of first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at a point in the space around a molecule gives an indication of the net electrostatic effect produced at that point by the total charge distribution of the molecule. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charge is also calculated. Because of vibrational analysis, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-Vis spectra and electronic absorption properties are explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DFT computational analysis of piracetam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Seshadri, S.; Gnanasambandan, T.

    2014-11-01

    Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of piracetam is calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO/NLMO analysis. The calculation of first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at a point in the space around a molecule gives an indication of the net electrostatic effect produced at that point by the total charge distribution of the molecule. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charge is also calculated. Because of vibrational analysis, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-Vis spectra and electronic absorption properties are explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals.

  3. 3-Dimensional Facial Analysis—Facing Precision Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Baynam, Gareth; Bauskis, Alicia; Pachter, Nicholas; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Palmer, Richard L.; Kung, Stefanie; Helmholz, Petra; Ridout, Michael; Walker, Caroline E.; Hawkins, Anne; Goldblatt, Jack; Weeramanthri, Tarun S.; Dawkins, Hugh J. S.; Molster, Caron M.

    2017-01-01

    Precision public health is a new field driven by technological advances that enable more precise descriptions and analyses of individuals and population groups, with a view to improving the overall health of populations. This promises to lead to more precise clinical and public health practices, across the continuum of prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. A phenotype is the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of a genotype with the environment. Precision (deep) phenotyping applies innovative technologies to exhaustively and more precisely examine the discrete components of a phenotype and goes beyond the information usually included in medical charts. This form of phenotyping is a critical component of more precise diagnostic capability and 3-dimensional facial analysis (3DFA) is a key technological enabler in this domain. In this paper, we examine the potential of 3DFA as a public health tool, by viewing it against the 10 essential public health services of the “public health wheel,” developed by the US Centers for Disease Control. This provides an illustrative framework to gage current and emergent applications of genomic technologies for implementing precision public health. PMID:28443272

  4. A computational image analysis glossary for biologists.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Adrienne H K; Cunha, Alexandre; Burl, Michael C; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in biological imaging have resulted in an explosion in the quality and quantity of images obtained in a digital format. Developmental biologists are increasingly acquiring beautiful and complex images, thus creating vast image datasets. In the past, patterns in image data have been detected by the human eye. Larger datasets, however, necessitate high-throughput objective analysis tools to computationally extract quantitative information from the images. These tools have been developed in collaborations between biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians and physicists. In this Primer we present a glossary of image analysis terms to aid biologists and briefly discuss the importance of robust image analysis in developmental studies.

  5. Computational analysis of ramjet engine inlet interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Beverly; Thomas, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A computational analysis of a ramjet engine at Mach 3.5 has been conducted and compared to results obtained experimentally. This study focuses on the behavior of the inlet both with and without combustor backpressure. Increased backpressure results in separation of the body side boundary layer and a resultant static pressure rise in the inlet throat region. The computational results compare well with the experimental data for static pressure distribution through the engine, inlet throat flow profiles, and mass capture. The computational analysis slightly underpredicts the thickness of the engine body surface boundary layer and the extent of the interaction caused by backpressure; however, the interaction is observed at approximately the same level of backpressure both experimentally and computationally. This study demonstrates the ability of two different Navier-Stokes codes, namely RPLUS and PARC, to calculate the flow features of this ramjet engine and to provide more detailed information on the process of inlet interaction and unstart.

  6. On Computational Objectives of Auditory Scene Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Outline of Presentation Introduction Sound source...separation problem Approaches to sound separation Auditory scene analysis (ASA) Computational ASA and its objectives Ideal binary masks as a putative...objective Example studies of computing ideal binary masks Monaural segregation of voiced speech Binaural segregation of natural speech Summary Sound Source

  7. HL-20 computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilmuenster, K. James; Greene, Francis A.

    1993-09-01

    The essential elements of a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the HL-20/personnel launch system aerothermal environment at hypersonic speeds including surface definition, grid generation, solution techniques, and visual representation of results are presented. Examples of solution technique validation through comparison with data from ground-based facilities are presented, along with results from computations at flight conditions. Computations at flight points indicate that real-gas effects have little or no effect on vehicle aerodynamics and, at these conditions, results from approximate techniques for determining surface heating are comparable with those obtained from Navier-Stokes solutions.

  8. HL-20 computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. J.; Greene, Francis A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential elements of a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the HL-20/personnel launch system aerothermal environment at hypersonic speeds including surface definition, grid generation, solution techniques, and visual representation of results are presented. Examples of solution technique validation through comparison with data from ground-based facilities are presented, along with results from computations at flight conditions. Computations at flight points indicate that real-gas effects have little or no effect on vehicle aerodynamics and, at these conditions, results from approximate techniques for determining surface heating are comparable with those obtained from Navier-Stokes solutions.

  9. Computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Five systems for computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals are currently available, incorporating the evaluation of cardiotocographic (CTG) or combined CTG with electrocardiographic ST data. All systems have been integrated with central monitoring stations, allowing the simultaneous monitoring of several tracings on the same computer screen in multiple hospital locations. Computer analysis elicits real-time visual and sound alerts for health care professionals when abnormal patterns are detected, with the aim of prompting a re-evaluation and subsequent clinical action, if considered necessary. Comparison between the CTG analyses provided by the computer and clinical experts has been carried out in all systems, and in three of them, the accuracy of computer alerts in predicting newborn outcomes was evaluated. Comparisons between these studies are hampered by the differences in selection criteria and outcomes. Two of these systems have just completed multicentre randomised clinical trials comparing them with conventional CTG monitoring, and their results are awaited shortly. For the time being, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of computer analysis of foetal monitoring signals on perinatal indicators and on health care professionals' behaviour.

  10. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  11. ASTEC: Controls analysis for personal computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, John P.; Bauer, Frank H.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    The ASTEC (Analysis and Simulation Tools for Engineering Controls) software is under development at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The design goal is to provide a wide selection of controls analysis tools at the personal computer level, as well as the capability to upload compute-intensive jobs to a mainframe or supercomputer. The project is a follow-on to the INCA (INteractive Controls Analysis) program that has been developed at GSFC over the past five years. While ASTEC makes use of the algorithms and expertise developed for the INCA program, the user interface was redesigned to take advantage of the capabilities of the personal computer. The design philosophy and the current capabilities of the ASTEC software are described.

  12. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  13. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  14. Discrete computer analysis in petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharian, A.Z.

    1995-08-01

    Computer analysis must not be resembling on geologist`s work, having its own way because of uncertainty and shortness of geological information even on mature stage of exploration, when our original system of formal discrete computer analysis, realised on {open_quotes}FoxPro for Windows{close_quotes} with not substantial but probabilistic (without ever driving the usual maps) representation of geological situation was used for picking out the sets of best points for exploration drilling in south part of Dheprovsko-Donetzky oil-gas basin.

  15. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  16. Behavior Computation for Smart Grid Software Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Richard C; Pleszkoch, Mark G; Prowell, Stacy J; Sayre, Kirk D

    2011-01-01

    Smart grid embedded software is subject to intrusion and compromise with potentially serious consequences. Current methods of cybersecurity analysis are increasingly challenged by the scope the problem. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pioneering the new technology of software behavior computation to help address these risks. Software behavior computation and its instantiation in Function eXtraction (FX) systems apply mathematical foundations of denotational semantics to compute the behavior of software in all circumstances of use. Research has shown how to make the effects of recursion-theoretic limitations on this process arbitrarily small. Behavior computation operates on the functional semantics of programs, and is not subject to the limitations of syntactic recognition or testing. ORNL is applying FX technology to help evaluate cyber security properties in smart grid systems, with initial focus on vulnerabilities in embedded software that controls smart meters.

  17. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use.

  18. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory



    COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    T Martonen1 and J Schroeter2

    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, Unive...

  19. Final Report Computational Analysis of Dynamical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenheimer, John

    2012-05-08

    This is the final report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER25164, initiated in 1993. This grant supported research of John Guckenheimer on computational analysis of dynamical systems. During that period, seventeen individuals received PhD degrees under the supervision of Guckenheimer and over fifty publications related to the grant were produced. This document contains copies of these publications.

  20. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  1. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  2. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  3. 3-dimensional bundle adjustments in industrial metrology: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydosh, M.; LeCocq, C.; Ruland, R.; Wand, B.

    1992-07-01

    Several theodolite measurement systems are available for use in the industrial metrology market. Many of them offer a rigorous 3-dimensional bundle adjustment routine. In this paper several systems in use and available for evaluation purposes at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be tested and their results compared.

  4. Analysis of dissection algorithms for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Recently two dissection algorithms (one-way and incomplete nested dissection) have been developed for solving the sparse positive definite linear systems arising from n by n grid problems. Concurrently, vector computers (such as the CDC STAR-100 and TI ASC) have been developed for large scientific applications. An analysis of the use of dissection algorithms on vector computers dictates that vectors of maximum length be utilized thereby implying little or no dissection; on the other hand, minimizing operation counts suggest that considerable dissection be performed. In this paper we discuss the resolution of this conflict by minimizing the total time required by vectorized versions of the two algorithms.

  5. Analysis of dissection algorithms for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Recently two dissection algorithms (one-way and incomplete nested dissection) have been developed for solving the sparse positive definite linear systems arising from n by n grid problems. Concurrently, vector computers (such as the CDC STAR-100 and TI ASC) have been developed for large scientific applications. An analysis of the use of dissection algorithms on vector computers dictates that vectors of maximum length be utilized thereby implying little or no dissection; on the other hand, minimizing operation counts suggest that considerable dissection be performed. In this paper we discuss the resolution of this conflict by minimizing the total time required by vectorized versions of the two algorithms.

  6. Computational approaches to fMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan D; Daw, Nathaniel; Engelhardt, Barbara; Hasson, Uri; Li, Kai; Niv, Yael; Norman, Kenneth A; Pillow, Jonathan; Ramadge, Peter J; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Willke, Theodore L

    2017-02-23

    Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis. Several recent exploratory and theory-driven methods have begun to pursue these opportunities. These methods highlight the importance of computational techniques in fMRI analysis, especially machine learning, algorithmic optimization and parallel computing. Adoption of these techniques is enabling a new generation of experiments and analyses that could transform our understanding of some of the most complex-and distinctly human-signals in the brain: acts of cognition such as thoughts, intentions and memories.

  7. Reflection of solar wind protons on the Martian bow shock: Investigations by means of 3-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, E.; Chanteur, G. M.; Modolo, R.; Dubinin, E.

    2012-09-01

    The reflection of solar wind protons on the Martian bow shock (BS) is investigated by means of three-dimensional simulation models. A two steps approach is adopted to allow a detailed analysis of the reflected population. Firstly, the 3-dimensional hybrid model of Modolo et al. (2005) is used to compute a stationary state of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with Mars. Secondly, the motion of test particles is followed in the electromagnetic field computed by the hybrid simulation meanwhile detection criteria defined to identify reflected protons are applied. This study demonstrates some effects of the large curvature of a planetary BS on the structure of the foreshock. Reflected protons encounter the BS in a region encompassing parts of the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks, and exit the shock mainly from the quasi-parallel region. The energy spectrum of all reflected protons extends from 0 to almost 15keV. A virtual omnidirectional detector (VOD) is used to compute the local omnidirectional flux of reflected protons at various locations upstream of the BS. Spatial variations of this omnidirectional flux indicate the location and spatial extent of the proton foreshock and demonstrate its shift, increasing with the distance downstream, in the direction opposite to the motional electric field of the SW. Local energy spectra computed from the VOD observations demonstrate the existence of an energy gradient along the direction of the convection electric field.

  8. Computational strategies for tire monitoring and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Green, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Computational strategies are presented for the modeling and analysis of tires in contact with pavement. A procedure is introduced for simple and accurate determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image. Three new strategies for reducing the computational effort in the finite element solution of tire-pavement contact are also presented. These strategies take advantage of the observation that footprint loads do not usually stimulate a significant tire response away from the pavement contact region. The finite element strategies differ in their level of approximation and required amount of computer resources. The effectiveness of the strategies is demonstrated by numerical examples of frictionless and frictional contact of the space shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire. Both an in-house research code and a commercial finite element code are used in the numerical studies.

  9. Computational analysis of forebody tangential slot blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Agosta-Greenman, Roxana M.; Rizk, Yehia M.; Schiff, Lewis B.; Cummings, Russell M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the computational effort to analyze forebody tangential slot blowing is presented. Tangential slot blowing generates side force and yawing moment which may be used to control an aircraft flying at high-angle-of-attack. Two different geometries are used in the analysis: (1) The High Alpha Research Vehicle; and (2) a generic chined forebody. Computations using the isolated F/A-18 forebody are obtained at full-scale wind tunnel test conditions for direct comparison with available experimental data. The effects of over- and under-blowing on force and moment production are analyzed. Time-accurate solutions using the isolated forebody are obtained to study the force onset timelag of tangential slot blowing. Computations using the generic chined forebody are obtained at experimental wind tunnel conditions, and the results compared with available experimental data. This computational analysis compliments the experimental results and provides a detailed understanding of the effects of tangential slot blowing on the flow field about simple and complex geometries.

  10. Association between 3-dimensional mandibular morphology and condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Michiyo; Miyamoto, Jun J; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that 3-dimensional mandibular morphology is correlated with condylar movement in patients with mandibular asymmetry. Subjects were classified into 2 groups (n = 25 each): mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation greater than 4 mm and no mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation less than 4 mm. Linear and volumetric measurements of 3-dimensional mandibular morphology were recorded using computed tomography. Mandibular functional movement was recorded by computerized axiography (CADIAX; Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg, Austria), and condylar path length, sagittal condylar inclination, and transverse condylar inclination on protrusion were measured. We calculated side-to-side asymmetry (shifted side vs nonshifted side) in mandibular morphology and assessed condylar movement by using an asymmetry ratio (nonshifted side/shifted side). Significant differences in mandibular morphology and condylar movement were found between the 2 groups. In the group with menton deviation greater than 4 mm, significant correlations were found between the asymmetry ratio of mandibular morphology and condylar movement: ie, condylar path length and transverse condylar inclination. No significant correlations were found between any of these measurements in the group with menton deviation less than 4 mm. In support of our hypothesis, the results suggested that 3-dimensional mandibular morphologic asymmetry is associated with condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational stability analysis of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishkov, Yuri Gennadievich

    2000-10-01

    Due to increased available computer power, the analysis of nonlinear flexible multi-body systems, fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing vehicles is relying on increasingly complex, large scale models. An important aspect of the dynamic response of flexible multi-body systems is the potential presence of instabilities. Stability analysis is typically performed on simplified models with the smallest number of degrees of freedom required to capture the physical phenomena that cause the instability. The system stability boundaries are then evaluated using the characteristic exponent method or Floquet theory for systems with constant or periodic coefficients, respectively. As the number of degrees of freedom used to represent the system increases, these methods become increasingly cumbersome, and quickly unmanageable. In this work, a novel approach is proposed, the Implicit Floquet Analysis, which evaluates the largest eigenvalues of the transition matrix using the Arnoldi algorithm, without the explicit computation of this matrix. This method is far more computationally efficient than the classical approach and is ideally suited for systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The proposed approach is conveniently implemented as a postprocessing step to any existing simulation tool. The application of the method to a geometrically nonlinear multi-body dynamics code is presented. This work also focuses on the implementation of trimming algorithms and the development of tools for the graphical representation of numerical simulations and stability information for multi-body systems.

  12. Computer analysis of HIV epitope sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Myers, G.

    1990-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree analysis provide us with important general information regarding the extent and rate of HIV variation. Currently we are attempting to extend computer analysis and modeling to the V3 loop of the type 2 virus and its simian homologues, especially in light of the prominent role the latter will play in animal model studies. Moreover, it might be possible to attack the slightly similar V4 loop by this approach. However, the strategy relies very heavily upon natural'' information and constraints, thus there exist severe limitations upon the general applicability, in addition to uncertainties with regard to long-range residue interactions. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  14. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  15. Cohomological rigidity of manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Erokhovets, N. Yu.; Masuda, M.; Panov, T. E.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    A family of closed manifolds is said to be cohomologically rigid if a cohomology ring isomorphism implies a diffeomorphism for any two manifolds in the family. Cohomological rigidity is established here for large families of 3-dimensional and 6-dimensional manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes. The class \\mathscr{P} of 3-dimensional combinatorial simple polytopes P different from tetrahedra and without facets forming 3- and 4-belts is studied. This class includes mathematical fullerenes, that is, simple 3- polytopes with only 5-gonal and 6-gonal facets. By a theorem of Pogorelov, any polytope in \\mathscr{P} admits in Lobachevsky 3-space a right-angled realisation which is unique up to isometry. Our families of smooth manifolds are associated with polytopes in the class \\mathscr{P}. The first family consists of 3-dimensional small covers of polytopes in \\mathscr{P}, or equivalently, hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Löbell type. The second family consists of 6-dimensional quasitoric manifolds over polytopes in \\mathscr{P}. Our main result is that both families are cohomologically rigid, that is, two manifolds M and M' from either family are diffeomorphic if and only if their cohomology rings are isomorphic. It is also proved that if M and M' are diffeomorphic, then their corresponding polytopes P and P' are combinatorially equivalent. These results are intertwined with classical subjects in geometry and topology such as the combinatorics of 3-polytopes, the Four Colour Theorem, aspherical manifolds, a diffeomorphism classification of 6-manifolds, and invariance of Pontryagin classes. The proofs use techniques of toric topology. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  16. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  17. Computer Applications in Behavior Analysis: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betty Fry

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research studies that involved computer applications in behavior analysis. Highlights include interactive videodisc; teacher benefits of computer applications; studies involving retarded students; behavioral treatment for obesity; multimedia; adaptations of computer hardware and software; automated data collection; reinforcement of…

  18. 76 FR 60939 - Metal Fatigue Analysis Performed by Computer Software

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Metal Fatigue Analysis Performed by Computer Software AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... applicants' analyses and methodologies using the computer software package, WESTEMS TM , to demonstrate... by Computer Software Addressees All holders of, and applicants for, a power reactor operating...

  19. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  20. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  1. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  2. In Vivo 3-Dimensional Kinematics of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint During Thumb Opposition.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Yohei; Oka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kiyoshi; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2017-09-07

    This study primarily aimed to demonstrate the screw-home rotation of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and the function of surrounding ligaments during thumb oppositional motion. A 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the thumb CMC joint was conducted using data derived from computed tomography of 9 healthy volunteers. Scans were obtained in the neutral forearm and wrist position and the thumb in maximum radial abduction, maximum palmar abduction, and maximum opposition. The movements of the first metacarpal and the palmar and dorsal bases on the trapezium during thumb oppositional motion from radial abduction through palmar abduction were quantified using a coordinate system originating on the trapezium. In addition to the kinematic analyses, the length of virtual ligaments, including the anterior oblique, ulnar collateral, dorsal radial, dorsal central (DCL), and posterior oblique ligament (POL), were calculated at each thumb position. From radial abduction to opposition of the thumb through palmar abduction, the first metacarpal was abducted, internally rotated, and flexed on the trapezium. The palmar base of the first metacarpal moved in the palmar-ulnar direction, and the dorsal base moved in the palmar-distal direction along the concave surface of the trapezium. Although the DCL and POL lengthened, the lengths of other ligaments did not change significantly. During thumb oppositional motion, internal rotation of the first metacarpal occurred, with the palmar base rotating primarily with respect to the dorsal base. The DCL and POL may be strained in thumb functional positions. Kinematic variables indicated a screw-home rotation of the thumb CMC joint and the contribution of the dorsal ligaments to the stability of the rotation on the pivot point. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FORTRAN computer program for seismic risk analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Robin K.

