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Sample records for 3-dimensional gross-neveu model

  1. Phase diagram of quark-antiquark and diquark condensates in the 3-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with the 4-component spinor representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2008-07-01

    We construct the phase diagram of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates at finite temperature and density in the 2+1 dimensional (3D) two flavor massless Gross-Neveu (GN) model with the 4-component quarks. In contrast to the case of the 2-component quarks, there appears the coexisting phase of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates. This is the crucial difference between the 2-component and 4-component quark cases in the 3D GN model. The coexisting phase is also seen in the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. Then we see that the 3D GN model with the 4-component quarks bears closer resemblance to the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model.

  2. Kinks and bound states in the Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Joshua

    1995-04-01

    We investigate static space-dependent σ(x)=<ψ¯ψ> saddle point configurations in the two-dimensional Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit. We solve the saddle point condition for σ(x) explicitly by employing supersymmetric quantum mechanics and using simple properties of the diagonal resolvent of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators rather than inverse scattering techniques. The resulting solutions in the sector of unbroken supersymmetry are the Callan-Coleman-Gross-Zee kink configurations. We thus provide a direct and clean construction of these kinks. In the sector of broken supersymmetry we derive the DHN saddle point configurations. Our method of finding such nontrivial static configurations may be applied also in other two-dimensional field theories.

  3. Aoki phases in the lattice Gross-Neveu model with flavored mass terms

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael; Kimura, Taro; Misumi, Tatsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the parity-broken phase structure for staggered and naive fermions in the Gross-Neveu model as a toy model of QCD. We consider a generalized staggered Gross-Neveu model including two types of four-point interactions. We use generalized mass terms to split the doublers for both staggered and naive fermions. The phase boundaries derived from the gap equations show that the mass splitting of tastes results in an Aoki phase both in the staggered and naive cases. We also discuss the continuum limit of these models and explore taking the chirally symmetric limit by fine-tuning a mass parameter and two-coupling constants. This supports the idea that in lattice QCD we can derive one- or two-flavor staggered fermions by tuning the mass parameter, which are likely to be less expensive than Wilson fermions in QCD simulation.

  4. Divergence of the axial current and fermion density in Gross-Neveu models

    SciTech Connect

    Karbstein, Felix; Thies, Michael

    2007-10-15

    The divergence of the axial current is used to relate the spatial derivative of the fermion density to the bare fermion mass and scalar/pseudoscalar condensates in 1+1 dimensional Gross-Neveu models. This serves as a useful test of known results, to explain simple features of the continuous chiral model and to resolve a conflict concerning the assignment of baryon number to certain multifermion bound states.

  5. High-gradient operators in the psl (2 | 2) Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnazzo, Alessandra; Schomerus, Volker; Tlapák, Václav

    2015-03-01

    It has been observed more than 25 years ago that sigma model perturbation theory suffers from strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators. The phenomenon was first seen in 1-loop calculations for the O (N) vector model and it is known to persist at least to two loops. More recently, Ryu et al. suggested that a certain deformation of the psl (N | N) WZNW-model at level k = 1, or equivalently the psl (N | N)  Gross-Neveu model, could be free of RG-relevant high-gradient operators and they tested their suggestion to leading order in perturbation theory. In this note we establish the absence of strongly RG-relevant high-gradient operators in the psl (2 | 2) Gross-Neveu model to all loops. In addition, we determine the spectrum for a large subsector of the model at infinite coupling and observe that all scaling weights become half-integer. Evidence for a conjectured relation with the CP 1 | 2 sigma model is not found.

  6. On {C}_{J} and {C}_{T} in the Gross-Neveu and O(N) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, Kenan; Fei, Lin; Giombi, Simone; Klebanov, Igor R.; Tarnopolsky, Grigory

    2016-10-01

    We apply large N diagrammatic techniques for theories with double-trace interactions to the leading corrections to C J , the coefficient of a conserved current two-point function, and C T , the coefficient of the stress-energy tensor two-point function. We study in detail two famous conformal field theories in continuous dimensions, the scalar O(N) model and the Gross-Neveu (GN) model. For the O(N) model, where the answers for the leading large N corrections to C J and C T were derived long ago using analytic bootstrap, we show that the diagrammatic approach reproduces them correctly. We also carry out a new perturbative test of these results using the O(N) symmetric cubic scalar theory in 6 - ɛ dimensions. We go on to apply the diagrammatic method to the GN model, finding explicit formulae for the leading corrections to C J and C T as a function of dimension. We check these large N results using regular perturbation theory for the GN model in 2+ɛ dimensions and the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model in 4-ɛ dimensions. For small values of N, we use Padé approximants based on the 4-ɛ and 2+ɛ expansions to estimate the values of C J and C T in d = 3. For the O(N) model our estimates are close to those found using the conformal bootstrap. For the GN model, our estimates suggest that, even when N is small, C T differs by no more than 2% from that in the theory of free fermions. We find that the inequality {C}T{{UV}}\\gt {C}T{{IR}} applies both to the GN and the scalar O(N) models in d = 3.

  7. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  8. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  9. 3-dimensional current collection model. [Of Tethered Satellite System 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Kai-Shen; Shiah, A.; Wu, S.T.; Stone, N. Alabama, University, Huntsvilll NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ae )

    1992-07-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent current collection model of a satellite has been developed for the TSS-1 system. The system has been simulated particularly for the Research of Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE) experiment. The Maxwellian distributed particles with the geomagnetic field effects are applied in this numerical simulation. The preliminary results indicate that a ring current is observed surrounding the satellite in the equatorial plane. This ring current is found between the plasma sheath and the satellite surface and is oscillating with a time scale of approximately 1 microsec. This is equivalent to the electron plasma frequency. An hour glass shape of electron distribution was observed when the viewing direction is perpendicular to the equatorial plane. This result is consistent with previous findings from Linson (1969) and Antoniades et al. (1990). Electrons that are absorbed by the satellite are limited from the background ionosphere as indicated by Parker and Murphy (1967). 6 refs.

  10. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  11. Finite element modelling of a 3 dimensional dielectrophoretic flow separator device for optimal bioprocessing conditions.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, H O; Hughes, M P

    2004-01-01

    Planar 2-dimensional dielectrophoresis electrode geometries are limited in only being capable of handling fluid volumes ranging from picolitres to hundreds of microliters per hour. A 3-dimensional electrode system has been developed capable of handling significantly larger volumes of fluid. Using finite element modeling the electric field distribution within various bore sizes was realized. From these simulations it is possible to optimize bioprocessing factors influencing the performance of a dielectrophoretic separator. Process calculations have shown that flow-rates of 25ml hr/sup -1/ or more can be attained for the separation of heterogeneous populations of bio-particles based on their dielectric properties.

  12. Investigation of Asymmetries in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Reactors Using a 3-Dimensional Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.; Grapperhaus, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) reactors have the potential for scaling to large area substrates while maintaining azimuthal symmetry or side-to-side uniformity across the wafer. Asymmetric etch properties in these devices have been attributed to transmission line properties of the coil, internal structures (such as wafer clamps) and non-uniform gas injection or pumping. To investigate the origins of asymmetric etch properties, a 3-dimensional hybrid model has been developed. The hybrid model contains electromagnetic, electric circuit, electron energy equation, and fluid modules. Continuity and momentum equations are solved in the fluid module along with Poisson's equation. We will discuss results for ion and radical flux uniformity to the substrate while varying the transmission line characteristics of the coil, symmetry of gas inlets/pumping, and internal structures. Comparisons will be made to expermental measurements of etch rates. ^*Work supported by SRC, NSF, ARPA/AFOSR and LAM Research.

  13. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  14. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  15. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  16. A 3-dimensional DTI MRI-based model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Patel, Vishal; Wen, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most aggressive intra-axial brain tumor, with a notoriously poor prognosis. To improve this prognosis, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of GBM growth, response to treatment and recurrence. The present study presents a mathematical diffusion-proliferation model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy based on diffusion tensor (DTI) MRI imaging. This represents an important advance because it allows 3-dimensional tumor modeling in the anatomical context of the brain. Specifically, tumor infiltration is guided by the direction of the white matter tracts along which glioma cells infiltrate. This provides the potential to model different tumor growth patterns based on location within the brain, and to simulate the tumor's response to different radiation therapy regimens. Tumor infiltration across the corpus callosum is simulated in biologically accurate time frames. The response to radiation therapy, including changes in cell density gradients and how these compare across different radiation fractionation protocols, can be rendered. Also, the model can estimate the amount of subthreshold tumor which has extended beyond the visible MR imaging margins. When combined with the ability of being able to estimate the biological parameters of invasiveness and proliferation of a particular GBM from serial MRI scans, it is shown that the model has potential to simulate realistic tumor growth, response and recurrence patterns in individual patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a DTI-based GBM growth and radiation therapy treatment model. PMID:27572745

  17. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  18. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  19. An Explicit 3-Dimensional Model for Reactive Transport of Nitrogen in Tile Drained Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Hudson, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Midwest because of its link to surface water eutrophication, especially in the Gulf of Mexico. The vast majority of this nitrate is the product of biologically mediated transformation of fertilizers containing ammonia in the vadose zone of agricultural fields. For this reason, it is imperative that mathematical models, which can serve as useful tools to evaluate both the impact of agricultural fertilizer applications and nutrient-reducing management practices, are able to specifically address transport in the vadose zone. The development of a 3-dimensional explicit numerical model to simulate the movement and transformation of nitrogen species through the subsurface on the scale of an individual farm plot will be presented. At this scale, nitrogen fate and transport is controlled by a complex coupling among hydrologic, agricultural and biogeochemical processes. The nitrogen model is a component of a larger modeling effort that focuses upon conditions typical of those found in agricultural fields in Illinois. These conditions include non-uniform, multi-dimensional, transient flow in both saturated and unsaturated zones, geometrically complex networks of tile drains, coupled surface-subsurface-tile flow, and dynamic levels of dissolved oxygen in the soil profile. The advection-dispersion-reaction equation is solved using an operator-splitting approach, which is a flexible and straightforward strategy. Advection is modeled using a total variation diminishing scheme, dispersion is modeled using an alternating direction explicit method, and reactions are modeled using rate law equations. The model's stability and accuracy will be discussed, and test problems will be presented.

  20. 3-Dimensional modeling of large diameter wire array high intensity K-shell radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Thornhill, Joseph W.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-06-01

    Large diameter nested wire array z-pinches imploded on the Z-generator at Sandia National Laboratories have been used extensively to generate high intensity K-shell radiation. Large initial radii are required to obtain the high implosion velocities needed to efficiently radiate in the K-shell. This necessitates low wire numbers and large inter-wire gaps which introduce large azimuthal non-uniformities. Furthermore, the development of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion are known to generate large axial non-uniformity These effects motivate the complete, full circumference 3-dimensional modeling of these systems. Such high velocity implosions also generate large voltages, which increase current losses in the power feed and limit the current delivery to these loads. Accurate representation of the generator coupling is therefore required to reliably represent the energy delivered to, and the power radiated from these sources. We present 3D-resistive MHD calculations of the implosion and stagnation of a variety of large diameter stainless steel wire arrays (hv {approx} 6.7 keV), imploded on the Z-generator both before and after its refurbishment. Use of a tabulated K-shell emission model allows us to compare total and K-shell radiated powers to available experimental measurements. Further comparison to electrical voltage and current measurements allows us to accurately assess the power delivered to these loads. These data allow us to begin to constrain and validate our 3D MHD calculations, providing insight into ways in which these sources may be further optimized.

  1. Contributions of the Musculus Uvulae to Velopharyngeal Closure Quantified With a 3-Dimensional Multimuscle Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Lin, Kant Y; Perry, Jamie L; Blemker, Silvia S

    2016-02-01

    The convexity of the dorsal surface of the velum is critical for normal velopharyngeal (VP) function and is largely attributed to the levator veli palatini (LVP) and musculus uvulae (MU). Studies have correlated a concave or flat nasal velar surface to symptoms of VP dysfunction including hypernasality and nasal air emission. In the context of surgical repair of cleft palates, the MU has been given relatively little attention in the literature compared with the larger LVP. A greater understanding of the mechanics of the MU will provide insight into understanding the influence of a dysmorphic MU, as seen in cleft palate, as it relates to VP function. The purpose of this study was to quantify the contributions of the MU to VP closure in a computational model. We created a novel 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the VP mechanism from magnetic resonance imaging data collected from an individual with healthy noncleft VP anatomy. The model components included the velum, posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW), LVP, and MU. Simulations were based on the muscle and soft tissue mechanical properties from the literature. We found that, similar to previous hypotheses, the MU acts as (i) a space-occupying structure and (ii) a velar extensor. As a space-occupying structure, the MU helps to nearly triple the midline VP contact length. As a velar extensor, the MU acting alone without the LVP decreases the VP distance 62%. Furthermore, activation of the MU decreases the LVP activation required for closure almost 3-fold, from 20% (without MU) to 8% (with MU). Our study suggests that any possible salvaging and anatomical reconstruction of viable MU tissue in a cleft patient may improve VP closure due to its mechanical function. In the absence or dysfunction of MU tissue, implantation of autologous or engineered tissues at the velar midline, as a possible substitute for the MU, may produce a geometric convexity more favorable to VP closure. In the future, more complex models will

  2. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  3. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  4. Virtual model surgery and wafer fabrication using 2-dimensional cephalograms, 3-dimensional virtual dental models, and stereolithographic technology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Jong-Min; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-02-01

    Although several 3-dimensional virtual model surgery (3D-VMS) programs have been introduced to reduce time-consuming manual laboratory steps and potential errors, these programs still require 3D-computed tomography (3D-CT) data and involve complex computerized maneuvers. Because it is difficult to take 3D-CTs for all cases, a new VMS program using 2D lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and 3D virtual dental models (2.5D-VMS program; 3Txer version 2.5, Orapix, Seoul, Korea) has recently been introduced. The purposes of this article were to present the methodology of the 2.5D-VMS program and to verify the accuracy of intermediate surgical wafers fabricated with the stereolithographic technique. Two cases successfully treated using the 2.5D-VMS program are presented. There was no significant difference in the position of upper dentition after surgical movement between 2.5D-VMS and 3D-VMS in 18 samples (less than 0.10 mm, P > .05, Wilcoxon-signed rank test). The 2.5D-VMS can be regarded as an effective alternative for 3D-VMS for cases in which 3D-CT data are not available.

  5. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  6. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H2-N2 mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  7. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus

  8. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models

    DOE PAGES

    Lund, Tina; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans -Thomas; Muller, Ewald; Raffelt, Georg

    2012-11-19

    Here, we study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced activity of the standing accretion shock instability in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.

  9. Visualization of the 3-dimensional flow around a model with the aid of a laser knife

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovoy, V. Y.; Ivanov, V. V.; Orlov, A. A.; Kharchenko, V. N.

    1984-01-01

    A method for visualizing the three-dimensional flow around models of various shapes in a wind tunnel at a Mach number of 5 is described. A laser provides a planar light flux such that any plane through the model can be selectively illuminated. The shape of shock waves and separation regions is then determined by the intensity of light scattered by soot particles in the flow.

  10. [Rapid 3-Dimensional Models of Cerebral Aneurysm for Emergency Surgical Clipping].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takehiko; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Oguma, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Naoki; Otani, Keisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-08-01

    We developed a method for manufacturing solid models of cerebral aneurysms, with a shorter printing time than that involved in conventional methods, using a compact 3D printer with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)resin. We further investigated the application and utility of this printing system in emergency clipping surgery. A total of 16 patients diagnosed with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from cerebral aneurysm rupture were enrolled in the present study. Emergency clipping was performed on the day of hospitalization. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine(DICOM)data obtained from computed tomography angiography(CTA)scans were edited and converted to stereolithography(STL)file formats, followed by the production of 3D models of the cerebral aneurysm by using the 3D printer. The mean time from hospitalization to the commencement of surgery was 242 min, whereas the mean time required for manufacturing the 3D model was 67 min. The average cost of each 3D model was 194 Japanese Yen. The time required for manufacturing the 3D models shortened to approximately 1 hour with increasing experience of producing 3D models. Favorable impressions for the use of the 3D models in clipping were reported by almost all neurosurgeons included in this study. Although 3D printing is often considered to involve huge costs and long manufacturing time, the method used in the present study requires shorter time and lower costs than conventional methods for manufacturing 3D cerebral aneurysm models, thus making it suitable for use in emergency clipping. PMID:27506842

  11. High fidelity 3-dimensional models of beam-electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiz Zarrin Ghalam, Ali

    Electron cloud is a low-density electron profile created inside the vacuum chamber of circular machines with positively charged beams. Electron cloud limits the peak current of the beam and degrades the beams' quality through luminosity degradation, emittance growth and head to tail or bunch to bunch instability. The adverse effects of electron cloud on long-term beam dynamics becomes more and more important as the beams go to higher and higher energies. This problem has become a major concern in many future circular machines design like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Due to the importance of the problem several simulation models have been developed to model long-term beam-electron cloud interaction. These models are based on "single kick approximation" where the electron cloud is assumed to be concentrated at one thin slab around the ring. While this model is efficient in terms of computational costs, it does not reflect the real physical situation as the forces from electron cloud to the beam are non-linear contrary to this model's assumption. To address the existing codes limitation, in this thesis a new model is developed to continuously model the beam-electron cloud interaction. The code is derived from a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model (QuickPIC) originally used for plasma wakefield acceleration research. To make the original model fit into circular machines environment, betatron and synchrotron equations of motions have been added to the code, also the effect of chromaticity, lattice structure have been included. QuickPIC is then benchmarked against one of the codes developed based on single kick approximation (HEAD-TAIL) for the transverse spot size of the beam in CERN-LHC. The growth predicted by QuickPIC is less than the one predicted by HEAD-TAIL. The code is then used to investigate the effect of electron cloud image charges on the long-term beam dynamics, particularly on the

  12. Remanent magnetization and 3-dimensional density model of the Kentucky anomaly region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Estes, R. H.; Myers, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Kentucky body was developed to fit surface gravity and long wavelength aeromagnetic data. Magnetization and density parameters for the model are much like those of Mayhew et al (1982). The magnetic anomaly due to the model at satellite altitude is shown to be much too small by itself to account for the anomaly measured by Magsat. It is demonstrated that the source region for the satellite anomaly is considerably more extensive than the Kentucky body sensu stricto. The extended source region is modeled first using prismatic model sources and then using dipole array sources. Magnetization directions for the source region found by inversion of various combinations of scalar and vector data are found to be close to the main field direction, implying the lack of a strong remanent component. It is shown by simulation that in a case (such as this) where the geometry of the source is known, if a strong remanent component is present its direction is readily detectable, but by scalar data as readily as vector data.

  13. 3-dimensional spatially organized PEG-based hydrogels for an aortic valve co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Puperi, Daniel S.; Balaoing, Liezl R.; O’Connell, Ronan W.; West, Jennifer L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically relevant in vitro models are needed to study disease progression and to develop and screen potential therapeutic interventions for disease. Heart valve disease, in particular, has no early intervention or non-invasive treatment because there is a lack of understanding the cellular mechanisms which lead to disease. Here, we establish a novel, customizable synthetic hydrogel platform that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and the factors which contribute to valve disease. Spatially localized cell adhesive ligands bound in the scaffold promote cell growth and organization of valve interstitial cells and valve endothelial cells in 3D co-culture. Both cell types maintained phenotypes, homeostatic functions, and produced zonally localized extracellular matrix. This model extends the capabilities of in vitro research by providing a platform to perform direct contact co-culture with cells in their physiologically relevant spatial arrangement. PMID:26241755

  14. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  15. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  16. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  17. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  18. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments. PMID:26734515

  19. Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Superimposition Techniques on Various Skeletal Structures of the Head Using Surface Models

    PubMed Central

    Pazera, Pawel; Zorkun, Berna; Katsaros, Christos; Ludwig, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the applicability, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of various 3D superimposition techniques for radiographic data, transformed to triangulated surface data. Methods Five superimposition techniques (3P: three-point registration; AC: anterior cranial base; AC + F: anterior cranial base + foramen magnum; BZ: both zygomatic arches; 1Z: one zygomatic arch) were tested using eight pairs of pre-existing CT data (pre- and post-treatment). These were obtained from non-growing orthodontic patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. All datasets were superimposed by three operators independently, who repeated the whole procedure one month later. Accuracy was assessed by the distance (D) between superimposed datasets on three form-stable anatomical areas, located on the anterior cranial base and the foramen magnum. Precision and reproducibility were assessed using the distances between models at four specific landmarks. Non parametric multivariate models and Bland-Altman difference plots were used for analyses. Results There was no difference among operators or between time points on the accuracy of each superimposition technique (p>0.05). The AC + F technique was the most accurate (D<0.17 mm), as expected, followed by AC and BZ superimpositions that presented similar level of accuracy (D<0.5 mm). 3P and 1Z were the least accurate superimpositions (0.790.05), the detected structural changes differed significantly between different techniques (p<0.05). Bland-Altman difference plots showed that BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, though it presented slightly higher random error. Conclusions Superimposition of 3D datasets using surface models created from voxel data can provide accurate, precise, and reproducible results, offering also high efficiency and increased post-processing capabilities. In

  20. A 3-dimensional in vitro model of epithelioid granulomas induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common causes of granulomatous inflammation are persistent pathogens and poorly-degradable irritating materials. A characteristic pathological reaction to intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of carbon nanotubes is formation of epithelioid granulomas accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the lungs. In the mesothelium, a similar response is induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including asbestos fibers, following intraperitoneal injection. This asbestos-like behaviour of some engineered nanomaterials is a concern for their potential adverse health effects in the lungs and mesothelium. We hypothesize that high aspect ratio nanomaterials will induce epithelioid granulomas in nonadherent macrophages in 3D cultures. Results Carbon black particles (Printex 90) and crocidolite asbestos fibers were used as well-characterized reference materials and compared with three commercial samples of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Doses were identified in 2D and 3D cultures in order to minimize acute toxicity and to reflect realistic occupational exposures in humans and in previous inhalation studies in rodents. Under serum-free conditions, exposure of nonadherent primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages to 0.5 μg/ml (0.38 μg/cm2) of crocidolite asbestos fibers or MWCNTs, but not carbon black, induced macrophage differentiation into epithelioid cells and formation of stable aggregates with the characteristic morphology of granulomas. Formation of multinucleated giant cells was also induced by asbestos fibers or MWCNTs in this 3D in vitro model. After 7-14 days, macrophages exposed to high aspect ratio nanomaterials co-expressed proinflammatory (M1) as well as profibrotic (M2) phenotypic markers. Conclusions Induction of epithelioid granulomas appears to correlate with high aspect ratio and complex 3D structure of carbon nanotubes, not with their iron content or surface area. This model offers a time- and cost

  1. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  2. Universal quantum criticality in Hubbard models with massless Dirac dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji; Sorella, Sandro

    We investigate the metal-insulator transition of two-dimensional interacting electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion, describe by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices: honeycomb and π-flux square lattices. By performing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations followed by careful finite-size scaling analyses, we find that the transition from semi-metallic to antiferromagnetic insulating phases is continuous and evaluate the critical exponents with a high degree of accuracy for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model. We furthermore discuss the fate of the quasiparticle weight and the Fermi velocity across this transition.

  3. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  4. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312

  5. 3-dimensional Modeling of Electromagnetic and Physical Sources of Aziumuthal Nonuniformities in Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqing; Keiter, Eric R.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1998-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICPs) are being used for a variety of deposition processes for microelectronics fabrication. Of particular concern in scaling these devices to large areas is maintaining azimuthal symmetry of the reactant fluxes. Sources of nonuniformity may be physical (e.g., gas injection and side pumping) or electromagnetic (e.g., transmission line effects in the antennas). In this paper, a 3-dimensional plasma equipment model, HPEM-3D,(M. J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. v.82, 5312 (1997).) is used to investigate physical and electromagentic sources of azimuthal nonuniformities in deposition tools. An ionized metal physical vapor deposition (IMPVD) system will be investigated where transmission line effects in the coils produce an asymmetric plasma density. Long mean free path transport for sputtered neutrals and tensor conducitivities have been added to HPEM-3D to address this system. Since the coil generated ion flux drifts back to the target to sputter low ionization potential metal atoms, the asymmetry is reinforced by rapid ionization of the metal atoms.

  6. Molecular profiling of the invasive tumor microenvironment in a 3-dimensional model of colorectal cancer cells and ex vivo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Marc D; Mellone, Max; Pickard, Karen M; Sayan, Abdulkadir Emre; Mitter, Richard; Primrose, John N; Packham, Graham K; Thomas, Gareth; Mirnezami, Alexander H

    2014-01-01

    Invading colorectal cancer (CRC) cells have acquired the capacity to break free from their sister cells, infiltrate the stroma, and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). Characterizing the biology of this phenotypically distinct group of cells could substantially improve our understanding of early events during the metastatic cascade. Tumor invasion is a dynamic process facilitated by bidirectional interactions between malignant epithelium and the cancer associated stroma. In order to examine cell-specific responses at the tumor stroma-interface we have combined organotypic co-culture and laser micro-dissection techniques. Organotypic models, in which key stromal constituents such as fibroblasts are 3-dimensionally co-cultured with cancer epithelial cells, are highly manipulatable experimental tools which enable invasion and cancer-stroma interactions to be studied in near-physiological conditions. Laser microdissection (LMD) is a technique which entails the surgical dissection and extraction of the various strata within tumor tissue, with micron level precision. By combining these techniques with genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling we aim to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular characteristics of invading tumor cells and surrounding stromal tissue, and in doing so potentially reveal novel biomarkers and opportunities for drug development in CRC. PMID:24836208

  7. Development of a high-throughput screening assay based on the 3-dimensional pannus model for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ibold, Yvonne; Frauenschuh, Simone; Kaps, Christian; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen; Goetz, Peter M

    2007-10-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) pannus model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on the interactive co-culture of cartilage and synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Besides the investigation of the pathogenesis of RA, it can be used to analyze the active profiles of antirheumatic pharmaceuticals and other bioactive substances under in vitro conditions. For a potential application in the industrial drug-screening process as a transitional step between 2-dimensional (2-D) cell-based assays and in vivo animal studies, the pannus model was developed into an in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assay. Using the CyBitrade mark-Disk workstation for parallel liquid handling, the main cell culture steps of cell seeding and cultivation were automated. Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage and seeded directly into 96-well microplates in high-density pellets to ensure formation of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell seeding was performed automatically and manually to compare both processes regarding accuracy, reproducibility, consistency, and handling time. For automated cultivation of the chondrocyte pellet cultures, a sequential program was developed using the CyBio Control software to minimize shear forces and handling time. After 14 days of cultivation, the pannus model was completed by coating the cartilage pellets with a layer of human SFs. The effects due to automation in comparison to manual handling were analyzed by optical analysis of the pellets, histological and immunohistochemical staining, and real-time PCR. Automation of this in vitro model was successfully achieved and resulted in an improved quality of the generated pannus cultures by enhancing the formation of cartilage-specific ECM. In addition, automated cell seeding and media exchange increased the efficiency due to a reduction of labor intensity and handling time.

  8. A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pashazadeh, Saeid; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatio-temporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods. PMID:22423198

  9. Solvable models with self-triality in statistical mechanics and field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, R.

    1981-02-09

    The notion of self-duality is extended to self-triality. One example from spin systems is given and completely solved by use of fermion variables. It is then shown that the O(8) Gross-Neveu model has self-triality: The Lagrangian L(psi)=L(R)=L(L) where psi is the original fermion while R and L are two types of kinks that occur dynamically. The anatomy of self-duality (triality) in the Ising and present examples is exposed as is the origin of the fermionic solutions.

  10. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C.; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  11. Three-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry: Application of Radiobiologic Modeling to Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Imaging–Based Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Andrew R.; Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F.; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2010-01-01

    Phantom-based and patient-specific imaging-based dosimetry methodologies have traditionally yielded mean organ-absorbed doses or spatial dose distributions over tumors and normal organs. In this work, radiobiologic modeling is introduced to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose into biologically effective dose and equivalent uniform dose parameters. The methodology is illustrated using data from a thyroid cancer patient treated with radioiodine. Methods Three registered SPECT/CT scans were used to generate 3-dimensional images of radionuclide kinetics (clearance rate) and cumulated activity. The cumulated activity image and corresponding CT scan were provided as input into an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo calculation: The cumulated activity image was used to define the distribution of decays, and an attenuation image derived from CT was used to define the corresponding spatial tissue density and composition distribution. The rate images were used to convert the spatial absorbed dose distribution to a biologically effective dose distribution, which was then used to estimate a single equivalent uniform dose for segmented volumes of interest. Equivalent uniform dose was also calculated from the absorbed dose distribution directly. Results We validate the method using simple models; compare the dose-volume histogram with a previously analyzed clinical case; and give the mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for an illustrative case of a pediatric thyroid cancer patient with diffuse lung metastases. The mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for the tumor were 57.7, 58.5, and 25.0 Gy, respectively. Corresponding values for normal lung tissue were 9.5, 9.8, and 8.3 Gy, respectively. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates the impact of radiobiologic modeling on response prediction. The 57% reduction in the equivalent dose value for the tumor reflects a high level of dose

  12. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  13. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  14. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Ciusa, V; Colombo, A

    2000-04-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13-14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  15. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 3: Verification of 3-dimensional rigid-lid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Nwadike, E. V.; Sinha, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth (e.g., natural or man-made inland lakes) because surface elevation has been removed as a parameter. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions. The free-surface model also provides surface height variations with time.

  16. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 2: User's manual for 3-dimensional free-surface model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one-dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions.

  17. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  18. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able...

  19. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  20. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  1. Direct measurement of the 3-dimensional DNA lesion distribution induced by energetic charged particles in a mouse model tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mirsch, Johanna; Tommasino, Francesco; Frohns, Antonia; Conrad, Sandro; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas; Löbrich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Charged particles are increasingly used in cancer radiotherapy and contribute significantly to the natural radiation risk. The difference in the biological effects of high-energy charged particles compared with X-rays or γ-rays is determined largely by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition events. Part of the energy is deposited in a densely ionizing manner in the inner part of the track, with the remainder spread out more sparsely over the outer track region. Our knowledge about the dose distribution is derived solely from modeling approaches and physical measurements in inorganic material. Here we exploited the exceptional sensitivity of γH2AX foci technology and quantified the spatial distribution of DNA lesions induced by charged particles in a mouse model tissue. We observed that charged particles damage tissue nonhomogenously, with single cells receiving high doses and many other cells exposed to isolated damage resulting from high-energy secondary electrons. Using calibration experiments, we transformed the 3D lesion distribution into a dose distribution and compared it with predictions from modeling approaches. We obtained a radial dose distribution with sub-micrometer resolution that decreased with increasing distance to the particle path following a 1/r2 dependency. The analysis further revealed the existence of a background dose at larger distances from the particle path arising from overlapping dose deposition events from independent particles. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantification of the spatial dose distribution of charged particles in biologically relevant material, and will serve as a benchmark for biophysical models that predict the biological effects of these particles. PMID:26392532

  2. Direct measurement of the 3-dimensional DNA lesion distribution induced by energetic charged particles in a mouse model tissue.

    PubMed

    Mirsch, Johanna; Tommasino, Francesco; Frohns, Antonia; Conrad, Sandro; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas; Löbrich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Charged particles are increasingly used in cancer radiotherapy and contribute significantly to the natural radiation risk. The difference in the biological effects of high-energy charged particles compared with X-rays or γ-rays is determined largely by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition events. Part of the energy is deposited in a densely ionizing manner in the inner part of the track, with the remainder spread out more sparsely over the outer track region. Our knowledge about the dose distribution is derived solely from modeling approaches and physical measurements in inorganic material. Here we exploited the exceptional sensitivity of γH2AX foci technology and quantified the spatial distribution of DNA lesions induced by charged particles in a mouse model tissue. We observed that charged particles damage tissue nonhomogenously, with single cells receiving high doses and many other cells exposed to isolated damage resulting from high-energy secondary electrons. Using calibration experiments, we transformed the 3D lesion distribution into a dose distribution and compared it with predictions from modeling approaches. We obtained a radial dose distribution with sub-micrometer resolution that decreased with increasing distance to the particle path following a 1/r2 dependency. The analysis further revealed the existence of a background dose at larger distances from the particle path arising from overlapping dose deposition events from independent particles. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantification of the spatial dose distribution of charged particles in biologically relevant material, and will serve as a benchmark for biophysical models that predict the biological effects of these particles. PMID:26392532

  3. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  4. Phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenadler, M.; Parisen Toldin, F.; Herbut, I. F.; Assaad, F. F.

    2014-08-01

    We determine the phase diagram of the Kane-Mele model with a long-range Coulomb interaction using an exact quantum Monte Carlo method. Long-range interactions are expected to play a role in honeycomb materials because the vanishing density of states in the semimetallic weak-coupling phase suppresses screening. According to our results, the Kane-Mele-Coulomb model supports the same phases as the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The nonlocal part of the interaction promotes short-range sublattice charge fluctuations, which compete with antiferromagnetic order driven by the onsite repulsion. Consequently, the critical interaction for the magnetic transition is significantly larger than for the purely local Hubbard repulsion. Our numerical data are consistent with SU (2) Gross-Neveu universality for the semimetal to antiferromagnet transition, and with 3D XY universality for the quantum spin Hall to antiferromagnet transition.

  5. Noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of liver regeneration in a mouse model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 using the sodium iodide symporter gene.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Amiot, Bruce; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Miller, Amber; Nace, Rebecca; Glorioso, Jaime; O'Connor, Michael K; Peng, Kah Whye; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2015-04-01

    Cell transplantation is a potential treatment for the many liver disorders that are currently only curable by organ transplantation. However, one of the major limitations of hepatocyte (HC) transplantation is an inability to monitor cells longitudinally after injection. We hypothesized that the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used to visualize transplanted HCs in a rodent model of inherited liver disease: hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Wild-type C57Bl/6J mouse HCs were transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector containing the mouse Slc5a5 (NIS) gene controlled by the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. NIS-transduced cells could robustly concentrate radiolabeled iodine in vitro, with lentiviral transduction efficiencies greater than 80% achieved in the presence of dexamethasone. Next, NIS-transduced HCs were transplanted into congenic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase knockout mice, and this resulted in the prevention of liver failure. NIS-transduced HCs were readily imaged in vivo by single-photon emission computed tomography, and this demonstrated for the first time noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of regenerating tissue in individual animals over time. We also tested the efficacy of primary HC spheroids engrafted in the liver. With the NIS reporter, robust spheroid engraftment and survival could be detected longitudinally after direct parenchymal injection, and this thereby demonstrated a novel strategy for HC transplantation. This work is the first to demonstrate the efficacy of NIS imaging in the field of HC transplantation. We anticipate that NIS labeling will allow noninvasive and longitudinal identification of HCs and stem cells in future studies related to liver regeneration in small and large preclinical animal models.

  6. Scaling limit of the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model: The half-filled band case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woynarovich, F.; Forgács, P.