    1976-01-01

    A program for seismic risk analysis is described which combines generality of application, efficiency and accuracy of operation, and the advantage of small storage requirements. The theoretical basis for the program is first reviewed, and the computational algorithms used to apply this theory are described. The information required for running the program is listed. Published attenuation functions describing the variation with earthquake magnitude and distance of expected values for various ground motion parameters are summarized for reference by the program user. Finally, suggestions for use of the program are made, an example problem is described (along with example problem input and output) and the program is listed.

  4. Computer network environment planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalphin, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The GSFC Computer Network Environment provides a broadband RF cable between campus buildings and ethernet spines in buildings for the interlinking of Local Area Networks (LANs). This system provides terminal and computer linkage among host and user systems thereby providing E-mail services, file exchange capability, and certain distributed computing opportunities. The Environment is designed to be transparent and supports multiple protocols. Networking at Goddard has a short history and has been under coordinated control of a Network Steering Committee for slightly more than two years; network growth has been rapid with more than 1500 nodes currently addressed and greater expansion expected. A new RF cable system with a different topology is being installed during summer 1989; consideration of a fiber optics system for the future will begin soon. Summmer study was directed toward Network Steering Committee operation and planning plus consideration of Center Network Environment analysis and modeling. Biweekly Steering Committee meetings were attended to learn the background of the network and the concerns of those managing it. Suggestions for historical data gathering have been made to support future planning and modeling. Data Systems Dynamic Simulator, a simulation package developed at NASA and maintained at GSFC was studied as a possible modeling tool for the network environment. A modeling concept based on a hierarchical model was hypothesized for further development. Such a model would allow input of newly updated parameters and would provide an estimation of the behavior of the network.

  5. Computer network environment planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalphin, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The GSFC Computer Network Environment provides a broadband RF cable between campus buildings and ethernet spines in buildings for the interlinking of Local Area Networks (LANs). This system provides terminal and computer linkage among host and user systems thereby providing E-mail services, file exchange capability, and certain distributed computing opportunities. The Environment is designed to be transparent and supports multiple protocols. Networking at Goddard has a short history and has been under coordinated control of a Network Steering Committee for slightly more than two years; network growth has been rapid with more than 1500 nodes currently addressed and greater expansion expected. A new RF cable system with a different topology is being installed during summer 1989; consideration of a fiber optics system for the future will begin soon. Summmer study was directed toward Network Steering Committee operation and planning plus consideration of Center Network Environment analysis and modeling. Biweekly Steering Committee meetings were attended to learn the background of the network and the concerns of those managing it. Suggestions for historical data gathering have been made to support future planning and modeling. Data Systems Dynamic Simulator, a simulation package developed at NASA and maintained at GSFC was studied as a possible modeling tool for the network environment. A modeling concept based on a hierarchical model was hypothesized for further development. Such a model would allow input of newly updated parameters and would provide an estimation of the behavior of the network.

  6. A Comparison Between Chinese and Caucasian 3-Dimensional Bony Morphometry in Presimulated and Postsimulated Osteotomy for Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian-Li; Lipman, Joseph D; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Yi-Yuan; You, Bin

    2017-09-01

    The bone morphologies of intact knees were measured and compared between Chinese and Caucasian populations. However, to assess if distinct designs of implants are necessary for the Chinese population owing to different morphologies and sizes, the knee measurements after osteotomy performed in total knee arthroplasty were evaluated. Thirty-seven Caucasian and 50 Chinese patients' knees were examined using computed tomography scans. Mimics were applied to reconstruct 3-dimensional bone models. Dimensions of the 3-dimensional knee models and simulated bone resections during total knee arthroplasty were measured using Geomagic Studio and Pro/ENGINEER. The morphologic measurements of the native and resected femur and tibia included the anteroposterior (AP) depth, mediolateral (ML) width, notch width, knee physical valgus angle, tibial slope angle, and the ML-to-AP ratio of the femur, tibia, and resected femur. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS for Windows. Values of P < .05 were considered significant. No measurements were significantly different between the Chinese and Caucasian knees. However, the Chinese female showed significant differences compared with the Chinese male on distal femoral measurements both presimulated and postsimulated osteotomy such as a smaller mean ML-to-AP ratio in presimulated (1.3 ± 0.1) and postsimulated (1.3 ± 0.1) osteotomy. The necessity of designing a full set of total knee components specifically for the Chinese population is still undetermined. However, we suggest designing femoral components specific for the Chinese females because of different postosteotomy distal femoral ML-to-AP ratio between the Chinese males and the Chinese females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    SciTech Connect

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-30

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  8. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-01

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  9. Computational Analysis of Lung Deformation after Murine neumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Nenad; Gibney, Barry C.; Nikolic, Dalibor; Konerding, Moritz A.; Mentzer, Steven J.; Tsuda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung (pneumonectomy) is associated with the compensatory growth of the remaining lung. To investigate the hypothesis that parenchymal deformation may trigger lung regeneration, we used microCT scanning to create 3-dimensional finite element geometric models of the murine lung pre- and post-pneumonectomy (24 hours). The structural correspondence between models was established using anatomic landmarks and an iterative computational algorithm. When compared with the pre-pneumonectomy lung, the post-pneumonectomy models demonstrated significant translation and rotation of the cardiac lobe into the post-pneumonectomy pleural space. 2-dimensional maps of lung deformation demonstrated significant heterogeneity ; the areas of greatest deformation were present in the subpleural regions of the lobe. Consistent with previously identified growth patterns, subpleural regions of enhanced deformation are compatible with a mechanical signal—likely involving parenchymal stretch—triggering lung growth. PMID:22978574

  10. Analysis of Ventricular Function by Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Asim; Deaño, Roderick C.; Bachman, Daniel P.; Xiong, Guanglei; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of ventricular function, cardiac chamber dimensions and ventricular mass is fundamental for clinical diagnosis, risk assessment, therapeutic decisions, and prognosis in patients with cardiac disease. Although cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a noninvasive imaging technique often used for the assessment of coronary artery disease, it can also be utilized to obtain important data about left and right ventricular function and morphology. In this review, we will discuss the clinical indications for the use of cardiac CT for ventricular analysis, review the evidence on the assessment of ventricular function compared to existing imaging modalities such cardiac MRI and echocardiography, provide a typical cardiac CT protocol for image acquisition and post-processing for ventricular analysis, and provide step-by-step instructions to acquire multiplanar cardiac views for ventricular assessment from the standard axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Furthermore, both qualitative and quantitative assessments of ventricular function as well as sample reporting are detailed. PMID:25576407

  11. Experimental analysis of computer system dependability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar, K.; Tang, Dong

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews an area which has evolved over the past 15 years: experimental analysis of computer system dependability. Methodologies and advances are discussed for three basic approaches used in the area: simulated fault injection, physical fault injection, and measurement-based analysis. The three approaches are suited, respectively, to dependability evaluation in the three phases of a system's life: design phase, prototype phase, and operational phase. Before the discussion of these phases, several statistical techniques used in the area are introduced. For each phase, a classification of research methods or study topics is outlined, followed by discussion of these methods or topics as well as representative studies. The statistical techniques introduced include the estimation of parameters and confidence intervals, probability distribution characterization, and several multivariate analysis methods. Importance sampling, a statistical technique used to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation, is also introduced. The discussion of simulated fault injection covers electrical-level, logic-level, and function-level fault injection methods as well as representative simulation environments such as FOCUS and DEPEND. The discussion of physical fault injection covers hardware, software, and radiation fault injection methods as well as several software and hybrid tools including FIAT, FERARI, HYBRID, and FINE. The discussion of measurement-based analysis covers measurement and data processing techniques, basic error characterization, dependency analysis, Markov reward modeling, software-dependability, and fault diagnosis. The discussion involves several important issues studies in the area, including fault models, fast simulation techniques, workload/failure dependency, correlated failures, and software fault tolerance.

  12. [Bile duct reconstruction using 3-dimensional collagen tubes].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alonso, Alejandro José; del Olmo Rivas, Carlos; Machado Romero, Ignacio; Pérez Cabrera, Beatriz; Cañizares Garcia, Francisco Javier; Torne Poyatos, Pablo

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, with widespread laparoscopic cholecystectomy and liver transplantation, complications involving the biliary system are increasing. All current techniques have a high risk of recurrence or high-morbidity. A 3-dimensional collagen bile duct modified with agarose hydrogel was developed to substitute the affected extrahepatic bile duct. It was used in 40 guinea pigs and the histology and physiology was studied at 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months after transplantation. The graft shows to have a high potential in applications to treat hepatobiliary diseases which require surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. 3-dimensional electronic structures of CaC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Junsung; Kim, Yeongwook; Kim, Keunsu; Rotenberg, Eli; Kim, Changyoung; Postech Collaboration; Advanced Light Source Collaboration; Yonsei University Team

    2014-03-01

    There is still remaining issues on origin of superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds, especially CaC6 because of its relatively high transition temperature than other GICs. There are two competing theories on where the superconductivity occurs in this material; intercalant metal or charge doped graphene layer. To elucidate this issue, it is necessary to confirm existence of intercalant driven band. Therefore, we performed 3 dimensional electronic structure studies with ARPES to find out 3d dispersive intercalant band. However, we could not observe it, instead observed 3d dispersive carbon band. This support the aspect of charge doped graphene superconductivity more than intercalant driving aspect.

  14. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  15. 3-Dimensional Resin Casting and Imaging of Mouse Portal Vein or Intrahepatic Bile Duct System

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Teagan J.; Sparks, Erin E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

    2012-01-01

    In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure1,2, alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model3, portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice4, developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs5, immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury6. Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network, focusing

  16. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  17. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  18. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  19. Children and Computer Technology: Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Margie K.; Behrman, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines how computer use affects children's development, disparities between rich and poor, and how computers enhance learning, noting risks and benefits. Recommendations to improve computer access and use at home and school include: researchers must study the effects of extended computer use on child development, and parents should limit the…

  20. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  1. Computational analysis of EGFR inhibition by Argos.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gregory T; Kalifa, Rachel; Klein, Daryl E; Lemmon, Mark A; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2005-08-15

    Argos, a secreted inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor, and the only known secreted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, acts by sequestering the EGFR ligand Spitz. We use computational modeling to show that this biochemically-determined mechanism of Argos action can explain available genetic data for EGFR/Spitz/Argos interactions in vivo. We find that efficient Spitz sequestration by Argos is key for explaining the existing data and for providing a robust feedback loop that modulates the Spitz gradient in embryonic ventral ectoderm patterning. Computational analysis of the EGFR/Spitz/Argos module in the ventral ectoderm shows that Argos need not be long-ranged to account for genetic data, and can actually have very short range. In our models, Argos with long or short length scale functions to limit the range and action of secreted Spitz. Thus, the spatial range of Argos does not have to be tightly regulated or may act at different ranges in distinct developmental contexts.

  2. Review of Computational Stirling Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear thermal to electric power conversion carries the promise of longer duration missions and higher scientific data transmission rates back to Earth for both Mars rovers and deep space missions. A free-piston Stirling convertor is a candidate technology that is considered an efficient and reliable power conversion device for such purposes. While already very efficient, it is believed that better Stirling engines can be developed if the losses inherent its current designs could be better understood. However, they are difficult to instrument and so efforts are underway to simulate a complete Stirling engine numerically. This has only recently been attempted and a review of the methods leading up to and including such computational analysis is presented. And finally it is proposed that the quality and depth of Stirling loss understanding may be improved by utilizing the higher fidelity and efficiency of recently developed numerical methods. One such method, the Ultra HI-Fl technique is presented in detail.

  3. Computational and experimental analysis of DNA shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Maheshri, Narendra; Schaffer, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a computational model of DNA shuffling based on the thermodynamics and kinetics of this process. The model independently tracks a representative ensemble of DNA molecules and records their states at every stage of a shuffling reaction. These data can subsequently be analyzed to yield information on any relevant metric, including reassembly efficiency, crossover number, type and distribution, and DNA sequence length distributions. The predictive ability of the model was validated by comparison to three independent sets of experimental data, and analysis of the simulation results led to several unique insights into the DNA shuffling process. We examine a tradeoff between crossover frequency and reassembly efficiency and illustrate the effects of experimental parameters on this relationship. Furthermore, we discuss conditions that promote the formation of useless “junk” DNA sequences or multimeric sequences containing multiple copies of the reassembled product. This model will therefore aid in the design of optimal shuffling reaction conditions. PMID:12626764

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Testa, J. P., Jr.; Friedman, P. J.; Kambic, G. X.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining nondestructively a cross-sectional display of very dense heterogeneous rocky specimens, whether lunar, terrestrial or meteoritic, by using a fourth generation computed tomographic (CT) scanner, with modifications to the software only, is discussed. A description of the scanner, and of the experimental and analytical procedures is given. Using this technique, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be probed nondestructively. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly; the object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest. A comparison of this technique with conventional industrial and medical techniques is made in terms of image resolution and density distribution display precision.

  5. Computational based functional analysis of Bacillus phytases.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anukriti; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Smriti

    2016-02-01

    Phytase is an enzyme which catalyzes the total hydrolysis of phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate and digests the undigestable phytate part present in seeds and grains and therefore provides digestible phosphorus, calcium and other mineral nutrients. Phytases are frequently added to the feed of monogastric animals so that bioavailability of phytic acid-bound phosphate increases, ultimately enhancing the nutritional value of diets. The Bacillus phytase is very suitable to be used in animal feed because of its optimum pH with excellent thermal stability. Present study is aimed to perform an in silico comparative characterization and functional analysis of phytases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to explore physico-chemical properties using various bio-computational tools. All proteins are acidic and thermostable and can be used as suitable candidates in the feed industry.

  6. Computed tomographic analysis of meteorite inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Testa, J. P., Jr.; Friedman, P. J.; Kambic, G. X.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining nondestructively a cross-sectional display of very dense heterogeneous rocky specimens, whether lunar, terrestrial or meteoritic, by using a fourth generation computed tomographic (CT) scanner, with modifications to the software only, is discussed. A description of the scanner, and of the experimental and analytical procedures is given. Using this technique, the interior of heterogeneous materials such as Allende can be probed nondestructively. The regions of material with high and low atomic numbers are displayed quickly; the object can then be cut to obtain for analysis just the areas of interest. A comparison of this technique with conventional industrial and medical techniques is made in terms of image resolution and density distribution display precision.

  7. Computer analysis of radionuclide esophageal transit studies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, H.A.; Wald, A.

    1984-09-01

    For detailed examination of the esophageal transit of a swallowed radioactive liquid bolus, three computer-based techniques have been developed: analysis of time-activity curves with decomposition into rapid and residual components, yielding the mean transit time for the former and the residual fraction for the latter; reduction of dynamic image sequences to single condensed images, facilitating subjective assessment; and tracking of the centroid of radioactivity, permitting quantification of retrograde motion. Studies were performed on 12 normal subjects and on six patients with motility disorders. Elevated residual fractions were observed in all the patients, and an abnormal degree of retrograde motion in two. Two normal and two abnormal studies exemplify the variety of patterns observed in condensed images.

  8. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  9. Effect of dental technician disparities on the 3-dimensional accuracy of definitive casts.

    PubMed

    Emir, Faruk; Piskin, Bulent; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-03-01

    Studies that evaluated the effect of dental technician disparities on the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts fabricated by different dental technicians by using a 3-dimensional computer-aided measurement method. An arch-shaped metal master model consisting of 5 abutments resembling prepared mandibular incisors, canines, and first molars and with a 6-degree total angle of convergence was designed and fabricated by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. Complete arch impressions were made (N=110) from the master model, using polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and delivered to 11 dental technicians. Each technician fabricated 10 definitive casts with dental stone, and the obtained casts were numbered. All casts were sectioned, and removable dies were obtained. The master model and the presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were digitized with an extraoral scanner, and the virtual master model and virtual presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were obtained. All definitive casts were compared with the master model by using computer-aided measurements, and the 3-dimensional accuracy of the definitive casts was determined with best fit alignment and represented in color-coded maps. Differences were analyzed using univariate analyses of variance, and the Tukey honest significant differences post hoc tests were used for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts was significantly affected by dental technician disparities (P<.001). The largest dimensional changes were detected in the anterior abutments of both of the definitive casts. The changes mostly occurred in the mesiodistal dimension (P<.001). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts is susceptible

  10. Performance Analysis of Cloud Computing Architectures Using Discrete Event Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, John C.; Golomb, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the economic benefit of on-demand resource allocation to meet changing enterprise computing needs. However, the flexibility of cloud computing is disadvantaged when compared to traditional hosting in providing predictable application and service performance. Cloud computing relies on resource scheduling in a virtualized network-centric server environment, which makes static performance analysis infeasible. We developed a discrete event simulation model to evaluate the overall effectiveness of organizations in executing their workflow in traditional and cloud computing architectures. The two part model framework characterizes both the demand using a probability distribution for each type of service request as well as enterprise computing resource constraints. Our simulations provide quantitative analysis to design and provision computing architectures that maximize overall mission effectiveness. We share our analysis of key resource constraints in cloud computing architectures and findings on the appropriateness of cloud computing in various applications.

  11. [3-Dimensional model reconstruction of penis and surrounding tissue].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Heng; Cao, Chuan; Mei, Wen-Ming; Wang, Wen-Xian; Tan, Li-Wen; Li, Shi-Rong

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 3-Dimensional (3-D) model reconstruction of penis and surrounding structures based on magnetic resonance images, which may provide the model building method for modeling surgery of individual penoplasty. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of penis with different imaging parameters were evaluated. With the surface rendering construction, the 3D virtual model was established by Amira software. The anatomical details imaging is better in T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with 3.0 mm slice thickness. The established model based on the MR images can show the soft-tissue, suspensory ligament of the penis. The suspensory ligament stretches between the pubic symphysis and the corpora cavernosa. The penile roots attach to inferior ramus of pubis. MR imaging provides enough anatomical information for modeling. It can be used for the development of model surgery system of individual penoplasty.

  12. Computational analysis of heat flow in computer casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Azwadi, C. S.; Goh, C. K.; Afiq Witri, M. Y.

    2012-06-01

    Reliability of a computer system is directly related to thermal management system. This is due to the fact that poor thermal management led to high temperature distribution throughout hardware components and resulting poor performance and reducing fatigue life of the package. Therefore, good cooling solutions (heat sink, fan) and proper form factor design (expandability, interchangeable of parts) is necessary to provide good thermal management in computer system. The performance of Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) and its purposed successor, Balanced Technology Extended (BTX) were compared to investigate the aforementioned factors. Simulations were conducted by using ANSYS software. Results obtained from simulations were compared with values in the datasheet obtained from manufacturers for validation purposes and it was discovered that there are more chaos region in the flow profile for ATX form factor. In contrast, BTX form factor yields a straighter flow profile. Based on the result, we can conclude that BTX form factor has better cooling capability compared to its predecessor, ATX due to the improvement of layout made in the BTX form factor. With this change, it enabled BTX form factor to be used with more advanced components which dissipate more amount of heat and also improves the acoustic performance of BTX by reducing the number of fan needed to just one unit for BTX.