    1997-02-01

    The scaling limit of the higher level Bethe Ansatz (HLBA) equations for a macroscopically half-filled Hubbard chain is considered. These equations practically decouple into three disjoint sets which are again of the BA type, and correspond to the secular equations of three different kinds of dressed particles (one massive and two massless). The finite size corrections and the fine structure of the spectrum show that the massless sector corresponds to a conformal field with central charge c = 1 and Gaussian anomalous dimensions. The zero temperature free energy is also calculated and is found to be in perfect agreement with the results of a perturbative calculation in the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu (CGN) model. Some further arguments are presented supporting the identification of the model obtained as the relativistic limit of the half-filled Hubbard chain with the SU(2) CGN model.

  7. A thermodynamic and mechanical model for formation of the Solar System via 3-dimensional collapse of the dusty pre-solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    The fundamental and shared rotational characteristics of the Solar System (nearly circular, co-planar orbits and mostly upright axial spins of the planets) record conditions of origin, yet are not explained by prevailing 2-dimensional disk models. Current planetary spin and orbital rotational energies (R.E.) each nearly equal and linearly depend on gravitational self-potential of formation (Ug), revealing mechanical energy conservation. We derive -ΔUg≅Δ.R.E. and stability criteria from thermodynamic principles, and parlay these relationships into a detailed model of simultaneous accretion of the protoSun and planets from the dust-bearing 3-d pre-solar nebula (PSN). Gravitational heating is insignificant because Ug is negative, the 2nd law of thermodynamics must be fulfilled, and ideal gas conditions pertain to the rarified PSN until the objects were nearly fully formed. Combined conservation of angular momentum and mechanical energy during 3-dimensional collapse of spheroidal dust shells in a contracting nebula provides ΔR.E.≅R.E. for the central body, whereas for formation of orbiting bodies, ΔR.E.≅R.E.f(1-If/Ii), where I is the moment of inertia. Orbital data for the inner planets follow 0.04×R.E.f≅-Ug which confirms conservation of angular momentum. Significant loss of spin, attributed to viscous dissipation during differential rotation, masks the initial spin of the un-ignited protoSun predicted by R.E.=-Ug. Heat production occurs after nearly final sizes are reached via mechanisms such as shear during differential rotation and radioactivity. We focus on the dilute stage, showing that the PSN was compositionally graded due to light molecules diffusing preferentially, providing the observed planetary chemistry, and set limits on PSN mass, density, and temperature. From measured planetary masses and orbital characteristics, accounting for dissipation of spin, we deduce mechanisms and the sequence of converting a 3-d dusty cloud to the present 2-d

  8. Fermionic quantum criticality in honeycomb and π -flux Hubbard models: Finite-size scaling of renormalization-group-invariant observables from quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Hohenadler, Martin; Assaad, Fakher F.; Herbut, Igor F.

    2015-04-01

    We numerically investigate the critical behavior of the Hubbard model on the honeycomb and the π -flux lattice, which exhibits a direct transition from a Dirac semimetal to an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator. We use projective auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo simulations and a careful finite-size scaling analysis that exploits approximately improved renormalization-group-invariant observables. This approach, which is successfully verified for the three-dimensional XY transition of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model, allows us to extract estimates for the critical couplings and the critical exponents. The results confirm that the critical behavior for the semimetal to Mott insulator transition in the Hubbard model belongs to the Gross-Neveu-Heisenberg universality class on both lattices.

  9. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  10. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  11. On AGV's navigation in 3-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, Jürgen

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with position estimation and path control for Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGV). To enable a vehicle or a mobile robot in following a continuous “virtual” path without human control, these techniques play an important role. The relationship between the vehicle's motion in 3-dimensional space and the shape of a curved surface is described. In particular, the introduction of a digital terrain model in dead reckoning is considered. Moreover, a possible nonlinear control is developed based on curvilinear path coordinates, and the proof for global stability is given. To achieve general validity, these topics are treated here independently of the cart's special mechanization (the configuration of steered wheels and driven wheels). Simulation studies are presented to illustrate the investigations.

  12. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  13. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT (EPA/600/SR-98/159)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able ...

  14. [Posterior glass fiber-reinforced composite resin-bonded fixed partial dentures: A 3-dimensional modeling and finite element numerical analysis].

    PubMed

    Han, Jingyun; Fei, Renyuan; Li, Yansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2006-08-01

    The method of modeling and mesh generation about 3-unit tooth/restoration complex were established. The three-dimensional finite element models were subjected to four types of occlusal load applied to pontic element to evaluate 3 fiber framework designs and 3 cavities preparation configurations. By comparing the difference of stress distribution, following conclusions were obtained: the principal stress under buccal-lingual cusp load in traditional fiber framework pontic increased by 6.22% compared to that in pure composite resin pontic; optimized fiber framework obviously reduced stress level under any load; modified cavities exhibited better stress transfer and decreased share stress at adhesive interface than traditional cavities. PMID:17002101

  15. A 3-dimensional micro- and nanoparticle transport and filtration model (MNM3D) applied to the migration of carbon-based nanomaterials in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Carlo; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2016-10-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment can act both as contaminants, when they are unintentionally released, and as remediation agents when injected on purpose at contaminated sites. In this work two carbon-based NPs are considered, namely CARBO-IRON®, a new material developed for contaminated site remediation, and single layer graphene oxide (SLGO), a potential contaminant of the next future. Understanding and modeling the transport and deposition of such NPs in aquifer systems is a key aspect in both cases, and numerical models capable to simulate NP transport in groundwater in complex 3D scenarios are necessary. To this aim, this work proposes a modeling approach based on modified advection-dispersion-deposition equations accounting for the coupled influence of flow velocity and ionic strength on particle transport. A new modeling tool (MNM3D - Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries) is presented for the simulation of NPs injection and transport in 3D scenarios. MNM3D is the result of the integration of the numerical code MNMs (Micro and Nanoparticle transport, filtration and clogging Model - Suite) in the well-known transport model RT3D (Clement et al., 1998). The injection in field-like conditions of CARBO-IRON® (20 g/l) amended by CMC (4 g/l) in a 2D vertical tank (0.7 × 1.0 × 0.12 m) was simulated using MNM3D, and compared to experimental results under the same conditions. Column transport tests of SLGO at a concentration (10 mg/l) representative of a possible spill of SLGO-containing waste water were performed at different values of ionic strength (0.1 to 35 mM), evidencing a strong dependence of SLGO transport on IS, and a reversible blocking deposition. The experimental data were fitted using the numerical code MNMs and the ionic strength-dependent transport was up-scaled for a full scale 3D simulation of SLGO release and long-term transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. MNM3D showed to potentially represent a valid tool for

  16. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  17. The 3-Dimensional Structure of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program CLASH (PI Postman) has provided the community with the most detailed views ever of the central regions of massive galaxy clusters. These galaxy clusters have also been observed with NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, with the ground-based Subaru telescope, and with other ground- and space-based facilities, resulting in unprecedented multi-wavelength data sets of the most massive bound structures in the universe. Fitting 3-Dimensional mass models is crucial to understanding how mass is distributed in individual clusters, investigating the properties of dark matter, and testing our cosmological model. With the exquisite data available, the time is now ideal to undertake this analysis. We propose to use algorithms that we have developed and obtain mass models for the clusters from the CLASH sample. The project would use archival gravitational lensing data, X-ray data of the cluster's hot gas and additional constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) data. Specifically, we would model the 23 clusters for which both HST and Subaru data (or in one case WFI data) are publicly available, since the exquisite imaging of HST in the clusters' central regions is beautifully augmented by the wide field coverage of Subaru imaging. If the true 3-D shapes of clusters are not properly accounted for when analysing data, this can lead to inaccuracies in the mass density profiles of individual clusters - up to 50% bias in mass for the most highly triaxial systems. Our proposed project represents an independent analysis of the CLASH sample, complementary to that of the CLASH team, probing the triaxial shapes and orientations of the cluster dark matter halos and hot gas. Our findings will be relevant to the analysis of data from future missions such as JWST and Euclid, and also to ground-based surveys to be made with telescopes such as LSST.

  18. The Spatiotemporal Stability of Dominant Frequency Sites in In-Silico Modeling of 3-Dimensional Left Atrial Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported that stable rotors were observed in in-silico human atrial fibrillation (AF) models, and were well represented by dominant frequency (DF). We explored the spatiotemporal stability of DF sites in 3D-AF models imported from patient CT images of the left atrium (LA). Methods We integrated 3-D CT images of the LA obtained from ten patients with persistent AF (male 80%, 61.8 ± 13.5 years old) into an in-silico AF model. After induction, we obtained 6 seconds of AF simulation data for DF analyses in 30 second intervals (T1–T9). The LA was divided into ten sections. Spatiotemporal changes and variations in the temporal consistency of DF were evaluated at each section of the LA. The high DF area was defined as the area with the highest 10% DF. Results 1. There was no spatial consistency in the high DF distribution at each LA section during T1–T9 except in one patient (p = 0.027). 2. Coefficients of variation for the high DF area were highly different among the ten LA sections (p < 0.001), and they were significantly higher in the four pulmonary vein (PV) areas, the LA appendage, and the peri-mitral area than in the other LA sections (p < 0.001). 3. When we conducted virtual ablation of 10%, 15%, and 20% of the highest DF areas (n = 270 cases), AF was changed to atrial tachycardia (AT) or terminated at a rate of 40%, 57%, and 76%, respectively. Conclusions Spatiotemporal consistency of the DF area was observed in 10% of AF patients, and high DF areas were temporally variable. Virtual ablation of DF is moderately effective in AF termination and AF changing into AT. PMID:27459377

  19. Wear Particles Derived from Metal Hip Implants Induce the Generation of Multinucleated Giant Cells in a 3-Dimensional Peripheral Tissue-Equivalent Model

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debargh K.; Potnis, Pushya A.; Rhodes, Kelly; Wood, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) are formed by the fusion of 5 to 15 monocytes or macrophages. MGCs can be generated by hip implants at the site where the metal surface of the device is in close contact with tissue. MGCs play a critical role in the inflammatory processes associated with adverse events such as aseptic loosening of the prosthetic joints and bone degeneration process called osteolysis. Upon interaction with metal wear particles, endothelial cells upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that enhance a localized immune response. However, the role of endothelial cells in the generation of MGCs has not been completely investigated. We developed a three-dimensional peripheral tissue-equivalent model (PTE) consisting of collagen gel, supporting a monolayer of endothelial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on top, which mimics peripheral tissue under normal physiological conditions. The cultures were incubated for 14 days with Cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr ASTM F75, 1–5 micron) wear particles. PBMC were allowed to transit the endothelium and harvested cells were analyzed for MGC generation via flow cytometry. An increase in forward scatter (cell size) and in the propidium iodide (PI) uptake (DNA intercalating dye) was used to identify MGCs. Our results show that endothelial cells induce the generation of MGCs to a level 4 fold higher in 3-dimentional PTE system as compared to traditional 2-dimensional culture plates. Further characterization of MGCs showed upregulated expression of tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) and dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein, (DC-STAMP), which are markers of bone degrading cells called osteoclasts. In sum, we have established a robust and relevant model to examine MGC and osteoclast formation in a tissue like environment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. With endothelial cells help, we observed a consistent generation of metal wear particle- induced MGCs, which

  20. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  1. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  2. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  3. Biochemical Applications Of 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Marc J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the 3-dimensional fluorescence of complex mixtures of bioloquids such as human serum, serum ultrafiltrate, human urine, and human plasma low density lipoproteins. The total fluorescence of human serum can be divided into a few peaks. When comparing fluorescence topograms of sera, from normal and cancerous subjects, we found significant differences in tryptophan fluorescence. Although the total fluorescence of human urine can be resolved into 3-5 distinct peaks, some of them. do not result from single fluorescent urinary metabolites, but rather from. several species having similar spectral properties. Human plasma, low density lipoproteins possess a native fluorescence that changes when submitted to in-vitro autoxidation. The 3-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated the presence of 7 fluorophores in the lipid domain, and 6 fluorophores in the protein. dovain- The above results demonstrated that 3-dimensional fluorescence can resolve the spectral properties of complex ,lxtures much better than other methods. Moreover, other parameters than excitation and emission wavelength and intensity (for instance fluorescence lifetime, polarization, or quenchability) may be exploited to give a multidl,ensio,a1 matrix, that is unique for each sample. Consequently, 3-dimensio:Hhal fluorescence as such, or in combination with separation techniques is therefore considered to have the potential of becoming a useful new H.ethod in clinical chemistry and analytical biochemistry.

  4. [3-dimensional documentation of wound-healing].

    PubMed

    Körber, A; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2006-04-01

    The objective evaluation of the course of wound-healing represents a substantial parameter for the quality assurance of a modern wound management in chronic wounds. Established procedures exclusively based on a two-dimensional measurement of the wound surface with planimetry or digital photo documentation in combination with a metric statement of size. Thus so far an objective method is missing for the evaluation of the volumes of chronic wounds. By the linkage of digital photography, optical grid by means of digital scanner and an image processing software in co-operation with the company RSI we were able to do an accurate 3-dimensional documentation of chronic wounds (DigiSkin). The generated scatter-plots allow a visual, computer-assisted 3-dimensional measurement and documentation of chronic wounds. In comparison with available systems it is now possible for the first time to objectify the volume changes of a chronic wound. On the basis of a case report of a female patient with an venous leg ulcer, which has been treated with a vacuum closure therapy before and after performing a mesh-graft transplantation, we would like to describe the advantages and the resulting scientific use of this new, objective wound documentation system in the clinical employment. PMID:16575675

  5. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F.; Fradkin, Jamie; Eoh, Joon; Trivero, Jacqueline; Davenport, Matthew; Ginn, Brian; Mao, Hai-Quan; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Despite current advances in engineering blood vessels over 1 mm in diameter and the existing wealth of knowledge regarding capillary bed formation, studies for the development of microvasculature, the connecting bridge between them, have been extremely limited so far. Here, we evaluate the use of 3-dimensional (3D) microfibers fabricated by hydrogel electrospinning as templates for microvascular structure formation. We hypothesize that 3D microfibers improve extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition from vascular cells, enabling the formation of freestanding luminal multicellular microvasculature. Compared to 2-dimensional cultures, we demonstrate with confocal microscopy and RT-PCR that fibrin microfibers induce an increased ECM protein deposition by vascular cells, specifically endothelial colony-forming cells, pericytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. These ECM proteins comprise different layers of the vascular wall including collagen types I, III, and IV, as well as elastin, fibronectin, and laminin. We further demonstrate the achievement of multicellular microvascular structures with an organized endothelium and a robust multicellular perivascular tunica media. This, along with the increased ECM deposition, allowed for the creation of self-supporting multilayered microvasculature with a distinct circular lumen following fibrin microfiber core removal. This approach presents an advancement toward the development of human microvasculature for basic and translational studies.—Barreto-Ortiz, S. F., Fradkin, J., Eoh, J., Trivero, J., Davenport, M., Ginn, B., Mao, H.-Q., Gerecht, S. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures. PMID:25900808

  6. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  7. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  8. Scaling limit of the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model: The non-half-filled band case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woynarovich, F.; Forgács, P.

    1999-01-01

    The scaling limit of the less than half-filled attractive Hubbard chain is studied. This is a continuum limit in which the particle number per lattice site, n, is kept finite (0 < n < 1) while adjusting the interaction and bandwidth in such a way that there is a finite mass gap. We construct this limit both for the spectrum and the secular equations describing the excitations. We find that similarly to the half-filled case, the limiting model has a massive and a massless sector. The structure of the massive sector is closely analogous to that of the half-filled band and consequently to the chiral invariant SU(2) Gross-Neveu (CGN) model. The structure of the massless sector differs from that of the half-filled band case: the excitations are of particle and hole type, however they are not uniquely defined. The energy and the momentum of this sector exhibits a tower structure corresponding to a conformal field theory with c = 1 and SU(2) × SU(2) symmetry. The energy-momentum spectrum and the zero temperature free energy of the states with finite density coincides with that of the half-filled case supporting the identification of the limiting model with the SU(2) symmetric CGN theory.

  9. Improving Perceptual Skills with 3-Dimensional Animations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Janet Faye; Brander, Julianne Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)

  10. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  11. 3-Dimensional simulation of the grain formation in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M. ); Tintillier, R. . Dept. Materiaux et Procedes-Direction Technique)

    1994-03-01

    A 3-dimensional (3-D) probabilistic model which has been developed previously for the prediction of grain structure formation during solidification is applied to thin superalloy plates produced using the investment-casting process. This model considers the random nucleation and orientation of nuclei formed at the mold surface and in the bulk of the liquid, the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips, and the preferential growth directions of the dendrite trunks and arms. In the present study, the grains are assumed to nucleate at the surface of the mold only. The computed grain structures, as observed in 2-dimensional (2-D) sections made parallel to the mold surface, are compared with experimental micrographs. The grain densities are then deduced as a function of the distance from the mold surface for both the experiment and the simulation. It is shown that these values are in good agreement, thus, providing validation of the grain formation mechanisms built into the 3-D probabilistic model. Finally, this model is further extended to more complex geometries and the 3-D computed grain structure of an equiaxed turbine-blade airfoil is compared with the experimental transverse section micrograph.

  12. A Seafloor Benchmark for 3-dimensional Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Webb, S. C.; Nooner, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an inexpensive, permanent seafloor benchmark to increase the longevity of seafloor geodetic measurements. The benchmark provides a physical tie to the sea floor lasting for decades (perhaps longer) on which geodetic sensors can be repeatedly placed and removed with millimeter resolution. Global coordinates estimated with seafloor geodetic techniques will remain attached to the benchmark allowing for the interchange of sensors as they fail or become obsolete, or for the sensors to be removed and used elsewhere, all the while maintaining a coherent series of positions referenced to the benchmark. The benchmark has been designed to free fall from the sea surface with transponders attached. The transponder can be recalled via an acoustic command sent from the surface to release from the benchmark and freely float to the sea surface for recovery. The duration of the sensor attachment to the benchmark will last from a few days to a few years depending on the specific needs of the experiment. The recovered sensors are then available to be reused at other locations, or again at the same site in the future. Three pins on the sensor frame mate precisely and unambiguously with three grooves on the benchmark. To reoccupy a benchmark a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) uses its manipulator arm to place the sensor pins into the benchmark grooves. In June 2014 we deployed four benchmarks offshore central Oregon. We used the ROV Jason to successfully demonstrate the removal and replacement of packages onto the benchmark. We will show the benchmark design and its operational capabilities. Presently models of megathrust slip within the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) are mostly constrained by the sub-aerial GPS vectors from the Plate Boundary Observatory, a part of Earthscope. More long-lived seafloor geodetic measures are needed to better understand the earthquake and tsunami risk associated with a large rupture of the thrust fault within the Cascadia subduction zone

  13. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  14. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  15. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  16. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  17. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, A.; Bochud, F.; Moeckli, R.

    2014-08-01

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  18. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Joosten, A; Bochud, F; Moeckli, R

    2014-08-21

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  19. A 3-dimensional Analysis of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isensee, Karl

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the nearby supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Easily resolvable supernova remnants such as Cas A provide a unique opportunity to test supernova explosion models. Additionally, we can observe key processes in the interstellar medium as the ejecta from the initial explosion encounter Cas A's powerful shocks. In order to accomplish these science goals, we used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to create a high resolution spectral map of select regions of Cas A, allowing us to make a Doppler reconstruction of its 3-dimensional structure structure. In the center of the remnant, we find relatively pristine ejecta that have not yet reached Cas A's reverse shock or interacted with the circumstellar environment. We observe O, Si, and S emission. These ejecta can form both sheet-like structures as well as filaments. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers of the star, are observed to be coincident in some regions, and separated by >500 km s -1 in others. Observed ejecta traveling toward us are, on average, ˜800 km s -1 slower than the material traveling away from us. We compare our observations to recent supernova explosion models and find that no single model can simultaneously reproduce all the observed features. However, models of different supernova explosions can collectively produce the observed geometries and structures of the emission interior to Cas A's reverse shock. We use the results from the models to address the conditions during the supernova explosion, concentrating on asymmetries in the shock structure. We also predict that the back surface of Cassiopeia A will begin brightening in ∼30 years, and the front surface in ˜100 years. We then used similar observations from 3 regions on Cas A's reverse shock in order to create more 3-dimensional maps. In these regions, we observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the

  20. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  1. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  2. Molecular signatures in the prevention of radiation damage by the synergistic effect of N-acetyl cysteine and qingre liyan decoction, a traditional chinese medicine, using a 3-dimensional cell culture model of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Lambros, Maria P; Kondapalli, Lavanya; Parsa, Cyrus; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Orlando, Robert; Pon, Doreen; Huang, Ying; Chow, Moses S S

    2015-01-01

    Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD) at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1), protective genes (EGFR and PPARD), and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors.

  3. Noncommutative 3 Dimensional Soliton from Multi-instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, D. H.; Forgacs, P.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.; Silva, G. A.

    2004-07-01

    We extend the relation between instanton and monopole solutions of the selfduality equations in SU(2) gauge theory to noncommutative space-times. Using this approach and starting from a noncommutative multi-instanton solution we construct a U(2) monopole configuration which lives in 3 dimensional ordinary space. This configuration resembles the Wu-Yang monopole and satisfies the selfduality (Bogomol'nyi) equations for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system.

  4. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  5. 3-Dimensional modeling of protein structures distinguishes closely related phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas (formerly mycoplasmalike organisms, MLOs) are cell wall-less bacteria that inhabit phloem tissue of plants and are transmitted from plant-to-plant by phloem-feeding insects. Numerous diseases affecting hundreds of plant species in many botanical families are attributed to infections by...

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly with ethmocephaly via 3-dimensional sonography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gui-Se-Ra; Hur, Soo Young; Shin, Jong-Chul; Kim, Soo-Pyung; Kim, Sa Jin

    2006-01-01

    We present the prenatal 3-dimensional (3D) sonographic findings in a case of holoprosencephaly with ethmocephaly at 32 weeks' gestation. The sonographic diagnosis was based on the intracranial findings of a single ventricle and bulb-shaped appearance of the thalami and facial abnormalities, including hypotelorism with proboscis. Chromosome study of the fetus revealed a normal female karyotype (46,XX). Postmortem examination confirmed the 3D sonographic findings. This case demonstrates that the use of 3D sonography improves the imaging and the understanding of the condition of the intracranial abnormalities and the facial anomalies. PMID:16788963

  7. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  9. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene. PMID:21811148

  10. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  11. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  12. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  13. A Novel 3-Dimensional Approach for Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Munarin, F.; Coulombe, K.L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases, such as coronary artery disease and microvascular disease, are cardiovascular pathologies that cause reduced blood supply to the heart muscle. Acute and chronic ischemia cause cardiomyocytes to die, and these cells are not naturally replaced as part of the wound healing process in the heart. To promote neovascularization in the wound bed and in implanted engineered tissues, we have developed a collagen–alginate microspheres scaffold intended for local release of drugs and growth factors in order to recruit host endothelial cells to the area and provide them with geometrical cues to form new vessels. Optimization of alginate microspheres included modulation of nitrogen pressure, alginate and CaCl2 concentrations, nozzle size, and velocity of extrusion to achieve monodisperse populations of 100 μm diameter microspheres with protein release over 3 days. In vitro incorporation of fibroblasts in the bulk collagen demonstrated cellular compatibility with embedded alginate microspheres. An in vitro vessel formation assay, performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) immobilized in the collagen phase of the collagen–alginate microspheres scaffolds, showed that HUVECs formed networks following the 3-dimensional pattern of the microspheres even in the absence of growth factor. Implantation of acellular collagen–alginate microspheres scaffolds onto healthy rat hearts confirmed the invasion of host cells at one week. Together, these results suggest that the collagen–alginate microspheres scaffold is a viable, tunable therapeutic approach for directing neovascularization in engineered tissues and in the heart after ischemic events. PMID:26736614

  14. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  15. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  16. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  17. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  18. The method of geometrical comparison of 3-dimensional objects created from DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Gaweł, Dominik; Danielewicz, Kamil; Nowak, Michał

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method of geometrical comparison of 3-dimensional objects created from DICOM images. The reconstruction of biological objects is realized with use of Simpleware commercial software. Then the 3D geometries are registered and the recognized shape differences are visualized using color map, indicating the change of the 3D geometry. Than the last, but most important step of the presented technology is performed. The model including the information about changes in compared geometries is translated into the PDF format. Such approach allows to present the final result on every desktop computer equipped with Adobe Reader. This PDF browser is free to use and gives the possibility to freely rotate, move and zoom the model. PMID:22744507

  19. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  20. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  1. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  2. Unification of color postprocessing techniques for 3-dimensional computational mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Bruce Charles

    1985-01-01

    To facilitate the understanding of complex three-dimensional numerical models, advanced interactive color postprocessing techniques are introduced. These techniques are sufficiently flexible so that postprocessing difficulties arising from model size, geometric complexity, response variation, and analysis type can be adequately overcome. Finite element, finite difference, and boundary element models may be evaluated with the prototype postprocessor. Elements may be removed from parent models to be studied as independent subobjects. Discontinuous responses may be contoured including responses which become singular, and nonlinear color scales may be input by the user for the enhancement of the contouring operation. Hit testing can be performed to extract precise geometric, response, mesh, or material information from the database. In addition, stress intensity factors may be contoured along the crack front of a fracture model. Stepwise analyses can be studied, and the user can recontour responses repeatedly, as if he were paging through the response sets. As a system, these tools allow effective interpretation of complex analysis results.

  3. A 3-dimensional theory of free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.D.; Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    In this paper, we present an analytical three-dimensional theory of free electron lasers. Under several assumptions, we arrive at an integral equation similar to earlier work carried out by Ching, Kim and Xie, but using a formulation better suited for the initial value problem of Coherent Electron Cooling. We use this model in later papers to obtain analytical results for gain guiding, as well as to develop a complete model of Coherent Electron Cooling.

  4. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  5. 3-dimensional wells and tunnels for finite element grids

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, T.A.; Gable, C.W.; Trease, H.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling fluid, vapor, and air injection and extraction from wells poses a number of problems. The length scale of well bores is centimeters, the region of high pressure gradient may be tens of meters and the reservoir may be tens of kilometers. Furthermore, accurate representation of the path of a deviated well can be difficult. Incorporating the physics of injection and extraction can be made easier and more accurate with automated grid generation tools that incorporate wells as part of a background mesh that represents the reservoir. GEOMESH is a modeling tool developed for automating finite element grid generation. This tool maintains the geometric integrity of the geologic framework and produces optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grids. GEOMESH creates a 3D well as hexagonal segments formed along the path of the well. This well structure is tetrahedralized into a Delaunay mesh and then embedded into a background mesh. The well structure can be radially or vertically refined and each well layer is assigned a material property or can take on the material properties of the surrounding stratigraphy. The resulting embedded well can then be used by unstructured finite element models for gas and fluid flow in the vicinity of wells or tunnels. This 3D well representation allows the study of the free-surface of the well and surrounding stratigraphy. It reduces possible grid orientation effects, and allows better correlation between well sample data and the geologic model. The well grids also allow improved visualization for well and tunnel model analysis. 3D observation of the grids helps qualitative interpretation and can reveal features not apparent in fewer dimensions.

  6. 3-dimensional wells and tunnels for finite element grids

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, T.A.; Gable, C.W.; Trease, H.

    1996-04-01

    Modeling fluid, vapor, and air injection and extraction from wells poses a number of problems. The length scale of well bores is centimeters, the region of high pressure gradient may be tens of meters and the reservoir may be tens of kilometers. Furthermore, accurate representation of the path of a deviated well can be difficult. Incorporating the physics of injection and extraction can be made easier and more accurate with automated grid generation tools that incorporate wells as part of a background mesh that represents the reservoir. GEOMESH is a modeling tool developed for automating finite element grid generation. This tool maintains the geometric integrity of the geologic framework and produces optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grids. GEOMESH creates a 3D well as hexagonal segments formed along the path of the well. This well structure is tetrahedralized into a Delaunay mesh and then embedded into a background mesh. The well structure can be radially or vertically refined and each well layer is assigned a material property or can take on the material properties of the surrounding stratigraphy. The resulting embedded well can then be used by unstructured finite element models for gas and fluid flow in the vicinity of wells or tunnels. This 3D well representation allows the study of the free- surface of the well and surrounding stratigraphy. It reduces possible grid orientation effects, and allows better correlation between well sample data and the geologic model. The well grids also allow improved visualization for well and tunnel model analysis. 3D observation of the grids helps qualitative interpretation and can reveal features not apparent in fewer dimensions.

  7. 3-dimensional simulation of the tangential YORP effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J.; Krugly, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    YORP effect is a torque created by recoil forces of the light reflected or re-emitted by the surface of an asteroid. This torque has been demonstrated to be a major factor of evolution of kilometer-sized asteroids, largely responsible for their distribution over rotation rates and obliquities. YORP used to be considered predominantly in the model of locally flat surface. It resulted in the recoil force normal to the surface, and the overall torque being non-zero only due to slight non-symmetries of the asteroid's shape. But recently it has been shown that presence of decimeter-sized stones on the surface of an asteroid can substantially change this picture (Golubov & Krugly 2012, ApJL 752: L11). Under certain conditions, the western sides of stones appear to be on average slightly warmer than their eastern sides, thus experiencing a stronger recoil force and dragging the surface of the asteroid eastward. This force parallel to the overall surface of the asteroid is called the tangential YORP, or TYORP. It operates in concert with the normal YORP force, or NYORP, which acts normally to the overall surface. Even though the TYORP force is much smaller than the NYORP force, it has a bigger lever arm with respect to the rotation axis of the asteroid, and its torques tend to add up for opposite points on the asteroid's surface rather than to subtract, therefore the effects of TYORP and NYORP on the rotation rate of the asteroid can be comparable, and the standard treatment of the effect considering NYORP only is insufficient. In the talk we are going to review the results from Golubov & Krugly (2012), which give a rough estimate of the effect in a 1-dimensional model, approximating the stones by high long walls. Then we shall go beyond this model and present simulations of the effect for a surface covered with spherical stones. Our model incorporates 3-dimentional heat conductivity in stones and ray tracing of incoming and emitted light. We shall present the strength of

  8. 3-Dimensional simulations of storm dynamics on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2000-10-01

    The formation and evolution of convective clouds in the atmosphere of Saturn is investigated using an anelastic three-dimensional time-dependent model with parameterized microphysics. The model is designed to study the development of moist convection on any of the four giant planets and has been previously used to investigate the formation of water convective storms in the jovian atmosphere. The role of water and ammonia in moist convection is investigated with varying deep concentrations. Results imply that most of the convective activity observed at Saturn may occur at the ammonia cloud deck while the formation of water moist convection may happen only when very strong constraints on the lower troposphere are met. Ammonia storms can ascend to the 300 mb level with vertical velocities around 30 ms-1. The seasonal effect on the thermal profile at the upper troposphere may have important effects on the development of ammonia storms. In the cases where water storms can develop they span many scale heights with peak vertical velocities around 160 ms-1 and cloud particles can be transported up to the 150 mb level. These predicted characteristics are similar to the Great White Spots observed in Saturn which, therefore, could be originated at the water cloud base level. This work has been supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 1997-34. R. Hueso acknowledges a PhD fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  9. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

  10. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model. PMID:23106040

  11. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model. PMID:23106040

  12. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  13. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  14. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  15. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures. PMID:27137437

  16. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering for fabricating 3-dimensional heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In addition to stem cell biology, tissue engineering is an essential research field for regenerative medicine. In contrast to cell injection, bioengineered tissue transplantation minimizes cell loss and has the potential to repair tissue defects. A popular approach is scaffold-based tissue engineering, which utilizes a biodegradable polymer scaffold for seeding cells; however, new techniques of cell sheet-based tissue engineering have been developed. Cell sheets are harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes by simply lowering the temperature. Monolayer or stacked cell sheets are transplantable directly onto damaged tissues and cell sheet transplantation has already been clinically applied. Cardiac cell sheet stacking produces pulsatile heart tissue; however, lack of vasculature limits the viable tissue thickness to 3 layers. Multistep transplantation of triple-layer cardiac cell sheets cocultured with endothelial cells has been used to form thick vascularized cardiac tissue in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro functional blood vessel formation within 3-dimensional (3D) tissues has been realized by successfully imitating in vivo conditions. Triple-layer cardiac cell sheets containing endothelial cells were layered on vascular beds and the constructs were media-perfused using novel bioreactor systems. Interestingly, cocultured endothelial cells migrate into the vascular beds and form perfusable blood vessels. An in vitro multistep procedure has also enabled the fabrication of thick, vascularized heart tissues. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering has revealed great potential to fabricate 3D cardiac tissues and should contribute to future treatment of severe heart diseases and human tissue model production.

  17. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  18. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  19. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  20. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  1. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. PMID:27162278

  2. 3-Dimensional Multiwaveguide Probe Array for Light Delivery to Distributed Brain Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Zorzos, Anthony N.; Scholvin, Jorg; Boyden, Edward S.; Fonstad, Clifton G.

    2013-01-01

    To deliver light to the brain for neuroscientific and neuroengineering applications like optogenetics, in which light is used to activate or silence neurons expressing specific photosensitive proteins, optical fibers are commonly used. However, an optical fiber is limited to delivering light to a single target within the three-dimensional structure of the brain. We here describe the design and fabrication of an array of thin microwaveguides which terminate at a 3-dimensionally distributed set of points, appropriate for delivering light to targets distributed in a 3-dimensional pattern throughout the brain. PMID:23202064

  3. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  4. The 2PPI Expansion:. Dynamical Mass Generation and Vacuum Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Browne, R. E.; Gracey, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    We discuss the 2PPI expansion, a summation of the bubble graphs up to all orders, by means of the 2D Gross-Neveu toy model, whose exact mass gap and vacuum energy are known. Then we use the expansion to give analytical evidence that a dimension two gluon condensate exists for pure Yang-Mills in the Landau gauge. This < {Aμ a Aμ a } ; > condensate consequently gives rise to a dynamical gluon mass.

  5. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  6. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  7. Water uptake by a maize root system - An explicit numerical 3-dimensional simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Daniel; Schnepf, Andrea; Klepsch, Sabine; Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for plant growth and function. An accurate modelling of the unsaturated flow is not only substantial to predict water uptake but also important to describe nutrient movement regarding water saturation and transport. In this work we present a model for water uptake. The model includes the simultaneous flow of water inside the soil and inside the root network. Water saturation in the soil volume is described by the Richards equation. Water flow inside the roots' xylem is calculated using the Poiseuille law for water flow in a cylindrical tube. The water saturation in the soil as well as water uptake of the root system is calculated numerically in three dimensions. We study water uptake of a maize plant in a confined pot under different supply scenarios. The main improvement of our approach is that the root surfaces act as spatial boundaries of the soil volume. Therefore water influx into the root is described by a surface flux instead of a volume flux, which is commonly given by an effective sink term. For the numerical computation we use the following software: The 3-dimensional maize root architecture is created by a root growth model based on L-Systems (Leitner et al 2009). A mesh of the surrounding soil volume is created using the meshing software DistMesh (Persson & Strang 2004). Using this mesh the partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a. Modelling results are related to accepted water uptake models from literature (Clausnitzer & Hopmans 1994, Roose & Fowler 2004, Javaux et al 2007). This new approach has several advantages. By considering the individual roots it is possible to analyse the influence of overlapping depletion zones due to inter root competition. Furthermore, such simulations can be used to estimate the influence of simplifying assumptions that are made in the development of effective models. The model can be easily combined with a nutrient

  8. Equations for a 3 dimensional transient flow of a multicomponent gas mixutre with chemical reactions. Publication No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report gives a general description of the basic equations for the 3-dimensional transient flow of a multicomponent gas mixture with chemical reactions. The number of assumption made is small. Next to the equation of momentum, the equation of angular momentum is introduced. It could in the future be advantageous to use the latter equation instead of the first because the flow may possess vortices which introduce an angular momentum. In the first chapter of this report, the conservation equations are introduced. In the next chapters, the processes which occur on microscale are described. In the last chapter, the conservation equations are modelled for turbulence. This is done with Reynolds' decomposition and time-averaging of the subsequent equations.

  9. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  10. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  12. The Neural Representation of 3-Dimensional Objects in Rodent Memory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  13. The neural representation of 3-dimensional objects in rodent memory circuits.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  14. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  15. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  16. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  17. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  18. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation. PMID:26860990

  19. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation.

  20. 3-Dimensional Scene Perception during Active Electrolocation in a Weakly Electric Pulse Fish

    PubMed Central

    von der Emde, Gerhard; Behr, Katharina; Bouton, Béatrice; Engelmann, Jacob; Fetz, Steffen; Folde, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation for object detection and orientation in their environment even in complete darkness. The African mormyrid Gnathonemus petersii can detect object parameters, such as material, size, shape, and distance. Here, we tested whether individuals of this species can learn to identify 3-dimensional objects independently of the training conditions and independently of the object's position in space (rotation-invariance; size-constancy). Individual G. petersii were trained in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure to electrically discriminate between a 3-dimensional object (S+) and several alternative objects (S−). Fish were then tested whether they could identify the S+ among novel objects and whether single components of S+ were sufficient for recognition. Size-constancy was investigated by presenting the S+ together with a larger version at different distances. Rotation-invariance was tested by rotating S+ and/or S− in 3D. Our results show that electrolocating G. petersii could (1) recognize an object independently of the S− used during training. When only single components of a complex S+ were offered, recognition of S+ was more or less affected depending on which part was used. (2) Object-size was detected independently of object distance, i.e. fish showed size-constancy. (3) The majority of the fishes tested recognized their S+ even if it was rotated in space, i.e. these fishes showed rotation-invariance. (4) Object recognition was restricted to the near field around the fish and failed when objects were moved more than about 4 cm away from the animals. Our results indicate that even in complete darkness our G. petersii were capable of complex 3-dimensional scene perception using active electrolocation. PMID:20577635

  1. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  2. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  3. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use.

  4. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  5. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  6. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  7. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost. PMID:26983961

  8. Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.

    1983-08-01

    As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions.

  9. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  10. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  11. [Conditional discrimination using 3-dimensional objects by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): tests for derived stimulus relations].

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Fushimi, Takao

    2002-06-01

    A female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained on the conditional-discrimination task using 3-dimensional objects under a face-to-face experimental setting. In Experiment 1, the subject was required to pick up the correct comparison object, take it to the sample object, and construct a new paired-object with a specific action. After acquisition of the task, derived stimulus relations (associative symmetry) were tested. The subject showed a significant emergence of symmetry only when the spatial arrangements of stimuli were changed between the baseline and test trials. In Experiment 2, the subject was tested under the condition where the action to constructed paired-object was common to all stimuli. The subject showed significant above-chance performance in the transitivity test, but not in the symmetry tests. The present results are generally consistent with previous studies in chimpanzees that show weak evidence for the emergence of symmetry.

  12. S2PLOT: a Straightforward Library for Advanced 3-dimensional Scientific Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    S2PLOT is a user-oriented programming library for generating and exploring 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific plots and diagrams. It provides a lightweight interface---inspired by the simple yet widely-used PGPLOT---to produce hardware-accelerated visualisations of point, line, image and volumetric data. S2PLOT provides C and FORTRAN interfaces, and supports monoscopic, stereoscopic and curved (eg. dome) display devices. PGPLOT-savvy astronomers can usually write their first S2PLOT program in less than ten minutes. In this paper, we introduce the latest S2PLOT version and highlight major new additions to the library, including volume rendering and isosurfacing of astronomical data. We describe a simple extension that enables the embedding of large-area FITS images directly into S2PLOT programs using standard World Coordinate Systems, and we introduce the Python interface to S2PLOT.

  13. Lateral characteristic analysis of PMLSM considering overhang effect by 3 dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit network method

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J.; Jung, I.S.; Hyun, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    PMLSM is used for propulsion device of high speed ground transportation or contactless carrier in factory automation and office automation. This paper represents lateral characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor (PMLSM) according to change of overhang length. In order to analyze overhang effect of PMLSM with large airgap and finite width considering lateral displacement, new 3 dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit network method (3-D EMCN) taking into account movement of the secondary in lateral direction is introduced, which supplements magnetic equivalent circuit by using numerical technique. 3-D EMCN can consider secondary movement without remesh the element because it uses the initial mesh continuously. The authors analyzed characteristics for overhang three type case which must be problems in 3-D. The results are compared with experimental data and shown a reasonable agreement.

  14. Theory of relativistic Brownian motion: the (1+3) -dimensional case.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2005-09-01

    A theory for (1+3) -dimensional relativistic Brownian motion under the influence of external force fields is put forward. Starting out from a set of relativistically covariant, but multiplicative Langevin equations we describe the relativistic stochastic dynamics of a forced Brownian particle. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equations are studied in the laboratory frame coordinates. In particular, the stochastic integration prescription--i.e., the discretization rule dilemma--is elucidated (prepoint discretization rule versus midpoint discretization rule versus postpoint discretization rule). Remarkably, within our relativistic scheme we find that the postpoint rule (or the transport form) yields the only Fokker-Planck dynamics from which the relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is recovered as the stationary solution. The relativistic velocity effects become distinctly more pronounced by going from one to three spatial dimensions. Moreover, we present numerical results for the asymptotic mean-square displacement of a free relativistic Brownian particle moving in 1+3 dimensions.

  15. PROMALS3D: multiple protein sequence alignment enhanced with evolutionary and 3-dimensional structural information

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is an essential tool with many applications in bioinformatics and computational biology. Accurate MSA construction for divergent proteins remains a difficult computational task. The constantly increasing protein sequences and structures in public databases could be used to improve alignment quality. PROMALS3D is a tool for protein MSA construction enhanced with additional evolutionary and structural information from database searches. PROMALS3D automatically identifies homologs from sequence and structure databases for input proteins, derives structure-based constraints from alignments of 3-dimensional structures, and combines them with sequence-based constraints of profile-profile alignments in a consistency-based framework to construct high-quality multiple sequence alignments. PROMALS3D output is a consensus alignment enriched with sequence and structural information about input proteins and their homologs. PROMALS3D web server and package are available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/PROMALS3D. PMID:24170408

  16. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  17. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  18. Adventitial Cells and Perictyes Support Chondrogenesis Through Different Mechanisms in 3-Dimensional Cultures With or Without Nanoscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Ba, Kai; Wu, Ling; Lee, Siyong; Peault, Bruno; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R; Adams, John S; Evseenko, Denis; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    In previous studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and fat tissues were shown to increase proliferation and matrix production of chondrocytes (CH) in co-culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of pericytes (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146+CD34(neg)) and adventitial cells (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146(neg)CD34+) sub-populations of MSCs in supporting proliferation and matrix deposition of CH. The MSCs were derived from synovial membrane and attaching fat tissue. Then, the pericytes and adventitial cells were sorted from total MSCs and co-cultured with articular CH respectively. In pellet co-culture model, the pericytes showed more prominent effects on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production and Collagen II synthesis than the adventitial cells which had stronger effects on promoting CH proliferation. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to examine the expression of a group of secreted growth factors and co-culture performed on electrospun scaffolds based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB), to verify the trophic effects of different MSC sub-populations in 3-Dimensional (3D) environment. In conclusion, it was found that the pericytes and adventitial cells support CH in different ways; the adventitial cells more supporting the proliferation of CH, while pericytes are better in stimulating GAGs and collagen production of CH. PMID:26502642

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Beg, Muhammad S.; Das, Prajnan; Meyer, Jeffrey

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for anal cancer and determine disease, patient, and treatment parameters that influence the result. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision model was designed with the various disease states for the base case of a 65-year-old patient with anal cancer treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Health states accounting for rates of local failure, colostomy failure, treatment breaks, patient prognosis, acute and late toxicities, and the utility of toxicities were informed by existing literature and analyzed with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, mean costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) for IMRT and 3D-CRT were $32,291 (4.81) and $28,444 (4.78), respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $128,233/QALY for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that IMRT was cost-effective in 22%, 47%, and 65% of iterations at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions: In our base model, IMRT was a cost-ineffective strategy despite the reduced acute treatment toxicities and their associated costs of management. The model outcome was sensitive to variations in local and colostomy failure rates, as well as patient-reported utilities relating to acute toxicities.

  20. Successful Parenchyma-Sparing Anatomical Surgery by 3-Dimensional Reconstruction of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Combined with Anatomic Variation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qihong; Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The combination of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and anatomic variation constitutes a rare and complicated condition. Precise understanding of 3-dimensional position of tumor in the intrahepatic structure in such cases is important for operation planning and navigation. We report a case of a 61-year woman presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Anatomic variation and tumor location were well depicted on preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction as the right posterior segmental duct drained to left hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct, biliary confluence, right anterior segmental duct, and right anterior branch of portal vein were involved by the tumor (Bismuth IIIa). After carefully operation planning, we successfully performed a radical parenchyma-sparing anatomical surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Liver segmentectomy (segments 5 and 8) and caudate lobectomy. MDCTcombined with 3-dimensional reconstruction is a reliable non-invasive modality for preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27376205

  1. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  2. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets. PMID:24370007

  3. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  4. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  5. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  6. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  7. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications. PMID:26344279

  8. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications.

  9. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  10. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets.

  11. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  12. Craniofacial muscle engineering using a 3-dimensional phosphate glass fibre construct.

    PubMed

    Shah, R; Sinanan, A C M; Knowles, J C; Hunt, N P; Lewis, M P

    2005-05-01

    The current technique to replace missing craniofacial skeletal muscle is the surgical transfer of local or free flaps. This is associated with donor site morbidity, possible tissue rejection and limited supply. The alternative is to engineer autologous skeletal muscle in vitro, which can then be re-implanted into the patient. A variety of biomaterials have been used to engineer skeletal muscle with limited success. This study investigated the use of phosphate-based glass fibres as a potential scaffold material for the in vitro engineering of craniofacial skeletal muscle. Human masseter (one of the muscles of mastication)--derived cell cultures were used to seed the glass fibres, which were arranged into various configurations. Growth factors and matrix components were to used to manipulate the in vitro environment. Outcome was determined with the aid of microscopy, time-lapse footage, immunofluorescence imaging and CyQUANT proliferation, creatine kinase and protein assays. A 3-dimensional mesh arrangement of the glass fibres was the best at encouraging cell attachment and proliferation. In addition, increasing the density of the seeded cells and using Matrigel and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced the formation of prototypic muscle fibres. In conclusion, phosphate-based glass fibres can support the in vitro engineering of human craniofacial muscle.

  13. Evaluating Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes through a Novel 3-Dimensional In Vitro System for Cartilage Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanwei; Davison, Noel; Moroni, Lorenzo; Feng, Felicia; Crist, Joshua; Salter, Erin; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize and evaluate osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes, in comparison to normal chondrocytes, through a novel 3-dimensional (3-D) culture system, poly(ethylene-glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was also used to simulate an in vitro OA model. Methods: Normal and OA chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and analyzed for changes in cartilage-specific gene expressions due to passage number. Then, cells were encapsulated in PEGDA to evaluate phenotype and matrix production capabilities through the in vitro culture system. Characterization was conducted with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), biochemical analyses, and histological staining. 3-D encapsulated chondrocytes (human and bovine) were also treated with IL-1β to characterize how the cytokine affects gene transcription and extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Results: In 2-dimensional monolayer, anabolic genes were down-regulated significantly in both normal and OA chondrocytes. In 3-D culture, OA chondrocytes demonstrated significantly higher expressions of catabolic genes when compared to normal cells. Differentiation medium resulted in significantly more matrix production than growth medium from OA chondrocytes, indicated through histological staining. In addition, normal chondrocytes responded more significantly to exogenous administration of IL-1β than OA chondrocytes. Temporary initial stimulation of IL-1β to OA chondrocytes resulted in comparable gene expressions to untreated cells after 3 weeks of in vitro culture. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the use of OA chondrocytes in tissue engineering and their significance for potential future cartilage regeneration research through their matrix production capabilities and the use of a hydrogel culture system. PMID:26069626

  14. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Ono, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital. PMID:27179708

  15. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  16. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology.

  17. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  18. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27) or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31) participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31) were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27). There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were −6 degrees (affected side), 9 (contralateral side) and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side) and 10 degrees (contralateral side). Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within −6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter the

  19. Role of biplane and biplane echocardiographically guided 3-dimensional echocardiography during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Pellikka, Patricia A; McCully, Robert B; Oh, Jae K; Kukuzke, Joyce A; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy

    2006-09-01

    Image acquisition time and wall-motion score of conventional 2-dimensional (2D) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) were compared with those of biplane and 3-dimensional (3D) DSE in 50 patients (age 67 +/- 13 years) with regular rhythms during clinically indicated DSE. Commercially available systems were used for the study. We used a conventional transducer for 2D and a matrix-array transducer (x4 or x3-1) for two biplane (60- and 120-degree) images and one 3D full-volume image. Image quality was scored as 1 = good; 2 = adequate; and 3 = inadequate. Segmental wall-motion scores for each method were analyzed in blinded fashion. Acquisition times of biplane (9.3 +/- 2.8 seconds) and biplane-guided 3D (additional 2.6 +/- 1.0 seconds) echocardiography were significantly shorter than those of conventional 2D DSE (60.0 +/- 26.7 seconds) (P < .001). Image quality was adequate or good in 94% for biplane and 96% for 3D echocardiography. Agreement of segmental wall-motion score was present in 87.6% of segments for 2D versus biplane and 85.9% for 2D versus 3D at baseline and in 88.0% for 2D versus biplane and 87.4% for 2D versus 3D at peak stress. Acquisition of biplane or biplane-guided 3D volumetric data during DSE with use of a new matrix-array transducer was feasible and shortened image acquisition time without affecting the diagnostic yield compared with conventional 2D imaging.

  20. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  1. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Armstrong, Charles W.; Rankin, James M.; Rogers, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. Design and Setting: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. Subjects: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. Measurements: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. Results: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. Conclusions: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time. PMID:12937432

  2. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  3. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  4. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  5. A 3-Dimensional Absorbed Dose Calculation Method Based on Quantitative SPECT for Radionuclide Therapy: Evaluation for 131I Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen, Katarina; Liu, Xiaowei; Frey, Eric; Dewaraja, Yuni; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    A general method is presented for patient-specific 3-dimensional absorbed dose calculations based on quantitative SPECT activity measurements. Methods The computational scheme includes a method for registration of the CT image to the SPECT image and position-dependent compensation for attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response performed as part of an iterative reconstruction method. A method for conversion of the measured activity distribution to a 3-dimensional absorbed dose distribution, based on the EGS4 (electron-gamma shower, version 4) Monte Carlo code, is also included. The accuracy of the activity quantification and the absorbed dose calculation is evaluated on the basis of realistic Monte Carlo–simulated SPECT data, using the SIMIND (simulation of imaging nuclear detectors) program and a voxel-based computer phantom. CT images are obtained from the computer phantom, and realistic patient movements are added relative to the SPECT image. The SPECT-based activity concentration and absorbed dose distributions are compared with the true ones. Results Correction could be made for object scatter, photon attenuation, and scatter penetration in the collimator. However, inaccuracies were imposed by the limited spatial resolution of the SPECT system, for which the collimator response correction did not fully compensate. Conclusion The presented method includes compensation for most parameters degrading the quantitative image information. The compensation methods are based on physical models and therefore are generally applicable to other radionuclides. The proposed evaluation methodology may be used as a basis for future intercomparison of different methods. PMID:12163637

  6. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  7. A basic study on quantitative evaluation of 3-dimensional foot contact with an inertial sensor for FES foot drop correction.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Maho; Watanabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In these days, FES is used to control ankle dorsiflexion of hemiplegic gait. Since not only dorsiflexion but also 3-dimensional foot contact isimportant for gait stability in hemiplegic gait, evaluation and control system of 3-dimensional foot contact with FES is needed to correct foot movement. In this study, the timing of initial contact and the timing when foot movement became stationary in the sagittal plane were detected, and the inclination angles in the sagittal and the frontal planes at these timings were used for evaluation. Using the inclination angles, 10 m walking of a hemiplegic subject under the 4 different gait conditions were quantitatively evaluated. The gait conditions were without FES, stimulation to the tibialis anterior, stimulation to the common peroneal nerve, and stimulation to both the tibialis anterior and the common peroneal nerve. Result of evaluation with the inclination angles showed that stimulation to the tibialis anterior could control foot contact appropriately in the sagittal plane, and stimulation to the common peroneal nerve was better to control foot inclination angle in the frontal plane. Inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase indicated that FES system which used in clinical site commonly is not appropriate to control 3-dimensional foot contact. It was shown that inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase was useful to evaluate 3-dimensional foot movements for FES foot drop correction.

  8. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  9. Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Paul C.; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Background This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. Methods A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ≥2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. Results In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal

  10. Carotid-Sparing TomoHelical 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chae-Seon; Oh, Dongryul; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Yong Chan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jin Sung; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). Conclusion TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage. PMID:25761477

  11. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  12. Use of 3-dimensional computed tomography to detect a barium-masked fish bone causing esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Atsushi; Tagami, Takashi; Kim, Shiei; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating esophageal foreign bodies and detecting perforation. However, when evaluation is difficult owing to the previous use of barium as a contrast medium, 3-dimensional CT may facilitate accurate diagnosis. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of esophageal perforation. Because barium had been used as a contrast medium for an esophagram performed at a previous hospital, horizontal CT and esophageal endoscopy could not be able to identify the foreign body or characterize the lesion. However, 3-dimensional CT clearly revealed an L-shaped foreign body and its anatomical relationships in the mediastinum. Accordingly, we removed the foreign body using an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The foreign body was the premaxillary bone of a sea bream. The patient was discharged without complications.

  13. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use.

  14. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  15. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  16. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  17. Studies for the 3-Dimensional Structure, Composition, and Dynamic of Io's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is discussed for the following: (1) the exploration of new H and Cl chemistry in Io's atmosphere using the already developed two-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model of Wong and Smyth; and (2) for the development of a new three-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model for Io's atmosphere.

  18. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  19. A unique case of "double-orifice aortic valve"-comprehensive assessment by 2-, 3-dimensional, and color Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Stirrup, James E; Cowburn, Peter J; Pousios, Dimitrios; Ohri, Sunil K; Shah, Benoy N

    2016-09-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a powerful imaging tool for the comprehensive assessment of valvular structure and function. TEE may be of added benefit when anatomy is difficult to delineate accurately by transthoracic echocardiography. In this article, we present 2-, 3-dimensional, and color Doppler TEE images from a male patient with aortic stenosis. A highly unusual and complex pattern of valvular calcification created a functionally "double-orifice" valve. Such an abnormality may have implications for the accuracy of continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography, which assumes a single orifice valve in native aortic valves. PMID:27677645

  20. A system for extracting 3-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Cunningham, R.

    1976-01-01

    Obtaining accurate three-dimensional (3-D) measurement from a stereo pair of TV cameras is a task requiring camera modeling, calibration, and the matching of the two images of a real 3-D point on the two TV pictures. A system which models and calibrates the cameras and pairs the two images of a real-world point in the two pictures, either manually or automatically, was implemented. This system is operating and provides three-dimensional measurements resolution of + or - mm at distances of about 2 m.

  1. Experimental studies on the stability and transition of 3-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschke-Kowsky, P.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional unstable boundary layers were investigated as to their characteristic instabilities, leading to turbulence. Standing cross-flow instabilities and traveling waves preceding the transition were visualized with the hydrogen bubble technique in the boundary layer above the wall of a swept cylinder. With the sublimation method and hot film technique, a model consisting of a swept flat plate with a pressure-inducing displacement body in the 1 m wind tunnel was studied. Standing waves and traveling waves in a broad frequency are observed. The boundary layer of this model is close to the assumptions of the theory.

  2. Cleft posterior mitral valve leaflet in an adult with Turner syndrome diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Negrea, Stefania Luminita; Alexandrescu, Clara; Sabatier, Michel; Dreyfus, Gilles D

    2012-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a monosomy (45,X karyotype) in which the prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies is high. However, this aspect of Turner syndrome has received little attention outside of the pediatric medical literature, and the entire spectrum of cardiovascular conditions in adults remains unknown. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who had Turner syndrome. When she was a teenager, her native bicuspid aortic valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. Fifteen years later, during preoperative examination for prosthesis-patient mismatch, severe mitral regurgitation was detected, and a congenital cleft in the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve was diagnosed with use of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent concurrent mitral valve repair and aortic valve replacement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cleft in the posterior mitral valve leaflet as a cardiovascular defect observed in Turner syndrome, and the first such instance to have been diagnosed with the use of 3-dimensional echocardiography.

  3. Accuracy and reliability of linear measurements using 3-dimensional computed tomographic imaging software for Le Fort I Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Pinheiro, Lucas Rodrigues; Umetsubo, Otávio Shoite; Santos, Oseas; Costa, Felipe Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso

    2014-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare the accuracy and reliability of linear measurements for Le Fort I osteotomy using volume rendering software. We studied 11 dried skulls and used cone-beam computed tomography (CT) to generate 3-dimensional images. Linear measurements were based on craniometric anatomical landmarks that were predefined as specifically used for Le Fort I osteotomy, and identified twice each by 2 radiologists, independently, using Dolphin imaging version 11.5.04.35. A third examiner then made physical measurements using digital calipers. There was a significant difference between Dolphin imaging and the gold standard, particularly in the pterygoid process. The largest difference was 1.85mm (LLpPtg L). The mean differences between the physical and the 3-dimensional linear measurements ranged from -0.01 to 1.12mm for examiner 1, and 0 to 1.85mm for examiner 2. Interexaminer analysis ranged from 0.51 to 0.93. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.96 and 0.57 to 0.92, for examiners 1 and 2, respectively. We conclude that the Dolphin imaging should be used sparingly during Le Fort I osteotomy.

  4. The effect of material composition of 3-dimensional graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanocomposites on DNA analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Wang, Xinxing; Nan, Fuxin; Jiao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls.

  5. A Proposal of 3-dimensional Self-organizing Memory and Its Application to Knowledge Extraction from Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Kai; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional self-organizing memory and describe its application to knowledge extraction from natural language. First, the proposed system extracts a relation between words by JUMAN (morpheme analysis system) and KNP (syntax analysis system), and stores it in short-term memory. In the short-term memory, the relations are attenuated with the passage of processing. However, the relations with high frequency of appearance are stored in the long-term memory without attenuation. The relations in the long-term memory are placed to the proposed 3-dimensional self-organizing memory. We used a new learning algorithm called ``Potential Firing'' in the learning phase. In the recall phase, the proposed system recalls relational knowledge from the learned knowledge based on the input sentence. We used a new recall algorithm called ``Waterfall Recall'' in the recall phase. We added a function to respond to questions in natural language with ``yes/no'' in order to confirm the validity of proposed system by evaluating the quantity of correct answers.

  6. Investigations on 3-dimensional temperature distribution in a FLATCON-type CPV module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfarth, Maike; Gamisch, Sebastian; Kraus, Harald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2013-09-01

    The thermal flow in a FLATCON®-type CPV module is investigated theoretically and experimentally. For the simulation a model in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software SolidWorks Flow Simulation was established. In order to verify the simulation results the calculated and measured temperatures were compared assuming the same operating conditions (wind speed and direction, direct normal irradiance (DNI) and ambient temperature). Therefore, an experimental module was manufactured and equipped with temperature sensors at defined positions. In addition, the temperature distribution on the back plate of the module was displayed by infrared images. The simulated absolute temperature and the distribution compare well with an average deviation of only 3.3 K to the sensor measurements. Finally, the validated model was used to investigate the influence of the back plate material on the temperature distribution by replacing the glass material by aluminum. The simulation showed that it is important to consider heat dissipation by radiation when designing a CPV module.

  7. Reconstruction of a 3-dimensional transonic rotor flow field from holographic interferogram data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. H.; Kittleson, J. K.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic interferometry and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) are used to determine the transonic velocity field of a model rotor blade in hover. A pulsed ruby laser recorded 40 interferograms with a 2-ft-diam view field near the model rotor-blade tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. After digitizing the interferograms and extracting fringe-order functions, the data are transferred to a CAT code. The CAT code then calculates the perturbation velocity in seeral planes above the blade surface. The values from the holography-CAT method compare favorably with previously obtained numerical computations in most locations near the blade tip. The results demonstrate the technique's potential for three-dimensional transonic rotor flow studies.

  8. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. RESULTS In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. CONCLUSION The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05). PMID:26816576

  9. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imperatori, W.; Mai, P. M.

    2013-02-01

    The heterogeneous nature of Earth's crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0-10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2-5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5-10 per cent range

  10. Study on the 3-dimensional flow characteristics in compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Je Huyn; Jeong, Han Seol; Yang, Choong Mo

    1996-12-31

    In this research, three-dimensional flows in the tube banks are analized containing the wall effect by the fin. A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes Equation war, used in the curvilinear body-fitted coordinate system with standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model for better analysis of recirculation flow. By varying the distance between tubes (pitch length, L/D), tube configuration, and Reynolds number, the changes of flow properties like velocity, pressure are analized to understand the flow characteristics around the tube bank. Also the typical characteristics on the flow for the different parameters are discussed.

  11. Study of journal bearing dynamics using 3-dimensional motion picture graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E.; Sosoka, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer generated motion pictures of three dimensional graphics are being used to analyze journal bearings under dynamically loaded conditions. The motion pictures simultaneously present the motion of the journal and the pressures predicted within the fluid film of the bearing as they evolve in time. The correct prediction of these fluid film pressures can be complicated by the development of cavitation within the fluid. The numerical model that is used predicts the formation of the cavitation bubble and its growth, downstream movement, and subsequent collapse. A complete physical picture is created in the motion picture as the journal traverses through the entire dynamic cycle.

  12. Galactic scale gas flows in colliding galaxies: 3-dimensional, N-body/hydrodynamics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Gerber, Richard A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.

    1994-01-01

    We present some results from three dimensional computer simulations of collisions between models of equal mass galaxies, one of which is a rotating, disk galaxy containing both gas and stars and the other is an elliptical containing stars only. We use fully self consistent models in which the halo mass is 2.5 times that of the disk. In the experiments we have varied the impact parameter between zero (head on) and 0.9R (where R is the radius of the disk), for impacts perpendicular to the disk plane. The calculations were performed on a Cray 2 computer using a combined N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) program. The results show the development of complicated flows and shock structures in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk and the propagation outwards of a density wave in both the stars and the gas. The collisional nature of the gas results in a sharper ring than obtained for the star particles, and the development of high volume densities and shocks.

  13. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  14. Whole-core comet solutions to a 3-dimensional PWR benchmark problem with gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with gadolinium was used to determine the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport method COMET. The benchmark problem contains 193 square fuel assemblies. The COMET solution (eigenvalue, assembly averaged and fuel pin averaged fission density distributions) was compared with those obtained from the corresponding Monte Carlo reference solution using the same 2-group material cross section library. The comparison showed that both the core eigenvalue and fission density distribution averaged over each assembly and fuel pin predicated by COMET agree very well with the corresponding MCNP reference solution if the incident flux response expansion used in COMET is truncated at 2nd order in the two spatial and the two angular variables. The benchmark calculations indicate that COMET has Monte Carlo accuracy. In, particular, the eigenvalue difference between the codes ranged from 17 pcm to 35 pcm, being within 2 standard deviations of the calculational uncertainty. The mean flux weighted relative differences in the assembly and fuel pin fission densities were 0.47% and 0.65%, respectively. It was also found that COMET's full (whole) core computational speed is 30,000 times faster than MCNP in which only 1/8 of the core is modeled. It is estimated that COMET would have been about over 6 orders of magnitude faster than MCNP if the full core were also modeled in MCNP. (authors)

  15. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    SciTech Connect

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  16. Nanophotonic light trapping in 3-dimensional thin-film silicon architectures.

    PubMed

    Lockau, Daniel; Sontheimer, Tobias; Becker, Christiane; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline; Schmidt, Frank; Rech, Bernd

    2013-01-14

    Emerging low cost and large area periodic texturing methods promote the fabrication of complex absorber structures for thin film silicon solar cells. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis of a 2 μm square periodic polycrystalline silicon absorber architecture designed in our laboratories. Simulations are performed on the basis of a precise finite element reconstruction of the experimentally realized silicon structure. In contrast to many other publications, superstrate light trapping effects are included in our model. Excellent agreement to measured absorptance spectra is obtained. For the inclusion of the absorber into a standard single junction cell layout, we show that light trapping close to the Yablonovitch limit can be realized, but is usually strongly damped by parasitic absorption.

  17. EK3D: an E. coli K antigen 3-dimensional structure database

    PubMed Central

    Kunduru, Bharathi Reddy; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    A very high rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) seen among Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. is a major threat to public health and safety. One of the major virulent determinants of Gram-negative bacteria is capsular polysaccharide or K antigen located on the bacterial outer membrane surface, which is a potential drug & vaccine target. It plays a key role in host–pathogen interactions as well as host immune evasion and thus, mandates detailed structural information. Nonetheless, acquiring structural information of K antigens is not straightforward due to their innate enormous conformational flexibility. Here, we have developed a manually curated database of K antigens corresponding to various E. coli serotypes, which differ from each other in their monosaccharide composition, linkage between the monosaccharides and their stereoisomeric forms. Subsequently, we have modeled their 3D structures and developed an organized repository, namely EK3D that can be accessed through www.iith.ac.in/EK3D/. Such a database would facilitate the development of antibacterial drugs to combat E. coli infections as it has evolved resistance against 2 major drugs namely, third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. EK3D also enables the generation of polymeric K antigens of varying lengths and thus, provides comprehensive information about E. coli K antigens. PMID:26615200

  18. Error analysis of a direct current electromagnetic tracking system in digitizing 3-dimensional surface geometries.

    PubMed

    Milne, A D; Lee, J M

    1999-01-01

    The direct current electromagnetic tracking device has seen increasing use in biomechanics studies of joint kinematics and anatomical surface geometry. In these applications, a stylus is attached to a sensor to measure the spatial location of three-dimensional landmarks. Stylus calibration is performed by rotating the stylus about a fixed point in space and using regression analysis to determine the tip offset vector. Measurement errors can be induced via several pathways, including; intrinsic system errors in sensor position or angle and tip offset calibration errors. A detailed study was performed to determine the errors introduced in digitizing small surfaces with different stylus lengths (35, 55, and 65 mm) and approach angles (30 and 45 degrees) using a plastic calibration board and hemispherical models. Two-point discrimination errors increased to an average of 1.93 mm for a 254 mm step size. Rotation about a single point produced mean errors of 0.44 to 1.18 mm. Statistically significant differences in error were observed with increasing approach angles (p < 0.001). Errors of less than 6% were observed in determining the curvature of a 19 mm hemisphere. This study demonstrates that the "Flock of Birds" can be used as a digitizing tool with accuracy better than 0.76% over 254 mm step sizes. PMID:11143353

  19. Comparisons of Line Emission from ICF Capsules in 2- and 3-Dimensional Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, S H; Scott, H A; Marinak, M M; Landen, O L

    2002-11-09

    Hydrodynamic instabilities reduce the yield in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. Line emission from dopants placed in the capsule can be used to diagnose the extent of the instabilities. This paper presents the results of a large number of 2D simulations and a few 3D simulations of line emission from argon in the DH fuel and titanium placed in the inner layers of the plastic shell of a NOVA ICF capsule. The Simulations have been compared to NOVA experimental data on the ratio of argon Ly-{beta} to titanium He-{alpha}, the relative strength of titanium He-{alpha} and its satellites, and the strength of the continuum near titanium He-{alpha}. The simulations are in reasonable agreement with the data, but the amount of data is small enough that it is hard to make precise comparisons. Two different atomic databases have been used in a first attempt to determine the set of configurations required to properly model the titanium emission.

  20. 3-dimensional microscope analysis of bone and tooth surface modifications: comparisons of fossil specimens and replicas.