  13. Analysis on the security of cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhonglin; He, Yuhua

    2011-02-01

    Cloud computing is a new technology, which is the fusion of computer technology and Internet development. It will lead the revolution of IT and information field. However, in cloud computing data and application software is stored at large data centers, and the management of data and service is not completely trustable, resulting in safety problems, which is the difficult point to improve the quality of cloud service. This paper briefly introduces the concept of cloud computing. Considering the characteristics of cloud computing, it constructs the security architecture of cloud computing. At the same time, with an eye toward the security threats cloud computing faces, several corresponding strategies are provided from the aspect of cloud computing users and service providers.

  14. Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare.

  15. Occupational Analysis of Computers in Medical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann

    Electronic computers have caused numerous changes in medical health sciences, and the abilities of the computer are so great that much research thinking, administrative planning, and other medical activities are controlled largely by what the machine can do. However, developments in computer technology have occurred in different areas with little…

  16. Computing in Qualitative Analysis: A Healthy Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Lyn; Richards, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the potential impact of computers in qualitative health research. Describes the original goals, design, and implementation of NUDIST, a qualitative computing software. Argues for evaluation of the impact of computer techniques and for an opening of debate among program developers and users to address the purposes and power of computing…

  17. A computational design system for rapid CFD analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, E. P.; Barson, S. L.; Decroix, M. E.; Sindir, Munir M.

    1992-01-01

    A computation design system (CDS) is described in which these tools are integrated in a modular fashion. This CDS ties together four key areas of computational analysis: description of geometry; grid generation; computational codes; and postprocessing. Integration of improved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools through integration with the CDS has made a significant positive impact in the use of CFD for engineering design problems. Complex geometries are now analyzed on a frequent basis and with greater ease.

  18. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery.

    PubMed

    Kockro, Ralf A; Hwang, Peter Y K

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an interactive virtual model of the temporal bone for the training and teaching of cranial base surgery. The virtual model was based on the tomographic data of the Visible Human Project. The male Visible Human's computed tomographic data were volumetrically reconstructed as virtual bone tissue, and the individual photographic slices provided the basis for segmentation of the middle and inner ear structures, cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem. These structures were created by using outlining and tube editing tools, allowing structural modeling either directly on the basis of the photographic data or according to information from textbooks and cadaver dissections. For training and teaching, the virtual model was accessed in the previously described 3-dimensional workspaces of the Dextroscope or Dextrobeam (Volume Interactions Pte, Ltd., Singapore), whose interfaces enable volumetric exploration from any perspective and provide virtual tools for drilling and measuring. We have simulated several cranial base procedures including approaches via the floor of the middle fossa and the lateral petrous bone. The virtual model suitably illustrated the core facts of anatomic spatial relationships while simulating different stages of bone drilling along a variety of surgical corridors. The system was used for teaching during training courses to plan and discuss operative anatomy and strategies. The Virtual Temporal Bone and its surrounding 3-dimensional workspace provide an effective way to study the essential surgical anatomy of this complex region and to teach and train operative strategies, especially when used as an adjunct to cadaver dissections.

  19. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XμCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-μCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XμCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  20. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  1. Automated 3-Dimensional Brain Atlas Fitting to Microelectrode Recordings from Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Luján, J. Luis; Noecker, Angela M.; Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries commonly rely on brain atlases and microelectrode recordings (MER) to help identify the target location for electrode implantation. We present an automated method for optimally fitting a 3-dimensional brain atlas to intraoperative MER and predicting a target DBS electrode location in stereotactic coordinates for the patient. Methods We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We used a constrained optimization algorithm to maximize the MER points correctly fitted (i.e., contained) within the appropriate atlas nuclei. We compared our optimization approach to conventional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC/PC) scaling, and to manual fits performed by four experts. A theoretical DBS electrode target location in the dorsal STN was customized to each patient as part of the fitting process and compared to the location of the clinically defined therapeutic stimulation contact. Results The human expert and computer optimization fits achieved significantly better fits than the AC/PC scaling (80, 81, and 41% of correctly fitted MER, respectively). However, the optimization fits were performed in less time than the expert fits and converged to a single solution for each patient, eliminating interexpert variance. Conclusions and Significance DBS therapeutic outcomes are directly related to electrode implantation accuracy. Our automated fitting techniques may aid in the surgical decision-making process by optimally integrating brain atlas and intraoperative neurophysiological data to provide a visual guide for target identification. PMID:19556832

  2. High resolution 3-Dimensional imaging of the human cardiac conduction system from microanatomy to mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Robert S; Atkinson, Andrew; Kottas, Petros; Perde, Filip; Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh; Bateman, Mike; Iaizzo, Paul A; Zhao, Jichao; Zhang, Henggui; Anderson, Robert H; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2017-08-03

    Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances are accompanied by structural remodelling of the specialised cardiomyocytes known collectively as the cardiac conduction system. Here, using contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography, we present, in attitudinally appropriate fashion, the first 3-dimensional representations of the cardiac conduction system within the intact human heart. We show that cardiomyocyte orientation can be extracted from these datasets at spatial resolutions approaching the single cell. These data show that commonly accepted anatomical representations are oversimplified. We have incorporated the high-resolution anatomical data into mathematical simulations of cardiac electrical depolarisation. The data presented should have multidisciplinary impact. Since the rate of depolarisation is dictated by cardiac microstructure, and the precise orientation of the cardiomyocytes, our data should improve the fidelity of mathematical models. By showing the precise 3-dimensional relationships between the cardiac conduction system and surrounding structures, we provide new insights relevant to valvar replacement surgery and ablation therapies. We also offer a practical method for investigation of remodelling in disease, and thus, virtual pathology and archiving. Such data presented as 3D images or 3D printed models, will inform discussions between medical teams and their patients, and aid the education of medical and surgical trainees.

  3. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  4. TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters

  5. TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters

  6. New computing systems, future computing environment, and their implications on structural analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Housner, Jerrold M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact structural analysis and design of flight vehicles are reviewed. A brief summary is given of the advances in microelectronics, networking technologies, and in the user-interface hardware and software. The major features of new and projected computing systems, including high performance computers, parallel processing machines, and small systems, are described. Advances in programming environments, numerical algorithms, and computational strategies for new computing systems are reviewed. The impact of the advances in computer technology on structural analysis and the design of flight vehicles is described. A scenario for future computing paradigms is presented, and the near-term needs in the computational structures area are outlined.

  7. Parallel Analysis and Visualization on Cray Compute Node Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Pugmire, Dave; Ahern, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Capability computer systems are deployed to give researchers the computational power required to investigate and solve key challenges facing the scientific community. As the power of these computer systems increases, the computational problem domain typically increases in size, complexity and scope. These increases strain the ability of commodity analysis and visualization clusters to effectively perform post-processing tasks and provide critical insight and understanding to the computed results. An alternative to purchasing increasingly larger, separate analysis and visualization commodity clusters is to use the computational system itself to perform post-processing tasks. In this paper, the recent successful port of VisIt, a parallel, open source analysis and visualization tool, to compute node linux running on the Cray is detailed. Additionally, the unprecedented ability of this resource for analysis and visualization is discussed and a report on obtained results is presented.

  8. Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Computational Functional Analysis of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Carolina; Have, Arjen Ten; Prados, María B; Beligni, María V

    2017-01-01

    The computational analysis of enzymes that participate in lipid metabolism has both common and unique challenges when compared to the whole protein universe. Some of the hurdles that interfere with the functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes that are common to other pathways include the definition of proper starting datasets, the construction of reliable multiple sequence alignments, the definition of appropriate evolutionary models, and the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees with high statistical support, particularly for large datasets. Most enzymes that take part in lipid metabolism belong to complex superfamilies with many members that are not involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, some enzymes that do not have sequence similarity catalyze similar or even identical reactions. Some of the challenges that, albeit not unique, are more specific to lipid metabolism refer to the high compartmentalization of the routes, the catalysis in hydrophobic environments and, related to this, the function near or in biological membranes.In this work, we provide guidelines intended to assist in the proper functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes, based on previous experiences related to the phospholipase D superfamily and the annotation of the triglyceride synthesis pathway in algae. We describe a pipeline that starts with the definition of an initial set of sequences to be used in similarity-based searches and ends in the reconstruction of phylogenies. We also mention the main issues that have to be taken into consideration when using tools to analyze subcellular localization, hydrophobicity patterns, or presence of transmembrane domains in lipid metabolic enzymes.

  10. Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.

  11. [Reformatting 3-dimensional medical images. Application to MRI and scanners].

    PubMed

    Cuchet, E; Lambert, F; Derosier, C

    1994-04-01

    Several kinds of images, each giving a different information, are now available to radiologists. The MRI images have excellent contrast resolution and enable soft tissues to be differentiated, but they do not distinguish structures with low water content, notably air and bone, whereas these are easily recognized by CT. The aim of this study is to present a simple, entirely radiologist-supervised method to examine the radiological data of any patient, obtained from several kinds of images. MRI is performed using a GEMS Signa, 1.5 Tesla, 4.9 version magnet. Acquisitions are T1- or T2-weighted spin-echo or gradient sequences, with a 256 or 512 matrix, on axial sections, with of without contrast injection. CT is performed using a GEMS Hi Speed scanner. Acquisitions are obtained on a 512 matrix and with a "Soft" or "Bone" filter, without contrast injection. The two series of sections are transmitted, through an Etherne network, to a Sun console where the two corresponding volumes are reconstructed on a GEMS Voxtol by means of a 3-dimensional soft ware for image treatment. At least 3 couples define the rotation and translation required for one of the two volumes to reset it in the guide mark of the other. The soft ware then looks for the best transformation, in terms of least square, between the two 3-dimensional volumes. The calculation demands only a few seconds. One of the two objects is then recalculated in the guide mark of the other. The cursor positioned by the user on any point of the object is linked to a second cursor which will automatically position itself on the corresponding point of the other object. The accuracy obtained (about one millimeter) is specified by the soft ware which indicates how to improve resetting. In addition to its teaching value, this superimposition image can help in the diagnosis and can be used for surgical stimulation because it is possible to mix the images. This mixing gives access to a new type of imaging, since the images spared

  12. An Analysis of 27 Years of Research into Computer Education Published in Australian Educational Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagami, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of three decades of publications in Australian Educational Computing (AEC) provides insight into the historical trends in Australian educational computing, highlighting an emphasis on pedagogy, comparatively few articles on educational technologies, and strong research topic alignment with similar international journals. Analysis confirms…

  13. An Analysis of 27 Years of Research into Computer Education Published in Australian Educational Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagami, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of three decades of publications in Australian Educational Computing (AEC) provides insight into the historical trends in Australian educational computing, highlighting an emphasis on pedagogy, comparatively few articles on educational technologies, and strong research topic alignment with similar international journals. Analysis confirms…

  14. Common 3-dimensional coordinate system for assessment of directional changes.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Tonello, Cristiano; Gomes, Liliane Rosas; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Macron, Lucie; Lopinto, Julia; Goncalves, Joao Roberto; Garib Carreira, Daniela Gamba; Alonso, Nivaldo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate how head orientation interferes with the amounts of directional change in 3-dimensional (3D) space and to propose a method to obtain a common coordinate system using 3D surface models. Three-dimensional volumetric label maps were built for pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) from cone-beam computed tomography images of 30 growing subjects. Seven landmarks were labeled in all T1 and T2 volumetric label maps. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the cranial base were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. All T1 surface models were moved by orienting the Frankfort horizontal, midsagittal, and transporionic planes to match the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively, at a common coordinate system in the Slicer software (open-source, version 4.3.1; http://www.slicer.org). The matrix generated for each T1 model was applied to each corresponding registered T2 surface model, obtaining a common head orientation. The 3D differences between the T1 and registered T2 models, and the amounts of directional change in each plane of the 3D space, were quantified for before and after head orientation. Two assessments were performed: (1) at 1 time point (mandibular width and length), and (2) for longitudinal changes (maxillary and mandibular differences). The differences between measurements before and after head orientation were quantified. Statistical analysis was performed by evaluating the means and standard deviations with paired t tests (mandibular width and length) and Wilcoxon tests (longitudinal changes). For 16 subjects, 2 observers working independently performed the head orientations twice with a 1-week interval between them. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method tested intraobserver and interobserver agreements of the x, y, and z coordinates for 7 landmarks. The 3D differences were not affected by the head orientation. The amounts of directional change in each plane of 3

  15. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  16. Numerical Package in Computer Supported Numeric Analysis Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezer, Murat

    2007-01-01

    At universities in the faculties of Engineering, Sciences, Business and Economics together with higher education in Computing, it is stated that because of the difficulty, calculators and computers can be used in Numerical Analysis (NA). In this study, the learning computer supported NA will be discussed together with important usage of the…

  17. Computer Graphics for System Effectiveness Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    using the round operation when computing the number of shots: a real number must be converted into an integer number [ Chapra and ... Canale, 1985]. Then...02139, August 1982. Chapra , Steven C., and Raymond P. Canale, (1985), Numerical Methods for Engineers with Personal Computer Applications New York

  18. NASA Applications for Computational Electromagnetic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Trout, Dawn H.; Krome, Mark E.; Perry, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetic Software is used by NASA to analyze the compatibility of systems too large or too complex for testing. Recent advances in software packages and computer capabilities have made it possible to determine the effects of a transmitter inside a launch vehicle fairing, better analyze the environment threats, and perform on-orbit replacements with assured electromagnetic compatibility.

  19. Quantitative 3-Dimensional Imaging of Murine Neointimal and Atherosclerotic Lesions by Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Traditional methods for the analysis of vascular lesion formation are labour intensive to perform - restricting study to ‘snapshots’ within each vessel. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of optical projection tomographic (OPT) imaging for the 3-dimensional representation and quantification of intimal lesions in mouse arteries. Methods and Results Vascular injury was induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery or administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesion formation was examined by OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission. Lesions could be clearly identified and distinguished from the underlying vascular wall. Planimetric measurements of lesion area correlated well with those made from histological sections subsequently produced from the same vessels (wire-injury: R2 = 0.92; ligation-injury: R2 = 0.89; atherosclerosis: R2 = 0.85), confirming both the accuracy of this methodology and its non-destructive nature. It was also possible to record volumetric measurements of lesion and lumen and these were highly reproducible between scans (coefficient of variation = 5.36%, 11.39% and 4.79% for wire- and ligation-injury and atherosclerosis, respectively). Conclusions These data demonstrate the eminent suitability of OPT for imaging of atherosclerotic and neointimal lesion formation, providing a much needed means for the routine 3-dimensional analysis of vascular morphology in studies of this type. PMID:21379578

  20. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) - Thermographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llamosa-Rincón, L. E.; Jaime-Díaz, J. M.; Ruiz-Cardona, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of computers has reported an exponential growth in the last decades, the possibility of carrying out several tasks for both professional and leisure purposes has contributed to the great acceptance by the users. The consequences and impact of uninterrupted tasks with computers screens or displays on the visual health, have grabbed researcher’s attention. When spending long periods of time in front of a computer screen, human eyes are subjected to great efforts, which in turn triggers a set of symptoms known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Most common of them are: blurred vision, visual fatigue and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to unappropriate lubrication of ocular surface when blinking decreases. An experimental protocol was de-signed and implemented to perform thermographic studies on healthy human eyes during exposure to dis-plays of computers, with the main purpose of comparing the existing differences in temperature variations of healthy ocular surfaces.

  1. In vitro measurement of muscle volume with 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Walker, F; Caress, J; Hunt, C; Tegeler, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of muscle volume measurements with a new 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system, which allows a freehand scanning of the transducer with an improved quality of the ultrasound images and therefore the outlines of the muscles. Five resected cadaveric hand muscles were insonated and the muscle volumes calculated by 3-D reconstructions of the acquired 2-D ultrasound sections. Intra-reader, inter-reader and follow-up variability were calculated, as well as the volume of the muscle tissue measured by water displacement. In the results, 3-D ultrasound and water displacement measurements showed an average deviation of 10.1%; Data of 3-D ultrasound measurements were: intra-reader variability 2.8%; inter-reader variability 2.4% and follow-up variability 2.3%. 3-D measurements of muscle volume are valid and reliable. Serial sonographic measurements of muscle may be able to quantitate changes in muscle volume that occur in disease and recovery.

  2. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  3. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  4. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  5. A 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Probe Visuospatial Trainer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Ryan T; Dove, Jesse C; Ratzlaff, Robert A; Diaz-Gomez, Jose L; Cox, Daniel J; Simon, Leslie V

    2017-09-04

    Training adult learners to use ultrasound in clinical practice relies on the ability of the learner to apply visuospatial concepts to the anatomy of the human body. We describe a visuospatial trainer that replicates the housing of an ultrasound transducer, through which a linear laser projects light in the same plane and orientation as the ultrasonic sound waves. We use this trainer in combination with a porcine heart dissection laboratory to teach bedside cardiac ultrasound and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Off-the-shelf components, including an on/off switch, a laser, and 2 ampere batteries are connected in series and placed inside the 3-dimensional (3D)-printed housing. The trainer's laser emission projects a red line that visually represents the ultrasound's field. Learners project the laser against a porcine or human heart in the orientation of the TTE window they wish to obtain and then dissect the heart in that plane, allowing for visualization of how grayscale images are obtained from 3D structures. Previous research has demonstrated that visuospatial aptitude is correlated with ultrasound procedural performance. We present this trainer and educational method as a specific training intervention that could enhance the visuospatial ability of the ultrasound learner. This visuospatial trainer and educational method present a novel process for enhancing learner understanding of 2-dimensional ultrasound images as they relate to 3D structures. Having a clear understanding of how images are generated in cross section may translate into more proficient adaptation of cardiac ultrasound and TTE.

  6. The first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions.

    PubMed

    Piedra-Garza, Luis Fernando; Reinoso, Santiago; Dickman, Michael H; Sanguineti, Michael M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2009-08-21

    Reaction of the (CH(3))(2)Sn(2+) electrophile toward trilacunary [A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)](n-) Keggin polytungstates (X = P(V), As(V), Si(IV)) with guanidinium as templating-cation resulted in the isostructural compounds Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-PW(9)O(34))] x 9 H(2)O (1), Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-AsW(9)O(34))] x 8 H(2)O (2) and Na(2)[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-SiW(9)O(34))] x 10 H(2)O (3). Compounds 1-3 constitute the first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions, as well as the first example of a dimethyltin-containing tungstosilicate in the case of 3, and they show a similar chiral architecture based on tetrahedrally-arranged {(CH(3))(2)Sn}(3)(A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)) monomeric building-blocks connected via intermolecular Sn-O=W bridges regardless of the size and/or charge of the heteroatom.