    PubMed

    Bello, Silvia M; Verveniotou, Efstratia; Cornish, Lorraine; Parfitt, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Cut-marks on fossil bones and teeth are an important source of evidence in the reconstruction of ancient butchery practices. The analysis of butchery marks has allowed archaeologists to interpret aspects of past subsistence strategies and the behavior of early humans. Recent advances in optical scanning microscopy allow detailed measurements of cut-mark morphology to be undertaken. An example of this technology is the Alicona 3D InfiniteFocus imaging microscope, which has been applied recently to the study of surface modifications on bones and teeth. Three-dimensional models generated by the Alicona microscope have been used to identify cross-sectional features of experimental cut-marks that are characteristic for specific cutting actions (e.g., slicing, chopping, scraping) and different tool types (e.g., metal versus stone tools). More recently, this technology has been applied successfully to the analysis of ∼500,000 year-old cut-marked animal bones from Boxgrove (U.K.), as well as cannibalized 14,700 cal BP year-old human bones from Gough's Cave (U.K.). This article describes molding methods used to replicate fragile prehistoric bones and teeth, where image quality was adversely affected by specimen translucency and reflectivity. Alicona images generated from molds and casts are often of better quality than those of the original specimen. PMID:21660994

  1. Computer-Aided Designed, 3-Dimensionally Printed Porous Tissue Bioscaffolds For Craniofacial Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, David A.; Mitsak, Anna G.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the potential of integrated image-based Computer Aided Design (CAD) and 3D printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Study Design Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Setting Multidisciplinary effort encompassing two academic institutions. Subjects and Methods DICOM CT images are segmented and utilized in image-based computer aided design to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable, polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture are produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months duration. Results Auricular and nasal constructs with several microporous architectures were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histologic analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native appearing cartilaginous growth respecting the boundaries of the scaffold. Conclusions Integrated image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. PMID:25281749

  2. EK3D: an E. coli K antigen 3-dimensional structure database.

    PubMed

    Kunduru, Bharathi Reddy; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    A very high rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) seen among Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. is a major threat to public health and safety. One of the major virulent determinants of Gram-negative bacteria is capsular polysaccharide or K antigen located on the bacterial outer membrane surface, which is a potential drug & vaccine target. It plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions as well as host immune evasion and thus, mandates detailed structural information. Nonetheless, acquiring structural information of K antigens is not straightforward due to their innate enormous conformational flexibility. Here, we have developed a manually curated database of K antigens corresponding to various E. coli serotypes, which differ from each other in their monosaccharide composition, linkage between the monosaccharides and their stereoisomeric forms. Subsequently, we have modeled their 3D structures and developed an organized repository, namely EK3D that can be accessed through www.iith.ac.in/EK3D/. Such a database would facilitate the development of antibacterial drugs to combat E. coli infections as it has evolved resistance against 2 major drugs namely, third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. EK3D also enables the generation of polymeric K antigens of varying lengths and thus, provides comprehensive information about E. coli K antigens. PMID:26615200

  3. Self-assembled proteinticle nanostructures for 3-dimensional display of antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Euna; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ahn, Keum-Young; Park, Jin-Seung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-11-01

    ``Proteinticle'' is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for the surface display of SPAB. The dissociation constant (KD) in the binding of IgG to SPAB on the proteinticle surface was estimated based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model: KD was 1-3 orders-of-magnitude lower compared to the previously reported KD in the binding of IgG to Staphylococcal protein A. The surface density and distribution of SPAB and especially the existence of hot (or highly congested) spots of SPAB, which depend on the surface structure and the number of subunits as well as size and shape of proteinticle, is of crucial importance for the effective binding of IgG to SPAB on proteinticles. Although the five different proteinticles were demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, SPAB-mediated immobilization of IgG on the other proteinticles would be very useful for the fabrication of sensitive 3D immunoassay platforms.``Proteinticle'' is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for

  4. Novel peptide-mediated interactions derived from high-resolution 3-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Stein, Amelie; Aloy, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Many biological responses to intra- and extracellular stimuli are regulated through complex networks of transient protein interactions where a globular domain in one protein recognizes a linear peptide from another, creating a relatively small contact interface. These peptide stretches are often found in unstructured regions of proteins, and contain a consensus motif complementary to the interaction surface displayed by their binding partners. While most current methods for the de novo discovery of such motifs exploit their tendency to occur in disordered regions, our work here focuses on another observation: upon binding to their partner domain, motifs adopt a well-defined structure. Indeed, through the analysis of all peptide-mediated interactions of known high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) structure, we found that the structure of the peptide may be as characteristic as the consensus motif, and help identify target peptides even though they do not match the established patterns. Our analyses of the structural features of known motifs reveal that they tend to have a particular stretched and elongated structure, unlike most other peptides of the same length. Accordingly, we have implemented a strategy based on a Support Vector Machine that uses this features, along with other structure-encoded information about binding interfaces, to search the set of protein interactions of known 3D structure and to identify unnoticed peptide-mediated interactions among them. We have also derived consensus patterns for these interactions, whenever enough information was available, and compared our results with established linear motif patterns and their binding domains. Finally, to cross-validate our identification strategy, we scanned interactome networks from four model organisms with our newly derived patterns to see if any of them occurred more often than expected. Indeed, we found significant over-representations for 64 domain-motif interactions, 46 of which had not been

  5. Validating the relationship between 3-dimensional body acceleration and oxygen consumption in trained Steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-08-01

    We tested the ability of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) to predict the rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) in freely diving Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) while resting at the surface and diving. The trained sea lions executed three dive types-single dives, bouts of multiple long dives with 4-6 dives per bout, or bouts of multiple short dives with 10-12 dives per bout-to depths of 40 m, resulting in a range of activity and oxygen consumption levels. Average metabolic rate (AMR) over the dive cycle or dive bout calculated was calculated from [Formula: see text]. We found that ODBA could statistically predict AMR when data from all dive types were combined, but that dive type was a significant model factor. However, there were no significant linear relationships between AMR and ODBA when data for each dive type were analyzed separately. The potential relationships between AMR and ODBA were not improved by including dive duration, food consumed, proportion of dive cycle spent submerged, or number of dives per bout. It is not clear whether the lack of predictive power within dive type was due to low statistical power, or whether it reflected a true absence of a relationship between ODBA and AMR. The average percent error for predicting AMR from ODBA was 7-11 %, and standard error of the estimated AMR was 5-32 %. Overall, the extensive range of dive behaviors and physiological conditions we tested indicated that ODBA was not suitable for estimating AMR in the field due to considerable error and the inconclusive effects of dive type.

  6. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  7. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  8. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours. PMID:23737560

  9. Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.

  10. The Effects of 3-Dimensional CADD Modeling on the Development of the Spatial Ability of Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, K. Lynn; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial abilities are fundamental to human functioning in the physical world. Spatial reasoning allows people to use concepts of shape, features, and relationships in both concrete and abstract ways, to make and use things in the world, to navigate, and to communicate. Surgeons, pilots, architects, engineers, mechanics, builders, farmers, trades…

  11. 3-Dimensional culture systems for anti-cancer compound profiling and high-throughput screening reveal increases in EGFR inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity compared to monolayer culture systems.

    PubMed

    Howes, Amy L; Richardson, Robyn D; Finlay, Darren; Vuori, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional (3D) culture models have the potential to bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture and in vivo studies. To benefit anti-cancer drug discovery from 3D models, new techniques are needed that enable their use in high-throughput (HT) screening amenable formats. We have established miniaturized 3D culture methods robust enough for automated HT screens. We have applied these methods to evaluate the sensitivity of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines against a panel of oncology drugs when cultured as monolayers (2D) and spheroids (3D). We have identified two classes of compounds that exhibit preferential cytotoxicity against cancer cells over normal cells when cultured as 3D spheroids: microtubule-targeting agents and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Further improving upon our 3D model, superior differentiation of EC50 values in the proof-of-concept screens was obtained by co-culturing the breast cancer cells with normal human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Further, the selective sensitivity of the cancer cells towards chemotherapeutics was observed in 3D co-culture conditions, rather than as 2D co-culture monolayers, highlighting the importance of 3D cultures. Finally, we examined the putative mechanisms that drive the differing potency displayed by EGFR inhibitors. In summary, our studies establish robust 3D culture models of human cells for HT assessment of tumor cell-selective agents. This methodology is anticipated to provide a useful tool for the study of biological differences within 2D and 3D culture conditions in HT format, and an important platform for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:25247711

  12. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji; Sorella, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  13. The Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completely different setting, namely for the 1D oscillator in quantum mechanics.

  14. Vision-based control of holonomic robots for 3-dimensional rigid-body positioning using camera-space manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenzong

    Camera-space manipulation was developed in this work for 3-dimensional 6-degree-of-freedom rigid-body positioning tasks with unknown work piece position and orientation. Using standard imaging devices and the very large GMF S-400 manipulator, highly precise manuever precision was achieved with negligible passive compliance. The maneuver succeeded consistently within a large range of work piece position and orientation provided the piece remained in the cameras' fields of view. The maneuver precision was further improved by accounting for the perspective effect in the camera-space locations of visually-detected cues painted on the objects to be positioned, using an iterative procedure that we devised in this work. The application of this procedure also increased the range of the work piece position and orientation within which the maneuver succeeded consistently. Also developed in this work was an iterative method for the estimation for grasp uncertainty in rigid-body positioning with camera-space manipulation. This added capability of camera-space manipulation allowed rigid-body positioning tasks to be accomplished with both unknown work piece position and orientation and unknown grasp.

  15. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  16. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  17. MIRD Pamphlet No. 23: Quantitative SPECT for Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Dosimetry in Internal Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George; Brill, A. Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification–based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry. PMID:22743252

  18. Do All Patients of Breast Carcinoma Need 3-Dimensional CT-Based Planning? A Dosimetric Study Comparing Different Breast Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Anusheel Pai, Rajeshri H.; Phurailatpam, Reena; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of dose distribution in a single plane (i.e., 2-dimensional [2D] planning) is simple and less resource-intensive than CT-based 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of the study was to determine if 2D planning could be an appropriate treatment in a subgroup of breast cancer patients based on their breast size. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent breast conservation were planned for radiotherapy. The patients were grouped in 3 different categories based on their respective chest wall separation (CWS) and the thickness of breast, as 'small,' 'medium,' and 'large.' Two more contours were taken at locations 5 cm superior and 5 cm inferior to the isocenter plane. Maximum dose recorded at specified points was compared in superior/inferior slices as compared to the central slice. The mean difference for small breast size was 1.93 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.08). For medium breas size, the mean difference was 2.98 (SD = 2.40). For the large breasts, the mean difference was 4.28 (SD = 2.69). Based on our dosimetric study, breast planning only on the single isocentric contour is an appropriate technique for patients with small breasts. However, for large- and medium-size breasts, CT-based planning and 3D planning have a definite role. These results can be especially useful for rationalizing treatment in busy oncology centers.

  19. Calculation Of Correction Angles Of 3-Dimensional Vertebral Rotations Based On Bi-Plane X-Ray Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Tamotsu; Umezaki, Eisaku; Yamagata, Masatsune; Inoue, Shun-ichi

    1984-10-01

    For the therapy of diseases of spinal deformity such as scoliosis, the data of 3-dimensional and correct spinal configuration are needed. Authors developed the system of spinal configuration analysis using bi-plane X-ray photogrammetry which is strong aid for this subject. The idea of correction angle of rotation of vertebra is introduced for this system. Calculated result under this idea has the clinical meaning because the correction angle is the angle which should be corrected on the treatment such as operation or wearing the equipment. Method of 30° oblique projection which gives the apparent X-ray image and eases the measurement of the anatomically characteristic points is presented. The anatomically characteristic bony points whose images should be measured on a- or b-film are of four points. These are centers of upper and lower end plates of each vertebra the center is calculated from two points which are most distant each other on the contour of vertebral end plate ), the lower end points of root of right and left pedicles. Some clinical applications and the effectiveness of this system are presented.

  20. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  1. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Racquel E.; Sheets, Nathan C.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Nutting, Chris; Hall, Emma; Chera, Bhishamjit S.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  2. Reconstruction of a seminiferous tubule-like structure in a 3 dimensional culture system of re-aggregated mouse neonatal testicular cells within a collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jidong; Hatakeyama, Jun; Eto, Ko; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    Male gonad development is initiated by the aggregation of pre-Sertoli cells (SCs), which surround germ cells to form cords. Several attempts to reconstruct testes from dissociated testicular cells have been made; however, only very limited morphogenesis beyond seminiferous cord formation has been achieved. Therefore, we aimed to reconstruct seminiferous tubules using a 3-dimensional (D) re-aggregate culture of testicular cells, which were dissociated from 6-dpp neonatal mice, inside a collagen matrix. We performed a short-term culture (for 3 days) and a long-term culture (up to 3 wks). The addition of KnockOut Serum Replacement (KSR) promoted (1) the enlargement of SC re-aggregates; (2) the attachment of peritubular myoid (PTM) cells around the SC re-aggregates; (3) the sorting of germ cells inside, and Leydig cells outside, seminiferous cord-like structures; (4) the alignment of SC polarity inside a seminiferous cord-like structure relative to the basement membrane; (5) the differentiation of SCs (the expression of the androgen receptor); (6) the formation of a blood-testis-barrier between the SCs; (7) SC elongation and lumen formation; and (8) the proliferation of SCs and spermatogonia, as well as the differentiation of spermatogonia into primary spermatocytes. Eventually, KSR promoted the formation of seminiferous tubule-like structures, which accompanied germ cell differentiation. However, these morphogenetic events did not occur in the absence of KSR. This in vitro system presents an excellent model with which to identify the possible factors that induce these events and to analyze the mechanisms that underlie cellular interactions during testicular morphogenesis and germ cell differentiation.

  3. Treatment-Related Morbidity in Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy With and Without Image Guidance Using Implanted Fiducial Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jasmeet; Greer, Peter B.; White, Martin A.; Parker, Joel; Patterson, Jackie; Tang, Colin I.; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Christopher; Denham, James W.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of rectal and urinary dysfunctional symptoms using image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with fiducials and magnetic resonance planning for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: During the implementation stages of IGRT between September 2008 and March 2010, 367 consecutive patients were treated with prostatic irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with and without IGRT (non-IGRT). In November 2010, these men were asked to report their bowel and bladder symptoms using a postal questionnaire. The proportions of patients with moderate to severe symptoms in these groups were compared using logistic regression models adjusted for tumor and treatment characteristic variables. Results: Of the 282 respondents, the 154 selected for IGRT had higher stage tumors, received higher prescribed doses, and had larger volumes of rectum receiving high dosage than did the 128 selected for non-IGRT. The follow-up duration was 8 to 26 months. Compared with the non-IGRT group, improvement was noted in all dysfunctional rectal symptoms using IGRT. In multivariable analyses, IGRT improved rectal pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.07 [0.009-0.7], P=.02), urgency (OR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P=<.01), diarrhea (OR 0.009 [0.02-0.35], P<.01), and change in bowel habits (OR 0.18 [0.06-0.52], P<.010). No correlation was observed between rectal symptom levels and dose-volume histogram data. Urinary dysfunctional symptoms were similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions: In comparison with men selected for non-IGRT, a significant reduction of bowel dysfunctional symptoms was confirmed in men selected for IGRT, even though they had larger volumes of rectum treated to higher doses.

  4. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Drop Landing Across 3 Institutions: Implications for Multicenter Research for Secondary ACL-Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Noehren, Brian W.; McNally, Michael; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Due to the limitations of single-center studies in achieving appropriate sampling with relatively rare disorders, multicenter collaborations have been proposed to achieve desired sampling levels. However, documented reliability of biomechanical data is necessary for multicenter injury-prevention studies and is currently unavailable. Objective To measure the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) biomechanical waveforms from kinetic and kinematic variables during a single-leg landing (SLL) performed at 3 separate testing facilities. Design Multicenter reliability study. Setting 3 laboratories. Patients 25 female junior varsity and varsity high school volleyball players who visited each facility over a 1-mo period. Intervention Subjects were instrumented with 43 reflective markers to record 3D motion as they performed SLLs. During the SLL the athlete balanced on 1 leg, dropped down off of a 31-cm-high box, and landed on the same leg. Kinematic and kinetic data from both legs were processed from 2 trials across the 3 laboratories. Main Outcome Measures Coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC) were used to statistically compare each joint angle and moment waveform for the first 500 ms of landing. Results Average CMC for lower-extremity sagittal-plane motion was excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .95, ankle .99). Average CMC for lower-extremity frontal-plane motion was also excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .80, ankle .93). Kinetic waveforms were repeatable in each plane of rotation (3-center mean CMC ≥.71), while knee sagittal-plane moments were the most consistent measure across sites (3-center mean CMC ≥.94). Conclusions CMC waveform comparisons were similar relative to the joint measured to previously published reports of between-sessions reliability of sagittal- and frontal-plane biomechanics performed at a single institution. Continued research is needed to further standardize technology and methods to help ensure that highly

  5. Exposure of female macaques to Western-style diet with or without chronic T in vivo alters secondary follicle function during encapsulated 3-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; McGee, Whitney K; Bishop, Cecily V; Park, Byung S; Cameron, Judy L; Zelinski, Mary B; Stouffer, Richard L

    2015-03-01

    Increased adiposity and hyperandrogenemia alter reproductive parameters in both animal models and women, but their effects on preantral follicles in the ovary remain unknown. We recently reported that Western-style diet (WSD) consumption over 1 year, with or without chronic exposure to elevated circulating T, increased the body fat percentage, elicited insulin resistance, suppressed estradiol and progesterone production, as well as altered the numbers, size, and dynamics of antral follicles in the ovary during the menstrual cycle in female macaques. Therefore, experiments were designed to compare the WSD and WSD+T effects to age-matched controls on the survival, growth, and function of isolated secondary follicles during 5 weeks of encapsulated 3-dimensional culture. Follicle survival significantly declined in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the control (CTRL) group. Although media progesterone levels were comparable among groups, androstenedione and estradiol levels were markedly reduced in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the CTRL group at week 5. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels peaked at week 3 and were lower in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels also decreased at week 5 in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. After human chorionic gonadotropin exposure, only antral follicles developed from the CTRL group yielded metaphase II oocytes. Thus, WSD with or without T exposure affects the cohort of secondary follicles in vivo, suppressing their subsequent survival, production of steroid hormones and local factors, as well as oocyte maturation in vitro.

  6. Exposure of Female Macaques to Western-Style Diet With or Without Chronic T In Vivo Alters Secondary Follicle Function During Encapsulated 3-Dimensional Culture

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Whitney K.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Park, Byung S.; Cameron, Judy L.; Zelinski, Mary B.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Increased adiposity and hyperandrogenemia alter reproductive parameters in both animal models and women, but their effects on preantral follicles in the ovary remain unknown. We recently reported that Western-style diet (WSD) consumption over 1 year, with or without chronic exposure to elevated circulating T, increased the body fat percentage, elicited insulin resistance, suppressed estradiol and progesterone production, as well as altered the numbers, size, and dynamics of antral follicles in the ovary during the menstrual cycle in female macaques. Therefore, experiments were designed to compare the WSD and WSD+T effects to age-matched controls on the survival, growth, and function of isolated secondary follicles during 5 weeks of encapsulated 3-dimensional culture. Follicle survival significantly declined in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the control (CTRL) group. Although media progesterone levels were comparable among groups, androstenedione and estradiol levels were markedly reduced in the WSD and WSD+T groups compared with the CTRL group at week 5. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels peaked at week 3 and were lower in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels also decreased at week 5 in the WSD+T group compared with the WSD or CTRL group. After human chorionic gonadotropin exposure, only antral follicles developed from the CTRL group yielded metaphase II oocytes. Thus, WSD with or without T exposure affects the cohort of secondary follicles in vivo, suppressing their subsequent survival, production of steroid hormones and local factors, as well as oocyte maturation in vitro. PMID:25545382

  7. Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design:  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s):  The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (α < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions:  The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

  8. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  9. Transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography: in vivo determination of left ventricular mass in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kühl, H P; Bücker, A; Franke, A; Maul, S; Nolte-Ernsting, C; Reineke, T; Hoffmann, R; Günther, R W; Hanrath, P

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the in vivo calculation of left ventricular mass (LVM). In addition, mass values obtained by M-mode echocardiography were compared with those calculated by MRI. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the left ventricle was performed from a transesophageal and transgastric transducer position with a multiplane transducer in 20 patients. Left ventricular mass was calculated from both transducer positions by using slices of various thicknesses, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Reproducibility was determined by 5 repeated measurements of mass in each of 5 randomly selected left ventricles. M-mode echocardiography was performed according to the method described by Devereux. For MRI, multiple short-axis views with 10-mm slice thickness were acquired in inspiration hold. Correlation was high for mass determined by 3DE and MRI (for 10-mm slice thickness: r = 0.99; y = 0.99 x - 0.7 g; standard error of estimate = 8.5 g; P <.001). There was no statistical bias, and the limits of agreement ranged from +/-16.4 g to +/-27.2 g, depending on the slice thickness. Variability was lowest for a slice thickness of 10 mm (SD +/- 8.2 g). The reproducibility of mass determination was excellent (mean width of the 95% CI 12.8 g). Left ventricular mass values calculated from the transgastric and transesophageal transducer position were not different from each other (mean bias 0.6 +/- 9.1 g; P = ns). M-mode-based LVM calculations showed systematic overestimation and large measurement variability (bias 23.7 g; 95% CI +/- 92.8 g). Compared with MRI, transesophageal 3DE is an accurate and reproducible method for the determination of LVM and clearly superior to M-mode echocardiography. PMID:10708469

  10. Effect of Transcatheter Mitral Annuloplasty With the Cardioband Device on 3-Dimensional Geometry of the Mitral Annulus.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Mani; Agricola, Eustachio; Alfieri, Ottavio; Baldus, Stephan; Colombo, Antonio; Filardo, Giovanni; Hammerstingl, Christophe; Huntgeburth, Michael; Kreidel, Felix; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; LaCanna, Giovanni; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Maisano, Francesco; Nickenig, Georg; Pollock, Benjamin D; Roberts, Bradley J; Vahanian, Alec; Grayburn, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to assess the acute intraprocedural effects of transcatheter direct mitral annuloplasty using the Cardioband device on 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the mitral annulus. Of 45 patients with functional mitral regurgitation (MR) enrolled in a single arm, multicenter, prospective trial, 22 had complete pre- and post-implant 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) images stored in native data format that allowed off-line 3D reconstruction. Images with the highest volume rate and best image quality were selected for analysis. Multiple measurements of annular geometry were compared from baseline to post-implant using paired t tests with Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. The device was successfully implanted in all patients, and MR was reduced to moderate in 2 patients, mild in 17 patients, and trace in 3 patients after final device cinching. Compared with preprocedural TEE, postprocedural TEE showed statistically significantly reductions in annular circumference (137 ± 15 vs 128 ± 17 mm; p = 0.042), intercommissural distance (42.4 ± 4.3 vs 38.6 ± 4.4 mm; p = 0.029), anteroposterior distance (40.0 ± 5.4 vs 37.0 ± 5.7 mm; p = 0.025), and aortic-mitral angle (117 ± 8° vs 112 ± 8°; p = 0.032). This study demonstrates that transcatheter direct mitral annuloplasty with the Cardioband device results in acute remodeling of the mitral annulus with successful reduction of functional MR.

  11. Automorphosis of higher plants in space is simulated by using a 3-dimensional clinostat or by application of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    In STS-95 space experiments, etiolated pea seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space have shown to be automorphosis. Epicotyls were almost straight but the most oriented toward the direction far from their cotyledons with ca. 45 degrees from the vertical line as compared with that on earth. In order to know the mechanism of microgravity conditions in space to induce automorphosis, we introduced simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat, resulting in the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth and development. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region or near cotyledonary node toward the direction far from the cotyledons with about 45 degrees in both seedlings grown on 1 g and under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat within 48 hrs after watering. Thereafter epicotyls grew keeping this orientation under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat, whereas those grown on 1 g changed the growth direction to vertical direction by negative gravitropic response. Automorphosis-like growth and development was induced by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid), but not an anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of inhibitors of stretch-activated channel, LaCl3 and GdCl3, and by the application of an inhibitor of protein kinase, cantharidin. These results suggest that automorphosis-like growth in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings is due to suppression of negative gravitropic responses on 1 g, and the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires for normal activities of auxin polar transport and the gravisensing system relating to calcium channels. Possible mechanisms of perception and transduction of gravity signals to induce automorphosis are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of postoperative lymphocele according to amounts and symptoms by using 3-dimensional CT volumetry in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heungman; Hwang, Sung Ho; Lim, Sungyoon; Kim, Myung Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the risk factors for postoperative lymphocele, for predicting and preventing complications. Methods We evaluated 92 kidney transplant recipients with multidetector CT (MDCT) at 1-month posttransplantation. From admission and 1-month postoperative records, data including diabetes, dialysis type, immunosuppressant use, steroid pulse therapy, and transplantation side were collected. Lymphocele volume was measured with 3-dimensional reconstructed, nonenhanced MDCT at one month postoperatively. The correlations between risk factors and lymphocele volume and between risk factors and symptomatic lymphocele (SyL) were analyzed. The cutoff was calculated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for SyL volume. Results Among 92 recipients, the mean volume was 44.53 ± 176.43 cm3 and 12 had SyL. Univariable analysis between risk factors and lymphocele volume indicated that donor age, retransplantation, and inferiorly located lymphocele were statistically significant. The ROC curve for SyL showed that 33.20 cm3 was the cutoff, with 83.3% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity. On univariable analysis between risk factors and SyL, steroid pulse, inferiorly located lymphocele, and >33.20 cm3 were statistically significant. Multivariable analysis indicated that steroid pulse, >33.20 cm3, and serum creatinine level at one month were significant factors. Conclusion Risk factors including donor age, retransplantation, steroid pulse therapy, and inferiorly located lymphocele are important predictors of large lymphoceles or SyL. In high-risk recipients, careful monitoring of renal function and early image surveillance such as CT or ultrasound are recommended. If the asymptomatic lymphocele is >33.20 cm3 or located inferiorly, early interventions can be considered while carefully observing the changes in symptoms. PMID:27617254

  13. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  14. Evaluation of postoperative lymphocele according to amounts and symptoms by using 3-dimensional CT volumetry in kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heungman; Hwang, Sung Ho; Lim, Sungyoon; Kim, Myung Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the risk factors for postoperative lymphocele, for predicting and preventing complications. Methods We evaluated 92 kidney transplant recipients with multidetector CT (MDCT) at 1-month posttransplantation. From admission and 1-month postoperative records, data including diabetes, dialysis type, immunosuppressant use, steroid pulse therapy, and transplantation side were collected. Lymphocele volume was measured with 3-dimensional reconstructed, nonenhanced MDCT at one month postoperatively. The correlations between risk factors and lymphocele volume and between risk factors and symptomatic lymphocele (SyL) were analyzed. The cutoff was calculated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for SyL volume. Results Among 92 recipients, the mean volume was 44.53 ± 176.43 cm3 and 12 had SyL. Univariable analysis between risk factors and lymphocele volume indicated that donor age, retransplantation, and inferiorly located lymphocele were statistically significant. The ROC curve for SyL showed that 33.20 cm3 was the cutoff, with 83.3% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity. On univariable analysis between risk factors and SyL, steroid pulse, inferiorly located lymphocele, and >33.20 cm3 were statistically significant. Multivariable analysis indicated that steroid pulse, >33.20 cm3, and serum creatinine level at one month were significant factors. Conclusion Risk factors including donor age, retransplantation, steroid pulse therapy, and inferiorly located lymphocele are important predictors of large lymphoceles or SyL. In high-risk recipients, careful monitoring of renal function and early image surveillance such as CT or ultrasound are recommended. If the asymptomatic lymphocele is >33.20 cm3 or located inferiorly, early interventions can be considered while carefully observing the changes in symptoms.

  15. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  16. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on anxious behaviour of BALB/c mice in a 3-dimensional maze.

    PubMed

    Abuhamdah, R M; Hussain, M D; Chazot, P L; Ennaceur, A

    2015-01-01

    Here we used a 3-dimensional (3D) maze, a modification of the radial maze, to assess the effects of treatment for two weeks with a single daily dose of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on anxiety in male BALB/c mice. We examined whether anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine can be detected over three daily test sessions. We examined also whether repeated handling associated with chronic treatment interferes with effects of fluoxetine on anxiety responses. The 3D maze comprises nine arms, each connected to an upward inclined bridge radiating from a central platform. In this maze, BALB/c mice cross frequently into the bridges but avoid the arms. This avoidance is used as an index of anxiety. Two separate groups received once a day either saline (SALCH, n = 8) or fluoxetine (FLUCH, n = 8) for 14 days, and up to 30 min before the test during the subsequent 3 days. A third group received saline (SALAC, n = 8) 30 min before the test, once a day for 3 days. SALAC mice did not cross into the arms, and continued this avoidance over 3 sessions. SALCH mice avoided the arms in session 1 whereas FLUCH mice did cross into the arms, and like SALCH mice, increased number of crossings into and time on the arms in subsequent sessions. Fluoxetine evidently had an anxiolytic effect but only in the first session. These results indicate that handling experience decreased fear and anxiety in the mice, which may have masked the anxiolytic effect of fluoxetine in the second and third test sessions.

  17. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  18. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Visitors' Experiences and Knowledge Acquisition between a 3Dimensional Online and a Real-World Art Museum Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D' Alba, Adriana; Jones, Greg; Wright, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the fall of 2011 and the spring of 2012 which explored the use of existing 3D virtual environment technologies by bringing a selected permanent museum exhibit displayed at a museum located in central Mexico into an online 3Dimensional experience. Using mixed methods, the research study analyzed knowledge…

  20. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D) System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP) Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Malik, Malika Amattullah; Arab, Aarthi; Hill, Matthew Thomas; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D) mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP) in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR). The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased survival rate in

  1. On the Need for Comprehensive Validation of Deformable Image Registration, Investigated With a Novel 3-Dimensional Deformable Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To introduce and evaluate a novel deformable 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial deformable image registration (DIR) package. Methods and Materials: Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiologic and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5-mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Results: Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy∙cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm{sup 3}, and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03-10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to that of liver tissue, with Young's modulus of 13.5-887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233-303 kPa, and Poisson's ratio of 0.475 (SE, 0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the nondeformed and deformed dose distributions, with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. Although external contours were accurately deformed (submillimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm, respectively, were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose γ passing rate was only γ{sub 3%/3} {sub mm} = 60.0%. Conclusions: The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for comprehensive investigation of DIR algorithm accuracy. Substantial errors in a commercial DIR were found in the conditions

  2. Hydrogel Based 3-Dimensional (3D) System for Toxicity and High-Throughput (HTP) Analysis for Cultured Murine Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Malik, Malika Amattullah; Arab, Aarthi; Hill, Matthew Thomas; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-01-01

    Various toxicants, drugs and their metabolites carry potential ovarian toxicity. Ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary, are susceptible to this type of damage at all stages of their development. However, despite of the large scale of potential negative impacts, assays that study ovarian toxicity are limited. Exposure of cultured ovarian follicles to toxicants of interest served as an important tool for evaluation of toxic effects for decades. Mouse follicles cultured on the bottom of a culture dish continue to serve an important approach for mechanistic studies. In this paper, we demonstrated the usefulness of a hydrogel based 3-dimensional (3D) mouse ovarian follicle culture as a tool to study ovarian toxicity in a different setup. The 3D in vitro culture, based on fibrin alginate interpenetrating network (FA-IPN), preserves the architecture of the ovarian follicle and physiological structure-function relationship. We applied the novel 3D high-throughput (HTP) in vitro ovarian follicle culture system to study the ovotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, Doxorobucin (DXR). The fibrin component in the system is degraded by plasmin and appears as a clear circle around the encapsulated follicle. The degradation area of the follicle is strongly correlated with follicle survival and growth. To analyze fibrin degradation in a high throughput manner, we created a custom MATLAB® code that converts brightfield micrographs of follicles encapsulated in FA-IPN to binary images, followed by image analysis. We did not observe any significant difference between manually processed images to the automated MATLAB® method, thereby confirming that the automated program is suitable to measure fibrin degradation to evaluate follicle health. The cultured follicles were treated with DXR at concentrations ranging from 0.005 nM to 200 nM, corresponding to the therapeutic plasma levels of DXR in patients. Follicles treated with DXR demonstrated decreased survival rate in

  3. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  4. Construction of multiple recombinant SLA-I proteins by linking heavy chains and light chains in vitro and analyzing their secondary and 3-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-shan; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-bo; Li, Yanmin

    2012-07-10

    Six breeds of swine were used to study the structure of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I). SLA-I complexes were produced by linking SLA-2 genes and β(2)m genes via a linker encoding a 15 amino acid glycine-rich sequence, (G4S)3, using splicing overlap extension (SOE)-PCR in vitro. The six recombinant SLA-2-linker-β(2)m genes were each inserted into p2X vectors and their expression induced in Escherichia coli TB1. The expressed proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The maltose binding protein (MBP)-SLA-I fusion proteins were purified by amylose affinity chromatography followed by cleavage with factor Xa and separation of the SLA-I protein monomers from the MBP using a DEAE Ceramic Hyper D F column. The purified SLA-I monomers were detected by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and the 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the constructed single-chain SLA-I molecules were analyzed by homology modeling. Recombinant SLA-2-Linker-β(2)m was successfully amplified from all six breeds of swine by SOE-PCR and expressed as fusion proteins of 84.1 kDa in pMAL-p2X, followed by confirmation by western blotting. After purification and cleavage of the MBP-SLA-I fusion proteins, SLA-I monomeric proteins of 41.6 kDa were separated. CD spectroscopy demonstrated that the SLA-I monomers had an α-helical structure, and the average α-helix, β-sheet, turn and random coil contents were 21.6%, 37.9%, 15.0% and 25.5%, respectively. Homology modeling of recombinant single-chain SLA-I molecules showed that the heavy chain and light chain constituted SLA-I complex with an open antigenic peptide-binding groove. It was concluded that the expressed SLA-I proteins in pMAL-p2X folded correctly and could be used to bind and screen nonameric peptides in vitro.

  5. 3-D Visualisation: Using Internet-based Activities to Enhance Student Understanding of 3-dimensional Spatial Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial ability forms its own category separate from verbal ability. Various spatial abilities have been identified over the last three decades and classified into three types: mental rotation, spatial rotation and spatial visualization, which have been linked to high performance in STEM subjects. Geoscience demands spatial thinking from learners and practitioners, and spatial literacy has been seen as a fundamental skill in Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences (GEES disciplines) essential for progression. First year GEES students not only have to cope with new learning and teaching environments (Maguire et al., 2008), but, arriving with different science backgrounds, are faced with the challenge of developing essential skills that may be novel for them. These essential skills are subject-specific, as well as transferable, and require an understanding of 3-dimensional spatial relationships. However, spatial skills can be troublesome for some students to master. Not only do many students find difficulty in acquiring spatial skills, facing a succession of hurdles that need to be overcome in developing their understanding, but also educators, often strong spatial thinkers themselves and unaware of the degree to which some students are spatially-challenged, may find it difficult to help. Recent studies have suggested that performance on abstract and applied spatial tasks may be enhanced through instruction and practice and spatially-intensive geoscience courses may strengthen performance on spatial tasks. At Liverpool, many first year geoscience modules require understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, often from initial 2-D observations (e.g. mineralogy, petrography, vulcanology, sedimentology, palaeontology, geological map work, structural geology and fieldwork). In this paper we outline work, supported by the UK Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES), involving first year geosciences students at Liverpool, in which we explored

  6. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  7. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  8. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  9. Potential for Improved Intelligence Quotient Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Whole-Ventricular Radiation in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon; Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion; Madden, Jennifer R.; Wilkening, Greta N.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Method and Materials: Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Results: Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. Conclusion: For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children.

  10. Propensity Score-based Comparison of Long-term Outcomes With 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Steven H.; Wang Lu; Myles, Bevan; Thall, Peter F.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Although 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is the worldwide standard for the treatment of esophageal cancer, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformality and reduces the radiation exposure to normal tissues. We hypothesized that the dosimetric advantages of IMRT should translate to substantive benefits in clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 676 nonrandomized patients (3D-CRT, n=413; IMRT, n=263) with stage Ib-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) esophageal cancers treated with chemoradiotherapy at a single institution from 1998-2008. An inverse probability of treatment weighting and inclusion of propensity score (treatment probability) as a covariate were used to compare overall survival time, interval to local failure, and interval to distant metastasis, while accounting for the effects of other clinically relevant covariates. The propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results: A fitted multivariate inverse probability weighted-adjusted Cox model showed that the overall survival time was significantly associated with several well-known prognostic factors, along with the treatment modality (IMRT vs 3D-CRT, hazard ratio 0.72, P<.001). Compared with IMRT, 3D-CRT patients had a significantly greater risk of dying (72.6% vs 52.9%, inverse probability of treatment weighting, log-rank test, P<.0001) and of locoregional recurrence (P=.0038). No difference was seen in cancer-specific mortality (Gray's test, P=.86) or distant metastasis (P=.99) between the 2 groups. An increased cumulative incidence of cardiac death was seen in the 3D-CRT group (P=.049), but most deaths were undocumented (5-year estimate, 11.7% in 3D-CRT vs 5.4% in IMRT group, Gray's test, P=.0029). Conclusions: Overall survival, locoregional control, and noncancer-related death were significantly better after IMRT than after 3D-CRT. Although these results need

  11. Dependence of Coronary 3-Dimensional Dose Maps on Coronary Topologies and Beam Set in Breast Radiation Therapy: A Study Based on CT Angiographies

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Girinsky, Théodore; Paul, Jean-François; and others

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: In left-side breast radiation therapy (RT), doses to the left main (LM) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries are usually assessed after delineation by prior anatomic knowledge on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, dose sensitivity due to interindividual coronary topology variation was assessed, and hot spots were located. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two detailed heart models, created from heart computed tomography angiographies, were fitted into a single representative female thorax. Two breast RT protocols were then simulated into a treatment planning system: the first protocol comprised tangential and tumoral bed beams (TGs{sub T}B) at 50 + 16 Gy, the second protocol added internal mammary chain beams at 50 Gy to TGs{sub T}B (TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC). For the heart, the LAD, and the LM, several dose indicators were calculated: dose-volume histograms, mean dose (D{sub mean}), minimal dose received by the most irradiated 2% of the volume (D{sub 2%}), and 3-dimensional (3D) dose maps. Variations of these indicators with anatomies were studied. Results: For the LM, the intermodel dispersion of D{sub mean} and D{sub 2%} was 10% and 11%, respectively, with TGs{sub T}B and 40% and 80%, respectively, with TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC. For the LAD, these dispersions were 19% (D{sub mean}) and 49% (D{sub 2%}) with TGs{sub T}B and 35% (D{sub mean}) and 76% (D{sub 2%}) with TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC. The 3D dose maps revealed that the internal mammary chain beams induced hot spots between 20 and 30 Gy on the LM and the proximal LAD for some coronary topologies. Without IMC beams, hot spots between 5 and 26 Gy are located on the middle and distal LAD. Conclusions: Coronary dose distributions with hot spot location and dose level can change significantly depending on coronary topology, as highlighted by 3D coronary dose maps. In clinical practice, coronary imaging may be required for a relevant coronary dose assessment

  12. Integration of 3-dimensional surgical and orthodontic technologies with orthognathic "surgery-first" approach in the management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Feinberg, Mark; Vishwanath, Meenakshi; Nalaka Jayaratne, Yasas Shri; Steinbacher, Derek M; Nanda, Ravindra; Uribe, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    Recent innovations in technology and techniques in both surgical and orthodontic fields can be integrated, especially when treating subjects with facial asymmetry. In this article, we present a treatment method consisting of 3-dimensional computer-aided surgical and orthodontic planning, which was implemented with the orthognathic surgery-first approach. Virtual surgical planning, fabrication of surgical splints using the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technique, and prediction of final orthodontic occlusion using virtual planning with robotically assisted customized archwires were integrated for this patient. Excellent esthetic and occlusal outcomes were obtained in a short period of 5.5 months. PMID:26672712

  13. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies. PMID:27562975

  14. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies.