  7. Finger Character Recognition Using 3-Dimensional Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Kazuhiro; Ono, Satoshi; Wang, Yu; Nakayama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for Japanese finger character recognition, using a 3-dimensional (3D) scanner. A hand is a complex dexterous manipulator, evolved to be more complex than any other animals. The hand, being capable of making many different complex shapes, it is ideal for communicating using gestures. The recognition of a whole language, such as the Japanese finger characters, requires the differentiation of subtle similar positioning of each digit. To know the exact 3D position of the hand's digits and overall shape, data gloves had been developed, but these are inconvenient to use. 2D image recognition systems struggle with recreating the 3D information. To capture the 3D information, the proposed method uses a 3D scanner, and then makes matches with 3D templates representing each unique character. Experimental results show that the proposed method recognizes a greater number of characters than existing 2D-based systems with recognition accuracy, on average of 93% for 9 testees, and a peak of over 98% for 4 of them.

  8. The International Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional Radiation Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I3RC (International Intercomparison of 3-dimensional Radiation Codes) has as its primary goal to compare a wide variety of three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer methods applied to Earth's atmosphere, with a few selected cloud fields as input, and a few selected radiative quantities as output. Phases 1 and 2 are now complete, and participants represented institutions in Canada, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the USA, who met for two workshops in Tucson, Arizona USA, and compared results from 5 cloud fields of varying complexity, beginning with simplified atmosphere and surface, and proceeding to more realistic cases. Phase 3 is now underway, focusing on improvement and sharing of 3D radiation code, aided by working groups on "Approximations" and "Open Source". The "Approximations" group has so far focused on diffusive approximate methods in an attempt to gain advantages in execution time, and also to advance the understanding of 3D radiation processes. The "Open Source" subgroup is developing a Monte Carlo radiative transfer toolkit that makes state-of-the-art techniques available to a wide range of users. Activities of both subgroups are further explained at the I3RC website http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Participants in 13RC are forming a 3D Working Group under the auspices of the International Radiation Commission, and will meet for this and related activities at a workshop in Tucson in November 2002.

  9. Invasive 3-Dimensional Organotypic Neoplasia from Multiple Normal Human Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ridky, Todd W.; Chow, Jennifer M.; Wong, David J.; Khavari, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Refined cancer models are required to assess the burgeoning number of potential targets for cancer therapeutics within a rapid and clinically relevant context. Here we utilize tumor-associated genetic pathways to transform primary human epithelial cells from epidermis, oropharynx, esophagus, and cervix into genetically defined tumors within a human 3-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment incorporating cell-populated stroma and intact basement membrane. These engineered organotypic tissues recapitulated natural features of tumor progression, including epithelial invasion through basement membrane, a complex process critically required for biologic malignancy in 90% of human cancers. Invasion was rapid, and potentiated by stromal cells. Oncogenic signals in 3-D tissue, but not 2-D culture, resembled gene expression profiles from spontaneous human cancers. Screening well-characterized signaling pathway inhibitors in 3-D organotypic neoplasia helped distil a clinically faithful cancer gene signature. Multi-tissue 3-D human tissue cancer models may provide an efficient and relevant complement to current approaches to characterize cancer progression. PMID:21102459

  10. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

  11. Computational balance in real-time cyclic spectral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.; Loomis, H.H. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Real-time cyclic spectral analysis is useful in many applications, but is difficult to achieve because of its computational complexity. This paper studies the distribution of complex multipliers in multiprocessor cyclic spectrum analyzers, with the objective of obtaining computational balance. Computationally balanced implementations efficiently use hardware so that computational bottlenecks are reduced and a smooth flow of data between computational sections of the analyzer is maintained. Tables are presented that give the number of complex multipliers required in each section of the analyzer to obtain computational balance.

  12. Computational analysis of Ciona intestinalis operons.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Robert W

    2010-07-01

    Operons are clusters of genes that are co-regulated from a common promoter. Operons are typically associated with prokaryotes, although a small number of eukaryotes have been shown to possess them. Among metazoans, operons have been extensively characterized in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which ∼15% of the total genes are organized into operons. The most recent genome assembly for the ascidian Ciona intestinalis placed ∼20% of the genes (2909 total) into 1310 operons. The majority of these operons are composed of two genes, while the largest are composed of six. Here is reported a computational analysis of the genes that comprise the Ciona operons. Gene ontology (GO) terms were identified for about two-thirds of the operon-encoded genes. Using the extensive collection of public EST libraries, estimates of temporal patterns of gene expression were generated for the operon-encoded genes. Lastly, conservation of operons was analyzed by determining how many operon-encoded genes were present in the ascidian Ciona savignyi and whether these genes were organized in orthologous operons. Over 68% of the operon-encoded genes could be assigned one or more GO terms and 697 of the 1310 operons contained genes in which all genes had at least one GO term. Of these 697 operons, GO terms were shared by all of the genes within 146 individual operons, suggesting that most operons encode genes with unrelated functions. An analysis of operon gene expression from nine different EST libraries indicated that for 587 operons, all of the genes that comprise an individual operon were expressed together in at least one EST library, suggesting that these genes may be co-regulated. About 50% (74/146) of the operons with shared GO terms also showed evidence of gene co-regulation. Comparisons with the C. savignyi genome identified orthologs for 1907 of 2909 operon genes. About 38% (504/1310) of the operons are conserved between the two Ciona species. These results suggest that like

  13. Computer analysis of slow vital capacity spirograms.

    PubMed

    Primiano, F P; Bacevice, A E; Lough, M D; Doershuk, C F

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a digital computer program which evaluates the vital capacity and its subdivisions, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity. The algorithm examines the multibreath spirogram, a continuous record of quiet breathing interspersed among repeated slow, large volume maneuvers. Quiet breaths are recognized by comparing features of each breath to the respective average and variation of these features for all breaths. A self-scaling, iterative procedure is used to identify those end-tidal points that most likely represent the subject's functional residual capacity. A least-squared error baseline is then fit through these points to partition the vital capacity. Twenty-three spirograms from patients with documented pulmonary disease were independently analyzed by the computer, a pulmonary function technician, and the laboratory supervisor. No practical differences were found among the results. However, the computer's values, in contrast to those of the technician, were reproducible on repeated trials and free of computational and transcriptional errors.

  14. Three parallel computation methods for structural vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf; Bostic, Susan; Patrick, Merrell; Mahajan, Umesh; Ma, Shing

    1988-01-01

    The Lanczos (1950), multisectioning, and subspace iteration sequential methods for vibration analysis presently used as bases for three parallel algorithms are noted, in the aftermath of three example problems, to maintain reasonable accuracy in the computation of vibration frequencies. Significant computation time reductions are obtained as the number of processors increases. An analysis is made of the performance of each method, in order to characterize relative strengths and weaknesses as well as to identify those parameters that most strongly affect computation efficiency.

  15. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  16. Quantum Computer Circuit Analysis and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    is a first order nonlinear differential matrix equation of the Lax type. This report gives derivations of the Levi-Civita connection, Riemann...computational paths in the )2( nSU manifold. It is a nonlinear first-order differential matrix equation of the same form as the Lax equation for...I. L. Quantum Information and Computation; Cambridge University Press, 2000. 2. Dowling , M. R.; Nielsen, M. A. The Geometry of Quantum

  17. System balance analysis for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voight, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of vector processors capable of sustaining computing rates of 10 to the 8th power arithmetic results pers second raised the question of whether peripheral storage devices representing current technology can keep such processors supplied with data. By examining the solution of a large banded linear system on these computers, it was found that even under ideal conditions, the processors will frequently be waiting for problem data.

  18. 3-Dimensional Immersive Visualization For Regional Water Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, J.; Razdan, A.; Shangraw, R.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2005-12-01

    accurately represent the model inputs and outputs to MODFLOW in ways the data have not been previously presented. We have explored new data conversion techniques to import GIS data to a Linux-based computing cluster. The innovative visualization of these data allows the water planners to more completely grasp the intricate complexities of the data analysis, while being able to see more inputs to the model simultaneously. Temporal changes in aquifer storage are now represented in time-stepped 3D surfaces, thus reducing the cognitive load for comprehension. Planners will ultimately use the resulting visualization tools to educate policy decision makers on outcomes from alternate scenarios and the effect of variations in the key model input parameters.

  19. The 3-dimensional grid: a novel approach to stereoelectroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Munyon, Charles; Sweet, Jennifer; Luders, Hans; Lhatoo, Samden; Miller, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Successful surgical treatment of epilepsy requires accurate definition of areas of ictal onset and eloquent brain. Although invasive monitoring can help, subdural grids cannot sample sulci or subcortical tissue; traditional stereoelectroencephalography depth electrodes are usually placed too far apart to provide sufficient resolution for mapping. To report a strategy of depth electrode placement in a dense array to allow precise anatomic localization of epileptic and eloquent cortex. Twenty patients with medically intractable epilepsy either poorly localized or found to arise adjacent to eloquent areas underwent placement of arrays of depth electrodes into and around the putative area of seizure onset with the use of framed stereotaxy. Each array consisted of a "grid" of parallel electrodes in a rectangular pattern with 1 cm between entry sites. In a subset of patients, a few electrodes were placed initially, with additional electrodes placed in a second stage. Trajectories were modified to avoid cortical vessels defined on magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were monitored for 4 to 21 days to establish the precise location of seizure onset. Stimulation was performed to map cortical and subcortical eloquent regions. Electrode locations were coregistered for frameless stereotaxy during subsequent resection of seizure focus. Two hundred fifty-four electrodes were implanted. Discrete regions of seizure onset and functional cortex were identified, which were used during resection to remove epileptogenic tissue while preserving eloquent areas. There were no hemorrhagic or infectious complications; no patient suffered permanent neurological deficit. The 3-dimensional intraparenchymal grid is useful for identifying the location and extent of epileptic and eloquent brain.

  20. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A

    2008-08-01

    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  1. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain tumor surgery with 3-dimensional surface navigation.

    PubMed

    Mert, Ayguel; Buehler, Katja; Sutherland, Garnette R; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Widhalm, Georg; Kasprian, Gregor; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Precise lesion localization is necessary for neurosurgical procedures not only during the operative approach, but also during the preoperative planning phase. To evaluate the advantages of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain surface visualization over conventional 2-dimensional (2-D) magnetic resonance images for surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in brain tumor surgery. Preoperative 3-D brain surface visualization was performed with neurosurgical planning software in 77 cases (58 gliomas, 7 cavernomas, 6 meningiomas, and 6 metastasis). Direct intraoperative navigation on the 3-D brain surface was additionally performed in the last 20 cases with a neurosurgical navigation system. For brain surface reconstruction, patient-specific anatomy was obtained from MR imaging and brain volume was extracted with skull stripping or watershed algorithms, respectively. Three-dimensional visualization was performed by direct volume rendering in both systems. To assess the value of 3-D brain surface visualization for topographic lesion localization, a multiple-choice test was developed. To assess accuracy and reliability of 3-D brain surface visualization for intraoperative orientation, we topographically correlated superficial vessels and gyral anatomy on 3-D brain models with intraoperative images. The rate of correct lesion localization with 3-D was significantly higher (P = .001, χ), while being significantly less time consuming (P < .001, χ) compared with 2-D images. Intraoperatively, visual correlation was found between the 3-D images, superficial vessels, and gyral anatomy. The proposed method of 3-D brain surface visualization is fast, clinically reliable for preoperative anatomic lesion localization and patient-specific planning, and, together with navigation, improves intraoperative orientation in brain tumor surgery and is relatively independent of brain shift.

  3. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  4. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes. A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, “Stiff Rim” was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of “Crater Sign” and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US. In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with “Crater Sign” in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  5. Computational analysis of LDDMM for brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Ceritoglu, Can; Tang, Xiaoying; Chow, Margaret; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Shah, Damish; Brown, Timothy; Burhanullah, Muhammad H; Trinh, Huong; Hsu, John T; Ament, Katarina A; Crocetti, Deana; Mori, Susumu; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Yantis, Steven; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2013-01-01

    One goal of computational anatomy (CA) is to develop tools to accurately segment brain structures in healthy and diseased subjects. In this paper, we examine the performance and complexity of such segmentation in the framework of the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) registration method with reference to atlases and parameters. First we report the application of a multi-atlas segmentation approach to define basal ganglia structures in healthy and diseased kids' brains. The segmentation accuracy of the multi-atlas approach is compared with the single atlas LDDMM implementation and two state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms-Freesurfer and FSL-by computing the overlap errors between automatic and manual segmentations of the six basal ganglia nuclei in healthy subjects as well as subjects with diseases including ADHD and Autism. The high accuracy of multi-atlas segmentation is obtained at the cost of increasing the computational complexity because of the calculations necessary between the atlases and a subject. Second, we examine the effect of parameters on total LDDMM computation time and segmentation accuracy for basal ganglia structures. Single atlas LDDMM method is used to automatically segment the structures in a population of 16 subjects using different sets of parameters. The results show that a cascade approach and using fewer time steps can reduce computational complexity as much as five times while maintaining reliable segmentations.

  6. Frequency modulation television analysis: Threshold impulse analysis. [with computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is developed to calculate the FM threshold impulse rates as a function of the carrier-to-noise ratio for a specified FM system. The system parameters and a vector of 1024 integers, representing the probability density of the modulating voltage, are required as input parameters. The computer program is utilized to calculate threshold impulse rates for twenty-four sets of measured probability data supplied by NASA and for sinusoidal and Gaussian modulating waveforms. As a result of the analysis several conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of preemphasis in an FM television system improves the threshold by reducing the impulse rate. (2) Sinusoidal modulation produces a total impulse rate which is a practical upper bound for the impulse rates of TV signals providing the same peak deviations. (3) As the moment of the FM spectrum about the center frequency of the predetection filter increases, the impulse rate tends to increase. (4) A spectrum having an expected frequency above (below) the center frequency of the predetection filter produces a higher negative (positive) than positive (negative) impulse rate.

  7. Modern Computational Techniques for the HMMER Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the latest research and critical reviews on modern computing architectures, software and hardware accelerated algorithms for bioinformatics data analysis with an emphasis on one of the most important sequence analysis applications—hidden Markov models (HMM). We show the detailed performance comparison of sequence analysis tools on various computing platforms recently developed in the bioinformatics society. The characteristics of the sequence analysis, such as data and compute-intensive natures, make it very attractive to optimize and parallelize by using both traditional software approach and innovated hardware acceleration technologies. PMID:25937944

  8. Implementation of a computer database testing and analysis program.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Deborah P

    2007-01-01

    The author is the coordinator of a computer software database testing and analysis program implemented in an associate degree nursing program. Computer software database programs help support the testing development and analysis process. Critical thinking is measurable and promoted with their use. The reader of this article will learn what is involved in procuring and implementing a computer database testing and analysis program in an academic nursing program. The use of the computerized database for testing and analysis will be approached as a method to promote and evaluate the nursing student's critical thinking skills and to prepare the nursing student for the National Council Licensure Examination.

  9. Computational analysis of an aortic valve jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Astorino, Matteo; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    In this work we employ a coupled FSI scheme using an immersed boundary method to simulate flow through a realistic deformable, 3D aortic valve model. This data was used to compute Lagrangian coherent structures, which revealed flow separation from the valve leaflets during systole, and correspondingly, the boundary between the jet of ejected fluid and the regions of separated, recirculating flow. Advantages of computing LCS in multi-dimensional FSI models of the aortic valve are twofold. For one, the quality and effectiveness of existing clinical indices used to measure aortic jet size can be tested by taking advantage of the accurate measure of the jet area derived from LCS. Secondly, as an ultimate goal, a reliable computational framework for the assessment of the aortic valve stenosis could be developed.

  10. Global detailed geoid computation and model analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.

  11. Standardized Protocol for Virtual Surgical Plan and 3-Dimensional Surgical Template-Assisted Single-Stage Mandible Contour Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi; Qiao, Jia; Girod, Sabine; Niu, Feng; Liu, Jian Feng; Lee, Gordon K; Gui, Lai

    2017-09-01

    Mandible contour surgery, including reduction gonioplasty and genioplasty, has become increasingly popular in East Asia. However, it is technically challenging and, hence, leads to a long learning curve and high complication rates and often needs secondary revisions. The increasing use of 3-dimensional (3D) technology makes accurate single-stage mandible contour surgery with minimum complication rates possible with a virtual surgical plan (VSP) and 3-D surgical templates. This study is to establish a standardized protocol for VSP and 3-D surgical templates-assisted mandible contour surgery and evaluate the accuracy of the protocol. In this study, we enrolled 20 patients for mandible contour surgery. Our protocol is to perform VSP based on 3-D computed tomography data. Then, design and 3-D print surgical templates based on preoperative VSP. The accuracy of the method was analyzed by 3-D comparison of VSP and postoperative results using detailed computer analysis. All patients had symmetric, natural osteotomy lines and satisfactory facial ratios in a single-stage operation. The average relative error of VSP and postoperative result on the entire skull was 0.41 ± 0.13 mm. The average new left gonial error was 0.43 ± 0.77 mm. The average new right gonial error was 0.45 ± 0.69 mm. The average pognion error was 0.79 ± 1.21 mm. Patients were very satisfied with the aesthetic results. Surgeons were very satisfied with the performance of surgical templates to facilitate the operation. Our standardized protocol of VSP and 3-D printed surgical templates-assisted single-stage mandible contour surgery results in accurate, safe, and predictable outcome in a single stage.

  12. Reproducibility of computational workflows is automated using continuous analysis.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu-Jones, Brett K; Greene, Casey S

    2017-03-13

    Replication, validation and extension of experiments are crucial for scientific progress. Computational experiments are scriptable and should be easy to reproduce. However, computational analyses are designed and run in a specific computing environment, which may be difficult or impossible to match using written instructions. We report the development of continuous analysis, a workflow that enables reproducible computational analyses. Continuous analysis combines Docker, a container technology akin to virtual machines, with continuous integration, a software development technique, to automatically rerun a computational analysis whenever updates or improvements are made to source code or data. This enables researchers to reproduce results without contacting the study authors. Continuous analysis allows reviewers, editors or readers to verify reproducibility without manually downloading and rerunning code and can provide an audit trail for analyses of data that cannot be shared.

  13. An emulator for minimizing computer resources for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R.; Utku, S.; Islam, M.; Salama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A computer code, SCOPE, has been developed for predicting the computer resources required for a given analysis code, computer hardware, and structural problem. The cost of running the code is a small fraction (about 3 percent) of the cost of performing the actual analysis. However, its accuracy in predicting the CPU and I/O resources depends intrinsically on the accuracy of calibration data that must be developed once for the computer hardware and the finite element analysis code of interest. Testing of the SCOPE code on the AMDAHL 470 V/8 computer and the ELAS finite element analysis program indicated small I/O errors (3.2 percent), larger CPU errors (17.8 percent), and negligible total errors (1.5 percent).

  14. Computer Aided Modeling and Post Processing with NASTRAN Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aided engineering systems are invaluable tools in performing NASTRAN finite element analysis. These techniques are implemented in both the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the NASTRAN analysis. The finite element model development, or pre-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided modeling program called Supertabl, and the review and interpretation of the results of the NASTRAN analysis, or post-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided plotting program called Output Display. An intermediate program, Nasplot, which was developed in-house, has also helped to cut down on the model checkout time and reduce errors in the model. An interface has been established between the finite element computer aided engineering system and the Learjet computer aided design system whereby data can be transferred back and forth between the two. These systems have significantly improved productivity and the ability to perform NASTRAN analysis in response to product development requests.

  15. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  16. Computed Tomography Analysis of NASA BSTRA Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R L; Schneberk, D J; Thompson, R R

    2004-10-12

    Fifteen 1.25 inch BSTRA balls were scanned with the high energy computed tomography system at LLNL. This system has a resolution limit of approximately 210 microns. A threshold of 238 microns (two voxels) was used, and no anomalies at or greater than this were observed.

  17. Computer-assisted photometric microplate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L; Pop, D A

    1987-01-01

    The main algorithm of computer-assisted absorption and emission photometry of samples on a microplate is presented. The software can be used for the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and other virological tests. The performances of an SPF-500 (Aminco) spectrofluorometer/Felix M18 microcomputer system are discussed on the ground of some results obtained by using the implemented programs.

  18. Conversation Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lloret, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) for language learning resides mainly in the possibility that learners have to engage with other speakers of the language, including L1 speakers. The inclusion of CMC in the L2 classroom provides an opportunity for students to utilize authentic language in real interaction, rather than the more…

  19. A Computer Program for Preliminary Data Analysis

    Treesearch

    Dennis L. Schweitzer

    1967-01-01

    ABSTRACT. -- A computer program written in FORTRAN has been designed to summarize data. Class frequencies, means, and standard deviations are printed for as many as 100 independent variables. Cross-classifications of an observed dependent variable and of a dependent variable predicted by a multiple regression equation can also be generated.

  20. Thermoelectric pump performance analysis computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is presented that was used to analyze and design dual-throat electromagnetic dc conduction pumps for the 5-kwe ZrH reactor thermoelectric system. In addition to a listing of the code and corresponding identification of symbols, the bases for this analytical model are provided.

  1. Conversation Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lloret, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) for language learning resides mainly in the possibility that learners have to engage with other speakers of the language, including L1 speakers. The inclusion of CMC in the L2 classroom provides an opportunity for students to utilize authentic language in real interaction, rather than the more…

  2. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for prosthetic valve endocarditis: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Kort, Smadar

    2006-02-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography is a relatively new technology with rapidly growing potential applications. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a challenging diagnosis despite improvements in image qualities obtained by both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. The purpose of this article is to present 4 cases of suggested prosthetic valve endocarditis, in which real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was performed, and to discuss the potential use of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for this application.

  3. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing to Create Patient-Specific Thoracic Spine Models as Task Trainers.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Baribeau, Yanick; Bortman, Jeffrey; Mahmood, Feroze; Shnider, Marc; Ahmed, Muneeb; Mashari, Azad; Amir, Rabia; Amador, Yannis; Matyal, Robina

    Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a technically challenging procedure with a high failure rate of 24% to 32% nationwide. Residents in anesthesiology have limited opportunities to practice this technique adequately, and there are no training tools available for this purpose. Our objective was to build a low-cost patient-specific thoracic epidural training model. We obtained thoracic computed tomography scan data from patients with normal and kyphotic spine. The thoracic spine was segmented from the scan, and a 3-dimensional model of the spine was generated and printed. It was then placed in a customized wooden box and filled with different types of silicone to mimic human tissues. Attending physicians in our institution then tested the final model. They were asked to fill out a brief questionnaire after the identification of the landmarks and epidural space using ultrasound and real-time performance for a thoracic epidural on the model (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/AAP/A197). Likert scoring system was used for scoring. The time to develop this simulator model took less than 4 days, and the materials cost approximately $400. Fourteen physicians tested the model for determining the realistic sensation while palpating the spinous process, needle entry through the silicone, the "pop" sensation and ultrasound fidelity of the model. Whereas the tactile fidelity scores were "neutral" (3.08, 3.06, and 3.0, respectively), the ultrasound guidance and overall suitability for residents were highly rated as being the most realistic (4.85 and 4.0, respectively). It is possible to develop homemade, low-cost, patient-specific, and high-fidelity ultrasound guidance simulators for resident training in thoracic epidurals using 3-dimensional printing technology.

  5. Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu

    2016-06-01

    We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.

  6. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  7. Computer aided radiation analysis for manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Griffin, Brand N.; Tanner, Ernest R., II; Pogue, William R.; Golightly, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assist in the design of radiation shielding an analytical tool is presented that can be employed in combination with CAD facilities and NASA transport codes. The nature of radiation in space is described, and the operational requirements for protection are listed as background information for the use of the technique. The method is based on the Boeing radiation exposure model (BREM) for combining NASA radiation transport codes and CAD facilities, and the output is given as contour maps of the radiation-shield distribution so that dangerous areas can be identified. Computational models are used to solve the 1D Boltzmann transport equation and determine the shielding needs for the worst-case scenario. BREM can be employed directly with the radiation computations to assess radiation protection during all phases of design which saves time and ultimately spacecraft weight.

  8. Hybrid soft computing systems for electromyographic signals analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Guo, Tianruo; Bai, Siwei; Dokos, Socrates

    2014-02-03

    Electromyographic (EMG) is a bio-signal collected on human skeletal muscle. Analysis of EMG signals has been widely used to detect human movement intent, control various human-machine interfaces, diagnose neuromuscular diseases, and model neuromusculoskeletal system. With the advances of artificial intelligence and soft computing, many sophisticated techniques have been proposed for such purpose. Hybrid soft computing system (HSCS), the integration of these different techniques, aims to further improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of EMG analysis. This paper reviews and compares key combinations of neural network, support vector machine, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence for EMG analysis. Our suggestions on the possible future development of HSCS in EMG analysis are also given in terms of basic soft computing techniques, further combination of these techniques, and their other applications in EMG analysis.

  9. Computer-based image analysis in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) has the potential to be utilized in telepathology, teleconsultation, quality assurance, clinical education, and digital image analysis to aid pathologists. In this paper, the potential added benefits of computer-assisted image analysis in breast pathology are reviewed and discussed. One of the major advantages of WSI systems is the possibility of doing computer-based image analysis on the digital slides. The purpose of computer-assisted analysis of breast virtual slides can be (i) segmentation of desired regions or objects such as diagnostically relevant areas, epithelial nuclei, lymphocyte cells, tubules, and mitotic figures, (ii) classification of breast slides based on breast cancer (BCa) grades, the invasive potential of tumors, or cancer subtypes, (iii) prognosis of BCa, or (iv) immunohistochemical quantification. While encouraging results have been achieved in this area, further progress is still required to make computer-based image analysis of breast virtual slides acceptable for clinical practice.

  10. Computer applications for engineering/structural analysis. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zaslawsky, M.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    Analysts and organizations have a tendency to lock themselves into specific codes with the obvious consequences of not addressing the real problem and thus reaching the wrong conclusion. This paper discusses the role of the analyst in selecting computer codes. The participation and support of a computation division in modifying the source program, configuration management, and pre- and post-processing of codes are among the subjects discussed. Specific examples illustrating the computer code selection process are described in the following problem areas: soil structure interaction, structural analysis of nuclear reactors, analysis of waste tanks where fluid structure interaction is important, analysis of equipment, structure-structure interaction, analysis of the operation of the superconductor supercollider which includes friction and transient temperature, and 3D analysis of the 10-meter telescope being built in Hawaii. Validation and verification of computer codes and their impact on the selection process are also discussed.

  11. Computer-based image analysis in breast pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) has the potential to be utilized in telepathology, teleconsultation, quality assurance, clinical education, and digital image analysis to aid pathologists. In this paper, the potential added benefits of computer-assisted image analysis in breast pathology are reviewed and discussed. One of the major advantages of WSI systems is the possibility of doing computer-based image analysis on the digital slides. The purpose of computer-assisted analysis of breast virtual slides can be (i) segmentation of desired regions or objects such as diagnostically relevant areas, epithelial nuclei, lymphocyte cells, tubules, and mitotic figures, (ii) classification of breast slides based on breast cancer (BCa) grades, the invasive potential of tumors, or cancer subtypes, (iii) prognosis of BCa, or (iv) immunohistochemical quantification. While encouraging results have been achieved in this area, further progress is still required to make computer-based image analysis of breast virtual slides acceptable for clinical practice. PMID:28066683

  12. Hybrid soft computing systems for electromyographic signals analysis: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) is a bio-signal collected on human skeletal muscle. Analysis of EMG signals has been widely used to detect human movement intent, control various human-machine interfaces, diagnose neuromuscular diseases, and model neuromusculoskeletal system. With the advances of artificial intelligence and soft computing, many sophisticated techniques have been proposed for such purpose. Hybrid soft computing system (HSCS), the integration of these different techniques, aims to further improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of EMG analysis. This paper reviews and compares key combinations of neural network, support vector machine, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence for EMG analysis. Our suggestions on the possible future development of HSCS in EMG analysis are also given in terms of basic soft computing techniques, further combination of these techniques, and their other applications in EMG analysis. PMID:24490979

  13. Computer content analysis of the Schreber case.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, J W; Weideman, D

    1993-01-01

    The text of Schreber's Memoirs of My Nervous Illness was analyzed by computer at the level of the individual word. These words then were grouped into 17 rational categories, and the categories were checked for reliability. The contents of Schreber's work then were compared with three other documents. In general, the Memoirs showed much greater delusional content than the other documents. Interestingly, sexual matters did not appear to be Schreber's principal problem at this atomistic level.

  14. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  15. Analysis of a Multiprocessor Guidance Computer. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltach, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    The design of the next generation of spaceborne digital computers is described. It analyzes a possible multiprocessor computer configuration. For the analysis, a set of representative space computing tasks was abstracted from the Lunar Module Guidance Computer programs as executed during the lunar landing, from the Apollo program. This computer performs at this time about 24 concurrent functions, with iteration rates from 10 times per second to once every two seconds. These jobs were tabulated in a machine-independent form, and statistics of the overall job set were obtained. It was concluded, based on a comparison of simulation and Markov results, that the Markov process analysis is accurate in predicting overall trends and in configuration comparisons, but does not provide useful detailed information in specific situations. Using both types of analysis, it was determined that the job scheduling function is a critical one for efficiency of the multiprocessor. It is recommended that research into the area of automatic job scheduling be performed.

  16. Application of microarray analysis on computer cluster and cloud platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernau, C; Boulesteix, A-L; Knaus, J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of recent high-dimensional biological data tends to be computationally intensive as many common approaches such as resampling or permutation tests require the basic statistical analysis to be repeated many times. A crucial advantage of these methods is that they can be easily parallelized due to the computational independence of the resampling or permutation iterations, which has induced many statistics departments to establish their own computer clusters. An alternative is to rent computing resources in the cloud, e.g. at Amazon Web Services. In this article we analyze whether a selection of statistical projects, recently implemented at our department, can be efficiently realized on these cloud resources. Moreover, we illustrate an opportunity to combine computer cluster and cloud resources. In order to compare the efficiency of computer cluster and cloud implementations and their respective parallelizations we use microarray analysis procedures and compare their runtimes on the different platforms. Amazon Web Services provide various instance types which meet the particular needs of the different statistical projects we analyzed in this paper. Moreover, the network capacity is sufficient and the parallelization is comparable in efficiency to standard computer cluster implementations. Our results suggest that many statistical projects can be efficiently realized on cloud resources. It is important to mention, however, that workflows can change substantially as a result of a shift from computer cluster to cloud computing.

  17. The symbolic computation and automatic analysis of trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Research was generally done on computation of trajectories of dynamical systems, especially control systems. Algorithms were further developed for rewriting expressions involving differential operators. The differential operators involved arise in the local analysis of nonlinear control systems. An initial design was completed of the system architecture for software to analyze nonlinear control systems using data base computing.

  18. Network Analysis and Knowledge Discovery Through DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    The application of computational mathematics and information science to biology has aided in the understanding of biological systems. Today biology can now aid information science . This research activity addresses this new and potentially symbiotic relationship between biology and information. In this report, a biocomputational analysis of a biologically represented network is demonstrated. A report on new DNA aqueous laboratory computing techniques is also given.

  19. Computer-Based Interaction Analysis with DEGREE Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…

  20. Computer-Based Interaction Analysis with DEGREE Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…

  1. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  2. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-01-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  3. Design of a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Qian, Guomin; Wang, Ye; Yi, Zige; Ru, Xiaolei; Ye, Wei

    2017-03-01

    To determine which graphic and color combination for a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme presents the best visual stimulus, five parameters were designed. According to the Balanced Incomplete Blocks-Law of Comparative Judgment, three schemes, which produce strong stereoscopic impressions, were screened from the 25 initial design schemes of different combinations of graphics and colors. Three-dimensional experimental simulation scenes of the three screened schemes were created to evaluate four different effects according to a semantic analysis. The following conclusions were drawn: schemes with a red color are more effective than those without; the combination of red, yellow and blue produces the best visual stimulus; a larger area from the top surface and the front surface should be colored red; and a triangular prism should be painted as the graphic of the marking according to the stereoscopic impression and the coordination of graphics with the road.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics combustion analysis evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Chen, C. P.; Ziebarth, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical modelling in spray combustion. These modelling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the computational efficiency in the stochastic particle tracking method as well as to incorporate the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, vaporization, and dense spray effects. The present mathematical formulation and numerical methodologies can be casted in any time-marching pressure correction methodologies (PCM) such as FDNS code and MAST code. A sequence of validation cases involving steady burning sprays and transient evaporating sprays will be included.

  5. Multivariate analysis: A statistical approach for computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michu, Sachin; Kaushik, Vandana

    2014-10-01

    Multivariate analysis is a type of multivariate statistical approach commonly used in, automotive diagnosis, education evaluating clusters in finance etc and more recently in the health-related professions. The objective of the paper is to provide a detailed exploratory discussion about factor analysis (FA) in image retrieval method and correlation analysis (CA) of network traffic. Image retrieval methods aim to retrieve relevant images from a collected database, based on their content. The problem is made more difficult due to the high dimension of the variable space in which the images are represented. Multivariate correlation analysis proposes an anomaly detection and analysis method based on the correlation coefficient matrix. Anomaly behaviors in the network include the various attacks on the network like DDOs attacks and network scanning.

  6. Sonographic Parameters for Prediction of Miscarriage: Role of 3-Dimensional Volume Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Choe, Suyearn; Kim, Sa Jin; Shin, Jong Chul; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the value of volume measurement using 3-dimensional sonography for prediction of miscarriage. We prospectively enrolled 188 singleton pregnant women at 5 to 9 weeks' gestation. The 3-dimensional sonographic gestational sac volume and yolk sac volume were measured together with the fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, and yolk sac diameter. For each sonographic parameter, nomograms were created; z scores were calculated for each measurement, and the values were compared between miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy groups. Sonographic parameters for prediction of miscarriage were evaluated by multivariate analysis, and the screening performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic curve. Among the 188 pregnancies, 30 (16.0%) had miscarriage. Multivariate analysis showed that fetal heart rate below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 6.43), gestational sac diameter below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 4.87), gestational sac volume below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 5.25), and yolk sac diameter below the 2.5th or above the 97.5th percentile (odds ratio, 15.86) were significant predictors of miscarriage (P = .018; P = .018; P = .033; and P < .001, respectively). At a false-positive rate of 30%, the detection rate for miscarriage in screening by a combination of fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, gestational sac volume, and yolk sac diameter was 77.8%. A small-for-gestational-age gestational sac volume is a significant sonographic predictor of miscarriage, as are fetal bradycardia, a small gestational sac diameter, and a small or large yolk sac diameter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. The Reliability of Content Analysis of Computer Conference Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattleff, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the reliability of content analysis of students' computer conference communication. Content analysis is often used when researching the relationship between learning and the use of information and communications technology in educational settings. A number of studies where content analysis is used and classification…

  8. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  9. Computational Modeling, Formal Analysis, and Tools for Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Bartocci, Ezio; Lió, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of biological data in the public domain grows, so does the range of modeling and analysis techniques employed in systems biology. In recent years, a number of theoretical computer science developments have enabled modeling methodology to keep pace. The growing interest in systems biology in executable models and their analysis has necessitated the borrowing of terms and methods from computer science, such as formal analysis, model checking, static analysis, and runtime verification. Here, we discuss the most important and exciting computational methods and tools currently available to systems biologists. We believe that a deeper understanding of the concepts and theory highlighted in this review will produce better software practice, improved investigation of complex biological processes, and even new ideas and better feedback into computer science. PMID:26795950

  10. Computational analysis of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Cameron C; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Butson, Christopher R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic, high-frequency electrical stimulation of subcortical brain structures (deep brain stimulation [DBS]) is an effective clinical treatment for several medically refractory neurological disorders. However, the clinical successes of DBS are tempered by the limited understanding of the response of neurons to applied electric fields and scientific definition of the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS remains elusive. In addition, it is presently unclear which electrode designs and stimulation parameters are optimal for maximum therapeutic benefit and minimal side effects. Detailed computer modeling of DBS has recently emerged as a powerful technique to enhance our understanding of the effects of DBS and to create a virtual testing ground for new stimulation paradigms. This review summarizes the fundamentals of neurostimulation modeling and provides an overview of some of the scientific contributions of computer models to the field of DBS. We then provide a prospective view on the application of DBS-modeling tools to augment the clinical utility of DBS and to design the next generation of DBS technology.

  11. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  12. PROGTEST: A Computer System for the Analysis of Computational Computer Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Richard Loller, Graphic Arts Branch Ms Linda Prieto , Word Processing Center A-i APPENDIX B CAA-D-80-1 DISTRIBUTION Addressee # of Copies Defense...Development Center ATTN: Alan Barnum Is Griffiss Air Force Base, NY 13441 B-6 CAA-D-80-1 Mr. Glen Ingram Scientific Computing Division Room A151

  13. Rasch Model Analysis with the BICAL Computer Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    COVERED RASCH MODEL ANALYSIS WITH THE BICAL Interim COMPUTER PROGRAM 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 5. AUTHORe) S. CONTRACTOR GRANT NUMBER() Benjamin D...PASECU~i" Da t eI Research Note 82-24 RASCH MODEL ANALYSIS WITH THE BICAL COMPUTER PROGRAM Benjamin D. Wright and Ronald J. Mead The University of...meet the requirements of objective measurement. The Rasch Model is the mathematical formulation of any measurement situation, either physical or

  14. Analysis and computer tools for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, A.

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this research, were to continue to further both the theoretical understanding of and the development of computer tools (algorithms) for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures. These objectives were divided into three interrelated major areas -- the mathematical analysis of the number of steady-state solutions to multistage separation processes, the numerical analysis of general, related fixed-point methods, and the development and implementation of computer tools for process simulation.

  15. Process for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Simeon H. K. [Charlottesville, VA; Riha, David S [San Antonio, TX; Thacker, Ben H [San Antonio, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis. The probabilistic analysis is based on finite element modeling, in which uncertainties in the modeled system are represented by changes in the nominal geometry of the model, referred to as "perturbations". These changes are accomplished using displacement vectors, which are computed for each node of a region of interest and are based on mean-value coordinate calculations.