  15. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm. PMID:21512384

  16. Development of an Autonomous, Dual Chamber Bioreactor for the Growth of 3-Dimensional Epithelial-Stromal Tissues in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Wettergreen, Matthew A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel, autonomous bioreactor that can provide for the growth and maintenance in microgravity of 3-D organotypic epithelial-stromal cultures that require an air-liquid interface. These complex 3-D tissue models accurately represent the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics observed in normal human epithelial tissues, including the skin, esophagus, lung, breast, pancreas, and colon. However, because of their precise and complex culture requirements, including that of an air-liquid interface, these 3-D models have yet to be utilized for life sciences research aboard the International Space Station. The development of a bioreactor for these cultures will provide the capability to perform biological research on the ISS using these realistic, tissue-like human epithelial-stromal cell models and will contribute significantly to advances in fundamental space biology research on questions regarding microgravity effects on normal tissue development, aging, cancer, and other disease processes. It will also allow for the study of how combined stressors, such as microgravity with radiation and nutritional deficiencies, affect multiple biological processes and will provide a platform for conducting countermeasure investigations on the ISS without the use of animal models. The technology will be autonomous and consist of a cell culture chamber that provides for air-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-air exchanges within the chambers while maintaining the growth and development of the biological samples. The bioreactor will support multiple tissue types and its modular design will provide for incorporation of add-on capabilities such as microfluidics drug delivery, media sampling, and in situ biomarker analysis. Preliminary flight testing of the hardware will be conducted on a parabolic platform through NASA's Flight Opportunities Program.

  17. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials. PMID:27572475

  18. Three-dimensional portable document format: a simple way to present 3-dimensional data in an electronic publication.

    PubMed

    Danz, Jan C; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of teeth and soft and hard tissues are tessellated surfaces used for diagnosis, treatment planning, appliance fabrication, outcome evaluation, and research. In scientific publications or communications with colleagues, these 3D data are often reduced to 2-dimensional pictures or need special software for visualization. The portable document format (PDF) offers a simple way to interactively display 3D surface data without additional software other than a recent version of Adobe Reader (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The purposes of this article were to give an example of how 3D data and their analyses can be interactively displayed in 3 dimensions in electronic publications, and to show how they can be exported from any software for diagnostic reports and communications among colleagues.

  19. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.

  20. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials. PMID:27572475

  1. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-08-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.

  2. Full-coverage film cooling: 3-dimensional measurements of turbulence structure and prediction of recovery region hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic measurements were made with a triaxial hot-wire in the full-coverage region and the recovery region following an array of injection holes inclined downstream, at 30 degrees to the surface. The data were taken under isothermal conditions at ambient temperature and pressure for two blowing ratios: M = 0.9 and M = 0.4. Profiles of the three main velocity components and the six Reynolds stresses were obtained at several spanwise positions at each of the five locations down the test plate. A one-equation model of turbulence (using turbulent kinetic energy with an algebraic mixing length) was used in a two-dimensional computer program to predict the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the recovery region. A new real-time hotwire scheme was developed to make measurements in the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer over the full-coverage surface.

  3. The 3-Dimensional Inner and Outer Structure of Ejecta Around Eta Carinae as Detected by the STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The HST/STIS instrument was used successfully to perform a complete mapping of the Homunculus nebula at two wavelength ranges including H-alpha and H-beta with a spectral resolving power of about 5000 and a spatial resolution of 0.1". The individual spectra were merged to synthesize three-dimensional data cubes that contain a set of images of Eta Car with spatial resolution of 0.10 to 0.251, sliced at velocity increment of 10 -- 30 km/s. For the first time this unique method allows us to diagnose the origin of intrinsic narrow emission structure of the nebula with high spatial and velocity resolution. Our initial analysis revealed the inner emission structure appeared to trace an elongated bipolar shell (possibly other shells as well) with a scale size of an arcsecond (i.e., "little homunculus in the Homunculus"). Furthermore, the mapping data cube revealed that the "fan" or "paddle" -- often referred as the source of peculiar blue-shifted intrinsic emissions including the Strontium cloud -- is not the source of intrinsic emissions. The fan is not even a part of the equatorial disk, but is spatially separated from the peculiar emission structure. Indeed we suggest that the fan is a surface of the Northwest lobe, possibly revealed by a blowout of the equatorial disk. We will use a number of visualization techniques (tomographic animations and simple 3-D models) to show these structures. These new results have strong impact upon future numerical modelings of the Homunculus nebula and of understanding of the evolution of the ejecta powered by the central source(s).

  4. High- and low-LET Radiation-induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts who participate in extended ISS missions and will be an even greater concern for future manned lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D in vitro cellular environment can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected in the first cell cycle after irradiation using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference in the

  5. Application of 3-dimensional radiation transport codes to the analysis of the CRBR prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chatani, K. )

    1992-08-01

    This report summarizes the calculational results from analyses of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment Comparisons of calculated and measured results are presented, major emphasis being placed on results at bends in the chaseway. Calculations were performed with three three-dimensional radiation transport codes: the discrete ordinates code TORT and the Monte Carlo code MORSE, both developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the discrete ordinates code ENSEMBLE, developed by Japan. The calculated results from the three codes are compared (1) with previously-calculated DOT3.5 two-dimensional results, (2) among themselves, and (3) with measured results. Calculations with TORT used both the weighted-difference and nodal methods. Only the weighted-difference method was used in ENSEMBLE. When the calculated results were compared to measured results, it was found that calculation-to-experiment (C/E) ratios were good in the regions of the chaseway where two-dimensional modeling might be difficult and where there were no significant discrete ordinates ray effects. Excellent agreement was observed for responses dominated by thermal neutron contributions. MORSE-calculated results and comparisons are described also, and detailed results are presented in an appendix.

  6. The Effects of Different Miniscrew Thread Designs and Force Directions on Stress Distribution by 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Hamidreza; Ajami, Shabnam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrew as an absolute anchorage device in clinical orthodontics is growing increasingly. Many attempts have been made to reduce the size, to improve the design, and to increase the stability of miniscrew. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different thread shapes and force directions of orthodontic miniscrew on stress distribution in the supporting bone structure. Materials and Method A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used. A 200-cN force in three angles (0°, 45°, and 90°) was applied on the head of the miniscrew. The stress distribution between twelve thread shapes was investigated as categorized in four main groups; buttress, reverse buttress, square, and V-shape. Results Stress distribution was not significantly different among different thread shapes. The maximum amount of bone stress at force angles 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38.90, 30.57 and 6.62 MPa, respectively. Analyzing the von Mises stress values showed that in all models, the maximum stress was concentrated on the lowest diameter of the shank, especially the part that was in the soft tissue and cervical cortical bone regions. Conclusion There was no relation between thread shapes and von Mises stress distribution in the bone; however, different force angles could affect the von Mises stress in the bone and miniscrew. PMID:26636123

  7. Effects of different abutment connection designs on the stress distribution around five different implants: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Balik, Ali; Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Keskin, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    The stability of the bone-implant interface is required for the long-term favorable clinical outcome of implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation. The implant failures that occur after the functional loading are mainly related to biomechanical factors. Micro movements and vibrations due to occlusal forces can lead to mechanical complications such as loosening of the screw and fractures of the abutment or implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the strain distributions in the connection areas of different implant-abutment connection systems under similar loading conditions. Five different implant-abutment connection designs from 5 different manufacturers were evaluated in this study. The investigation was performed with software using the finite element method. The geometrical modeling of the implant systems was done with CATIA virtual design software. The MSC NASTRAN solver and PATRAN postprocessing program were used to perform the linear static solution. According to the analysis, the implant-abutment connection system with external hexagonal connection showed the highest strain values, and the internal hexagonal implant-abutment connection system showed the lowest strain values. Conical + internal hexagonal and screw-in implant abutment connection interface is more successful than other systems in cases with increased vertical dimension, particularly in the posterior region.

  8. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-08-30

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metalmore » deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. In conclusion, the developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material’s pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.« less

  9. Fermion masses without symmetry breaking in two spacetime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenTov, Yoni

    2015-07-01

    I study the prospect of generating mass for symmetry-protected fermions without breaking the symmetry that forbids quadratic mass terms in the Lagrangian. I focus on 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the hope that this can provide guidance for interacting fermions in 3+1 dimensions. I first review the SO(8) Gross-Neveu model and emphasize a subtlety in the triality transformation. Then I focus on the " m = 0" manifold of the SO(7) Kitaev-Fidkowski model. I argue that this theory exhibits a phenomenon similar to "parity doubling" in hadronic physics, and this leads to the conclusion that the fermion propagator vanishes when p μ = 0. I also briefly explore a connection between this model and the two-channel, single-impurity Kondo effect. This paper may serve as an introduction to topological superconductors for high energy theorists, and perhaps as a taste of elementary particle physics for condensed matter theorists.

  10. Mesoporous bioactive glass doped-poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite scaffolds with 3-dimensionally hierarchical pore networks for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengbing; Wang, Jing; Tang, Liangji; Ao, Haiyong; Tan, Honglue; Tang, Tingting; Liu, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Composite scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic compounds have demonstrated superior properties in bone defect repair. In this study, highly bioactive, resorbable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)-based scaffolds were prepared using combinational 3-dimensional (3D) printing and surface-doping protocol. Structural and morphological characterization of the composite scaffolds demonstrated the homogenous surface-coating of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) throughout their porous framework. These hierarchical scaffolds showed bioactivity superior to that of scaffolds made of pure PHBHHx. MBG coating appeared to provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) attachment, activity, and osteogenic differentiation. Our study indicates that MBG-coated PHBHHx (PHBM) scaffolds may be excellent candidates for use in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observations with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma: Comparison of LMS and LIS Lightning Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations obtained during the MEaPRS program in central Oklahoma during June, 1998 have been compared with observations of the discharges from space, obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the TRMM satellite. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were observed between the two sets of observations. Most of the detected optical events were associated with intracloud discharges that developed into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended not to be detected by LIS. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud flashes and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  12. Mesoporous bioactive glass doped-poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite scaffolds with 3-dimensionally hierarchical pore networks for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengbing; Wang, Jing; Tang, Liangji; Ao, Haiyong; Tan, Honglue; Tang, Tingting; Liu, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Composite scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic compounds have demonstrated superior properties in bone defect repair. In this study, highly bioactive, resorbable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)-based scaffolds were prepared using combinational 3-dimensional (3D) printing and surface-doping protocol. Structural and morphological characterization of the composite scaffolds demonstrated the homogenous surface-coating of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) throughout their porous framework. These hierarchical scaffolds showed bioactivity superior to that of scaffolds made of pure PHBHHx. MBG coating appeared to provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) attachment, activity, and osteogenic differentiation. Our study indicates that MBG-coated PHBHHx (PHBM) scaffolds may be excellent candidates for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24441182

  13. Value of real-time transesophageal 3-dimensional echocardiography in guiding ablation of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation.

    PubMed

    Faletra, Francesco F; Regoli, François; Acena, Marta; Auricchio, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, both the range of indications and the efficacy and safety of interventional electrophysiology has improved considerably. This progress is attributed to both the accumulating experience of electrophysiologists and the advances in technological tools facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) has emerged as a new imaging tool in the clinical arena. Its ability to image in "real time" cardiac structures "en face" and the almost entire length of intracardiac catheters has made this technique a promising imaging tool to guide percutaneous catheter-based procedures. More recently it has been used in monitoring ablation procedures. In this review, the advantages and current limitations of RT 3D TEE during ablation of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter and pulmonary vein isolation are described.

  14. TriTel 3 dimensional space dosimetric telescope in the European Student Earth Orbiter project of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila

    2012-02-01

    The development of the European Student Earth Orbiter (ESEO) was announced in the year of 2008 by the European Space Agency for students interested in the space exploration. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics joined this international cooperation with three student groups among other participating European universities. One of them is the ESEO-TriTel team. The development of the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope began in the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago in order to determine the average radiation quality factor of the space radiation field for dosimetric purposes. In the year 2011—before the start of the ESEO mission—it will be operated on board the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) and will be installed in the Russian segment of the ISS as well. The ESEO version of TriTel will fly higher than the ISS version, at an altitude of 520 km. At this altitude the Earth's geomagnetic field is much lower and the spectrum of the radiation field is also different. In the ESEO-TriTel experiment the anisotropies in the radiation field, the effects of the Earth shadow and the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) will be analysed and the results will be compared with the fluxes calculated with the standard AP-8 and AE-8 trapped proton and electron models. In the near future the frequency of manned space flights will probably increase, we can think of the continuous human presence in the near-Earth region (low Earth orbits) or the proposed human Mars expedition. That is why the cosmic radiation field is interesting not only in the near-Earth region but at higher altitudes or in the interplanetary field as well. The present paper addresses the optimal shielding of the dosimetric telescopes of TriTel in order to avoid the saturation of the electronics. The amount of optimal shielding is equivalent to the effective thickness of astronaut's space suit, which means that the same dose will be measured as what the

  15. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Recht, Abram; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  16. Development of an Electrophysiology (EP)-Enabled Intracardiac Ultrasound Catheter Integrated With NavX 3-Dimensional Electrofield Mapping for Guiding Cardiac EP Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao Kui; Pemberton, James; Thomenius, Kai; Dentinger, Aaron; Lowe, Robert I.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shung, K. Kirk; Chia, Raymond; Stephens, Douglas N.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Mahajan, Aman; Balaji, Seshadri; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Sahn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have developed an integrated high-resolution intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter for electrophysiology (EP) testing, which can be coregistered in 3-dimensional space with EP testing and ablation catheters using electrofield sensing. Methods Twelve open-chest pigs (34–55 kg) and 3 closed-chest pigs were studied. After introduction from the jugular or femoral venous locations, the 9F side-looking, highly steerable (0°–180°), 64-element array catheters could be manipulated easily throughout the right side of the heart. Multisite cardiac pacing was performed for assessing left ventricular (LV) synchrony using tissue Doppler methods. Also, in the open-chest pigs, right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) ablations were performed with a separate radio frequency catheter under fluoroscopic guidance and visualized with ICE to characterize the changes. In the 3 closed-chest pigs, electrofield NavX 3-dimensional coregistration (St Jude Medical Corp, Minneapolis, MN) allowed us to test whether this additional feature could shorten the time necessary to perform 4 targeted ablations in each animal while imaging the ablation catheter and the adjacent region by ICE. Results Intracardiac anatomy, tricuspid, aortic, pulmonary, and mitral valve function, and pulmonary vein flow were all imaged reproducibly from scanning locations in the RA or RV in all animals, along with assessment of cardiac motion and the effects of multisite pacing. Three-dimensional electrofield displays detailed the spatial relationship between the ICE catheter and ablation catheters such that the time to visualize and ablate 4 sites in each of the 3 closed-chest animals was reduced. Conclusions This new technology is a first step in the integration of ICE with EP procedures. PMID:17957051

  17. S-matrices and integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU(2), SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu models. In loving memory of Lilia Grandi.

  18. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Thompson, Ann; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Kolsky, Michal Schneider; Devereux, Thomas; Lim, Andrew; Siva, Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimum isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.

  19. The value of 3-dimensional longitudinal strain in the evaluation of complex coronary lesions in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zekun; Dai, Jianwei; Wu, Dan; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Jun; Li, Guoying; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Hongqiang; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Xu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the value of 3-dimensional global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) derived from the 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the diagnosis of the complex non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) by comparing GPLS to the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score.A total of 59 inpatients with NSTE-ACS in our hospital between October 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled into our study. All these subjects underwent the coronary angiography (CAG) and 3D-STE examination. The results of CAG were used to calculate the SYNTAX scores in each subject. The GPLS was assessed with speckle-tracking analysis using the dedicated software developed by GE Healthcare (Horten, Norway).We grouped all subjects according to the SYNTAX scores. A total of 23 patients (39%) were grouped as complex NSTE-ACS in our experiment. In our analysis, the values of GPLS significantly decreased from low SYNTAX scores to intermediate or high SYNTAX scores (-14.0 ± 2.7% and -9.5 ± 2.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that GPLS and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for complex NSTE-ACS. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for GPLS to evaluate patients with complex NSTE-ACS was 0.882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.797-0.967, P < 0.001) with an optimal cutoff value of -11.76% (sensitivity 82.6% and specificity 83.3%). The evaluative value of the adjusted AUC for evaluating patients with complex NSTE-ACS improved after inclusion of GPLS (C statistics, 0.827-0.948, P < 0.001).The value of GPLS is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary artery lesions, according to SYNTAX score. Therefore, our study indicates that GPLS could be reproducible and efficient to evaluate the complex coronary artery disease in NSTE-ACS patients. PMID:27684797

  20. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  1. Simultaneous Bimaxillary Surgery and Mandibular Reconstruction With a 3-Dimensional Printed Titanium Implant Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting: A Preliminary Mechanical Testing of the Printed Mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ui-Lyong; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Woo, Su-Heon; Choi, Young-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A woman presented with a long history of mandibular defects posterior to the left lower first premolar caused by inadequate reconstruction after removal of a tumor on the left side of the mandible. In the frontal view, extreme facial asymmetry was apparent. The dental midline of the mandible was deviated 10 mm to the left compared with the dental midline of the maxilla, and all maxillary teeth were inclined to the left owing to dental compensation. There was an 8-mm maxillary occlusal cant relative to the maxillary first molar. Bimaxillary surgery using computer-assisted designed and computer-assisted manufactured devices without an intermediate occlusal splint was performed to align the maxilla and mandible at the correct position, and reconstructive surgery for the mandible using a 3-dimensional printed titanium mandible was concurrently performed. In particular, during the virtual mandible design, 2 abutments that enabled the prosthetic restoration were included in the mandible using a computer-assisted design program. This report describes the successful functional and esthetic reconstruction of the mandible using electron beam melting technology, an alternative technique for reconstruction of mandibles that did not undergo radiation therapy. PMID:27060494

  2. Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K M; Nichols, R L; Flach, G P; Sappington, F; Simmons, J L; Betivas, C R; Shoffner, L R; Falise, F R

    2003-02-25

    Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, "StrataSampler", which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.

  3. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture.A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups.There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture.The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy.

  4. Novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on 3-dimensional triarylamine and benzothiadiazole derivatives for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongli; Chen, Huajie; Long, Jun; Wang, Guo; Tan, Songting

    2016-09-01

    Organic dyes with a 3-dimensional (3D) structure is helpful for retarding dyes aggregation and charge recombination as well as improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this contribution, a novel 3D triarylamine derivative (IDTTPA) featuring an indenothiophenene unit has been designed, synthesized, and applied to develop a 3D organic dyes. Two novel D-A-π-A organic dyes (CD1 and CD2) based on IDTTPA as the electron donors, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derivatives as the auxiliary acceptors, and formic acid as the anchoring groups have been successfully synthesized and applied in DSSCs. The effects of the fluoro substitute groups on the photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are investigated. The results indicate that the fluoro-containing dye CD2 exhibits higher molar extinction coefficient, stronger light-capturing ability, and better photovoltaic performance than those of CD1 dye without fluoro substitute. Investigation of the DSSCs performance shows that CD2-based DSSCs exhibit a high PCE value of 7.91%, higher than that of CD1-based DSSCs (6.29%), even higher than that of the reference DSSCs based on N719 (7.49%). This works has demonstrated that this kind of 3D unit (IDTTPA) is a strong and promising electron donor unit to develop high efficiency metal-free organic dyes.

  5. Fabrication of 3-Dimensional Structure of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Embodied in the Convex Corner of the Silicon Micro-Fluidic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Geunbae; Park, Chin-Sung; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Kim, Dong-Sun; Jeong, Yong-Taek; Park, Hey-Jung; Kim, Hyoung Sik; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    As micro-fluidic systems and biochemical detection systems are scaled to smaller dimensions, the realization of small and portable biochemical detection systems has become increasingly important. In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional structure of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor(3-D MOSFET) using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic etching, which is a suitable device for combining with a micro-fluidic system. After fabricating a trapezoidal micro-fluidic channel, the 3-D MOSFET embodied in the convex corner of the micro-fluidic channel was fabricated. The length of the gate is about 20 μm and the width is about 9 μm. The depth and top width of the trapezoidal micro-fluidic channel are about 8 μm and 60 μm, respectively. The measured drain saturation current of the 3-D MOSFET was about -22 μA at VGS=-5 V and VDS=-5 V, and the device characteristics exhibit a typical MOSFET behavior. Moreover, a gold layer was used for the MOSFET’s gate metal to detect charged biochemical samples using the affinity between gold and thiol.

  6. Evaluation of the anterior mandibular donor site one year after secondary reconstruction of an alveolar cleft: 3-dimensional analysis using cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    van Bilsen, M W T; Schreurs, R; Meulstee, J W; Kuijpers, M A R; Meijer, G J; Borstlap, W A; Bergé, S J; Maal, T J J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse changes in the volume of the chin after harvest of a bone graft for secondary reconstruction of an alveolar cleft. Cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans of 27 patients taken preoperatively, and immediately and one year postoperatively, were analysed, and 3-dimensional hard-tissue reconstructions made. The hard-tissue segmentation of the scan taken one year postoperatively was subtracted from the segmentation of the preoperative scan to calculate the alteration in the volume of bone at the donor site (chin). A centrally-orientated persistent concavity at the buccal side of the chin was found (mean (range) 160 (0-500) mm(3)). At the lingual side of the chin, a central concavity remained (mean (range) volume 20 (0-80) mm(3)). Remarkably, at the periphery of this concavity there was overgrowth of new bone (mean (range) volume 350 (0-1600) mm(3)). Re-attachment of the muscles of the tongue resulted in a significantly larger central lingual defect one year postoperatively (p=0.01). We also measured minor alterations in volume of the chin at one year. Whether these alterations influence facial appearance and long term bony quality is to be the subject of further research.

  7. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  8. Accuracy of Real-time Couch Tracking During 3-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Hermann, Christian; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of real-time couch tracking for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional motion trajectories of 15 prostate cancer patients were the basis for this phantom study; prostate motion had been monitored with the Calypso System. An industrial robot moved a phantom along these trajectories, motion was detected via an infrared camera system, and the robotic HexaPOD couch was used for real-time counter-steering. Residual phantom motion during real-time tracking was measured with the infrared camera system. Film dosimetry was performed during delivery of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Results: Motion of the prostate was largest in the anterior-posterior direction, with systematic ( N-Ary-Summation ) and random ({sigma}) errors of 2.3 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively; the prostate was outside a threshold of 5 mm (3D vector) for 25.0%{+-}19.8% of treatment time. Real-time tracking reduced prostate motion to N-Ary-Summation =0.01 mm and {sigma} = 0.55 mm in the anterior-posterior direction; the prostate remained within a 1-mm and 5-mm threshold for 93.9%{+-}4.6% and 99.7%{+-}0.4% of the time, respectively. Without real-time tracking, pass rates based on a {gamma} index of 2%/2 mm in film dosimetry ranged between 66% and 72% for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, on average. Real-time tracking increased pass rates to minimum 98% on average for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT. Conclusions: Real-time couch tracking resulted in submillimeter accuracy for prostate cancer, which transferred into high dosimetric accuracy independently of whether 3D-CRT, IMRT, or VMAT was used.

  9. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Added value of color patterns with emphasis on crater sign of coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-Jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes.A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated.Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, "Stiff Rim" was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of "Crater Sign" and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US.In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with "Crater Sign" in coronal plane of the highest value.

  10. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  11. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, James M. Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  12. Epicardial delivery of VEGF and cardiac stem cells guided by 3-dimensional PLLA mat enhancing cardiac regeneration and angiogenesis in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jung; Kyung, Hei-Won; Katila, Pramila; Lee, Jeong-Han; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Yang, Young-Il; Lee, Seung-Jin

    2015-05-10

    Congestive heart failure is mostly resulted in a consequence of the limited myocardial regeneration capacity after acute myocardial infarction. Targeted delivery of proangiogenic factors and/or stem cells to the ischemic myocardium is a promising strategy for enhancing their local and sustained therapeutic effects. Herein, we designed an epicardial delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mat applied to the acutely infarcted myocardium. The fibrous VEGF-loaded PLLA mat was fabricated by an electrospinning method using PLLA solution emulsified VEGF. This mat not only allowed for sustained release of VEGF for 4weeks but boosted migration and proliferation of both endothelial cells and CSCs in vitro. Furthermore, sustained release of VEGF showed a positive effect on in vitro capillary-like network formation of endothelial cells compared with bolus treatment of VEGF. PLLA mat provided a permissive 3-dimensional (3D) substratum that led to spontaneous cardiomyogenic differentiation of CSCs in vitro. Notably, sustained stimulation by VEGF-loaded PLLA mat resulted in a substantial increase in the expression of proangiogenic mRNAs of CSCs in vitro. The epicardially implanted VEGF-loaded PLLA mat showed modest effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in the acutely infarcted hearts. However, co-implantation of VEGF and CSCs using the PLLA mat showed meaningful therapeutic effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis compared with controls, leading to reduced cardiac remodeling and enhanced global cardiac function. Collectively, the PLLA mat allowed a smart cargo that enabled the sustained release of VEGF and the delivery of CSCs, thereby synergistically inducing angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Translating human embryonic stem cells from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional cultures in a defined medium on laminin- and vitronectin-coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Li, Jian; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Reuveny, Shaul; Cool, Simon M; Birch, William R; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng

    2012-07-01

    While defining the environment for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture on 2-dimensional (2D) surfaces has made rapid progress, the industrial-scale implementation of this technology will benefit from translating this knowledge into a 3-dimensional (3D) system, thus enabling better control, automation, and volumetric scale-up in bioreactors. The current study describes a system with defined conditions that are capable of supporting the long-term 2D culture of hESCs and the transposing of these conditions to 3D microcarrier (MC) cultures. Vitronectin (VN) and laminin (LN) were chosen as matrices for the long-term propagation of hESCs in a defined culture medium (STEMPRO(®)) for conventional 2D culture. Adsorption of these proteins onto 2D tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) indicated that surface density saturation of 510 and 850 ng/cm(2) for VN and LN, respectively, was attained above 20 μg/mL deposition solution concentration. Adsorption of these proteins onto spherical (97±10 μm), polystyrene MC followed a similar trend and coating surface densities of 450 and 650 ng/cm(2) for VN and LN, respectively, were used to support hESC propagation. The long-term expansion of hESCs was equally successful on TCPS and MC, with consistently high expression (>90%) of pluripotent markers (OCT-4, MAB-84, and TRA-1-60) over 20 passages and maintenance of karyotypic normality. The average fold increase in cell numbers on VN-coated MC per serial passage was 8.5±1.0, which was similar to LN-coated MC (8.5±0.9). Embryoid body differentiation assays and teratoma formation confirmed that hESCs retained the ability to differentiate into lineages of all 3 germ layers, thus demonstrating the first translation to a fully defined MC-based environment for the expansion of hESCs.

  14. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions: Added value of color patterns with emphasis on crater sign of coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-Jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes.A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated.Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, "Stiff Rim" was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of "Crater Sign" and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US.In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with "Crater Sign" in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  15. Impact of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy/5-Fluorouracil on Quality of Life of Patients Managed for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Michala; Halkett, Georgia; Borg, Martin; Zissiadis, Yvonne; Kneebone, Andrew; Spry, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL) results for patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n=41 locally advanced, n=22 postsurgery) entered the B9E-AY-S168 study and received 1 cycle of induction gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} weekly Multiplication-Sign 3 with 1-week break) followed by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) (54 Gy locally advanced and 45 Gy postsurgery) and concomitant continuous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (200 mg/m{sup 2}/d throughout RT). After 4 weeks, patients received an additional 3 cycles of consolidation gemcitabine chemotherapy. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires at baseline, before RT/5FU, at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion. Results: The patterns of change in global QOL scores differed between groups. In the locally advanced group global QOL scores were +13, +8, +3, and +1 compared with baseline before RT/5FU (P=.008), at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion, respectively. In the postsurgery group, global QOL scores were -3, +4, +15, and +17 compared with baseline at the same time points, with a significant improvement in global QOL before consolidation gemcitabine (P=.03). No significant declines in global QOL were reported by either cohort. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that global QOL and associated function and symptom profiles for pancreatic chemoradiation therapy differ between locally advanced and postsurgery patients, likely owing to differences in underlying disease status. For both groups, the treatment protocol was well tolerated and did not have a negative impact on patients' global QOL.

  16. Influences of reconstruction and attenuation correction in brain SPECT images obtained by the hybrid SPECT/CT device: evaluation with a 3-dimensional brain phantom

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Mana; Yamashita, Yasuo; Akamatsu, Go; Tsutsui, Yuji; Ohya, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of reconstruction and attenuation correction on the differences in the radioactivity distributions in 123I brain SPECT obtained by the hybrid SPECT/CT device. Methods: We used the 3-dimensional (3D) brain phantom, which imitates the precise structure of gray matter, white matter and bone regions. It was filled with 123I solution (20.1 kBq/mL) in the gray matter region and with K2HPO4 in the bone region. The SPECT/CT data were acquired by the hybrid SPECT/CT device. SPECT images were reconstructed by using filtered back projection with uniform attenuation correction (FBP-uAC), 3D ordered-subsets expectation-maximization with uniform AC (3D-OSEM-uAC) and 3D OSEM with CT-based non-uniform AC (3D-OSEM-CTAC). We evaluated the differences in the radioactivity distributions among these reconstruction methods using a 3D digital phantom, which was developed from CT images of the 3D brain phantom, as a reference. The normalized mean square error (NMSE) and regional radioactivity were calculated to evaluate the similarity of SPECT images to the 3D digital phantom. Results: The NMSE values were 0.0811 in FBP-uAC, 0.0914 in 3D-OSEM-uAC and 0.0766 in 3D-OSEM-CTAC. The regional radioactivity of FBP-uAC was 11.5% lower in the middle cerebral artery territory, and that of 3D-OSEM-uAC was 5.8% higher in the anterior cerebral artery territory, compared with the digital phantom. On the other hand, that of 3D-OSEM-CTAC was 1.8% lower in all brain areas. Conclusion: By using the hybrid SPECT/CT device, the brain SPECT reconstructed by 3D-OSEM with CT attenuation correction can provide an accurate assessment of the distribution of brain radioactivity. PMID:27408856

  17. Clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated by FDG-PET/CT-based 3-dimensional planning for the first brachytherapy session

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Ju, Sang Gyu; Nam, Heerim; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided 3-dimensional brachytherapy (3D-BT) planning for the first brachytherapy session. We retrospectively analyzed 87 patients with cervical cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT). Primary tumor size was ≤4 cm in 22 patients (25.3%), >4 cm and ≤6 cm in 45 patients (51.7%), and >6 cm in 20 patients (23.0%). The median total dose of external beam RT was 50.4 (50.4–60.4) Gy. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT with an iridium-192 source was performed. The clinical target volume (CTV) for 3D-BT included the entire cervix and the abnormal FDG-uptake with a 1-cm expansion. A planned total dose was 24 Gy at 4 Gy per insertion 3 times per week using a tandem and 2 ovoids. The mean D95 and D90 for the CTV were 73.4 (±5.9) Gy and 77.9 (±6.9) Gy, respectively (EQD2, α/β=10). The D2cc for the rectum and bladder was 374 (±97.4) cGy and 394 (±107.6) cGy per fraction, respectively. The EQD2 (α/β=3) for the D2cc was 74.5 (±12.4) Gy for the rectum and 77.3 (±14.6) Gy for the bladder. The median follow-up period was 40 (8–61) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rates were 84.7%, 72.1%, and 89.2%, respectively. The 3-year LC rate was 100% for tumors ≤ 4 cm, 91.1% for tumors > 4 cm and ≤ 6 cm, and 70.5% for tumors > 6 cm (P = 0.014). Local failure developed in 9 patients. Three patients had local failures outside of the CTV. Grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal bleeding developed in 5, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. One patient experienced rectovaginal fistula. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT planning is a feasible approach, which showed favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:27336876

  18. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Núria; Sanz, Xavier; Dengra, Josefa; Foro, Palmira; Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna; Quera, Jaume; Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan; Algara, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  19. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P.; Smith, Brian J.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann; Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent; McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  20. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Kara Lynne; Hepel, Jaroslaw T.; Hiatt, Jessica R.; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wazer, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  1. Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for pancreatic malignancies: Dosimetric comparison with sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nabavizadeh, Nima Simeonova, Anna O.; Waller, Joseph G.; Romer, Jeanna L.; Monaco, Debra L.; Elliott, David A.; Tanyi, James A.; Fuss, Martin; Thomas, Charles R.; Holland, John M.

    2014-10-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) is an iteration of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), both of which deliver highly conformal dose distributions. Studies have shown the superiority of VMAT and IMRT in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing. This is the first study examining the benefits of VMAT in pancreatic cancer for doses more than 55.8 Gy. A planning study comparing 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT was performed in 20 patients with pancreatic cancer. Treatments were planned for a 25-fraction delivery of 45 Gy to a large field followed by a reduced-volume 8-fraction external beam boost to 59.4 Gy in total. OARs and PTV doses, conformality index (CI) deviations from 1.0, monitor units (MUs) delivered, and isodose volumes were compared. IMRT and VMAT CI deviations from 1.0 for the large-field and the boost plans were equivalent (large field: 0.032 and 0.046, respectively; boost: 0.042 and 0.037, respectively; p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Both IMRT and VMAT CI deviations from 1.0 were statistically superior to 3D-CRT (large field: 0.217, boost: 0.177; p < 0.05 for all comparisons). VMAT showed reduction of the mean dose to the boost PTV (VMAT: 61.4 Gy, IMRT: 62.4 Gy, and 3D-CRT: 62.3 Gy; p < 0.05). The mean number of MUs per fraction was significantly lower for VMAT for both the large-field and the boost plans. VMAT delivery time was less than 3 minutes compared with 8 minutes for IMRT. Although no statistically significant dose reduction to the OARs was identified when comparing VMAT with IMRT, VMAT showed a reduction in the volumes of the 100% isodose line for the large-field plans. Dose escalation to 59.4 Gy in pancreatic cancer is dosimetrically feasible with shorter treatment times, fewer MUs delivered, and comparable CIs for VMAT when compared with IMRT.

  2. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  3. 3-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor computers - Part II: direct data-space inverse solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.

  4. Computation of synthetic seismograms in a 3 dimensional Earth and inversion of eigenfrequency and Q quality factor datasets of normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, Julien; Clevede, Eric; Roult, Genevieve

    2010-05-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman event is the third biggest earthquake that has never been recorded but the first recorded with high quality broad-band seismometers. Such an earthquake offered a good opportunity for studying the normal modes of the Earth and particularly the gravest ones (frequency lower than 1 mHz) which provide important information on deep Earth. The splitting of some modes has been carefully analyzed. The eigenfrequencies and the Q quality factors of particular singlets have been retrieved with an unprecedented precision. In some cases, the eigenfrequencies of some singlets exhibit a clear shift when compared to the theoretical eigenfrequencies. Some core modes such as the 3S2 mode present an anomalous splitting, that is to say, a splitting width much larger than the expected one. Such anomalous splitting is presently admitted to be due to the existence of lateral heterogeneities in the inner core. We need an accurate model of the whole Earth and a method to compute synthetic seismograms in order to compare synthetic and observed data and to explain the behavior of such modes. Synthetic seismograms are computed by normal modes summation using a perturbative method developed up to second order in amplitude and up to third order in frequency (HOPT method). The last step consists in inverting both eigenfrequency and Q quality factor datasets in order to better constrain the deep Earth structure and especially the inner core. In order to find models of acceptable data fit in a multidimensional parameter space, we use the neighborhood algorithm method which is a derivative-free search method. It is particularly well adapted in our case (non linear problem) and is easy to tune with only 2 parameters. Our purpose is to find an ensemble of models that fit the data rather than a unique model.

  5. Evaluation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion techniques in the rat by in-vitro 3-dimensional micro- and nano computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. Methods 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm)3 or nano-CT at 500 nm3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. The arterial vascular volume fraction and gray scale attenuation was determined and the significance of differences in measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Results Micro-CT provided quantitative information on vascular morphology. Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased significantly (p < 0.001), independently of the number of macrospheres, and was comparable to the suture method. We established gray scale measurements by which focal cerebral ischemia could be radiographically categorized (p < 0.001). Nano-CT imaging demonstrates collateral perfusion related to different occluded vessel territories after macrosphere perfusion. Conclusion Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. PMID:20509884

  6. Effects of gape and tooth position on bite force and skull stress in the dingo (Canis lupus dingo) using a 3-dimensional finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason; Wroe, Stephen; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin; Clausen, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Models of the mammalian jaw have predicted that bite force is intimately linked to jaw gape and to tooth position. Despite widespread use, few empirical studies have provided evidence to validate these models in non-human mammals and none have considered the influence of gape angle on the distribution of stress. Here using a multi-property finite element (FE) model of Canis lupus dingo, we examined the influence of gape angle and bite point on both bite force and cranial stress. Bite force data in relation to jaw gape and along the tooth row, are in broad agreement with previously reported results. However stress data showed that the skull of C. l. dingo is mechanically suited to withstand stresses at wide gapes; a result that agreed well with previously held views regarding carnivoran evolution. Stress data, combined with bite force information, suggested that there is an optimal bite angle of between 25 degrees and 35 degrees in C. l. dingo. The function of these rather small bite angles remains unclear. PMID:18493603

  7. Comparison of semi-automated scar quantification techniques using high-resolution, 3-dimensional late-gadolinium-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Martin; Stirrat, John; Goubran, Maged; Yu, Jeff; Scholl, David; Peters, Terry M; White, James A

    2015-02-01

    The quantification and modeling of myocardial scar is of expanding interest for image-guided therapy, particularly in the field of arrhythmia management. Migration towards high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) MRI techniques for spatial mapping of myocardial scar provides superior spatial registration. However, to date no systematic comparison of available approaches to 3D scar quantification have been performed. In this study we compare the reproducibility of six 3D scar segmentation algorithms for determination of left ventricular scar volume. Additionally, comparison to two-dimensional (2D) scar quantification and 3D manual segmentation is performed. Thirty-five consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were recruited and underwent conventional 2D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and 3D isotropic LGE imaging (voxel size 1.3 mm(3)) using a 3 T scanner. 3D LGE datasets were analyzed using six semi-automated segmentation techniques, including the signal threshold versus reference mean (STRM) technique at >2, >3, >5 and >6 standard deviations (SD) above reference myocardium, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) technique, and an optimization-based technique called hierarchical max flow (HMF). The mean ejection fraction was 32.1 ± 12.7 %. Reproducibility was greatest for HMF and FWHM techniques with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥0.95. 3D scar quantification and modeling is clinically feasible in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. While several approaches show acceptable reproducibility, HMF appears superior due to maintenance of accuracy towards manual segmentations.

  8. Wind-tunnel tests on a 3-dimensional fixed-geometry scramjet inlet at M = 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. N.; Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a baseline scramjet inlet model having fixed geometry and swept leading edges at M = 2.30, 2.96, 3.95, and 4.60 in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The unit Reynolds number of the tests was held constant at 6.56 million per meter (2 million per foot). The objectives of the tests were to establish inlet performance and starting characteristics in the lower Mach number range of operation (less than M = 5). Surface pressures obtained on the inlet components are presented, along with the results of the internal flow surveys made at the throat and capture stations of the inlet. Contour plots of the inlet-flow-field parameters such as Mach numbers, pressure recovery, flow capture, local static and total pressure ratios at the survey stations are shown for the test Mach numbers.

  9. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  10. M-BAND Analysis of Chromosome Aberration Induced by Fe-Ions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-Dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D cellular environment in vitro can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelia cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultued at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference of the chromosome aberration yield between 2D and 3D cell cultures for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures

  11. M-BAND analysis of chromosome aberration induced by Fe-ions in human epithelial cells cultured in 3-dimensional matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied lowand high-LET radiationinduced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D cellular environment in vitro can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137 Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference of the chromosome aberration yield between 2D and 3D cell cultures for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures

  12. Young children’s ability to use 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional symbols to show placements of body touches and hidden objects

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Nicole; London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated 3- to 5-year-old children’s ability to use dolls and human figure drawings as symbols to map body touches. In Experiment 1 stickers were placed on different locations of children’s bodies, and they were asked to indicate the location of the sticker using three different symbols: a doll, a human figure drawing, and the adult researcher. Performance on the tasks increased with age, but many 5-year-olds did not attain perfect performance. Surprisingly, younger children made more errors on the 2D human figure drawing task compared to the 3D doll and adult tasks. In Experiment 2, we compared children’s ability to use 3D and 2D symbols to indicate body touch as well as to guide their search for a hidden object. We replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for the body touch task: for younger children, 3D symbols were easier to use than 2D symbols. However, the reverse pattern was found for the object locations task with children showing superior performance using 2D drawings over 3D models. Though children showed developmental improvements in using dolls and drawings to show where they were touched, less than two-thirds of the 5-year-olds performed perfectly on the touch tasks. Developmental as well as forensic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25781003

  13. Stress and strain analysis of the bone-implant interface: a comparison of fiber-reinforced composite and titanium implants utilizing 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Akikazu; Ballo, Ahmed M; Lassila, Lippo V J; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Närhi, Timo O; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzed stress and strain mediated by 2 different implant materials, titanium (Ti) and experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), on the implant and on the bone tissue surrounding the implant. Three-dimensional finite element models constructed from a mandibular bone and an implant were subjected to a load of 50 N in vertical and horizontal directions. Postprocessing files allowed the calculation of stress and strain within the implant materials and stresses at the bone-to-implant interface (stress path). Maximum stress concentrations were located around the implant on the rim of the cortical bone in both implant materials; Ti and overall stresses decreased toward the Ti implant apex. In the FRC implant, a stress value of 0.6 to 2.0 MPa was detected not only on the screw threads but also on the implant surface between the threads. Clear differences were observed in the strain distribution between the materials. Based on the results, the vertical load stress range of the FRC implant was close to the stress level for optimal bone growth. Furthermore, the stress at the bone around the FRC implant was more evenly distributed than that with Ti implant.

  14. Probability of mediastinal involvement in non-small-cell lung cancer: a statistical definition of the clinical target volume for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, Philippe . E-mail: philippe.giraud@curie.net; De Rycke, Yann; Lavole, Armelle; Milleron, Bernard; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal irradiation (3D-CRT) of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is largely based on precise definition of the nodal clinical target volume (CTVn). A reduction of the number of nodal stations to be irradiated would facilitate tumor dose escalation. The aim of this study was to design a mathematical tool based on documented data to predict the risk of metastatic involvement for each nodal station. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the large surgical series published in the literature to identify the main pretreatment parameters that modify the risk of nodal invasion. The probability of involvement for the 17 nodal stations described by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) was computed from all these publications. Starting with the primary site of the tumor as the main characteristic, we built a probabilistic tree for each nodal station representing the risk distribution as a function of each tumor feature. Statistical analysis used the inversion of probability trees method described by Weinstein and Feinberg. Validation of the software based on 134 patients from two different populations was performed by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Analysis of all of the various parameters of pretreatment staging relative to each level of the ATS map results in 20,000 different combinations. The first parameters included in the tree, depending on tumor site, were histologic classification, metastatic stage, nodal stage weighted as a function of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic examination used (positron emission tomography scan, computed tomography scan), and tumor stage. Software is proposed to compute a predicted probability of involvement of each nodal station for any given clinical presentation. Double cross validation confirmed the methodology. A 10% cutoff point was calculated from ROC and logistic model giving the best prediction of mediastinal lymph node involvement. Conclusion

  15. Comparative Validity and Reproducibility Study of Various Landmark-Oriented Reference Planes in 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis for Patients Receiving Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ling; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-01-01

    5 horizontal reference planes were reliable and comparable for 3D craniomaxillofacial analysis. These reference planes were useful in standardizing the orientation of 3D skull models. PMID:25668209

  16. Preliminary Stress Calculations and 3-Dimensional Mohr Circle Diagrams for a Proposed Borehole to be Drilled into the Tohoku Fault Zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nale, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid response drilling of recently ruptured faults can provide important information about faulting and rupture processes of large earthquakes that cannot be directly obtained by other means. Quickly following a large seismic event, drilling operations can acquire measurements of temperature, stress and geologic data to study the fault friction, strength and healing, stress changes, and physical and chemical properties of a fault. The great Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) of March 11, 2011 is unique in both its large magnitude and that the fault ruptured updip to the surface of the trench. Seismic reflection surveys from before and after the event show that at 7 kilometers ocean depth, the fault would be intersected by a drill hole at approximately 900 meters below the sea floor. There is great potential for a large amount of information to be learned of faulting and earthquake mechanisms in subduction zone thrust faults from rapid response drilling into the Tohoku fault. As of yet, no drilling has been done for any purposes at the ocean depth of the Tohoku fault zone. To determine the feasibility of a borehole to be drilled into the Tohoku fault for research purposes, calculations must be completed to model the stresses acting on the wellbore in the pressure conditions at the drilling depth, up to 7.9 kilometers below sea level. Mohr diagrams demonstrate under what conditions the borehole will collapse in on itself. Effective stresses (σ1, σ2 and σ3) acting on the fault were calculated, from which the stresses acting on the wellbore walls (σθθ, σrr and σzz) were obtained. Calculations for the hoop (circumferential) stress, σθθ, radial stress, σrr, and stress acting parallel to the wellbore axis, σzz, were made based on assumed values for the Tohoku fault zone (i.e. coefficient of friction, cohesion, pore pressure, fault dip, rock density, and depth). For these experiments, two end members were considered involving (1) an optimally dipping reverse

  17. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  18. 3-Dimensional Portrait of the Female CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemasters, Linda; Roach, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Dobie and Hummel (2001) asserted that the school superintendency is the most male-dominated position within the field of education. According to a 1992 study, 72% of educators were women; however, only 13.2% of superintendents are women (Glass, 1992). The most recent survey by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) found that…

  19. 3-Dimensional Protein Structure of Influenza

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The loss of productivity due to flu is staggering. Costs range as much as $20 billio a year. High mutation rates of the flu virus have hindered development of new drugs or vaccines. The secret lies in a small molecule which is attached to the host cell's surface. Each flu virus, no matter what strain, must remove this small molecule to escape the host cell to spread infection. Using data from space and earth grown crystals, researchers from the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) are desining drugs to bind with this protein's active site. This lock and key fit reduces the spread of flu in the body by blocking its escape route. In collaboration with its corporate partner, the CMC has refined drug structure in preparation for clinical trials. Tested and approved relief is expected to reach drugstores by year 2004.

  20. Projection printing of 3-dimensional tissue scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Shaochen

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to create precise, predesigned, spatially patterned biochemical and physical microenvironments inside polymer scaffolds could provide a powerful tool in studying progenitor cell behavior and differentiation under biomimetic, three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. The development of freeform fabrication technology has become a promising tool for the manufacturing of biological scaffolds for tissue regeneration and stem cell engineering. Freeform fabrication is a very promising technology due to the efficient and simple process for creating bona fide 3D microstructures, such as closed channels and cavities. It is also capable of encapsulating biomolecules and even living cells. This chapter describes direct projection printing of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds by using a digital micromirror-array device (DMD) in a layer-by-layer process. This simple and fast microstereolithography system consists of an ultraviolet (UV) light source, a digital micromirror masking device, imaging optics, and controlling devices. Images of UV light are projected onto the photocurable resin by creating the "dynamic photomask" design with graphic software. Multilayered scaffolds are microfabricated through a photopolymerization process. PMID:22692617

  1. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  2. 1/N

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.

    1980-03-01

    There exist families of field theories with symmetry group SO(N) (or SU(N)) that become simpler as N becomes larger. More precisely, the solutions to these theories possess an expansion in powers of 1/N. This expansion is the subject of these lectures. The 1/N expansion can be used to analyze model field theories. The 1/N expansion is developed for phi/sup 4/ theory and applied to two two-dimensional models with similar combinatoric structures, the Gross-Neveu model and the CP/sup N-1/ model. These models display (in the leading 1/N approximation) such interesting phenomena as asymptotic freedom, dynamical symmetry breaking, dimensional transmutation, and non-perturbative confinement. It is possible that the 1/N expansion, with N the number of colors, might fruitfully be applied to quantum chromodynamics. Unfortunately, it is not possible to make a decisive test of the approximation, because no one knows how to compute even the first term in the expansion in closed form. However, it is possible to argue that this first term, whatever its detailed form, has many properties that are also shared by the real world, and which are otherwise underived from field theory. These include the saturation of scattering amplitudes by an infinite number of narrow resonances, the essential feature of dual-resonance models. (RWR)

  3. Novel method using 3-dimensional segmentation in spectral domain-optical coherence tomography imaging in the chick reveals defocus-induced regional and time-sensitive asymmetries in the choroidal thickness.

    PubMed

    Nava, Diane R; Antony, Bhavna; Zhang, L I; Abràmoff, Michael D; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms underlying the active emmetropization process by which neonatal refractive errors are corrected, have described rapid, compensatory changes in the thickness of the choroidal layer in response to imposed optical defocus. While high frequency A-scan ultrasonography, as traditionally used to characterize such changes, offers good resolution of central (on-axis) changes, evidence of local retinal control mechanisms make it imperative that more peripheral, off-axis changes also be tracked. In this study, we used in vivo high resolution spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging in combination with the Iowa Reference Algorithms for 3-dimensional segmentation, to more fully characterize these changes, both spatially and temporally, in young, 7-day old chicks (n = 15), which were fitted with monocular +15 D defocusing lenses to induce choroidal thickening. With these tools, we were also able to localize the retinal area centralis, which was used as a landmark along with the ocular pectin in standardizing the location of scans and aligning them for subsequent analyses of choroidal thickness (CT) changes across time and between eyes. Values were derived for each of four quadrants, centered on the area centralis, and global CT values were also derived for all eyes. Data were compared with on-axis changes measured using ultrasonography. There were significant on-axis choroidal thickening that was detected after just one day of lens wear (∼190 µm), and regional (quadrant-related) differences in choroidal responses were also found, as well as global thickness changes 1 day after treatment. The ratio of global to on-axis choroidal thicknesses, used as an index of regional variability in responses, was also found to change significantly, reflecting the significant central changes. In summary, we demonstrated in vivo high resolution SD-OCT imaging, used in combination with segmentation algorithms, to be a viable and informative

  4. Endolymphatic Hydrops Detected by 3-Dimensional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery MRI following Intratympanic Injection of Gadolinium in the Asymptomatic Contralateral Ears of Patients with Unilateral Ménière’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yupeng; Jia, Huan; Shi, Jun; Zheng, Hui; Li, Yuhua; Yang, Jun; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of endolymphatic hydrops using 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the contralateral ear in patients with unilateral Ménière’s disease (MD). Material/Methods This was a prospective study. 3D-FLAIR MRI was performed with a 3 Tesla (3 T) unit 24 h after the intratympanic administration of gadolinium (Gd) in 30 unilateral MD patients with an asymptomatic contralateral ear. The incidence of contralateral involvement in unilateral MD patients and the potential correlations between the affected and contralateral ears were analyzed. Results Endolymphatic hydrops was observed in 7 of the 30 (23.3%) asymptomatic ears. The mean PTA of the asymptomatic ears in the contralateral hydrops patients (33.0±6.1 dB) was significantly higher compared with the non-hydrops patients (17.8±5.7 dB). The patients with observed contralateral hydrops exhibited a significantly longer duration of the disease compared with the non-hydrops patients (6.7±6.3 vs. 2.9±3.1 years, respectively). Furthermore, the patients with contralateral hydrops had a worse hearing level in the affected ears compared with the non-hydrops patients (70.3±7.4 vs. 52.5±3.8 dB, respectively). Conclusions Endolymphatic hydrops is closely related to hearing loss but does not necessarily result in Ménière’s symptoms. Patients with a long history of MD and severe hearing loss in the affected ear are more likely to exhibit endolymphatic hydrops in the asymptomatic contralateral ear. Adequate attention should focus on unilateral MD patients with contralateral ear hydrops because of the potential to develop bilateral MD. PMID:25742875

  5. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

    2011-04-01

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-Nf expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  6. Phase transitions in hexagonal, graphene-like lattice sheets and nanotubes under the influence of external conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, D.; Klimenko, K. G.; Kolmakov, P. B.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider a class of (2+1)D schematic models with four-fermion interactions that are effectively used in studying condensed-matter systems with planar crystal structure, and especially graphene. Symmetry breaking in these models occurs due to a possible appearance of condensates. Special attention is paid to the symmetry properties of the appearing condensates in the framework of discrete chiral and C, P and T transformations. Moreover, boundary conditions corresponding to carbon nanotubes are considered and their relations with the effect of an applied external magnetic field are studied. To this end we calculated the effective potential for the nanotube model including effects of finite temperature, density and an external magnetic field. As an illustration we made numerical calculations of the chiral symmetry properties in a simpler Gross-Neveu model with only one condensate taken into account. We also investigated the phase structure of the nanotube model under the influence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and demonstrated that there is a nontrivial relation between the magnitude of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, compactification of the spatial dimension and thermal restoration of the originally broken chiral symmetry.

  7. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

    2011-04-15

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-N{sub f} expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  8. Narrowband land mobile satellite channel modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanatas, A. G.; Kanderakis, E. C.; Constantinou, P.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the development of a generalized analog model for the narrowband Land Mobile Satellite Channel (LMSC). It is based on the model proposed by Lutz, the 3-dimensional scattering model of Aulin and the multipath interference simulation method proposed by Jakes. Statistical tests of the simulated data show excellent agreement with the expected distributions whereas the power spectrum predicted by Aulin is duplicated in a discrete manner.

  9. Interaction-Induced Dirac Fermions from Quadratic Band Touching in Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C; Murthy, Ganpathy; Kaul, Ribhu K

    2016-08-19

    We revisit the effect of local interactions on the quadratic band touching (QBT) of the Bernal honeycomb bilayer model using renormalization group (RG) arguments and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. We present a RG argument which predicts, contrary to previous studies, that weak interactions do not flow to strong coupling even if the free dispersion has a QBT. Instead, they generate a linear term in the dispersion, which causes the interactions to flow back to weak coupling. Consistent with this RG scenario, in unbiased QMC simulations of the Hubbard model we find compelling evidence that antiferromagnetism turns on at a finite U/t despite the U=0 hopping problem having a QBT. The onset of antiferromagnetism takes place at a continuous transition which is consistent with (2+1)D Gross-Neveu criticality. We conclude that generically in models of bilayer graphene, even if the free dispersion has a QBT, small local interactions generate a Dirac phase with no symmetry breaking and that there is a finite-coupling transition out of this phase to a symmetry-broken state. PMID:27588872

  10. Interaction-Induced Dirac Fermions from Quadratic Band Touching in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Murthy, Ganpathy; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the effect of local interactions on the quadratic band touching (QBT) of the Bernal honeycomb bilayer model using renormalization group (RG) arguments and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. We present a RG argument which predicts, contrary to previous studies, that weak interactions do not flow to strong coupling even if the free dispersion has a QBT. Instead, they generate a linear term in the dispersion, which causes the interactions to flow back to weak coupling. Consistent with this RG scenario, in unbiased QMC simulations of the Hubbard model we find compelling evidence that antiferromagnetism turns on at a finite U /t despite the U =0 hopping problem having a QBT. The onset of antiferromagnetism takes place at a continuous transition which is consistent with (2 +1 )D Gross-Neveu criticality. We conclude that generically in models of bilayer graphene, even if the free dispersion has a QBT, small local interactions generate a Dirac phase with no symmetry breaking and that there is a finite-coupling transition out of this phase to a symmetry-broken state.

  11. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  12. Constituent Components of Out-of-Field Scatter Dose for 18-MV Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy: A Comparison With 6-MV and Implications for Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben, Jeremy D.; Smith, Ryan; Lancaster, Craig M.; Haynes, Matthew; Jones, Phillip; Panettieri, Vanessa

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To characterize and compare the components of out-of-field dose for 18-MV intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and their 6-MV counterparts and consider implications for second cancer induction. Methods and Materials: Comparable plans for each technique/energy were delivered to a water phantom with a sloping wall; under full scatter conditions; with field edge abutting but outside the bath to prevent internal/phantom scatter; and with shielding below the linear accelerator head to attenuate head leakage. Neutron measurements were obtained from published studies. Results: Eighteen-megavolt IMRT produces 1.7 times more out-of-field scatter than 18-MV 3D-CRT. In absolute terms, however, differences are just approximately 0.1% of central axis dose. Eighteen-megavolt IMRT reduces internal/patient scatter by 13%, but collimator scatter (C) is 2.6 times greater than 18-MV 3D-CRT. Head leakage (L) is minimal. Increased out-of-field photon scatter from 18-MV IMRT carries out-of-field second cancer risks of approximately 0.2% over and above the 0.4% from 18-MV 3D-CRT. Greater photoneutron dose from 18-MV IMRT may result in further maximal, absolute increased risk to peripheral tissue of approximately 1.2% over 18-MV 3D-CRT. Out-of-field photon scatter remains comparable for the same modality irrespective of beam energy. Machine scatter (C+L) from 18 versus 6 MV is 1.2 times higher for IMRT and 1.8 times for 3D-CRT. It is 4 times higher for 6-MV IMRT versus 3D-CRT. Reduction in internal scatter with 18 MV versus 6 MV is 27% for 3D-CRT and 29% for IMRT. Compared with 6-MV 3D-CRT, 18-MV IMRT increases out-of-field second cancer risk by 0.2% from photons and adds 0.28-2.2% from neutrons. Conclusions: Out-of-field photon dose seems to be independent of beam energy for both techniques. Eighteen-megavolt IMRT increases out-of-field scatter 1.7-fold over 3D-CRT because of greater collimator scatter despite

  13. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Yan, Yan; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Bosch, Walter R.; Winter, Kathryn; Galvin, James M.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Morton, Gerard C.; Parliament, Matthew B.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  14. Differentiation and Genomic Instability in a Human Mammary Cell Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R.; Kale, R.; Pettengill, O.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Harvest of prophylactic mastectomy specimens from an obligate heterozygote for ataxia-telangiectasia provided autologous fibroblasts as well epithelial cells (HMEC). The routine availability of these autologous cells has provided an opportunity to study cell-cell interactions in coculture and monoculture, and in 3-dimensional cultures grown in the NASA rotating bioreactor. HMEC and stromal fibroblasts grown in 2-dimensional monoculture were both observed to produce extracellular matrix. Similar matrix was encountered in 3-dimensional cultures containing HMEC. Metaphases were analyzed. For stromal fibroblasts, genomic aberrations were found in 18% of metaphase spreads. For HMEC, aberrations were greater such that a majority were found to be abnormal. The level of genomic instability determined for these noncancerous cells in 2-dimensional monoculture should be useful for generating a human cell model that can correlate the effects of differentiation in 3-dimensional coculture on the level of genomic instability.

  15. Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique

    A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).

  16. Development of an anthropomorphic shoulder phantom model that simulates bony anatomy for sonographic measurement of the acromiohumeral distance.

    PubMed

    Adusumilli, Pratik; McCreesh, Karen; Evans, Tony

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a sonographic phantom model of the shoulder that was accurate in bone configuration. Its main purpose was for operator training to measure the acromiohumeral distance. A computerized 3-dimensional model of the superior half of the humerus and scapula was rendered and 3-dimensionally printed. The bone model was embedded in a gelatin compound and set in a shoulder-shaped mold. The materials used had speeds of sound that were well matched to soft tissue and epiphyseal bone. The model was specifically effective in simulating the acromiohumeral distance because of its accurate bone geometry. PMID:25336490

  17. Lectures on Yangian symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-08-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.

  18. Quantum critical point of Dirac fermions studied using efficient continuous-time projector quantum Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Iazzi, Mauro; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Quantum phase transition (QPT) of Dirac fermions is a fascinating topic both in condensed matter and in high energy physics. Besides its immediate connection to fundamental problems like mass generation and exotic phases of matter, it provides a common playground where state of the art numerical simulations can be crosschecked with various effective field theory predictions, thus deepen our understanding of both fields. The universality class of the QPT is fundamentally different from the usual bosonic field theory because of the coupling to the gapless fermionic mode at the critical point. We study lattice models with spinless and multi-flavor Dirac fermions using the newly developed efficient continuous-time projector quantum Monte Carlo method. Besides eliminating the Trotter error, the method also enables us to directly calculate derivative observables in a continuous range of interaction strengths, thus greatly enhancing the resolution of the quantum critical region. Compatible results are also obtained from infinite projected entangled-pair states calculations. We compare these numerical results with predictions of the Gross-Neveu theory and discuss their physical implications.

  19. Modeling the shock initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Jonathan; Mas, Eric M; Leininger, Lara; Springer, H Keo

    2008-01-01

    The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT).

  20. Symmetry Breaking in a Model for Nodal Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brokaw, Charles J.

    2005-03-01

    Nodal cilia are very short cilia found in the embryonic node on the ventral surface of early mammalian embryos. They create a right to left fluid flow that is responsible for determining the normal asymmetry of the internal organs of the mammalian body. To do this, the distal end of the cilium must circle in a counterclockwise sense. Computer simulations with 3-dimensional models of flagella allow examination of 3-dimensional movements such as those of nodal cilia. 3-dimensional circling motions of short cilia can be achieved with velocity controlled models, in which dynein activity is regulated by sliding velocity. If dyneins on one outer doublet are controlled by the sliding velocity experienced by that doublet, the system is symmetric, and the 3-dimensional models can show either clockwise or counterclockwise circling. My computer simulations have examined two possible symmetry breaking mechanisms: 1) dyneins on doublet N are regulated by a mixture of the sliding velocities experienced by doublets N and N+1 (numbered in a clockwise direction, looking from the base). or 2) symmetry is broken by an off-axis force that produces a right-handed twist of the axoneme, consistent with observations that some dyneins can rotate their substrate microtubules in a clockwise direction.

  1. A Neural Model of Visually Guided Steering, Obstacle Avoidance, and Route Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David M.; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    A neural model is developed to explain how humans can approach a goal object on foot while steering around obstacles to avoid collisions in a cluttered environment. The model uses optic flow from a 3-dimensional virtual reality environment to determine the position of objects on the basis of motion discontinuities and computes heading direction,…

  2. FinFET Doping; Material Science, Metrology, and Process Modeling Studies for Optimized Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.; Shayesteh, M.

    2011-01-07

    In this review paper the challenges that face doping optimization in 3-dimensional (3D) thin-body silicon devices will be discussed, within the context of material science studies, metrology methodologies, process modeling insight, ultimately leading to optimized device performance. The focus will be on ion implantation at the method to introduce the dopants to the target material.

  3. Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

  4. Surface relief model for photopolymers without cover plating.

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Marini, S; Beléndez, A; Pascual, I

    2011-05-23

    Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information to characterize and understand the material behaviour. In this paper we present a 3-dimensional model based on direct measurements of parameters to predict the relief structures generated on the material. This model is successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. The importance of monomer diffusion in depth is also discussed.

  5. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  6. With the advent of domestic 3-dimensional (3D) printers and their associated reduced cost, is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Christopher; Campo-Celaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is the backbone of medical education and new techniques to improve learning are frequently explored. With the introduction of 3D printers specifically for the home market, the price of this technology has reached affordable levels. Using patient scan data, accurate 3D models can be printed that represent real human variation in anatomy to provide an innovative, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to anatomical teaching. Is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

  7. A Low-Cost Teaching Model of Inguinal Canal: A Useful Method to Teach Surgical Concepts in Hernia Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Frederico; Ceresoli, Marco; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Inguinal canal anatomy and hernia repair is difficult for medical students and surgical residents to comprehend. Methods: Using low-cost material, a 3-dimensional inexpensive model of the inguinal canal was created to allow students to learn anatomical details and landmarks and to perform their own simulated hernia repair. In order to…

  8. A 3-D Model of Signaling and Transport Pathways in Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, A A; Westbrook, C K

    2005-04-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model was developed to simulate the spatial and chemical evolution of calcium ions inside an array of human epithelial kidney cells. This is a prototype model, intended to develop a methodology to incorporate much more complex interactions of metabolic and other processes within many types of cells and lead to increased ability to predict cellular responses to disease as well as to chemical and biological warfare situations. Preliminary tests of the model are described.

  9. (Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of /sup 17/O. 85 refs.

  10. Fiber Scanning Array for 3 Dimensional Topographic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Rabine, David L.; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, J. Bryan; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard; Clarke, Greg; Bufton, Jack

    2013-01-01

    We report on the design and development of a fiber optic scanning 3-D LIDAR employing a switched fiber array. This design distributes ns length laser pulses over a sample field, collects the return pulses, and assembles them into a 3-D image. This instrument is a reduced size version consisting of 35 beams, and will serve as a proof-of-principle demonstration for a planned 1000 beam instrument for Earth and planetary topographical missions.

  11. A new concept in biometric identification 3-dimensional hand geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sidlauskas, D.P.

    1987-07-01

    A new type of biometric identifier which utilizes hand outline measurements made in three dimensions is described. This device uses solid state imaging with no moving parts. The important characteristics of accuracy, speed, user tolerability, small template size, low power, portability and reliability are discussed. A complete stand-alone biometric access control station with sufficient memory for 10,000 users and weighing less than 10 pounds has been built and tested. A test was conducted involving daily use by 112 users over a seven week period during which over 6300 access attempts were made. The single try equal error rate was found to be 0.4%. There were no false rejects when three tries were allowed before access was denied. Defeat with an artifact is difficult because the hand must be copied in all three dimensions.

  12. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  13. Rigid supersymmetric backgrounds of 3-dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knodel, Gino; Lisbão, Pedro; Liu, James T.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a non-relativistic off-shell formulation of three dimensional Newton-Cartan supergravity was proposed as the c → ∞ limit of three dimensional mathcal{N} = 2 super-gravity [1]. In the present paper we study supersymmetric backgrounds within this theory. Using integrability constraints for the non-relativistic Killing spinor equations, we explicitly construct all maximally supersymmetric solutions, which admit four supercharges. In addition to these solutions, there are 1/2 -BPS solutions with reduced supersymmetry. We give explicit examples of such backgrounds and derive necessary conditions for backgrounds preserving two supercharges. Finally, we address how supersymmetric backgrounds of mathcal{N} = 2 supergravity are connected to the solutions found here in the c → ∞ limit.

  14. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  15. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia: A 3-Dimensional Quantification of Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Maal, Thomas J. J.; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Becking, Alfred G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Objective quantifications of facial asymmetry in patients with Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (UCH) have not yet been described in literature. The aim of this study was to objectively quantify soft-tissue asymmetry in patients with UCH and to compare the findings with a control group using a new method. Material and Methods Thirty 3D photographs of patients diagnosed with UCH were compared with 30 3D photographs of healthy controls. As UCH presents particularly in the mandible, a new method was used to isolate the lower part of the face to evaluate asymmetry of this part separately. The new method was validated by two observers using 3D photographs of five patients and five controls. Results A significant difference (0.79 mm) between patients and controls whole face asymmetry was found. Intra- and inter-observer differences of 0.011 mm (−0.034–0.011) and 0.017 mm (−0.007–0.042) respectively were found. These differences are irrelevant in clinical practice. Conclusion After objective quantification, a significant difference was identified in soft-tissue asymmetry between patients with UCH and controls. The method used to isolate mandibular asymmetry was found to be valid and a suitable tool to evaluate facial asymmetry. PMID:23544063

  16. Automatic non-contact 3-dimensional gauging via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi F.

    1993-09-01

    The methods by which damaged rolling element bearings generate vibration at a low speed how that vibratioll may be measured and separated from vibration produced by other mechanical components and how that vibration may be analyzed and interpreted as well as examined for a variety damage locations and operating conditions.

  17. Designing 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality Using Panoramic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Abd Arif, Wan Norazlinawati; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Abdullah, Azrai; Sivapalan, Subarna

    The high demand to improve the quality of the presentation in the knowledge sharing field is to compete with rapidly growing technology. The needs for development of technology based learning and training lead to an idea to develop an Oil and Gas Plant Virtual Environment (OGPVE) for the benefit of our future. Panoramic Virtual Reality learning based environment is essential in order to help educators overcome the limitations in traditional technical writing lesson. Virtual reality will help users to understand better by providing the simulations of real-world and hard to reach environment with high degree of realistic experience and interactivity. Thus, in order to create a courseware which will achieve the objective, accurate images of intended scenarios must be acquired. The panorama shows the OGPVE and helps to generate ideas to users on what they have learnt. This paper discusses part of the development in panoramic virtual reality. The important phases for developing successful panoramic image are image acquisition and image stitching or mosaicing. In this paper, the combination of wide field-of-view (FOV) and close up image used in this panoramic development are also discussed.