  16. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  17. Manipulating Heat Flow through 3 Dimensional Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-02

    Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861214047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Baowen Li 5d...through computer simulation, how the three dimensional (3D) phononic crystal structures can confine phonon and thus reduce thermal conductivity...phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. The

  18. Computer program for the transient analysis of radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, P. E.; Ridihalgh, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is described which represents a comprehensive analytical tool providing the capability for predicting the output power and temperature profile of an arbitrary radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) design in the presence of time-dependent operating conditions. The approach taken involves the merging of three existing computer programs - namely, an RTG weight optimization design program, a thermoelectric analysis program, and a nodal heat-transfer computer program. A total of seven transient conditions are included in the computer program as the principal transients affecting long- and short-term performance characteristics of RTGs. This computer program is unique in that it designs an optimum RTG, generates a thermal model or analog and performs heat-transfer analysis of the RTG under user-specified transient conditions.

  19. Computational analysis of small RNA cloning data.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Philipp; Gaidatzis, Dimos; van Nimwegen, Erik; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Cloning and sequencing is the method of choice for small regulatory RNA identification. Using deep sequencing technologies one can now obtain up to a billion nucleotides--and tens of millions of small RNAs--from a single library. Careful computational analyses of such libraries enabled the discovery of miRNAs, rasiRNAs, piRNAs, and 21U RNAs. Given the large number of sequences that can be obtained from each individual sample, deep sequencing may soon become an alternative to oligonucleotide microarray technology for mRNA expression profiling. In this report we present the methods that we developed for the annotation and expression profiling of small RNAs obtained through large-scale sequencing. These include a fast algorithm for finding nearly perfect matches of small RNAs in sequence databases, a web-accessible software system for the annotation of small RNA libraries, and a Bayesian method for comparing small RNA expression across samples.

  20. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data.

  1. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Liubov; Vidal, Vicent; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT), it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data. PMID:26575482

  2. Computational analysis of maltose binding protein translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a computational model for the study of maltose binding protein translocation across α-hemolysin nanopores. The phenomenological approach simplifies both the pore and the polypeptide chain; however it retains the basic structural protein-like properties of the maltose binding protein by promoting the correct formation of its native key interactions. By considering different observables characterising the channel blockade and molecule transport, we verified that MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed in a recent experiment. Simulations reveal that blockade events consist of a capture stage, to some extent related to the unfolding kinetics, and a single file translocation process in the channel. A threshold mechanics underlies the process activation with a critical force depending on the protein denaturation state. Finally, our results support the simple interpretation of translocation via first-passage statistics of a driven diffusion process of a single reaction coordinate.

  3. RSAC -6 Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, Bradley J; Wenzel, Douglas Rudolph

    2001-06-01

    RSAC-6 is the latest version of the RSAC program. It calculates the consequences of a release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Using a personal computer, a user can generate a fission product inventory; decay and in-grow the inventory during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment; model the downwind dispersion of the activity; and calculate doses to downwind individuals. Internal dose from the inhalation and ingestion pathways is calculated. External dose from ground surface and plume gamma pathways is calculated. New and exciting updates to the program include the ability to evaluate a release to an enclosed room, resuspension of deposited activity and evaluation of a release up to 1 meter from the release point. Enhanced tools are included for dry deposition, building wake, occupancy factors, respirable fraction, AMAD adjustment, updated and enhanced radionuclide inventory and inclusion of the dose-conversion factors from FGR 11 and 12.

  4. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parallel computing for probabilistic fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sues, Robert H.; Lua, Yuan J.; Smith, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Phase I research to investigate the most effective parallel processing software strategies and hardware configurations for probabilistic structural analysis. We investigate the efficiency of both shared and distributed-memory architectures via a probabilistic fatigue life analysis problem. We also present a parallel programming approach, the virtual shared-memory paradigm, that is applicable across both types of hardware. Using this approach, problems can be solved on a variety of parallel configurations, including networks of single or multiprocessor workstations. We conclude that it is possible to effectively parallelize probabilistic fatigue analysis codes; however, special strategies will be needed to achieve large-scale parallelism to keep large number of processors busy and to treat problems with the large memory requirements encountered in practice. We also conclude that distributed-memory architecture is preferable to shared-memory for achieving large scale parallelism; however, in the future, the currently emerging hybrid-memory architectures will likely be optimal.

  6. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  7. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  8. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  9. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    error calculation. Projectiles are then grouped together according to the similarity of their components. Also discussed is graphical- cluster analysis...ballistic, armor, grouping, clustering 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF...Fig. 10 Graphical structure of 15 clusters of the jacket/core radii profiles with plots of the profiles contained within each cluster . The size of

  10. Computational Understanding: Analysis of Sentences and Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    pairs, such as "kitchen table" and ’police state". There exists a program by Sylvia Weber Russell (1972) that handles a number of these, and...this thesis. It is necessary to develop some idea of hew world knowledge is presented to the analysis processes, bot 163 of more concern here

  11. Minimum-fuel, 3-dimensional flightpath guidance of transfer jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum fuel, three dimensional flightpaths for commercial jet aircraft are discussed. The theoretical development is divided into two sections. In both sections, the necessary conditions of optimal control, including singular arcs and state constraints, are used. One section treats the initial and final portions (below 10,000 ft) of long optimal flightpaths. Here all possible paths can be derived by generating fields of extremals. Another section treats the complete intermediate length, three dimensional terminal area flightpaths. Here only representative sample flightpaths can be computed. Sufficient detail is provided to give the student of optimal control a complex example of a useful application of optimal control theory.

  12. Computational mechanics analysis tools for parallel-vector supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.; Nguyen, Duc T.; Baddourah, Majdi; Qin, Jiangning

    1993-01-01

    Computational algorithms for structural analysis on parallel-vector supercomputers are reviewed. These parallel algorithms, developed by the authors, are for the assembly of structural equations, 'out-of-core' strategies for linear equation solution, massively distributed-memory equation solution, unsymmetric equation solution, general eigensolution, geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis, design sensitivity analysis for structural dynamics, optimization search analysis and domain decomposition. The source code for many of these algorithms is available.

  13. From Image Analysis to Computer Vision: Motives, Methods, and Milestones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    images. Initially, work on digital image analysis dealt with specific classes of images such as text, photomicrographs, nuclear particle tracks, and aerial...photographs; but by the 1960’s, general algorithms and paradigms for image analysis began to be formulated. When the artificial intelligence...scene, but eventually from image sequences obtained by a moving camera; at this stage, image analysis had become scene analysis or computer vision

  14. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  15. Adaptive computational methods for aerothermal heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, John M.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    1988-01-01

    The development of adaptive gridding techniques for finite-element analysis of fluid dynamics equations is described. The developmental work was done with the Euler equations with concentration on shock and inviscid flow field capturing. Ultimately this methodology is to be applied to a viscous analysis for the purpose of predicting accurate aerothermal loads on complex shapes subjected to high speed flow environments. The development of local error estimate strategies as a basis for refinement strategies is discussed, as well as the refinement strategies themselves. The application of the strategies to triangular elements and a finite-element flux-corrected-transport numerical scheme are presented. The implementation of these strategies in the GIM/PAGE code for 2-D and 3-D applications is documented and demonstrated.

  16. Interactive Spectral Analysis and Computation (ISAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Isaac is a task in the NSO external package for IRAF. A descendant of a FORTRAN program written to analyze data from a Fourier transform spectrometer, the current implementation has been generalized sufficiently to make it useful for general spectral analysis and other one dimensional data analysis tasks. The user interface for Isaac is implemented as an interpreted mini-language containing a powerful, programmable vector calculator. Built-in commands provide much of the functionality needed to produce accurate line lists from input spectra. These built-in functions include automated spectral line finding, least squares fitting of Voigt profiles to spectral lines including equality constraints, various filters including an optimal filter construction tool, continuum fitting, and various I/O functions.

  17. Computer assisted analysis of microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, M.; Munhutu, P.; DaPonte, J.; Caragianis-Broadbridge, C.; Lehman, A.; Sadowski, T.; Garcia, E.; Heyden, C.; Mirabelle, L.; Benjamin, P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to characterize the microstructure of a material continues to grow in importance as technological advancements become increasingly more dependent on nanotechnology1 . Since nanoparticle properties such as size (diameter) and size distribution are often important in determining potential applications, a particle analysis is often performed on TEM images. Traditionally done manually, this has the potential to be labor intensive, time consuming, and subjective2. To resolve these issues, automated particle analysis routines are becoming more widely accepted within the community3. When using such programs, it is important to compare their performance, in terms of functionality and cost. The primary goal of this study was to apply one such software package, ImageJ to grayscale TEM images of nanoparticles with known size. A secondary goal was to compare this popular open-source general purpose image processing program to two commercial software packages. After a brief investigation of performance and price, ImageJ was identified as the software best suited for the particle analysis conducted in the study. While many ImageJ functions were used, the ability to break agglomerations that occur in specimen preparation into separate particles using a watershed algorithm was particularly helpful4.

  18. AIR INGRESS ANALYSIS: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; Hans Gougar; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2010-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the in-the core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of the lower plenum graphite can lead to a loss of structural support. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to the release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to a reactor safety. Computational fluid dynamic model developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD results for the quantitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. A portion of results of the density-driven stratified flow in the inlet pipe will be compared with results of the experimental results.

  19. AVES: A Computer Cluster System approach for INTEGRAL Scientific Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, M.; Martino, B. L.; Natalucci, L.; Umbertini, P.

    The AVES computing system, based on an "Cluster" architecture is a fully integrated, low cost computing facility dedicated to the archiving and analysis of the INTEGRAL data. AVES is a modular system that uses the software resource manager (SLURM) and allows almost unlimited expandibility (65,536 nodes and hundreds of thousands of processors); actually is composed by 30 Personal Computers with Quad-Cores CPU able to reach the computing power of 300 Giga Flops (300x10{9} Floating point Operations Per Second), with 120 GB of RAM and 7.5 Tera Bytes (TB) of storage memory in UFS configuration plus 6 TB for users area. AVES was designed and built to solve growing problems raised from the analysis of the large data amount accumulated by the INTEGRAL mission (actually about 9 TB) and due to increase every year. The used analysis software is the OSA package, distributed by the ISDC in Geneva. This is a very complex package consisting of dozens of programs that can not be converted to parallel computing. To overcome this limitation we developed a series of programs to distribute the workload analysis on the various nodes making AVES automatically divide the analysis in N jobs sent to N cores. This solution thus produces a result similar to that obtained by the parallel computing configuration. In support of this we have developed tools that allow a flexible use of the scientific software and quality control of on-line data storing. The AVES software package is constituted by about 50 specific programs. Thus the whole computing time, compared to that provided by a Personal Computer with single processor, has been enhanced up to a factor 70.

  20. Comparison of three computer methods of sperm head analysis.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Ariadne Rodrigues; de Alencar Hausen, Moema; Monteiro-Leal, Luiz Henrique

    2003-09-01

    Analysis of sperm heads using three different computer morphometrical tools and experimental conditions to find a more reliable and secure strategy among them. Controlled experiments on sperm morphology analysis from volunteers. Laboratory of microscopy and imaging processing. Ten human semen samples donated by different zoospermic men. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after > or =72 hours of abstinence. Spermatozoon head morphology was compared by the use of different video-microscopy systems, three computer programs, and various staining conditions and manipulation by different operators. Nonbiological material in the form of latex beads was also used. The data obtained suggest that the semiautomatic computer program is the most reliable and secure method for performing sperm analysis, besides the fact that it is a fast process compared with manual methods. Computer systems of sperm analysis should incorporate a step of interactive object identification to work properly, allowing the operator to confirm or correct possible computer misidentification. The latex beads were used to confirm the capability of all three computer programs to correctly evaluate nonbiological material.

  1. VIC: A Computer Analysis of Verbal Interaction Category Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, John A.; And Others

    VIC is a computer program for the analysis of verbal interaction category systems, especially the Flanders interaction analysis system. The observer codes verbal behavior on coding sheets for later machine scoring. A matrix is produced by the program showing the number and percentages of times that a particular cell describes classroom behavior.…

  2. Two Computer Programs for Factor Analysis. Technical Note Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Carl E.

    Two factor analysis algorithms, previously described by P. Horst, have been programed for use on the General Electric Time-Sharing Computer System. The first of these, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), uses the Basic Structure Successive Factor Method With Residual Matrices algorithm to obtain the principal component vectors of a correlation…

  3. Computer Assistance in Teaching Dynamic-Stochastic Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpaz, Hovav

    A university level course in systems analysis with close contact and massive use of computer time was designed. The objectives of the course were primarily to teach social science graduate students, mostly from economics and agricultural economics, the basic methodological and quantitative tools of systems analysis and design. It was designed to…

  4. Computer analysis and structure prediction of nucleic acids and proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kanehisa, M; Klein, P; Greif, P; DeLisi, C

    1984-01-01

    We have developed an integrated computer system for analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences, which consists of sequence and structure databases, a relational database, and software for structural analysis. The system is potentially applicable to a number of problems in structural biology including predictive classification of the function and location of oncogene products. PMID:6546426

  5. Two Computer Programs for Factor Analysis. Technical Note Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisler, Carl E.

    Two factor analysis algorithms, previously described by P. Horst, have been programed for use on the General Electric Time-Sharing Computer System. The first of these, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), uses the Basic Structure Successive Factor Method With Residual Matrices algorithm to obtain the principal component vectors of a correlation…

  6. Content Analysis of a Computer-Based Faculty Activity Repository

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Eveleth, Lori; Stone, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The research presents an analysis of faculty opinions regarding the introduction of a new computer-based faculty activity repository (FAR) in a university setting. The qualitative study employs content analysis to better understand the phenomenon underlying these faculty opinions and to augment the findings from a quantitative study. A web-based…

  7. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  8. Computational Aeroelastic Analysis of the Ares Launch Vehicle During Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Massey, Steven J.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Heeg, Jennifer; Wieseman, Carol D.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the static and dynamic computational aeroelastic (CAE) analyses of the Ares crew launch vehicle (CLV) during atmospheric ascent. The influence of launch vehicle flexibility on the static aerodynamic loading and integrated aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is discussed. The ultimate purpose of this analysis is to assess the aeroelastic stability of the launch vehicle along the ascent trajectory. A comparison of analysis results for several versions of the Ares CLV will be made. Flexible static and dynamic analyses based on rigid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) data are compared with a fully coupled aeroelastic time marching CFD analysis of the launch vehicle.

  9. Traction Force Microscopy in 3-Dimensional Extracellular Matrix Networks.

    PubMed

    Cóndor, M; Steinwachs, J; Mark, C; García-Aznar, J M; Fabry, B

    2017-06-19

    Cell migration through a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix depends strongly on the ability of cells to generate traction forces. To overcome the steric hindrance of the matrix, cells need to generate sufficiently high traction forces but also need to distribute these forces spatially in a migration-promoting way. This unit describes a protocol to measure spatial maps of cell traction forces in 3-D biopolymer networks such as collagen, fibrin, or Matrigel. Traction forces are computed from the relationship between measured force-induced matrix deformations surrounding the cell and the known mechanical properties of the matrix. The method does not rely on knowledge of the cell surface coordinates and takes nonlinear mechanical properties of the matrix into account. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

  11. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1999-02-09

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focusing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data. 18 figs.

  12. Computational Analysis of Rho GTPase Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Cibele Vieira; Loew, Leslie M.

    2013-01-01

    The Rho family of GTPases control actin organization during diverse cellular responses (migration, cytokinesis and endocytosis). Although the primary members of this family (RhoA, Rac and Cdc42) have different downstream effects on actin remodeling, the basic mechanism involves targeting to the plasma membrane and activation by GTP binding. Our hypothesis is that the details of GTPase cycling between membrane and cytosol are key to the differential upstream regulation of these biochemical switches. Accordingly, we developed a modeling framework to analyze experimental data for these systems. This analysis can reveal details of GDI-mediated cycling and help distinguish between GDI-dependent and -independent mechanisms, including vesicle trafficking and direct association-dissociation of GTPase with membrane molecules. Analysis of experimental data for Rac membrane cycling reveals that the lower apparent affinity of GDI for RacGTP compared to RacGDP can be fully explained by the faster dissociation of the latter from the membrane. Non-dimensional steady-state solutions for membrane fraction of GTPase are presented in multidimensional charts. This methodology is then used to analyze glucose stimulated Rac cycling in pancreatic β-cells. The charts are used to illustrate the effects of GEFs/GAPs and regulated affinities between GTPases and membrane and/or GDI on the amount of membrane bound GTPase. In a similar fashion, the charts can be used as a guide in assessing how targeted modifications may compensate for altered GTPase-GDI balance in disease scenarios. PMID:23326220

  13. Computational analysis of local membrane properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapsys, Vytautas; de Groot, Bert L.; Briones, Rodolfo

    2013-10-01

    In the field of biomolecular simulations, dynamics of phospholipid membranes is of special interest. A number of proteins, including channels, transporters, receptors and short peptides are embedded in lipid bilayers and tightly interact with phospholipids. While the experimental measurements report on the spatial and/or temporal average membrane properties, simulation results are not restricted to the average properties. In the current study, we present a collection of methods for an efficient local membrane property calculation, comprising bilayer thickness, area per lipid, deuterium order parameters, Gaussian and mean curvature. The local membrane property calculation allows for a direct mapping of the membrane features, which subsequently can be used for further analysis and visualization of the processes of interest. The main features of the described methods are highlighted in a number of membrane systems, namely: a pure dimyristoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (DMPC) bilayer, a fusion peptide interacting with a membrane, voltage-dependent anion channel protein embedded in a DMPC bilayer, cholesterol enriched bilayer and a coarse grained simulation of a curved palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline lipid membrane. The local membrane property analysis proves to provide an intuitive and detailed view on the observables that are otherwise interpreted as averaged bilayer properties.

  14. CFD Based Computations of Flexible Helicopter Blades for Stability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    2011-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among government aerospace research laboratories an advanced version of a widely used computational fluid dynamics code, OVERFLOW, was recently released. This latest version includes additions to model flexible rotating multiple blades. In this paper, the OVERFLOW code is applied to improve the accuracy of airload computations from the linear lifting line theory that uses displacements from beam model. Data transfers required at every revolution are managed through a Unix based script that runs jobs on large super-cluster computers. Results are demonstrated for the 4-bladed UH-60A helicopter. Deviations of computed data from flight data are evaluated. Fourier analysis post-processing that is suitable for aeroelastic stability computations are performed.

  15. Tutorial: Parallel Computing of Simulation Models for Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Allison C; Staid, Andrea; Gao, Michael; Guikema, Seth D

    2016-10-01

    Simulation models are widely used in risk analysis to study the effects of uncertainties on outcomes of interest in complex problems. Often, these models are computationally complex and time consuming to run. This latter point may be at odds with time-sensitive evaluations or may limit the number of parameters that are considered. In this article, we give an introductory tutorial focused on parallelizing simulation code to better leverage modern computing hardware, enabling risk analysts to better utilize simulation-based methods for quantifying uncertainty in practice. This article is aimed primarily at risk analysts who use simulation methods but do not yet utilize parallelization to decrease the computational burden of these models. The discussion is focused on conceptual aspects of embarrassingly parallel computer code and software considerations. Two complementary examples are shown using the languages MATLAB and R. A brief discussion of hardware considerations is located in the Appendix. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. A computer analysis of the Schreber Memoirs.