  18. Novel 3-Dimensional Dendrimer Platform for Glycolipid Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Xichun

    2011-01-01

    Glycolipids are important biological molecules that modulate cellular recognitions and pathogen adhesions. In this paper, we report a sensitive glycolipid microarray for non-covalently immobilizing glycolipids on a microarray substrate and we perform a set of immunoassays to explore glycolipid-protein interactions. This substrate utilizes a three-dimensional hydrazide-functionalized dendrimer monolayer attached onto a microscopic glass surface, which possesses the characteristics to adsorb glycoliplids non-covalently and facilitates multivalent attributes on the substrate surface. In the proof-of-concept experiments, gangliosides such as GM1, FucGM1, GM3, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and a lipoarabinomannan were tested on the substrate and interrogated with toxins and antibodies. The resulting glycolipid microarrays exhibited hypersensitivity and specificity for detection of glycolipid-protein interactions. In particular, a robust and specific binding of a pentameric cholera toxin B subunit to the GM1 glycolipid spotted on the array has demonstrated its superiority in sensitivity and specificity. In addition, this glycolipid microarray substrate was used to detect lipoarabinomannan in buffer within a limit-of-detection of 125 ng/mL. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Lipoarabinomannan was tested in human urine specimens on this platform, which can effectively identify urine samples either infected or not infected with Mtb. The results of this work suggest the possibility of using this glycolipid microarray platform to fabricate glycoconjugate microarrays, which includes free glycans and glycolipids and potential application in detection of pathogen and toxin. PMID:21820887

  19. The 3-dimensional cored and logarithm potentials: Periodic orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesza, Maité; Llibre, Jaume

    2014-11-15

    We study analytically families of periodic orbits for the cored and logarithmic Hamiltonians with 3 degrees of freedom, which are relevant in the analysis of the galactic dynamics. First, after introducing a scale transformation in the coordinates and momenta with a parameter ε, we show that both systems give essentially the same set of equations of motion up to first order in ε. Then the conditions for finding families of periodic orbits, using the averaging theory up to first order in ε, apply equally to both systems in every energy level H = h > 0 showing the existence of at least 3 periodic orbits, for ε small enough, and also provides an analytic approximation for the initial conditions of these periodic orbits. We prove that at every positive energy level the cored and logarithmic Hamiltonians with 3 degrees of freedom have at least three periodic solutions. The technique used for proving such a result can be applied to other Hamiltonian systems.

  20. Development and applications of 3-dimensional integration nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Eunmi; Son, Hyungbin; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Unlike conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar structures, signal or power is supplied through through-silicon via (TSV) in three-dimensional (3D) integration technology to replace wires for binding the chip/wafer. TSVs have becomes an essential technology, as they satisfy Moore's law. This 3D integration technology enables system and sensor functions at a nanoscale via the implementation of a highly integrated nano-semiconductor as well as the fabrication of a single chip with multiple functions. Thus, this technology is considered to be a new area of development for the systemization of the nano-bio area. In this review paper, the basic technology required for such 3D integration is described and methods to measure the bonding strength in order to measure the void occurring during bonding are introduced. Currently, CMOS image sensors and memory chips associated with nanotechnology are being realized on the basis of 3D integration technology. In this paper, we intend to describe the applications of high-performance nano-biosensor technology currently under development and the direction of development of a high performance lab-on-a-chip (LOC).

  1. 3-dimensional telepresence system for a robotic environment

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Matthew O.; McKay, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A telepresence system includes a camera pair remotely controlled by a control module affixed to an operator. The camera pair provides for three dimensional viewing and the control module, affixed to the operator, affords hands-free operation of the camera pair. In one embodiment, the control module is affixed to the head of the operator and an initial position is established. A triangulating device is provided to track the head movement of the operator relative to the initial position. A processor module receives input from the triangulating device to determine where the operator has moved relative to the initial position and moves the camera pair in response thereto. The movement of the camera pair is predetermined by a software map having a plurality of operation zones. Each zone therein corresponds to unique camera movement parameters such as speed of movement. Speed parameters include constant speed, or increasing or decreasing. Other parameters include pan, tilt, slide, raise or lowering of the cameras. Other user interface devices are provided to improve the three dimensional control capabilities of an operator in a local operating environment. Such other devices include a pair of visual display glasses, a microphone and a remote actuator. The pair of visual display glasses are provided to facilitate three dimensional viewing, hence depth perception. The microphone affords hands-free camera movement by utilizing voice commands. The actuator allows the operator to remotely control various robotic mechanisms in the remote operating environment.

  2. Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...

  3. Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.

    2005-09-01

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.

  4. 3-dimensional throat region segmentation from MRI data based on Fourier interpolation and 3-dimensional level set methods.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sean; Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Di Caterina, Gaetano; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for 3D throat region segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. The proposed algorithm initially pre-processes the MRI data to increase the contrast between the throat region and its surrounding tissues and to reduce artifacts. Isotropic 3D volume is reconstructed using the Fourier interpolation. Furthermore, a cube encompassing the throat region is evolved using level set method to form a smooth 3D boundary of the throat region. The results of the proposed algorithm on real and synthetic MRI data are used to validate the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm.

  5. Gravitational coset models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Paul P.; Fleming, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The algebra A {/D - 3 + + +} dimensionally reduces to the E D-1 symmetry algebra of (12 - D)-dimensional supergravity. An infinite set of five-dimensional gravitational objects embedded in D-dimensions is constructed by identifying the null geodesic motion on cosets embedded in the generalised Kac-Moody algebra A {/D - 3 + + +}. By analogy with super-gravity these are bound states of dual gravitons. The metric interpolates continuously between exotic gravitational solutions generated by the action of an affine sub-group. We investigate mixed-symmetry fields in the brane sigma model, identify actions for the full interpolating bound state and investigate the dualisation of the bound state to a solution of the Einstein-Hilbert action via the Hodge dual on multiforms. We conclude that the Hodge dual is insufficient to reconstruct solutions to the Einstein-Hilbert action from mixed-symmetry tensors.

  6. Algorithmic derivation of functional renormalization group equations and Dyson-Schwinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus Q.; Braun, Jens

    2012-06-01

    We present the Mathematica application DoFun which allows to derive Dyson-Schwinger equations and renormalization group flow equations for n-point functions in a simple manner. DoFun offers several tools which considerably simplify the derivation of these equations from a given physical action. We discuss the application of DoFun by means of two different types of quantum field theories, namely a bosonic O(N) theory and the Gross-Neveu model. Program summaryProgram title:DoFun Catalogue identifier: AELN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 506 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571 837 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7 and higher Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: All on which Mathematica is available (Windows, Unix, MacOS) Classification: 11.1, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6 Nature of problem: Derivation of functional renormalization group equations and Dyson-Schwinger equations from the action of a given theory. Solution method: Implementation of an algorithm to derive functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations. Unusual features: The results can be plotted as Feynman diagrams in Mathematica. The output is compatible with the syntax of many other programs and is therefore suitable for further (algebraic) computations. Running time: Seconds to minutes

  7. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  8. The impact of mobile point defect clusters in a kinetic model of pressure vessel embrittlement

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.

    1998-05-01

    The results of recent molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in iron indicate that small interstitial clusters may have a very low activation energy for migration, and that their migration is 1-dimensional, rather than 3-dimensional. The mobility of these clusters can have a significant impact on the predictions of radiation damage models, particularly at the relatively low temperatures typical of commercial, light water reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and other out-of-core components. A previously-developed kinetic model used to investigate RPV embrittlement has been modified to permit an evaluation of the mobile interstitial clusters. Sink strengths appropriate to both 1- and 3-dimensional motion of the clusters were evaluated. High cluster mobility leads to a reduction in the amount of predicted embrittlement due to interstitial clusters since they are lost to sinks rather than building up in the microstructure. The sensitivity of the predictions to displacement rate also increases. The magnitude of this effect is somewhat reduced if the migration is 1-dimensional since the corresponding sink strengths are lower than those for 3-dimensional diffusion. The cluster mobility can also affect the evolution of copper-rich precipitates in the model since the radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient increases due to the lower interstitial cluster sink strength. The overall impact of the modifications to the model is discussed in terms of the major irradiation variables and material parameter uncertainties.

  9. Bidirectional reflectance modeling of non-homogeneous plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions were measured for corn and soybean leaves. The measurements clearly show that leaves are complex scatterers and considerable specular reflectance is possible. Because of the character of leaf reflectance, true leaf reflectance is larger than the nadir reflectances that are normally used to represent leaves. A 3-dimensional reflectance model, named BIGAR (Bidirectional General Array Model), was developed and compared with measurements from corn and soybean. The model is based on the concept that heterogeneous canopies can be described by a combination of many subcanopies, which contain all the foliage, and these subcanopy envelopes can be characterized by ellipsoids of various sizes and shapes. The model/measurement comparison results indicate that this relatively simple model captures the essential character of row crop BRDF's. Finally, two soil BDRF models were developed: one represents soil particles as rectangular blocks and the other represents soil particles as spheres. The sphere model was found to be superior.

  10. Electrical two and three dimensional modelling of high-speed board to board interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Gailus, M.; Fusi, M.A.; Zanella, F.

    1995-12-31

    In today`s high speed electronic systems, board-to-board connectors can contribute to signal degradation, reflections, and crosstalk. Methods exist for using computer modeling to predict the electrical behavior of interconnections from a knowledge of their materials and construction. A typical modeling process utilizes a combination of 2 or 3 dimensional electromagnetic field solvers to derive an approximate circuit model of the connector. Predictions of connector electrical performance are then obtained by plugging this connector model into a model test circuit and simulating the combination with circuit simulation software such as SPICE.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture model for studying alveolar morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Rachel M; Miller, J Davin; Okoh, Victor O; Halloran, Brian A; Prince, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Division of large, immature alveolar structures into smaller, more numerous alveoli increases the surface area available for gas exchange. Alveolar division requires precise epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. However, few experimental models exist for studying how these cell-cell interactions produce changes in 3-dimensional structure. Here we report an epithelial-mesenchymal cell co-culture model where 3-dimensional peaks form with similar cellular orientation as alveolar structures in vivo. Co-culturing fetal mouse lung mesenchyme with A549 epithelial cells produced tall peaks of cells covered by epithelia with cores of mesenchymal cells. These structures did not form when using adult lung fibroblasts. Peak formation did not require localized areas of cell proliferation or apoptosis. Mesenchymal cells co-cultured with epithelia adopted an elongated cell morphology closely resembling myofibroblasts within alveolar septa in vivo. Because inflammation inhibits alveolar formation, we tested the effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide on 3-dimensional peak formation. Confocal and time-lapse imaging demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide reduced mesenchymal cell migration, resulting in fewer, shorter peaks with mesenchymal cells present predominantly at the base. This epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture model may therefore prove useful in future studies of mechanisms regulating alveolar morphogenesis. PMID:25482312

  12. Eastern Aleutian volcanic arc digital model - version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Barnett, Adrienne

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional model (Figure 1) of the interaction of oceanic and continental tectonic plates along the eastern portion of the Aleutian volcanic arc helps in the visualization of basic tectonic, geodetic, and geophysical data in this active plate boundary region. The model is constrained by topographic, bathymetric, and seismic data and by the principle of isostasy. Examination of free-air gravity anomalies over the region indicates where the flexural strength of the down-going oceanic slab disturbs local isostatic balance and where low-density sediments have accumulated in the trench and forearc regions.

  13. Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

  14. Modelling an IHE experiment with a suite of DSD models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    At the 2011 APS conference, Terrones, Burkett and Morris published an experiment primarily designed to allow examination of the propagation of a detonation front in a 3-dimensional charge of PBX9502 insensitive high explosive (IHE). The charge is confined by a cylindrical steel shell, has an elliptical tin liner, and is line-initiated along its length. The detonation wave must propagate around the inner hollow region and converge on the opposite side. The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) model allows for the calculation of detonation propagation in a region of explosive using a selection of material input parameters, amongst which is the D(K) relation that governs how the local detonation velocity varies as a function of wave curvature. In this paper, experimental data are compared to calculations using the 2D DSD and newly-developed 3D DSD codes at AWE with a variety of D(K) relations.

  15. Low Order Empirical Galerkin Models for Feedback Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadmor, Gilead; Noack, Bernd

    2005-11-01

    Model-based feedback control restrictions on model order and complexity stem from several generic considerations: real time computation, the ability to either measure or reliably estimate the state in real time and avoiding sensitivity to noise, uncertainty and numerical ill-conditioning are high on that list. Empirical POD Galerkin models are attractive in the sense that they are simple and (optimally) efficient, but are notoriously fragile, and commonly fail to capture transients and control effects. In this talk we review recent efforts to enhance empirical Galerkin models and make them suitable for feedback design. Enablers include `subgrid' estimation of turbulence and pressure representations, tunable models using modes from multiple operating points, and actuation models. An invariant manifold defines the model's dynamic envelope. It must be respected and can be exploited in observer and control design. These ideas are benchmarked in the cylinder wake system and validated by a systematic DNS investigation of a 3-dimensional Galerkin model of the controlled wake.

  16. The effect of patient positioning on the precision of model-based radiostereometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Morrison, Jason B; Turgeon, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    A repeatable method for in vivo and in vitro measurement of polyethylene wear in total knee replacement (TKA) is needed. This research examines the model-based radiostereometric analysis' (MBRSA) in vitro precision under different patient-radiograph orientations and flexion angles of the knee using a TKA phantom. Anterior-posterior and medial-lateral imaging orientations showed the highest precision; better than 0.036mm (3-dimensional translation) and 0.089° (3-dimensional rotation). Flexion of the knee did not affect MBRSA precision. Medial-lateral imaging is advantageous as it allows for flexion of the knee joint during an RSA examination, thus providing greater information for wear measurement.

  17. 3D/2D model-to-image registration applied to TIPS surgery.

    PubMed

    Jomier, Julien; Bullitt, Elizabeth; Van Horn, Mark; Pathak, Chetna; Aylward, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a novel model-to-image registration technique which aligns a 3-dimensional model of vasculature with two semiorthogonal fluoroscopic projections. Our vascular registration method is used to intra-operatively initialize the alignment of a catheter and a preoperative vascular model in the context of image-guided TIPS (Transjugular, Intrahepatic, Portosystemic Shunt formation) surgery. Registration optimization is driven by the intensity information from the projection pairs at sample points along the centerlines of the model. Our algorithm shows speed, accuracy and consistency given clinical data.

  18. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  19. Percutaneous Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Patient-specific Three-dimensional Computer-based Heart Model and Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-12-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement.

  20. Model-based 3-D segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in dual-echo MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, Micheline; Collins, D. Louis; Shinghal, Rajjan; Francis, G. S.; Evans, Alan C.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a brain tissue probability model for the segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain. Based on MR data obtained from a group of healthy volunteers, the model was constructed to provide prior probabilities of grey matter, white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and external CSF distribution per unit voxel in a standardized 3- dimensional `brain space.' In comparison to purely data-driven segmentation, the use of the model to guide the segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions reduced the volume of false positive lesions by 50%.

  1. STEPS: Modeling and Simulating Complex Reaction-Diffusion Systems with Python.

    PubMed

    Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We describe how the use of the Python language improved the user interface of the program STEPS. STEPS is a simulation platform for modeling and stochastic simulation of coupled reaction-diffusion systems with complex 3-dimensional boundary conditions. Setting up such models is a complicated process that consists of many phases. Initial versions of STEPS relied on a static input format that did not cleanly separate these phases, limiting modelers in how they could control the simulation and becoming increasingly complex as new features and new simulation algorithms were added. We solved all of these problems by tightly integrating STEPS with Python, using SWIG to expose our existing simulation code. PMID:19623245

  2. Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-08

    A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  3. Modeling The Shock Initiation of PBX-9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-01

    The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate the code predictions. The SMIS tests use a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments at a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model [2] in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT). The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations accurately reproduce the 'Go/No-Go' threshold of the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied in a predictive fashion for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  4. Comparative evaluation of dimension and surface detail accuracy of models produced by three different rapid prototype techniques.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K; Anandapandian, Ponsekar Abraham; Sharma, Sumeet Kumar; Vasantha Kumar, M

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces physical models by selectively solidifying ultra violet (UV) sensitive liquid resin using a laser beam. These models can be formed using various techniques. A study was undertaken to compare the dimensional accuracy and surface details of three prototype models with a 3D STL (standard template library) image. In this study the STL file was used to produce three different rapid prototype models namely; model 1-fused deposition model (FDM) using ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), model 2-Polyjet using a clear resin and model 3-a 3 dimensional printing using a composite material. Measurements were made at various anatomical points. For surface detail reproductions the models were subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The dimensions of the model created by Polyjet were closest to the 3D STL virtual image followed by the 3DP model and FDM. SEM analysis showed uniform smooth surface on Polyjet model with adequate surface details.

  5. New experimental models of skin homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Larcher, F; Espada, J; Díaz-Ley, B; Jaén, P; Juarranz, A; Quintanilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis, whose regulation at the molecular level is still poorly understood, is intimately related to the functions of epidermal stem cells. Five research groups have been brought together to work on new in vitro and in vivo skin models through the SkinModel-CM program, under the auspices of the Spanish Autonomous Community of Madrid. This project aims to analyze the functions of DNA methyltransferase 1, endoglin, and podoplanin in epidermal stem cell activity, homeostasis, and skin cancer. These new models include 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, immunodeficient skin-humanized mice, and genetically modified mice. Another aim of the program is to use skin-humanized mice to model dermatoses such as Gorlin syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum in order to optimize new protocols for photodynamic therapy. PMID:24878038

  6. New experimental models of skin homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Larcher, F; Espada, J; Díaz-Ley, B; Jaén, P; Juarranz, A; Quintanilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis, whose regulation at the molecular level is still poorly understood, is intimately related to the functions of epidermal stem cells. Five research groups have been brought together to work on new in vitro and in vivo skin models through the SkinModel-CM program, under the auspices of the Spanish Autonomous Community of Madrid. This project aims to analyze the functions of DNA methyltransferase 1, endoglin, and podoplanin in epidermal stem cell activity, homeostasis, and skin cancer. These new models include 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, immunodeficient skin-humanized mice, and genetically modified mice. Another aim of the program is to use skin-humanized mice to model dermatoses such as Gorlin syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum in order to optimize new protocols for photodynamic therapy.

  7. The karst contagion model: Synopsis and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemmerly, Phillip R.

    1989-03-01

    The contagion model of karst terrane evolution focuses on the environmental implications for a large karst depression population on the Pennyroyal Plain (southern Kentucky) and the adjacent Western Highland Rim (Tennessee) immediately south of the Mammoth Cave Plateau. In karst terranes where the contagion model applies, there is a well-defined infrastructure comprised of hydrologic, structural geologic and geomorphic interacting elements that result in clustered depressions underlain by a radial conduit system. Clusters tend to be randomly distributed and typically contain a parent depression surrounded by numerous daughters. Groundwater flow is assumed to be turbulent and confined largely to conduits that are 3-dimensionally configured between clusters in a dendritic to trellis network. Parent depressions serve as conduit nodes for collecting groundwater migrating from beneath daughter depressions. Flow velocities in the 3-dimensional “cluster-cell” conduits exceed those in granular media by several orders of magnitude making pathogen and chemical contaminant migration rapid. Groundwater quality assessment in karst conduit hydrogeologic settings is difficult because monitoring wells are inappropriate. Monitoring wells may have a low probability of intercepting a major conduit and therefore the sampling regime must take into consideration the pulse discharge of pollutants in karst conduits. Representative water quality data must come from springs located near the local base level.

  8. Modeling Array Stations in SIG-VISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.; Moore, D.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    We add support for array stations to SIG-VISA, a system for nuclear monitoring using probabilistic inference on seismic signals. Array stations comprise a large portion of the IMS network; they can provide increased sensitivity and more accurate directional information compared to single-component stations. Our existing model assumed that signals were independent at each station, which is false when lots of stations are close together, as in an array. The new model removes that assumption by jointly modeling signals across array elements. This is done by extending our existing Gaussian process (GP) regression models, also known as kriging, from a 3-dimensional single-component space of events to a 6-dimensional space of station-event pairs. For each array and each event attribute (including coda decay, coda height, amplitude transfer and travel time), we model the joint distribution across array elements using a Gaussian process that learns the correlation lengthscale across the array, thereby incorporating information of array stations into the probabilistic inference framework. To evaluate the effectiveness of our model, we perform ';probabilistic beamforming' on new events using our GP model, i.e., we compute the event azimuth having highest posterior probability under the model, conditioned on the signals at array elements. We compare the results from our probabilistic inference model to the beamforming currently performed by IMS station processing.

  9. Technique for 3-Dimesional (3D) Modeling of Osteoarticular Medial Femoral Condyle Vascularized Grafting to Replace the Proximal Pole of Unsalvagable Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Matsumoto, Jane M; Morris, Jonathan M; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    This study describes a novel technique for the preoperative surgical planning for an osteoarticular medial femoral condyle (MFC) graft to replace the proximal pole of a scaphoid. In cases of proximal pole scaphoid nonunion or in Preiser disease, fragmentation of the articular surface can occur, leading to significant pain and disability. Osteoarticular MFC bone grafting can be used to treat these injuries by providing a vascularized osteoarticular surface. Using 3-dimensional imaging and printing we are able to precisely model the injured scaphoid, and also accurately plan the harvest of MFC osteoarticular graft. This technique allows for accurate preoperative planning of a complex 3-dimensional bone, and has improved our execution of the plan intraoperatively. PMID:27466049

  10. Technique for 3-Dimesional (3D) Modeling of Osteoarticular Medial Femoral Condyle Vascularized Grafting to Replace the Proximal Pole of Unsalvagable Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Matsumoto, Jane M; Morris, Jonathan M; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    This study describes a novel technique for the preoperative surgical planning for an osteoarticular medial femoral condyle (MFC) graft to replace the proximal pole of a scaphoid. In cases of proximal pole scaphoid nonunion or in Preiser disease, fragmentation of the articular surface can occur, leading to significant pain and disability. Osteoarticular MFC bone grafting can be used to treat these injuries by providing a vascularized osteoarticular surface. Using 3-dimensional imaging and printing we are able to precisely model the injured scaphoid, and also accurately plan the harvest of MFC osteoarticular graft. This technique allows for accurate preoperative planning of a complex 3-dimensional bone, and has improved our execution of the plan intraoperatively.

  11. Task-driven equipment inspection system based on safe workflow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyou; Liu, Yangguang

    2010-12-01

    An equipment inspection system is one that contains a number of equipment queues served in cyclic order. In order to satisfy multi-task scheduling and multi-task combination requirements for equipment inspection system, we propose a model based on inspection workflow in this paper. On the one hand, the model organizes all kinds of equipments according to inspection workflow, elemental work units according to inspection tasks, combination elements according to the task defined by users. We proposed a 3-dimensional workflow model for equipments inspection system including organization sub-model, process sub-model and data sub-model. On the other hand, the model is based on the security authorization which defined by relation between roles, tasks, pre-defined business workflows and inspection data. The system based on proposed framework is safe and efficient. Our implement shows that the system is easy to operate and manage according to the basic performance.

  12. A model for ductile metal friction at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R. J.; Germann, T. C.

    We describe a meso-macro scale model for the frictional force at ductile metal interfaces for high velocities and large compressions. The model incorporates the micro-mesoscopic growth and refinement of material microstructure in a highly strained region at the sliding interface and incorporates both rate dependent plasticity and thermal conduction. The model compares favorably with recent large scale (1.8 billion atom) simulations to 50 ns of 3-dimensional polycrystalline 13-50 nm grain size Al-Al interfaces at pressures of 15 GPa using the SPaSM NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. The support of the LANL ASC-PEM program is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Bidirectional Reflectance Modeling of Non-homogeneous Plant Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to develop a three dimensional model to predict canopy, bidirectional reflectance for heterogenous plant stands using incident radiation and canopy structural descriptions as inputs are described. Utility programs were developed to cope with the complex output from the 3 dimensional model. In addition an attempt was made to define leaf and soil properties, which are appropriate to the mode, by measuring leaf and soil bidirectional reflectance distribution functions; since almost no data exist on these distributions. In the process it was realized that most models probably are using the wrong leaf spectral properties, and that off-nadir reflectance measurements are difficult to make because of non-Lambertian properties of reference surfaces. Also, in the visible wavebands, rough soil may not be distinguishable from canopies when viewed from above.

  14. Global High-Latitude Conductivity Modeling: New Data and Improved Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGranaghan, R. M.; Knipp, D. J.; Matsuo, T.; Godinez, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The ionospheric conductivity distribution is essential for understanding the coupling in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system. Hall conductivities, which regulate ionospheric current flow in the direction perpendicular to both the background magnetic field and the electric field, exert control over magnetospheric configuration, including transport within the plasmasphere and reconnection in the magnetotail [Lotko et al., 2014]. Pedersen conductivities control electric field variability and, in turn, determine the distribution and intensity of Joule heating, a prominent source of upper atmospheric temperature and neutral density enhancement. Contemporary conductivity modeling techniques rely on limiting assumptions and are 2-dimensional by design. Typically these models assume Maxwellian incoming particle energy distributions and simplistic current closure paths within an ionospheric 'shell' located at 110 km. We have developed a method to: 1) eliminate these assumptions and 2) allow 3-dimensional conductivity analysis using particle energy spectra provided by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. A sequential non-linear procedure then regresses the conductivities derived from DMSP data on the same basis functions used in the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure to obtain a realistic form of the covariance model, with the goal to integrate 3-dimensional conductivity analysis into the AMIE procedure. This addresses one of the primary sources of uncertainty within AMIE, and will ultimately allow more accurate characterization of high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics. We present 3-dimensional conductivity distributions derived from satellite observations and global maps of these conductivities for the year 2010. References:Lotko, W., et al. (2014), Ionospheric control of magnetotail reconnection, Science, 345(6193), 184-187, doi:10.1126/science.1252907.

  15. CFD Modeling of Ventricular Assist Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Houston; Allaire, Paul; McDaniel, James; Landrot, Nicolas; Day, Steven

    2000-11-01

    The HeartQuest blood pump is a centrifugal pump in which the rotor is suspended by magnetic bearings. The pump is being designed for use as an implantable Ventricular Assist Device. In previous computational modeling of the pump, the blood flow in three separate regions has been analyzed: the impeller, the front clearance region and the back clearance region. In this approach, the models are axially symmetric, and the calculations are simplified. However, the real flow is 3-dimensional because of the exit volute. In order to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the blood pump, a complete computational model has been realized. The computational model includes an impeller, a front clearance gap, a back clearance gap, and an exit volute. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved inside the pump, and a k-e model is used to model the turbulence. The software used is the commercially available program TASCFLOW from the company AEA. In this paper, numerical predictions will be explained and compared with experimental measurements of the flow field obtained by laser particle imaging velocimetry.

  16. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  17. Cell culture models using rat primary alveolar type I cells

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Montgomery, David W.; Merkle, Carrie J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of cell culture models using primary alveolar type I (AT I) cells. The purpose of this study was to develop cell culture models using rat AT I cells and microvascular endothelial cells from the lung (MVECL). Two types of model systems were developed: single and co-culture systems; additionally a 3-dimensional model system was developed. Pure AT I cell (96.3 ±2.7%) and MVECL (97.9 ±1.1 %) preparations were used. AT I cell morphology, mitochondrial number and distribution, actin filament arrangement and number of apoptotic cells at confluence, and telomere attrition were characterized. AT I cells maintained their morphometric characteristics through at least population doubling (PD) 35, while demonstrating telomere attrition through at least PD 100. Furthermore, AT I cells maintained the expression of their specific markers, T1α and AQ-5, through PD 42. For the co-cultures, AT I cells were grown on the top and MVECL were grown on the bottom of fibronectin coated 24 well Transwell Fluroblok™ filter inserts. Neither cell type transmigrated the 1 micron pores. Additionally AT I cells were grown in a thick layer of Matrigel® to create a 3-dimensional model in which primary AT I cells form ring-like structures that resemble an alveolus. The development of these model systems offers the opportunities to investigate AT I cell cells and their interactions with MVECL in response to pharmacological interventions and in the processes of disease, repair and regeneration. PMID:21624488

  18. Stochastic modelling of evaporation based on copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko

    2015-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is an important process in the water cycle that represents a considerable amount of moisture lost through evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from plants in a watershed. Therefore, an accurate estimate of evapotranspiration rates is necessary, along with precipitation data, for running hydrological models. Often, daily reference evapotranspiration is modelled based on the Penman, Priestley-Taylor or Hargraeves equation. However, each of these models requires extensive input data, such as daily mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. Yet, in design studies, such data is unavailable in case stochastically generated time series of precipitation are used to force a hydrologic model. In the latter case, an alternative model approach is needed that allows for generating evapotranspiration data that are consistent with the accompanying precipitation data. This contribution presents such an approach in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by three- and four-dimensional vine copulas. Based on a case study of 72 years of evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation data, observed in Uccle, Belgium, it was found that canonical vine copulas (C-Vines) in which bivariate Frank copulas are employed perform very well in preserving the dependencies between variables. While 4-dimensional C-Vine copulas performed best in simulating time series of evapotranspiration, a 3-dimensional C-Vine copula (relating evapotranspiration, daily precipitation depth and temperature) still allows for modelling evapotranspiration, though with larger error statistics.

  19. Simulations of Keratoconus Patient Vision with Optical Eye Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ming

    2007-11-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is an eye condition that involves progressive corneal thinning. Pushed by the intraocular pressure, the weakened cornea bulges outward and creates an irregular surface shape. The result is degraded vision that is difficult to correct with regular eye glasses or contact lens. In this study we use the optical lens design software, ZeMax, and patient data including cornea topography and refraction prescription to construct KC eye models. The variation of KC ``cone height'' on the cornea is used to simulate KC progression. The consequent patients' night vision and Snellen letter chart vision at 20 feet are simulated using these anatomically accurate 3-dimensional models. 100 million rays are traced for each image simulation. Animated results illustrate the change of KC visual acuity with the progression of disease. This simulation technique provides a comprehensive tool for medical training and patient consultation/education.

  20. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  1. The topographical model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karin; De Nino, Scott; Fletcher, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Relapses and progression contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course, but neither the relationship between them nor the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity has been fully characterized. A hypothesis-driven, biologically informed model could build on the clinical phenotypes to encompass the dynamic admixture of factors underlying MS disease course. In this medical hypothesis, we put forth a dynamic model of MS disease course that incorporates localization and other drivers of disability to propose a clinical manifestation framework that visualizes MS in a clinically individualized way. The topographical model encapsulates 5 factors (localization of relapses and causative lesions; relapse frequency, severity, and recovery; and progression rate), visualized utilizing dynamic 3-dimensional renderings. The central hypothesis is that, like symptom recrudescence in Uhthoff phenomenon and pseudoexacerbations, progression clinically recapitulates prior relapse symptoms and unmasks previously silent lesions, incrementally revealing underlying lesion topography. The model uses real-time simulation software to depict disease course archetypes and illuminate several well-described but poorly reconciled phenomena including the clinical/MRI paradox and prognostic significance of lesion location and burden on disease outcomes. Utilization of this model could allow for earlier and more clinically precise identification of progressive MS and predictive implications can be empirically tested.

  2. The topographical model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karin; De Nino, Scott; Fletcher, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Relapses and progression contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course, but neither the relationship between them nor the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity has been fully characterized. A hypothesis-driven, biologically informed model could build on the clinical phenotypes to encompass the dynamic admixture of factors underlying MS disease course. In this medical hypothesis, we put forth a dynamic model of MS disease course that incorporates localization and other drivers of disability to propose a clinical manifestation framework that visualizes MS in a clinically individualized way. The topographical model encapsulates 5 factors (localization of relapses and causative lesions; relapse frequency, severity, and recovery; and progression rate), visualized utilizing dynamic 3-dimensional renderings. The central hypothesis is that, like symptom recrudescence in Uhthoff phenomenon and pseudoexacerbations, progression clinically recapitulates prior relapse symptoms and unmasks previously silent lesions, incrementally revealing underlying lesion topography. The model uses real-time simulation software to depict disease course archetypes and illuminate several well-described but poorly reconciled phenomena including the clinical/MRI paradox and prognostic significance of lesion location and burden on disease outcomes. Utilization of this model could allow for earlier and more clinically precise identification of progressive MS and predictive implications can be empirically tested. PMID:27648465

  3. Development of a numerical model for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of railway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Ju; Cho, Eun Sang; Ham, Jun Su; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Tae Heon

    2016-04-01

    In the field of civil engineering, analyzing dynamic response was main concern for a long time. These analysis methods can be divided into moving load analysis method and moving mass analysis method, and formulating each an equation of motion has recently been studied after dividing vehicles and bridges. In this study, the numerical method is presented, which can consider the various train types and can solve the equations of motion for a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis by non-iteration procedure through formulating the coupled equations for motion. Also, 3 dimensional accurate numerical models was developed by KTX-vehicle in order to analyze dynamic response characteristics. The equations of motion for the conventional trains are derived, and the numerical models of the conventional trains are idealized by a set of linear springs and dashpots with 18 degrees of freedom. The bridge models are simplified by the 3 dimensional space frame element which is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The rail irregularities of vertical and lateral directions are generated by PSD functions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).

  4. Modelling an IHE Experiment with a Suite of DSD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    At the 2011 APS conference, Terrones, Burkett and Morris published an experiment primarily designed to allow examination of the propagation of a detonation front in a 3-dimensional charge of PBX9502 insensitive high explosive. The charge is confined by a cylindrical steel shell, has an elliptical tin liner, and is line-initiated along its length. The detonation wave must propagate around the inner hollow region and converge on the opposite side. The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) model allows for the calculation of detonation propagation in a region of explosive using a selection of material input parameters, amongst which is the D-K relation that governs how the local detonation velocity varies as a function of wave curvature. In this paper, experimental data are compared to calculations using the newly-developed 3D DSD code at AWE with a variety of D-K relations. The effects of D-K variation through different calibration methods, material lot and initial density are investigated.

  5. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems. PMID:27287489

  6. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems.

  7. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume L\\paralleld-1× {{L}\\bot} is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio ρ =\\frac{{{L}\\bot}}{{{L}\\parallel}} and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case ρ \\to 0 of a macroscopically large slab ({{L}\\parallel}\\gg {{L}\\bot} ) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of New Approach to Digital Dental Model Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Bing; Xia, James J.; Gateno, Jaime; Xiong, Zixiang; Teichgraeber, John F.; Lasky, Robert E.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of our newly developed approach to digital dental model articulation. Materials and Methods Twelve sets of stone dental models from patients with craniomaxillofacial deformities were used for validation. All the models had stable occlusion and no evidence of early contact. The stone models were hand articulated to the maximal intercuspation (MI) position and scanned using a 3-dimensional surface laser scanner. These digital dental models at the MI position served as the control group. To establish an experimental group, each mandibular dental model was disarticulated from its original MI position to 80 initial positions. Using a regular office personal computer, they were digitally articulated to the MI position using our newly developed approach. These rearticulated mandibular models served as the experimental group. Finally, the translational, rotational, and surface deviations in the mandibular position were calculated between the experimental and control groups, and statistical analyses were performed. Results All the digital dental models were successfully articulated. Between the control and experimental groups, the largest translational difference in mandibular position was within 0.2 mm ± 0.6 mm. The largest rotational difference was within 0.1° ± 1.1°. The averaged surface deviation was 0.08 ± 0.07. The results of the Bland and Altman method of assessing measurement agreement showed tight limits for the translational, rotational, and surface deviations. In addition, the final positions of the mandibular articulated from the 80 initial positions were absolutely agreed on. Conclusion The results of our study have demonstrated that using our approach, the digital dental models can be accurately and effectively articulated to the MI position. In addition, the 3-dimensional surface geometry of the mandibular teeth played a more important role in digital dental articulation than the

  9. Pulmonary Nodule Detection Model Based on SVM and CT Image Feature-Level Fusion with Rough Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiling; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the detection accuracy of pulmonary nodules in CT image, considering two problems of pulmonary nodules detection model, including unreasonable feature structure and nontightness of feature representation, a pulmonary nodules detection algorithm is proposed based on SVM and CT image feature-level fusion with rough sets. Firstly, CT images of pulmonary nodule are analyzed, and 42-dimensional feature components are extracted, including six new 3-dimensional features proposed by this paper and others 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional features. Secondly, these features are reduced for five times with rough set based on feature-level fusion. Thirdly, a grid optimization model is used to optimize the kernel function of support vector machine (SVM), which is used as a classifier to identify pulmonary nodules. Finally, lung CT images of 70 patients with pulmonary nodules are collected as the original samples, which are used to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model by four groups' comparative experiments. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model based on rough set feature-level fusion are improved in some degrees. PMID:27722173

  10. Cells and Culture Systems Used to Model the Small Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Rudra; Gappa-Fahlenkamp, Heather

    2016-06-01

    The pulmonary epithelium is divided into upper, lower, and alveolar (or small) airway epithelia and acts as the mechanical and immunological barrier between the external environment and the underlying submucosa. Of these, the small airway epithelium is the principal area of gas exchange and has high immunological activity, making it a major area of cell biology, immunology, and pharmaceutical research. As animal models do not faithfully represent the human pulmonary system and ex vivo human lung samples have reliability and availability issues, cell lines, and primary cells are widely used as small airway epithelial models. In vitro, these cells are mostly cultured as monolayers (2-dimensional cultures), either media submerged or at air-liquid interface. However, these 2-dimensional cultures lack a three dimension-a scaffolding extracellular matrix, which establishes the intercellular network in the in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, 3-dimensional cell culture is currently a major area of development, where cells are cultured in a matrix or are cultured in a manner that they develop ECM-like scaffolds between them, thus mimicking the in vivo phenotype more faithfully. This review focuses on the commonly used small airway epithelial cells, their 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional culture techniques, and their comparative phenotype when cultured under these systems. PMID:27071933

  11. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  12. The Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) - Validation of a long-term atmospheric dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettrich, Sebastian; Wildermuth, Hans; Strobl, Christopher; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years, the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) has been developed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Society for Plant and Reactor Security (GRS). ARTM is an atmospheric dispersion model for continuous long-term releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere, based on the Lagrangian particle model. This model, developed in the first place as a more realistic replacement for the out-dated Gaussian plume models, is currently being optimised for further scientific purposes to study atmospheric dispersion in short-range scenarios. It includes a diagnostic wind field model, allows for the application of building structures and multiple sources (including linear, 2-and 3-dimensional source geometries), and considers orography and surface roughness. As an output it calculates the activity concentration, dry and wet deposition and can model also the radioactive decay of Rn-222. As such, ARTM requires to undergo an intense validation process. While for short-term and short-range models, which were mainly developed for examining nuclear accidents or explosions, a few measurement data-sets are available for validation, data-sets for validating long-term models are very sparse and the existing ones mostly prove to be not applicable for validation. Here we present a strategy for the validation of long-term Lagrangian particle models based on the work with ARTM. In our validation study, the first part we present is a comprehensive analysis of the model sensitivities on different parameters like e.g. (simulation grid size resolution, starting random number, amount of simulation particles, etc.). This study provides a good estimation for the uncertainties of the simulation results and consequently can be used to generate model outputs comparable to the available measurements data at various distances from the emission source. This comparison between measurement data from selected scenarios and simulation results

  13. Formalized landscape models for surveying and modelling tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwner, Marc-Oliver

    2010-05-01

    We present a formalization of main geomorphic landscape models, mainly the concept of slopes, to clarify the needs and potentials of surveying technologies and modelling approaches. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) it is implemented as a exchangeable Geography Markup Language (GML3) -based application schema and therefore supports shared measurement campaigns. Today, knowledge in Geomorphology is given synoptically in textbooks in a more or less lyrical way. This knowledge is hard to implement for the use of modelling algorithms or data storage and sharing questions. On the other hand physical based numerical modelling and high resolution surveying technologies enable us to investigate case scenarios within small scales. Bringing together such approaches and organizing our data in an appropriate way will need the formalization of the concepts and knowledge that is archived in the science of geomorphology. The main problem of comparing research results in geomorphology but is that the objects under investigation are composed of 3-dimensional geometries that change in time due to processes of material fluxes, e. g. soil erosion or mass movements. They have internal properties, e. g. soil texture or bulk density, that determine the effectiveness of these processes but are under change as well. The presented application schema is available on the Internet and therefore a first step to enable researchers to share information using an OGC's Web feature service. In this vein comparing modelling results of landscape evolution with results of other scientist's observations is possible. Compared to prevalent data concepts the model presented makes it possible to store information about landforms, their geometry and the characteristics in more detail. It allows to represent the 3D-geometry, the set of material properties and the genesis of a landform by associating processes to a geoobject. Thus, time slices of a geomorphic system can be represented as well as

  14. Lagrangian Particle Method for Local Scale Dispersion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarko; ZakiSu'ud

    2016-08-01

    A deterministic model is developed for radioactive dispersion analysis based on random-walk Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM). A diagnostic 3dimensional mass-consistent wind-field with a capability to handle complex topography can be used to provide input for particle advection. Turbulent diffusion process of particles is determined based on empirical lateral and linear vertical relationships. Surface-level concentration is calculated for constant unit release from elevated point source. A series of 60-second segmented groups of particles are released in 3600 seconds total duration. Averaged surface-level concentration within a 5 meter surface layer is obtained and compared with available analytical solution. Results from LPDM shows good agreement with the analytical result for vertically constant and varying wind field with the same atmospheric stability.

  15. MoFvAb: Modeling the Fv region of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bujotzek, Alexander; Fuchs, Angelika; Qu, Changtao; Benz, Jörg; Klostermann, Stefan; Antes, Iris; Georges, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3-dimensional structure of the antigen-binding region of antibodies enables numerous useful applications regarding the design and development of antibody-based drugs. We present a knowledge-based antibody structure prediction methodology that incorporates concepts that have arisen from an applied antibody engineering environment. The protocol exploits the rich and continuously growing supply of experimentally derived antibody structures available to predict CDR loop conformations and the packing of heavy and light chain quickly and without user intervention. The homology models are refined by a novel antibody-specific approach to adapt and rearrange sidechains based on their chemical environment. The method achieves very competitive all-atom root mean square deviation values in the order of 1.5 Å on different evaluation datasets consisting of both known and previously unpublished antibody crystal structures.

  16. Use of TOPSAR digital elevation data to determine the 3-dimensional shape of an alluvial fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1995-01-01

    Landforms in arid regions record the interplay between tectonic forces and climate. Alluvial fans are a common landform in desert regions where the rate of uplift is greater than weathering or sedimentation. Changes in uplift rate or climatic conditions can lead to isolation of the currently forming fan surface through entrenchment and construction of another fan either further from the mountain front (decreased uplift or increased runoff) or closer to the mountain front (increased uplift or decreased runoff). Thus, many alluvial fans are made up of a mosaic of fan units of different age, some older than 1 million years. For this reason, determination of the stages of fan evolution can lead to a history of uplift and runoff. In an attempt to separate the effects of tectonic (uplift) and climatic (weathering, runoff, sedimentation) processes on the shapes of alluvial fan units, a modified conic equation developed by Troeh (1965) was fitted to TOPSAR digital topographic data for the Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. This allows parameters for the apex position, slope, and radial curvature to be compared with unit age.

  17. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions

    PubMed Central

    DiCesare, Christopher A.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Noehren, Brian W.; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach. Purpose: To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 weeks. Coefficients of multiple correlation were calculated to assess the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures during the landing phase of the movement. Results: Between-centers reliability for kinematic waveforms in the frontal and sagittal planes was good, but moderate in the transverse plane. Between-centers reliability for kinetic waveforms was good in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the single-leg cross drop task has moderate to good reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures across institutions after implementation of a standardized testing protocol. Clinical Relevance: Multicenter collaborations can increase study numbers and generalize results, which is beneficial for studies of relatively rare phenomena, such as ACL injury. An important step is to determine the reliability of risk assessments across institutions before a multicenter collaboration can be initiated. PMID:26779550

  18. The Existence of Periodic Orbits and Invariant Tori for Some 3-Dimensional Quadratic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanan; Han, Maoan; Xiao, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    We use the normal form theory, averaging method, and integral manifold theorem to study the existence of limit cycles in Lotka-Volterra systems and the existence of invariant tori in quadratic systems in ℝ3. PMID:24982980

  19. The existence of periodic orbits and invariant tori for some 3-dimensional quadratic systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanan; Han, Maoan; Xiao, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    We use the normal form theory, averaging method, and integral manifold theorem to study the existence of limit cycles in Lotka-Volterra systems and the existence of invariant tori in quadratic systems in ℝ(3).

  20. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R; Landers, James P

    2016-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures. PMID:26924294

  1. Measurement of microtomy-induced section distortion and its correction for 3-dimensional histological reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Jones, A S; Milthorpe, B K; Howlett, C R

    1994-02-01

    The presence of microtomy induced distortion in paraffin sections is a significant hindrance to the accurate alignment of sections for three-dimensional reconstructive techniques. Measurements of section distortion in various rat tissues demonstrated distortions to be present in all sections, with over 85% of such distortions being manifest as expansions when compared to the original distances between a series of eight drilled fiducial marks. Mean percentage dimensional changes in the direction of the cutting stroke and at right angles to this direction were -0.5 +/- 1.5% and 3.7 +/- 1.2% for liver, 7.6 +/- 2.4% and 9.1 +/- 1.2% for kidney, 6.6 +/- 2.3% and 10.5 +/- 1.4% for lung, and 20.3 +/- 6.6% and 8.9 +/- 5.9% for skeletal muscle. Individual sections invariably displayed measurable distortions, with only skeletal muscle showing any consistent pattern, in the form of "barrel" distortion at right angles to the cutting stroke. In addition a method of distortion correction and simultaneous image alignment is presented as a means of section alignment with full distortion correction capability. This method uses a quadratic polynomial transform in a non-linear "unwarping" algorithm, to correct for the rotational and translational misalignment as well as for microtomy and camera aspect ratio distortions. Application of this method to a sequence of 46 serial sections demonstrated an alignment accuracy to within 2.6 +/- 0.8 pixels.

  2. Benchmark measurements and calculations of a 3-dimensional neutron streaming experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, D. A., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    An experimental assembly known as the Dog-Legged Void assembly was constructed to measure the effect of neutron streaming in iron and void regions. The primary purpose of the measurements was to provide benchmark data against which various neutron transport calculation tools could be compared. The measurements included neutron flux spectra at four places and integral measurements at two places in the iron streaming path as well as integral measurements along several axial traverses. These data have been used in the verification of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's three-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. For a base case calculation using one-half inch mesh spacing, finite difference spatial differencing, an S(sub 16) quadrature and P(sub 1) cross sections in the MUFT multigroup structure, the calculated solution agreed to within 18 percent with the spectral measurements and to within 24 percent of the integral measurements. Variations on the base case using a fewgroup energy structure and P(sub 1) and P(sub 3) cross sections showed similar agreement. Calculations using a linear nodal spatial differencing scheme and fewgroup cross sections also showed similar agreement. For the same mesh size, the nodal method was seen to require 2.2 times as much CPU time as the finite difference method. A nodal calculation using a typical mesh spacing of 2 inches, which had approximately 32 times fewer mesh cells than the base case, agreed with the measurements to within 34 percent and yet required on 8 percent of the CPU time.

  3. Comparative analysis of diagnostic 12-lead electrocardiography and 3-dimensional noninvasive mapping.

    PubMed

    Leong, Kevin Ming Wei; Lim, Phang Boon; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2015-03-01

    The clinical utility of noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging has been demonstrated in a variety of conditions. It has recently been shown to have superior predictive accuracy and higher clinical value than validated 12-lead electrogram algorithms in the localization of arrhythmias arising from the ventricular outflow tract, and displays similar potential in other conditions.

  4. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm(-1)), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems. PMID:26522846

  5. 3 dimensional cell cultures: a comparison between manually and automatically produced alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, R; Gallert, C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Wree, A; Thurow, K

    2016-08-01

    Cancer diseases are a common problem of the population caused by age and increased harmful environmental influences. Herein, new therapeutic strategies and compound screenings are necessary. The regular 2D cultivation has to be replaced by three dimensional cell culturing (3D) for better simulation of in vivo conditions. The 3D cultivation with alginate matrix is an appropriate method for encapsulate cells to form cancer constructs. The automated manufacturing of alginate beads might be an ultimate method for large-scaled manufacturing constructs similar to cancer tissue. The aim of this study was the integration of full automated systems for the production, cultivation and screening of 3D cell cultures. We compared the automated methods with the regular manual processes. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of antibiotics on these 3D cell culture systems. The alginate beads were formed by automated and manual procedures. The automated steps were processes by the Biomek(®) Cell Workstation (celisca, Rostock, Germany). The proliferation and toxicity were manually and automatically evaluated at day 14 and 35 of cultivation. The results visualized an accumulation and expansion of cell aggregates over the period of incubation. However, the proliferation and toxicity were faintly and partly significantly decreased on day 35 compared to day 14. The comparison of the manual and automated methods displayed similar results. We conclude that the manual production process could be replaced by the automation. Using automation, 3D cell cultures can be produced in industrial scale and improve the drug development and screening to treat serious illnesses like cancer.

  6. Thermal transport in 2- and 3-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Sadhu, J. S.; Ganta, D.; Tian, H.; Sinha, S.

    2014-12-15

    Understanding thermal transport in two- and three-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures is important for realizing applications of these structures in thermoelectrics, photonics and batteries. In terms of continuum heat diffusion physics, the effective medium theory provides the framework for obtaining the effective thermal conductivity of such structures. However, recently measured nanostructures possess thermal conductivities well below these continuum predictions. In some cases, their thermal conductivities are even lower than predictions that account for sub-continuum phonon transport. We analyze current understanding of thermal transport in such structures, discussing the various theories, the measurements and the insights gained from comparing the two.

  7. Role of the Animator in the Generation of 3-Dimensional Computer Generated Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedge, John Christian

    This master's thesis investigates the relationship between the traditional animator and the computer as computer animation systems allow them to apply traditional skills with a high degree of success. The advantages and disadvantages of traditional animation as a medium for expressing motion and character are noted, and it is argued that the…

  8. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  9. BOPACE 3-D (the Boeing Plastic Analysis Capability for 3-dimensional Solids Using Isoparametric Finite Elements)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.

  10. Nanoparticulate Delivery of Agents for Induced Elastogenesis in 3-Dimensional Collagenous Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Lavanya; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Vaidya, Pratik; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of elastic matrix in the infrarenal aortic wall is a critical parameter underlying the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). It is mediated by the chronic overexpression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) -2 and -9, leading to a progressive loss of elasticity and weakening of the aortic wall. Delivery of therapeutic agents to inhibit MMPs, while concurrently coaxing cell-based regenerative repair of the elastic matrix represents a potential strategy for slowing or arresting AAA growth. Our prior studies have demonstrated elastogenic induction of healthy and aneurysmal aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and inhibition of MMPs, following exogenous delivery of elastogenic factors such as TGF-β1, as well as MMP-inhibitors such as doxycycline (DOX) in two-dimensional (2-D) culture. Based on these findings, and others that demonstrated elastogenic benefits of nanoparticulate delivery of these agents in 2-D culture, we have developed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for localized, controlled and sustained delivery of DOX and TGF-β1 to human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) within a three-dimensional (3-D) gels of type-I collagen gel, which closely evoke the arterial tissue microenvironment. DOX and TGF-β1 released from these NPs influenced elastogenic outcomes positively within the collagen constructs over 21 days of culture, which were comparable to that induced by exogenous supplementation of DOX and TGF-β1 within the culture medium. However, this was accomplished at doses ∼20-fold lower than the exogenous dosages of the agents, illustrating that their localized, controlled, and sustained delivery from NPs embedded within a 3-D scaffold is an efficient strategy for directed elastogenesis. PMID:24737693

  11. Multigroup 3-Dimensional Neutron Diffusion Nodal Code System with Thermohydraulic Feedbacks.

    1994-02-07

    Version 01 GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation on coarse mesh in 1D, 2D, and 3D Cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks) as well as power distributions and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  12. A 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes-Euler code for blunt-body flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The shock-layer flowfield is obtained with or without viscous and heat-conducting dissipations from the conservative laws of fluid dynamics equations using a shock-fitting implicity finite-difference technique. The governing equations are cast in curvilinear-orthogonal coordinates and transformed to the domain between the shock and the body. Another set of equations is used for the singular coordinate axis, which, together with a cone generator away from the stagnation point, encloses the computation domain. A time-dependent alternating direction implicit factorization technique is applied to integrate the equations with local-time increment until a steady solution is reached. The shock location is updated after the flowfield computation, but the wall conditions are implemented into the implicit procedure. Innovative procedures are introduced to define the initial flowfield, to treat both perfect and equilibrium gases, to advance the solution on a coarse-to-fine grid sequence, and to start viscous flow computations from their corresponding inviscid solutions. The results are obtained from a grid no greater than 28 by 18 by 7 and converged within 300 integration steps. They are of sufficient accuracy to start parabolized Navier-Stokes or Euler calculations beyond the nose region, to compare with flight and wind-tunnel data, and to evaluate conceptual designs of reentry spacecraft.

  13. 3-Dimensional photonic crystal surface enhanced upconversion emission for improved near-infrared photoresponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Wenbin; Su, Liap Tat; Chen, Rui; Chen, Hu; Wang, Yi; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Sun, Handong; Yoong Tok, Alfred Iing

    2013-12-01

    The enhancement of upconversion luminescence of lanthanide-ion doped fluoride upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is particularly important and highly required for their myriad applications in sensing, photoelectronic devices and bio-imaging. In this work, the amplification of luminescence in NaYF4:Yb/Er and NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNPs in close proximity to the three-dimensional photonic crystal (3D PC) surface for improved near-infrared photoresponse of a carbon nanotube-based phototransistor is reported. The self-assembled opal 3D PCs with polystyrene sphere sizes of 200, 290 and 360 nm that exhibit reflection peaks of 450, 650 and 800 nm respectively were used for upconversion enhancement, and around 30 times enhancement was obtained for NaYF4:Yb/Er and NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNPs. Time-resolved upconversion emission and 3D PC transmittance-dependent upconversion enhancement reveal that the enhanced absorption and the extraction effects, resulting from the enhanced non-resonant pump excitation field and the strong coherent scattering provided by 3D PCs respectively, are responsible for the large enhancement. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the prepared 3D PC/NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNP coupled material layer was introduced into the carbon nanotube-based phototransistor. It is shown that the photoresponsivity of the device to near-infrared light was improved by 10 times with respect to the control device with carbon nanotubes only, which reveals the promising applications of this coupled material in photoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and other types of phototransistors.The enhancement of upconversion luminescence of lanthanide-ion doped fluoride upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is particularly important and highly required for their myriad applications in sensing, photoelectronic devices and bio-imaging. In this work, the amplification of luminescence in NaYF4:Yb/Er and NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNPs in close proximity to the three-dimensional photonic crystal (3D PC) surface for improved near-infrared photoresponse of a carbon nanotube-based phototransistor is reported. The self-assembled opal 3D PCs with polystyrene sphere sizes of 200, 290 and 360 nm that exhibit reflection peaks of 450, 650 and 800 nm respectively were used for upconversion enhancement, and around 30 times enhancement was obtained for NaYF4:Yb/Er and NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNPs. Time-resolved upconversion emission and 3D PC transmittance-dependent upconversion enhancement reveal that the enhanced absorption and the extraction effects, resulting from the enhanced non-resonant pump excitation field and the strong coherent scattering provided by 3D PCs respectively, are responsible for the large enhancement. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the prepared 3D PC/NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNP coupled material layer was introduced into the carbon nanotube-based phototransistor. It is shown that the photoresponsivity of the device to near-infrared light was improved by 10 times with respect to the control device with carbon nanotubes only, which reveals the promising applications of this coupled material in photoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and other types of phototransistors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of NaYF4:Yb/Er UCNPs (Fig. S1), upconversion luminescence rise and decay curves of NaYF4:Yb/Er and NaYF4:Yb/Tm UCNPs (Fig. S2), angle-dependent reflectance spectra of opal PCs prepared with 200, 290 and 360 nm polystyrene spheres (Fig. S3), reflectance spectra of opal 3D PCs prepared with various concentrations of 290 nm polystyrene spheres (Fig. S4), transmittance-dependent 410 nm emission of NaYF4:Yb/Er UCNPs (Fig. S5) and transmittance spectra of 3D PCs prepared with different polystyrene sphere sizes at 0.4 wt% concentration (Fig. S6). See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04884e

  14. See-Through Technology for Biological Tissue: 3-Dimensional Visualization of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing technology is currently one of the fastest growing fields in biomedical sciences. Tissue clearing techniques have become a powerful approach to understand further the structural information of intact biological tissues. Moreover, technological improvements in tissue clearing and optics allowed the visualization of neural network in the whole brain tissue with subcellular resolution. Here, we described an overview of various tissue-clearing techniques, with focus on the tissue-hydrogel mediated clearing methods, and discussed the main advantages and limitations of transparent tissue for clinical diagnosis. PMID:27230455

  15. Lidar Observations of the Optical Properties and 3-Dimensional Structure of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific research conducted under this grant have been reported in a series of journal articles, dissertations, and conference proceedings. This report consists of a compilation of these publications in the following areas: development and operation of a High Spectral Resolution Lidar, cloud physics and cloud formation, mesoscale observations of cloud phenomena, ground-based and satellite cloud cover observations, impact of volcanic aerosols on cloud formation, visible and infrared radiative relationships as measured by satellites and lidar, and scattering cross sections.

  16. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ˜40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ˜50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  17. Tracing and 3-dimensional representation of the primary afferents from the moth ear.

    PubMed

    Zhemchuzhnikov, Mikhail K; Pfuhl, Gerit; Berg, Bente G

    2014-05-01

    Heliothine moths perceive acoustic information via two auditory sensory neurons only. Previous cobalt staining experiments have described the projection pattern of the two auditory neurons, called the A1 and the A2 cell, plus one additional neuron, the so-called B cell, up to the prothorax. We have obtained new and improved data about the projection pattern of the three sensory afferents by means of fluorescent staining experiments combined with scanning confocal microscopy. The present data show the fine structure of each sensory axon that arises from the moth ear and its ascending pathway relative to that of the others. In accordance with the previous data, the A2 auditory cell was found to extend projections in the pterothorax only. A novel finding is that terminal branches of the A2 cell cross the midline. The staining pattern of the two remaining neurons, the A1 and B cell, which project tightly together in the thoracic ganglia, differ somewhat from that previously described. As demonstrated here, one of these two neurons, the A1 cell, terminates in the prothoracic ganglion whereas the other, the B cell, projects further on via the cervical connectives to the subesophageal ganglion. The current data, therefore, indicate that none of the auditory afferents in the heliothine moth projects to the brain.

  18. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R.; Landers, James P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures. PMID:26924294

  19. Color postprocessing for 3-dimensional finite element mesh quality evaluation and evolving graphical workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panthaki, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Three general tasks on general-purpose, interactive color graphics postprocessing for three-dimensional computational mechanics were accomplished. First, the existing program (POSTPRO3D) is ported to a high-resolution device. In the course of this transfer, numerous enhancements are implemented in the program. The performance of the hardware was evaluated from the point of view of engineering postprocessing, and the characteristics of future hardware were discussed. Second, interactive graphical tools implemented to facilitate qualitative mesh evaluation from a single analysis. The literature was surveyed and a bibliography compiled. Qualitative mesh sensors were examined, and the use of two-dimensional plots of unaveraged responses on the surface of three-dimensional continua was emphasized in an interactive color raster graphics environment. Finally, a postprocessing environment was designed for state-of-the-art workstation technology. Modularity, personalization of the environment, integration of the engineering design processes, and the development and use of high-level graphics tools are some of the features of the intended environment.

  20. BEST3D user's manual: Boundary Element Solution Technology, 3-Dimensional Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical basis and programming strategy utilized in the construction of the computer program BEST3D (boundary element solution technology - three dimensional) and detailed input instructions are provided for the use of the program. An extensive set of test cases and sample problems is included in the manual and is also available for distribution with the program. The BEST3D program was developed under the 3-D Inelastic Analysis Methods for Hot Section Components contract (NAS3-23697). The overall objective of this program was the development of new computer programs allowing more accurate and efficient three-dimensional thermal and stress analysis of hot section components, i.e., combustor liners, turbine blades, and turbine vanes. The BEST3D program allows both linear and nonlinear analysis of static and quasi-static elastic problems and transient dynamic analysis for elastic problems. Calculation of elastic natural frequencies and mode shapes is also provided.

  1. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  2. INTEGRATING LIDAR AND SATELLITE OPTICAL DEPTH WITH AMBIENT MONITORING FOR 3-DIMENSIONAL PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of in-situ PM2.5, sunphotometers, upward pointing lidar and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) instruments have been employed to better understand variability in the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 at the surface. Previous studies have shown good correlation be...

  3. Porous Media Contamination: 3-Dimensional Visualization and Quantification Using X-Ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, L.; Prasher, S. O.; Ghoshal, S.

    2004-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), if spilled into the subsurface, will migrate downward, and a significant fraction will become trapped in the soil matrix. These trapped NAPL globules partition into the water and/or vapor phase, and serve as continuous sources of contamination (e.g. source zones). At present, the presence of NAPL in the subsurface is typically inferred from chemical analysis data. There are no accepted methodologies or protocols available for the direct characterization of NAPLs in the subsurface. Proven and cost-effective methodologies are needed to allow effective implementation of remediation technologies at NAPL contaminated sites. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) has the potential to non-destructively quantify NAPL mass and distribution in soil cores due to this technology's ability to detect small atomic density differences of solid, liquid, gas, and NAPL phases present in a representative volume element. We have demonstrated that environmentally significant NAPLs, such as gasoline and other oil products, chlorinated solvents, and PCBs possess a characteristic and predictable X-ray attenuation coefficient that permits their quantification in porous media at incident beam energies, typical of medical and industrial X-ray CT scanners. As part of this study, methodologies were developed for generating and analyzing X-ray CT data for the study of NAPLs in natural porous media. Columns of NAPL-contaminated soils were scanned, flushed with solvents and water to remove entrapped NAPL, and re-scanned. X-ray CT data was analyzed to obtain numerical arrays of soil porosity, NAPL saturation, and NAPL volume at a spatial resolution of 1 mm. This methodology was validated using homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns with known quantities of gasoline and tetrachloroethylene. NAPL volumes computed using X-ray CT data was compared with known volumes from volume balance calculations. Error analysis revealed that in a 5 cm long and 2.5 cm diameter soil column containing 0.5 ml NAPL (7,080 mg NAPL per Kg soil), the precision of calculated NAPL volumes was ±0.03 ml (6% error). Residual NAPL saturation in natural soil cores averaged 15% and varied spatially (inversely with porosity) from less than 1% to 70%. These results and others serve as proof-of-concept that a typical medical X-ray CT scanner has the potential to accurately quantify selected NAPLs in natural soils.

  4. Multichannel 5 × 5-Site 3-Dimensional Si Microprobe Electrode Array for Neural Activity Recording System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takao, Hidekuni; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    Multichannel 5 × 5-site Si microprobe electrode array has been developed for neural activity recording. Si microprobes were fabricated successfully at predetermined sites on a chip using Au dots and Si2H6 gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), a method based on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Selective VLS Si growth allowed the design of three-dimensional (3D) microprobes with 40 μm spacing in a 5 × 5 array. The diameter and the length of the Si probe can be widely changed by changing the Au dot size and the Si growth time, respectively. In addition, the circular-cone-shaped Si probe has a shape suitable for penetration into neural tissues, and can be realized by increasing growth pressure. The mechanical strength of the Si probe was evaluated with observation of its bending and penetration into a gelatin membrane, which indicated that the Si probes are strong enough to withstand the application. Signal recording with the same amplitude as neural activity was also performed using the fabricated Si probe array chip. These results confirm that high-density neural signals from neural tissues can be obtained with the multichannel 3D VLS Si microprobe array chip.

  5. Human fear conditioning conducted in full immersion 3-dimensional virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Huff, Nicole C; Zeilinski, David J; Fecteau, Matthew E; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2010-01-01

    Fear conditioning is a widely used paradigm in non-human animal research to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying fear and anxiety. A major challenge in conducting conditioning studies in humans is the ability to strongly manipulate or simulate the environmental contexts that are associated with conditioned emotional behaviors. In this regard, virtual reality (VR) technology is a promising tool. Yet, adapting this technology to meet experimental constraints requires special accommodations. Here we address the methodological issues involved when conducting fear conditioning in a fully immersive 6-sided VR environment and present fear conditioning data. In the real world, traumatic events occur in complex environments that are made up of many cues, engaging all of our sensory modalities. For example, cues that form the environmental configuration include not only visual elements, but aural, olfactory, and even tactile. In rodent studies of fear conditioning animals are fully immersed in a context that is rich with novel visual, tactile and olfactory cues. However, standard laboratory tests of fear conditioning in humans are typically conducted in a nondescript room in front of a flat or 2D computer screen and do not replicate the complexity of real world experiences. On the other hand, a major limitation of clinical studies aimed at reducing (extinguishing) fear and preventing relapse in anxiety disorders is that treatment occurs after participants have acquired a fear in an uncontrolled and largely unknown context. Thus the experimenters are left without information about the duration of exposure, the true nature of the stimulus, and associated background cues in the environment. In the absence of this information it can be difficult to truly extinguish a fear that is both cue and context-dependent. Virtual reality environments address these issues by providing the complexity of the real world, and at the same time allowing experimenters to constrain fear conditioning and extinction parameters to yield empirical data that can suggest better treatment options and/or analyze mechanistic hypotheses. In order to test the hypothesis that fear conditioning may be richly encoded and context specific when conducted in a fully immersive environment, we developed distinct virtual reality 3-D contexts in which participants experienced fear conditioning to virtual snakes or spiders. Auditory cues co-occurred with the CS in order to further evoke orienting responses and a feeling of "presence" in subjects. Skin conductance response served as the dependent measure of fear acquisition, memory retention and extinction. PMID:20736913

  6. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm-1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  7. Threat object identification performance for LADAR imagery: comparison of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Matthew A.; Driggers, Ronald G.; Redman, Brian; Krapels, Keith A.

    2006-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the change in human observer range performance when LADAR imagery is presented in stereo 3D vice 2D. It compares the ability of observers to correctly identify twelve common threatening and non-threatening single-handed objects (e.g. a pistol versus a cell phone). Images were collected with the Army Research Lab/Office of Naval Research (ARL/ONR) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging LADAR. A perception experiment, utilizing both military and civilian observers, presented subjects with images of varying angular resolutions. The results of this experiment were used to create identification performance curves for the 2D and 3D imagery, which show probability of identification as a function of range. Analysis of the results indicates that there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in performance between 2D and 3D imagery.

  8. A semi-direct solver for compressible 3-dimensional rotational flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. C.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    An iterative procedure is presented for solving steady inviscid 3-D subsonic rotational flow problems. The procedure combines concepts from classical secondary flow theory with an extension to 3-D of a novel semi-direct Cauchy-Riemann solver. It is developed for generalized coordinates and can be exercised using standard finite difference procedures. The stability criterion of the iterative procedure is discussed along with its ability to capture the evolution of inviscid secondary flow in a turning channel.

  9. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-11-02

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm(-1)), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  10. In situ tooth replica custom implant: a 3-dimensional finite element stress and strain analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghuneim, Wael Aly

    2013-10-01

    This study is a phase of a biomechanical study, a part of a research program concerned with the new concept of in situ tooth replication. The purpose of the study was to evaluate tooth replica under each of two possible circumstances: (1) attachment via periodontal ligament and (2) osseointegration. Replicas were made of Cortoss, a bioactive glass, bone substitute. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to assess the stresses and strains resulting from each of 2 types of loads: off-vertical pressure and vertical point force acting on natural mandibular second premolar and corresponding replicas. Natural tooth tolerated 19 MPa pressure or 85 N vertical force, periodontally attached replica tolerated 15 MPa pressure or 80 N force, and osseointegrated replica tolerated 23 MPa pressure or 217 N force.

  11. Measurement of the 3-dimensional positions of type III bursts in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poquerusse, M.; Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.; Dulk, G. A.; MacQueen, R. M.

    1988-03-01

    The Stereo 5 experiment observed the Sun at 60 and 30 MHz simultaneously on the Earth (Nançay), and on the Soviet spacecraft Mars 7. It recorded many normal type III's and type IIIb's during the period 1974 Jan 10 to 19 at a time when the "stereo" angle Earth-Sun-spacecraft was large enough (≈35°) to allow an accurate triangulation. The time delay Δt of type III bursts between the two observing stations was measured with an uncertainty of ≈0.1 s. A ground interferometer furnished a 2-dimensional position at 75 MHz with an uncertainty of ≈0.1 R_sun;. Combining the two, the authors calculate for the first time the three dimensional positions of type III sources in the corona. Simultaneous observations of the corona in visible light from Skylab allow the apparent radio source positions to be related to slowly evolving coronal structures.

  12. Globally regular instability of 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime.

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Piotr; Jałmużna, Joanna

    2013-07-26

    We consider three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the AdS3 spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of AdS3. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have energy below the black hole threshold. This situation appears to be challenging for the cosmic censor. Analyzing the energy spectrum of the cascade we determine the width ρ(t) of the analyticity strip of solutions in the complex spatial plane and argue by extrapolation that ρ(t) does not vanish in finite time. This provides evidence that the turbulence is too weak to produce a naked singularity and the solutions remain globally regular in time, in accordance with the cosmic censorship hypothesis. PMID:23931347

  13. Processing of 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar Terrain Images Generated From an Airborne Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Busch, George; Vanek, Michael; Reisse, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Data from the first Flight Test of the NASA Langley Flash Lidar system have been processed. Results of the analyses are presented and discussed. A digital elevation map of the test site is derived from the data, and is compared with the actual topography. The set of algorithms employed, starting from the initial data sorting, and continuing through to the final digital map classification is described. The accuracy, precision, and the spatial and angular resolution of the method are discussed.

  14. Computation of transonic