    PubMed

    Klein, R H

    1976-06-01

    With the aid of a computerized system for content analysis, WORDS, the complete Schreber Memoirs was subjected to various multivariate reduction techniques in order to investigate the major content themes of this document. The findings included the prevalence of somatic concerns throughout the Memoirs, clear references to persecutory ideas and to Schreber's assumption of a redemptive role, complex encapsulated concerns about Schreber's relationship with God, a lack of any close relationship between sexuality and sexual transformation either to themes of castration or procreation, and the fact that neither sun, God, nor Flechsig was significantly associated with clusters concerning gender, sexuality, or castration. These findings are discussed in relation to psychodynamic interpretations furnished by prior investigators who employed different research methods.

  17. A Computational Discriminability Analysis on Twin Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Sharing similar genetic traits makes the investigation of twins an important study in forensics and biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most commonly found types of forensic evidence. The similarity between twins’ prints is critical establish to the reliability of fingerprint identification. We present a quantitative analysis of the discriminability of twin fingerprints on a new data set (227 pairs of identical twins and fraternal twins) recently collected from a twin population using both level 1 and level 2 features. Although the patterns of minutiae among twins are more similar than in the general population, the similarity of fingerprints of twins is significantly different from that between genuine prints of the same finger. Twins fingerprints are discriminable with a 1.5%~1.7% higher EER than non-twins. And identical twins can be distinguished by examine fingerprint with a slightly higher error rate than fraternal twins.

  18. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor.

  19. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  20. EEG Control of a Virtual Helicopter in 3-Dimensional Space Using Intelligent Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Audrey S.; Doud, Alexander J.; Rose, Minn L.

    2011-01-01

    Films like Firefox, Surrogates, and Avatar have explored the possibilities of using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to control machines and replacement bodies with only thought. Real world BCIs have made great progress toward that end. Invasive BCIs have enabled monkeys to fully explore 3-dimensional (3D) space using neuroprosthetics. However, non-invasive BCIs have not been able to demonstrate such mastery of 3D space. Here, we report our work, which demonstrates that human subjects can use a non-invasive BCI to fly a virtual helicopter to any point in a 3D world. Through use of intelligent control strategies, we have facilitated the realization of controlled flight in 3D space. We accomplished this through a reductionist approach that assigns subject-specific control signals to the crucial components of 3D flight. Subject control of the helicopter was comparable when using either the BCI or a keyboard. By using intelligent control strategies, the strengths of both the user and the BCI system were leveraged and accentuated. Intelligent control strategies in BCI systems such as those presented here may prove to be the foundation for complex BCIs capable of doing more than we ever imagined. PMID:20876032

  1. Fast Algorithms for Structural Analysis, Least Squares and Related Computations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-14

    several objectives. We wish to implement and test a recent parallel block schemne by Golub, Sameh .... 6 1 -2- and the principal investigator, on the...Computations (Joint with G. Golub and A. Sameh ) Large scale least squares computations arise in a variety of scientific and engineering problems...testbed of structural analysis data. 3. Geodetic Least Squares Adjustment Techniques on the Cedar System (Joint with W. Harrod and A. Sameh ) V, Our purpose

  2. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  5. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  6. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  7. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  8. Computer analysis of transient voltages in large grounding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grcev, L.D.

    1996-04-01

    A computer model for transient analysis of a network of buried and above ground conductors is presented. The model is based on the electromagnetic field theory approach ad the modified image theory. Validation of the model is achieved by comparison with field measurements. The model is applied for computation of transient voltages to remote ground of large grounding grid conductors. Also computation of longitudinal and leakage currents, transient impedance, electromagnetic fields, and transient induced voltages is possible. This model is aimed to help in EMC and lightning protection studies that involve electrical and electronic systems connected to grounding systems.

  9. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  10. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. <1h/day (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.04) and computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. <4h/day (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.87) were inversely associated with CTS. Conversely, in a meta-analysis of six studies (N=5202) conducted among office workers, CTS was positively associated with computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer programs for analysis of geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, M.; Nakanishi, K.

    1994-06-01

    This project is oriented toward the application of the mobile seismic array data analysis technique in seismic investigations of the Earth (the noise-array method). The technique falls into the class of emission tomography methods but, in contrast to classic tomography, 3-D images of the microseismic activity of the media are obtained by passive seismic antenna scanning of the half-space, rather than by solution of the inverse Radon`s problem. It is reasonable to expect that areas of geothermal activity, active faults, areas of volcanic tremors and hydrocarbon deposits act as sources of intense internal microseismic activity or as effective sources for scattered (secondary) waves. The conventional approaches of seismic investigations of a geological medium include measurements of time-limited determinate signals from artificial or natural sources. However, the continuous seismic oscillations, like endogenous microseisms, coda and scattering waves, can give very important information about the structure of the Earth. The presence of microseismic sources or inhomogeneities within the Earth results in the appearance of coherent seismic components in a stochastic wave field recorded on the surface by a seismic array. By careful processing of seismic array data, these coherent components can be used to develop a 3-D model of the microseismic activity of the media or images of the noisy objects. Thus, in contrast to classic seismology where narrow windows are used to get the best time resolution of seismic signals, our model requires long record length for the best spatial resolution.

  12. Structural Analysis Using Computer Based Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The stiffness of a flex hose that will be used in the umbilical arms of the Space Launch Systems mobile launcher needed to be determined in order to properly qualify ground umbilical plate behavior during vehicle separation post T-0. This data is also necessary to properly size and design the motors used to retract the umbilical arms. Therefore an experiment was created to determine the stiffness of the hose. Before the test apparatus for the experiment could be built, the structure had to be analyzed to ensure it would not fail under given loading conditions. The design model was imported into the analysis software and optimized to decrease runtime while still providing accurate restlts and allow for seamless meshing. Areas exceeding the allowable stresses in the structure were located and modified before submitting the design for fabrication. In addition, a mock up of a deep space habitat and the support frame was designed and needed to be analyzed for structural integrity under different loading conditions. The load cases were provided by the customer and were applied to the structure after optimizing the geometry. Once again, weak points in the structure were located and recommended design changes were made to the customer and the process was repeated until the load conditions were met without exceeding the allowable stresses. After the stresses met the required factors of safety the designs were released for fabrication.

  13. Modeling Biofilm-Induced Hydraulic Changes In 3-Dimensional Prefractal Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, H.; Perfect, E.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilm-induced clogging is the significant phenomenon in subsurface hydrology that may affect aquifer recharge and solute transport. Modeling biofilm impact on flow and transport at pore scale should include characterization of the heterogeneity of both biofilm and medium. In this study, a numerical model of biofilm- induced hydraulic changes in porous media was developed based on the individual-based model (IbM) for the biofilm growth according to the Monod equation, and the Lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for the water flow. The LBM was modified to consider biofilm growth in each grid cell, and IbM was synchronized with the LBM. The model behavior was first investigated for simple geometry of the prismatic void space with constant flow and concentration boundary conditions at the inflow boundary, no-gradient condition on the outflow side, and periodic boundary condition on the other sides. The mass conservation was tested by varying Peclet number and computing the solute breakthrough. The breakthrough was retarded when a solid sphere was placed in the prism, and the retardation was increasing as flow velocity was increasing. Increase in the biofilm volume surrounding solid sphere increased pressure at the windward side of sphere, and the flow velocity in the narrow passage between biofilms was increased. The biofilm grew more vigorously on the windward side compared with the leeward side of the sphere because the biofilm growth interrupted the supply of the dissolved substrate to the leeward side. Darcy relation was better to estimate hydraulic conductivity than Kozeny-Carman relation which assumes that biofilms are uniformly distributed on the surface. Finally, 3- dimensional mass and pore-solid prefractal lattices as models of heterogeneous porous media were generated by iterated function system and used as the simulation domain. The flow in these domains reached the steady state at threshold porosities (hydrostatic threshold) that were estimated to be about 0

  14. Computational analysis of a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    The pulsed inductive plasma accelerator allows for ionization of a cold gas propellant to plasma and acceleration of plasma with the same current pulse and without plasma contact with any part. This is beneficial since erosion is never a problem and lifetimes are limited only by the amount of carried propellant. To date, work involving the pulsed inductive plasma accelerator concept has been largely experimental with minimal computational analysis. The goal of the present research was to develop a computational tool using Maxwell's equations coupled with the Navier-Stokes fluid equations to fully analyze a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator. A plasma model was developed using the Saha equation and partition functions to calculate all required thermodynamic properties. The solution to Maxwell's equations was verified accurate and then coupled computations with propellant plasma were conducted. These coupled computations showed good order of magnitude accuracy with a simple onedimensional model however failed when the plasma began to accelerate due to the Lorentz force. The electric field, magnetic field, current density, and Lorentz force were all aligned in the proper vector directions. The computational failure occurred due to rapid, fictitious increases in the induced electric field in the vacuum created between the accelerating plasma and drive coil. Possible solutions to this problem are to decrease the time step and refine the grid density. Although complete acceleration of propellant plasma has yet to be computationally computed, this study has shown successful coupled computations with Maxwell and Navier-Stokes equations for a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator.

  15. Computational mechanics analysis tools for parallel-vector supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.; Nguyen, D. T.; Baddourah, M. A.; Qin, J.

    1993-01-01

    Computational algorithms for structural analysis on parallel-vector supercomputers are reviewed. These parallel algorithms, developed by the authors, are for the assembly of structural equations, 'out-of-core' strategies for linear equation solution, massively distributed-memory equation solution, unsymmetric equation solution, general eigen-solution, geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis, design sensitivity analysis for structural dynamics, optimization algorithm and domain decomposition. The source code for many of these algorithms is available from NASA Langley.

  16. Large-scale temporal analysis of computer and information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soos, Sandor; Kampis, George; Gulyás, László

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of the project reported in this paper was twofold. One of the primary goals was to produce an extensive source of network data for bibliometric analyses of field dynamics in the case of Computer and Information Science. To this end, we rendered the raw material of the DBLP computer and infoscience bibliography into a comprehensive collection of dynamic network data, promptly available for further statistical analysis. The other goal was to demonstrate the value of our data source via its use in mapping Computer and Information Science (CIS). An analysis of the evolution of CIS was performed in terms of collaboration (co-authorship) network dynamics. Dynamic network analysis covered three quarters of the XX. century (76 years, from 1936 to date). Network evolution was described both at the macro- and the mezo level (in terms of community characteristics). Results show that the development of CIS followed what appears to be a universal pattern of growing into a "mature" discipline.

  17. Evaluation of pharyngeal airway space changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with a 3-dimensional simulation and modeling program.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gorgulu, Serkan; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Bengi, Ali Osman; Karacayli, Umit; Ors, Fatih

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to use 3-dimensional simulation and modeling programs to evaluate the effects of bimaxillary orthognathic surgical correction of Class III malocclusions on pharyngeal airway space volume, and to compare them with the changes in obstructive sleep apnea measurements from polysomnography. Twenty-five male patients (mean age, 21.6 years) with mandibular prognathism were treated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and LeFort I advancement. Polysomnography and computed tomography were performed before surgery and 1.4 ± 0.2 years after surgery. All computed tomography data were transferred to a computer, and the pharyngeal airway space was segmented using SimPlant OMS (Materialise Medical, Leuven, Belgium) programs. The pretreatment and posttreatment pharyngeal airway space determinants in volumetric, linear distance, and cross-sectional measurements, and polysomnography changes were compared with the paired samples t test. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the association between the computed tomography and polysomnography measurements. The results indicated that setback procedures produce anteroposterior narrowing of the pharyngeal airway space at the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal levels and the middle and inferior pharyngeal volumes (P <0.05). In contrast, advancement of the maxilla causes widening of the airway in the nasopharyngeal and retropalatal dimensions and increases the superior pharyngeal volume (P <0.05). Distinctively, bimaxillary orthognathic surgery induces significant increases in the total airway volume and the transverse dimensions of all airway areas (P <0.05). Significant correlations were found between the measurements on the computed tomography scans and crucial polysomnography parameters. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for correction of Class III malocclusion caused an increase of the total airway volume and improvement of polysomnography parameters. A proposed treatment plan can be modified

  18. 3-dimensional forces and molecular dynamics of live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Sung Sik; Li, Yi-Shuan; Park, Joon Seok; Hu, Ying-Li; Chien, Shu

    2010-08-01

    The forces exerted by an adherent cell on a substrate were studied previously only in the two-dimensions (2D) tangential to the substrate surface. We used a novel technique to measure the three-dimensional (3D) stresses exerted by live bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) on polyacrylamide deformable substrate, with particular emphasis on the 3D forces of focal adhesions. On 3D images acquired by confocal microscopy, displacements were determined with imageprocessing programs, and stresses in tangential (XY) and normal (Z) directions were computed by finite element method (FEM). BAECs generated stress in normal direction (Tz) with an order of magnitude comparable to that in tangential direction (Txy). Tz is upward at the cell edge and downward under the nucleus, changing continuously with a sign reversal between cell edge and nucleus edge. With the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled paxillin, the dynamics of this intracellular molecule were studied concurrently with the measurement of 3D forces. In the dynamic region, including the new lamellapodium forming region in the front and the retracting region in the rear, the tangential forces (Fxy) are correlated with the size of the focal adhesions (FAs) much more strongly than those in the stable region under the nucleus. In the dynamic region, normal force (Fz) was upward and positively correlated with FA size, while Fz in the stable region was downward and negatively correlated with FA size. These findings show the influence of the size of FAs on the 3D forces they exert on the substrate. This technique can be applied to study any adherent type of live cells to assess their biomechanical dynamics in conjunction with biochemical and functional activities, thus elucidating cellular functions in health and disease.

  19. On computational schemes for global-local stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of global-local stress analysis methods and associated difficulties and recommendations for future research. The phrase global-local analysis is understood to be an analysis in which some parts of the domain or structure are identified, for reasons of accurate determination of stresses and displacements or for more refined analysis than in the remaining parts. The parts of refined analysis are termed local and the remaining parts are called global. Typically local regions are small in size compared to global regions, while the computational effort can be larger in local regions than in global regions.

  20. A fully automatic multiscale 3-dimensional Hessian-based algorithm for vessel detection in breast DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Vignati, Anna; Giannini, Valentina; Bert, Alberto; Borrelli, Pasquale; De Luca, Massimo; Martincich, Laura; Sardanelli, Francesco; Regge, Daniele

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a fully automatic method for detecting blood vessels in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast on the basis of a multiscale 3-dimensional Hessian-based algorithm and to evaluate the improvement in reducing the number of vessel voxels incorrectly classified as parenchymal lesions by a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The algorithm has been conceived to work on images obtained with different sequences, different acquisition parameters, such as the use of fat-saturation, and different contrast agents. The analysis was performed on 28 dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examinations, with 39 malignant (28 principal and 11 satellite) and 8 benign lesions, acquired at 2 centers using 2 different 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanners, radiofrequency coils, and contrast agents (14 studies from group A and 14 studies from group B). The method consists of 2 main steps: (a) the detection of linear structures on 3-dimensional images, with a multiscale analysis based on the second-order image derivatives and (b) the exclusion of non-vessel enhancements based on their morphological properties through the evaluation of the covariance matrix eigenvalues. To evaluate the algorithm performances, the identified vessels were converted into a 2-dimensional vasculature skeleton and then compared with manual tracking performed by an expert radiologist. When assessing the outcome of the algorithm performances in identifying vascular structures, the following terms must be considered: the correct-detection rate refers to pixels identified by both the algorithm and the radiologist, the missed-detection rate refers to pixels detected only by the radiologist, and the incorrect-detection rate refers to pixels detected only by the algorithm. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess differences between the performances of the 2 subgroups of images obtained from the different scanners. For the testing

  1. An Innovative 3-dimensional Model of the Epitympanum for Teaching of Middle Ear Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chew Lip; Liu, Xuandao; Chee, Shuo Chian Jeremy; Ngo, Raymond Yeow Seng

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate teaching of the anatomy of the epitympanum, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional (3D) computer model that can be viewed from all angles. Questionnaire-based prospective randomized controlled trial. Undergraduate medical education program. The model was created using Google Sketchup, a 3D modeling software. We recruited 72 graduating medical students and randomized them into 2 groups. One group was given the 3D model and reading materials on the epitympanic anatomy (3D group), while the other group relied on reading material and pictures (2-dimensional [2D] group). A questionnaire and anatomy quiz assessed the utility of the 3D model in learning the anatomy of the epitympanum. The mean age of the participants was 22 years. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics and previous experience with 3D models. The 3D group was significantly more confident in its ability to identify structures of the epitympanum on pictures and computed tomography scans when compared to the 2D group. Most participants were in favor of the model as a useful learning tool and preferred to use it with an instructor. In the anatomy quiz, the 3D group fared significantly better, achieving a mean score of 65.1% compared to 32.4% in the 2D group (P < .001). The 3D teaching model of the epitympanum is efficacious in short-term recall. By allowing the learner to visualize relations of the epitympanum from all directions, the model aids in appreciation of anatomy and identifications of structures of this region. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  2. Visualization and Data Analysis for High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer

    2016-09-27

    This is a set of slides from a guest lecture for a class at the University of Texas, El Paso on visualization and data analysis for high-performance computing. The topics covered are the following: trends in high-performance computing; scientific visualization, such as OpenGL, ray tracing and volume rendering, VTK, and ParaView; data science at scale, such as in-situ visualization, image databases, distributed memory parallelism, shared memory parallelism, VTK-m, "big data", and then an analysis example.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yik; Fan, Yi; Cheng, Stephen; Chow, Kwok

    2011-11-01

    Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD) is a cardiovascular disease with high mortality. An aortic dissection is formed when blood infiltrates the layers of the vascular wall, and a new artificial channel, the false lumen, is created. The expansion of the blood vessel due to the weakened wall enhances the risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is performed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. Both idealized geometry and realistic patient configurations from computed tomography (CT) images are investigated. Physiological boundary conditions from in vivo measurements are employed. Flow configuration and biomechanical forces are studied. Quantitative analysis allows clinicians to assess the risk of rupture in making decision regarding surgical intervention.

  4. MSFC crack growth analysis computer program, version 2 (users manual)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, M.

    1976-01-01

    An updated version of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Crack Growth Analysis Program is described. The updated computer program has significantly expanded capabilities over the original one. This increased capability includes an extensive expansion of the library of stress intensity factors, plotting capability, increased design iteration capability, and the capability of performing proof test logic analysis. The technical approaches used within the computer program are presented, and the input and output formats and options are described. Details of the stress intensity equations, example data, and example problems are presented.

  5. Computational Analysis of the SRS Phase III Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, R.A.

    1999-10-07

    Completion of the Phase III evaluation and comparison of salt disposition alternatives was supported with enhanced computer models and analysis for each case on the ''short list'' of four options. SPEEDUP(TM) models and special purpose models describing mass and energy balances and flow rates were developed and used to predict performance and production characteristics for each of the options. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and an alternate salt disposition alternative.

  6. First Experiences with LHC Grid Computing and Distributed Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Ian

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation the experiences of the LHC experiments using grid computing were presented with a focus on experience with distributed analysis. After many years of development, preparation, exercises, and validation the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments are in operations. The computing infrastructure has been heavily utilized in the first 6 months of data collection. The general experience of exploiting the grid infrastructure for organized processing and preparation is described, as well as the successes employing the infrastructure for distributed analysis. At the end the expected evolution and future plans are outlined.

  7. Clinical applications of 3-dimensional printing in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yizhou; Moran, Kathryn; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Allan, James; Clarke, Scott; Rajaraman, Murali; Wilke, Derek; Joseph, Paul; Robar, James L

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Photon boluses were 3D-printed to treat a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal septum and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the posterior pinna. For a patient with a mycosis fungoides involving the upper face, a 3D-printed MERT bolus was used. To treat an SCC of the nose, a 3D-printed applicator for surface brachytherapy was made. The structures' fit to the anatomy and the radiotherapy treatment plans were assessed. Based on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT), the size of the largest air gap at the interface of the 3D-printed structure was 3 mm for the SCC of the nasal septum, 3 mm for the BCC of the pinna, 2 mm for the mycosis fungoides of the face, and 2 mm for the SCC of the nose. Acceptable treatment plans were obtained for the SCC of the nasal septum (95% isodose to 99.8% of planning target volume [PTV]), the BCC of the pinna (95% isodose to 97.7% of PTV), and the mycosis fungoides of the face (90% isodose to 92.5% of PTV). For the latter, compared with a plan with a uniform thickness bolus, the one featuring the MERT bolus achieved relative sparing of all the organs at risk (OARs) distal to the target volume, while maintaining similar target volume coverage. The surface brachytherapy plan for the SCC of the nose had adequate coverage (95% isodose to 95.6% of clinical target volume [CTV]), but a relatively high dose to the left eye, owing to its proximity to the tumor. 3D printing can be implemented effectively in the

  8. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell ( PEMFC ) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid...Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous

  9. Salivary calculus diagnosis with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dreiseidler, Timo; Ritter, Lutz; Rothamel, Daniel; Neugebauer, Jörg; Scheer, Martin; Mischkowski, Robert A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cone-beam CT (CBCT) diagnoses of sialoliths in the major salivary glands. Twenty-nine CBCT images containing salivary calculi were retrospectively evaluated for image quality and artifact influence. Additionally, the reproducibility of calculus measurement and the differences between CBCT measurements and ultrasonography (US) and histomorphometry (HM) measurements were determined. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity calculations were based on the observations of 3 masked clinicians, who reviewed a total of 58 CBCT volumes. Salivary calculi were sufficiently visualized in all patients. Metal artifacts were detected in images of 7 patients, and movement artifacts in 2. CBCT calculi measurements were highly reproducible, with mean differences of less than 350 microm. Mean CBCT measurements of calculi diameters differed from mean US measurements by approximately 500 microm and differed from mean HM measurements by approximately 1 mm. For calculus diagnoses, the mean sensitivity and specificity were both 98.85%. Although poor image qualities and artifacts can reduce diagnostic information, salivary calculi can be evaluated adequately with CBCT. CBCT measurements of calculi are highly reproducible and differ little from measurements made with US and HM. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity levels with CBCT are as high as or higher than those obtained with other diagnostic methods. Because of its high diagnostic-information-to-radiation-dose ratio, CBCT is the preferable imaging modality for salivary calculus diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  11. Application of 3-dimensional ultrasonography in assessing carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Sung Bum; Kang, Chang Ho; Yoon, Joon Shik; Kwon, Hee Kyu; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Oh, Yu Whan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of 3D ultrasonography (3DUS) in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fifty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electromyography and 37 healthy control participants underwent 3DUS of the wrists. The mean times per participant for the 3DUS examination and review of the 3D volume set were recorded. The cross-sectional area at the proximal carpal tunnel and the maximum swelling point were measured. Data from patients and controls were compared for determination of statistical significance. The accuracy of the 3DUS diagnostic criteria for carpal tunnel syndrome was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis, and changes in the median nerve shape, including the maximum swelling point, were assessed by review of the 3D volume data. The mean times for examination of a participant and review in each wrist were 56 seconds and 5.7 minutes, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the mean cross-sectional areas of the median nerve between patients and controls. The mean cross-sectional areas ± SD were 16.7 ± 6.7 mm(2) in patients and 8.3 ± 1.9 mm(2) in controls. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, a cutoff value of greater than 10.5 mm(2) provided diagnostic sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 86%. In 42 of 73 wrists with carpal tunnel syndrome, the median nerve showed fusiform morphologic abnormalities and maximum swelling points. Our results show that 3DUS could markedly decrease scanning time, and measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area combined with morphologic analysis using 3DUS is a promising supplementary method for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  12. Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Woven Composites by Mark Pankow, Ashiq Quabili, Stephen Whittie, and Chian Yen Approved for public release; distribution...2016 US Army Research Laboratory Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites by Mark...Properties of Various 3-Dimensional Woven Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark Pankow

  13. AKSATINT - SATELLITE INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION USING PERSONAL COMPUTERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, the number of communication satellites in service increased, and interference has become an increasingly important consideration in designing satellite/ground station communications systems. Satellite Interference Analysis and Simulation Using Personal Computers, AKSATINT, models the interference experienced by a generic satellite communications receiving station due to an interfering satellite. Both the desired and the interfering satellites are considered to be in elliptical orbits. The simulation contains computation of orbital positions of both satellites using classical orbital elements, calculation of the satellite antennae look angles for both satellites and elevation angles at the desired-satellite ground-station antenna, and computation of Doppler effect due to the motions of the satellites and the Earth's rotation. AKSATINT also computes the interference-tosignal-power ratio, taking into account losses suffered by the links. After computing the interference-to-signal-power ratio, the program computes the statistical quantities. The statistical formulation of the interference effect is presented in the form of a histogram of the interference to the desired signal power ratio. The program includes a flowchart, a sample run, and results of that run. AKSATINT is expected to be of general use to system designers and frequency managers in selecting the proper frequency under an interference scenario. The AKSATINT program is written in BASIC. It was designed to operate on the IBM Personal Computer AT or compatibles, and has been implemented under MS DOS 3.2. AKSATINT was developed in 1987.

  14. Current Status of 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: A Review from Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ishizu, Tomko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac function analysis is the main focus of echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been the clinical standard, however, LVEF is not enough to investigate myocardial function. For the last decade, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been the novel clinical tool for regional and global myocardial function analysis. However, 2-dimensional imaging methods have limitations in assessing 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac motion. In contrast, 3D echocardiography also has been widely used, in particular, to measure LV volume measurements and assess valvular diseases. Joining the technology bandwagon, 3D-STE was introduced in 2008. Experimental studies and clinical investigations revealed the reliability and feasibility of 3D-STE-derived data. In addition, 3D-STE provides a novel deformation parameter, area change ratio, which have the potential for more accurate assessment of overall and regional myocardial function. In this review, we introduced the features of the methodology, validation, and clinical application of 3D-STE based on our experiences for 7 years. PMID:25031794

  15. Systematic Review of the Use of 3-Dimensional Printing in Surgical Teaching and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Benjamin; Momin, Sheikh; Coumbe, Ben; Woin, Evelina; Griffin, Michelle; Butler, Peter

    2017-07-17

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in medicine has rapidly expanded in recent years as the technology has developed. The potential uses of 3D printing are manifold. This article provides a systematic review of the uses of 3D printing within surgical training and assessment. A structured literature search of the major literature databases was performed in adherence to PRISMA guidelines. Articles that met predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were appraised with respect to the key objectives of the review and sources of bias were analysed. Overall, 49 studies were identified for inclusion in the qualitative analysis. Heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures used prohibited meaningful meta-analysis. 3D printing has been used in surgical training across a broad range of specialities but most commonly in neurosurgery and otorhinolaryngology. Both objective and subjective outcome measures have been studied, demonstrating the usage of 3D printed models in training and education. 3D printing has also been used in anatomical education and preoperative planning, demonstrating improved outcomes when compared to traditional educational methods and improved patient outcomes, respectively. 3D printing technology has a broad range of potential applications within surgical education and training. Although the field is still in its relative infancy, several studies have already demonstrated its usage both instead of and in addition to traditional educational methods. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superfast robust digital image correlation analysis with parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Tian, Long

    2015-03-01

    Existing digital image correlation (DIC) using the robust reliability-guided displacement tracking (RGDT) strategy for full-field displacement measurement is a path-dependent process that can only be executed sequentially. This path-dependent tracking strategy not only limits the potential of DIC for further improvement of its computational efficiency but also wastes the parallel computing power of modern computers with multicore processors. To maintain the robustness of the existing RGDT strategy and to overcome its deficiency, an improved RGDT strategy using a two-section tracking scheme is proposed. In the improved RGDT strategy, the calculated points with correlation coefficients higher than a preset threshold are all taken as reliably computed points and given the same priority to extend the correlation analysis to their neighbors. Thus, DIC calculation is first executed in parallel at multiple points by separate independent threads. Then for the few calculated points with correlation coefficients smaller than the threshold, DIC analysis using existing RGDT strategy is adopted. Benefiting from the improved RGDT strategy and the multithread computing, superfast DIC analysis can be accomplished without sacrificing its robustness and accuracy. Experimental results show that the presented parallel DIC method performed on a common eight-core laptop can achieve about a 7 times speedup.

  17. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Mandibular Second Molars with C-shaped Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Gutmann, James L; del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the morphometric aspects of the internal anatomy of the root canal system of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals. Fifty-two extracted second mandibular molars with C-shaped canals, fused roots, and radicular grooves were selected from a Brazilian population. The samples were scanned with a micro-computed tomographic scanner at a voxel size of 19.6 μm. The root canal cross sections were recorded as C1, C2, C3, and C4 root canal configurations according to the modified Melton classification. Morphometric parameters, including the major and minor diameters of the root canals, the aspect ratio, the roundness, and the tridimensional configuration (merging, symmetric, and asymmetric), were evaluated. The 3-dimensional reconstruction images of the teeth indicated an even distribution within the sample. The analysis of the prevalence of the different cross-sectional configurations of the C-shaped molars revealed that these were predominantly of the C4 and C3 configurations (1 mm from the apex) and the C1 and C2 configurations in the cervical third. According to the morphometric parameters, the C1 and the distal aspect of the C2 configurations exhibited the lowest roundness values and higher values for the area, major diameter, and aspect ratio in the apical third. Mandibular molars with C-shaped root canals exhibited similar distributions of symmetric, asymmetric, and merging type canals. The C1 configuration and the distal aspect of the C2 configuration exhibited the highest area values, low roundness values, and large apical diameters. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April, 1986 through September 30, 1986 is summarized.

  19. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period October 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987 is summarized.

  20. Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis and computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April l, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  1. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  2. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  3. Computer analysis of shells of revolution using asymptotic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, C. R.; Ranjan, G. V.; Goto, C.; Pulliam, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that asymptotic results for the behavior of thin shells can be incorporated in a general computer code for the analysis of a complex shell structure. The advantage when compared to existing finite difference or finite element codes is a substantial reduction in computational labor with the capability of working to a specified level of accuracy. A reduction in user preparation time and dependance on user judgment is also gained, since mesh spacing can be internally generated. The general theory is described in this paper, as well as the implementation in the computer code FAST 1 (Functional Algorithm for Shell Theory) for the analysis of the general axisymmetric shell structure with axisymmetric loading.

  4. Finite element dynamic analysis on CDC STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Computational algorithms are presented for the finite element dynamic analysis of structures on the CDC STAR-100 computer. The spatial behavior is described using higher-order finite elements. The temporal behavior is approximated by using either the central difference explicit scheme or Newmark's implicit scheme. In each case the analysis is broken up into a number of basic macro-operations. Discussion is focused on the organization of the computation and the mode of storage of different arrays to take advantage of the STAR pipeline capability. The potential of the proposed algorithms is discussed and CPU times are given for performing the different macro-operations for a shell modeled by higher order composite shallow shell elements having 80 degrees of freedom.

  5. Boundary element analysis on vector and parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Boundary element analysis (BEA) can be characterized as a numerical technique that generally shifts the computational burden in the analysis toward numerical integration and the solution of nonsymmetric and either dense or blocked sparse systems of algebraic equations. Researchers have explored the concept that the fundamental characteristics of BEA can be exploited to generate effective implementations on vector and parallel computers. In this paper, the results of some of these investigations are discussed. The performance of overall algorithms for BEA on vector supercomputers, massively data parallel single instruction multiple data (SIMD), and relatively fine grained distributed memory multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD) computer systems is described. Some general trends and conclusions are discussed, along with indications of future developments that may prove fruitful in this regard.

  6. Interactive computer code for dynamic and soil structure interaction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulliken, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    A new interactive computer code is presented in this paper for dynamic and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. The computer program FETA (Finite Element Transient Analysis) is a self contained interactive graphics environment for IBM-PC`s that is used for the development of structural and soil models as well as post-processing dynamic analysis output. Full 3-D isometric views of the soil-structure system, animation of displacements, frequency and time domain responses at nodes, and response spectra are all graphically available simply by pointing and clicking with a mouse. FETA`s finite element solver performs 2-D and 3-D frequency and time domain soil-structure interaction analyses. The solver can be directly accessed from the graphical interface on a PC, or run on a number of other computer platforms.

  7. Recent developments of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T.; Thacker, B.; Riha, D.; Leung, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general purpose structural analysis methods to compute the probabilistic response and the reliability of engineering structures. Uncertainty in loading, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include nonlinear finite element and boundary element methods. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. The scope of the code has recently been expanded to include probabilistic life and fatigue prediction of structures in terms of component and system reliability and risk analysis of structures considering cost of failure. The code is currently being extended to structural reliability considering progressive crack propagation. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  8. Integrating computer programs for engineering analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Crisp, V. K.; Johnson, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a third-generation system for integrating computer programs for engineering and design has been developed for the Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design (AVID) system. This system consists of an engineering data management system, program interface software, a user interface, and a geometry system. A relational information system (ARIS) was developed specifically for the computer-aided engineering system. It is used for a repository of design data that are communicated between analysis programs, for a dictionary that describes these design data, for a directory that describes the analysis programs, and for other system functions. A method is described for interfacing independent analysis programs into a loosely-coupled design system. This method emphasizes an interactive extension of analysis techniques and manipulation of design data. Also, integrity mechanisms exist to maintain database correctness for multidisciplinary design tasks by an individual or a team of specialists. Finally, a prototype user interface program has been developed to aid in system utilization.

  9. Recent developments of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T.; Thacker, B.; Riha, D.; Leung, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis computer program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general purpose structural analysis methods to compute the probabilistic response and the reliability of engineering structures. Uncertainty in loading, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include nonlinear finite element and boundary element methods. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. The scope of the code has recently been expanded to include probabilistic life and fatigue prediction of structures in terms of component and system reliability and risk analysis of structures considering cost of failure. The code is currently being extended to structural reliability considering progressive crack propagation. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  10. Petascale visual data analysis in a production computing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, Sean

    2007-07-01

    Supporting the visualization and analysis needs of the users of the Department of Energy's premiere high-performance computing centers requires a careful engineering of software and hardware system architectures to provide maximum capability and algorithmic breadth. Data set growth follows an inverse power law that has implications for the platforms that are deployed for analysis and visualization; central storage and coupled analysis platforms are critical for petascale post-production. Software architectures like VisIt - which exploit parallel platforms, as well as provide remote capability, extensibility, and optimization - are fruitful ground for delivering new analysis capabilities for petascale applications. Finally, direct interaction with customers is key to deploying successful results.

  11. Integration of rocket turbine design and analysis through computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne; Boynton, Jim

    1988-01-01

    An interactive approach with engineering computer graphics is used to integrate the design and analysis processes of a rocket engine turbine into a progressive and iterative design procedure. The processes are interconnected through pre- and postprocessors. The graphics are used to generate the blade profiles, their stacking, finite element generation, and analysis presentation through color graphics. Steps of the design process discussed include pitch-line design, axisymmetric hub-to-tip meridional design, and quasi-three-dimensional analysis. The viscous two- and three-dimensional analysis codes are executed after acceptable designs are achieved and estimates of initial losses are confirmed.

  12. Integration of rocket turbine design and analysis through computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne; Boynton, Jim

    1988-01-01

    An interactive approach with engineering computer graphics is used to integrate the design and analysis processes of a rocket engine turbine into a progressive and iterative design procedure. The processes are interconnected through pre- and postprocessors. The graphics are used to generate the blade profiles, their stacking, finite element generation, and analysis presentation through color graphics. Steps of the design process discussed include pitch-line design, axisymmetric hub-to-tip meridional design, and quasi-three-dimensional analysis. The viscous two- and three-dimensional analysis codes are executed after acceptable designs are achieved and estimates of initial losses are confirmed.

  13. Large-scale computations in analysis of structures

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.B.; Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-09-01

    Computer hardware and numerical analysis algorithms have progressed to a point where many engineering organizations and universities can perform nonlinear analyses on a routine basis. Through much remains to be done in terms of advancement of nonlinear analysis techniques and characterization on nonlinear material constitutive behavior, the technology exists today to perform useful nonlinear analysis for many structural systems. In the current paper, a survey on nonlinear analysis technologies developed and employed for many years on programmatic defense work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is provided, and ongoing nonlinear numerical simulation projects relevant to the civil engineering field are described.

  14. Computational models for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, E.; Rahman, H. H. A.; Huq, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    A finite element computational model for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete solid, stiffened and cellular plates is briefly outlined. Typically, Mindlin elements are used to model the plates whereas eccentric Timoshenko elements are adopted to represent the beams. The layering technique, common in the analysis of reinforced concrete flexural systems, is incorporated in the model. The proposed model provides an inexpensive and reasonably accurate approach which can be extended for use with voided plates.

  15. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  16. Computational Methods for the Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Raj; Lockwood, William W.; Lam, Wan L.

    2006-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) is a technique for assaying the copy number status of cancer genomes. The widespread use of this technology has lead to a rapid accumulation of high throughput data, which in turn has prompted the development of computational strategies for the analysis of array CGH data. Here we explain the principles behind array image processing, data visualization and genomic profile analysis, review currently available software packages, and raise considerations for future software development. PMID:17992253

  17. A statistical package for computing time and frequency domain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlow, J.

    1978-01-01

    The spectrum analysis (SPA) program is a general purpose digital computer program designed to aid in data analysis. The program does time and frequency domain statistical analyses as well as some preanalysis data preparation. The capabilities of the SPA program include linear trend removal and/or digital filtering of data, plotting and/or listing of both filtered and unfiltered data, time domain statistical characterization of data, and frequency domain statistical characterization of data.

  18. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  19. Forest Fire History... A Computer Method of Data Analysis

    Treesearch

    Romain M. Meese

    1973-01-01

    A series of computer programs is available to extract information from the individual Fire Reports (U.S. Forest Service Form 5100-29). The programs use a statistical technique to fit a continuous distribution to a set of sampled data. The goodness-of-fit program is applicable to data other than the fire history. Data summaries illustrate analysis of fire occurrence,...

  20. Conversation Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Lloret, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The use of Conversation Analysis (CA) in the study of technology-mediated interactions is a recent methodological addition to qualitative research in the field of Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL). The expansion of CA in Second Language Acquisition research, coupled with the need for qualitative techniques to explore how people interact…