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Sample records for 3-dimensional gross-neveu model

  1. Phase diagram of quark-antiquark and diquark condensates in the 3-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with the 4-component spinor representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2008-07-01

    We construct the phase diagram of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates at finite temperature and density in the 2+1 dimensional (3D) two flavor massless Gross-Neveu (GN) model with the 4-component quarks. In contrast to the case of the 2-component quarks, there appears the coexisting phase of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates. This is the crucial difference between the 2-component and 4-component quark cases in the 3D GN model. The coexisting phase is also seen in the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. Then we see that the 3D GN model with the 4-component quarks bears closer resemblance to the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model.

  2. Four loop renormalization of the Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracey, J. A.; Luthe, T.; Schröder, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We renormalize the S U (N ) Gross-Neveu model in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at four loops and determine the β function at this order. The theory ceases to be multiplicatively renormalizable when dimensionally regularized due to the generation of evanescent 4-Fermi operators. The first of these appears at three loops and we correctly take their effect into account in deriving the renormalization group functions. We use the results to provide estimates of critical exponents relevant to phase transitions in graphene.

  3. Anselm's Discovery of the Gross-Neveu Model in 1958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifman, M.

    2013-06-01

    The Gross-Neveu model comprises quantum field theory of N Dirac fermions interacting via four-fermion interaction in one spatial and one time dimension. It was introduced in 1974 (shortly after quantum chromodynamics was discovered) by David Gross and André Neveu [1] as a toy model which mimics two crucial features of quantum chromodynamics: asymptotic freedom and spontaneous breaking of a chiral symmetry. The model is based on N Dirac (i.e. complex two-component) fermions, ψ1, ψ2, ..., ψN. The Lagrangian of the Gross-Neveau model is [ {L} = bar{psi}ipartial_{mu}gamma^{mu}psi + frac{g^{2}}{2}(sumlimits_{k = 1}^{N}bar{psi}_{k}psi^{k})^{2}.

  4. Aoki phases in the lattice Gross-Neveu model with flavored mass terms

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, Michael; Kimura, Taro; Misumi, Tatsuhiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the parity-broken phase structure for staggered and naive fermions in the Gross-Neveu model as a toy model of QCD. We consider a generalized staggered Gross-Neveu model including two types of four-point interactions. We use generalized mass terms to split the doublers for both staggered and naive fermions. The phase boundaries derived from the gap equations show that the mass splitting of tastes results in an Aoki phase both in the staggered and naive cases. We also discuss the continuum limit of these models and explore taking the chirally symmetric limit by fine-tuning a mass parameter and two-coupling constants. This supports the idea that in lattice QCD we can derive one- or two-flavor staggered fermions by tuning the mass parameter, which are likely to be less expensive than Wilson fermions in QCD simulation.

  5. Stability of nonlinear spinor fields with application to the Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Ph.; Stubbe, J.; Vàzquez, L.

    1987-10-01

    We consider the stability problem for the localized solutions of classical nonlinear spinor fields in space dimensions N=1 and N=3 within the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We show that the well-known relations existing between the different stability criteria for scalar field equations are no longer valid for spinor fields. We discuss the application of the Shatah-Strauss formalism to several models: e.g., the Gross-Neveu, Thirring, and the Soler models.

  6. Competing mechanisms of chiral symmetry breaking in a generalized Gross-Neveu model

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian; Thies, Michael

    2010-05-15

    Chiral symmetry of the 2-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model is broken explicitly by a bare mass term as well as a splitting of scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants. The vacuum and light hadrons--mesons and baryons which become massless in the chiral limit--are explored analytically in leading order of the derivative expansion by means of a double sine-Gordon equation. Depending on the parameters, this model features new phenomena as compared to previously investigated 4-fermion models: spontaneous breaking of parity, a nontrivial chiral vacuum angle, twisted kinklike baryons whose baryon number reflects the vacuum angle, crystals with alternating baryons, and appearance of a false vacuum.

  7. Absence of mass generation in the d>=3, N>=1 weakly coupled Gross-Neveu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Procacci, Aldo

    2000-05-01

    We show that the massless (ultraviolet-regularized) Gross-Neveu model, in d>=3 dimensions and any number of flavors (N=1,2,3,...), does not exhibit the mass generation mechanism if the quartic term coupling constant λ is sufficiently small. Specifically, by showing the uniformity in N for the whole treatment developed for N=1 in previous works, we prove that the two-point function can be written in terms of a convergent expansion in powers of the initial coupling λ, with a convergence radius uniform in N and in the volume, and that, for long distances, it decays as a free propagator (i.e., polynomially).

  8. Magnetic catalysis effect in the (2+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with Zeeman interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, K. G.; Zhokhov, R. N.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic catalysis of the chiral symmetry breaking and other magnetic properties of the (2+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model are studied taking into account the Zeeman interaction of spin-1/2 quasi-particles (electrons) with tilted (with respect to a system plane) external magnetic field B = {B_ bot } + {B_allel }. The Zeeman interaction is proportional to magnetic moment μB of electrons. For simplicity, temperature and chemical potential are equal to zero throughout the paper. We compare in the framework of the model the above mentioned phenomena both at μB = 0 and μB ≠ 0. It is shown that at μB ≠ 0 the magnetic catalysis effect is drastically changed in comparison with the μB = 0 case. Namely, at μB ≠ 0 the chiral symmetry, being spontaneously broken by B at subcritical coupling constants, is always restored at |B| → ∞ (even at B_allel = 0). Moreover, it is proved in this case that chiral symmetry can be restored simply by tilting B to a system plane, and in the region B⊥ → 0 the de Haas - van Alphen oscillations of the magnetization are observed. At supercritical values of coupling constant we have found two chirally non-invariant phases which respond differently on the action of B. The first (at rather small values of |B|) is a diamagnetic phase, in which there is an enhancement of chiral condensate, whereas the second is a paramagnetic chirally broken phase. Numerical estimates show that phase transitions described in the paper can be achieved at low enough laboratory magnetic fields.

  9. ɛ-expansion in the Gross-Neveu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Avinash

    2016-10-01

    We use the recently developed CFT techniques of Rychkov and Tan to compute anomalous dimensions in the O( N ) Gross-Neveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions. To do this, we extend the "cowpie contraction" algorithm of arXiv:1506.06616 to theories with fermions. Our results match perfectly with Feynman diagram computations.

  10. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  11. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  12. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  13. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  14. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  15. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  16. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  17. A 3-dimensional model for teaching local flaps using porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zahid; Hogg, Fiona; Graham, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The European Working Time Directive and streamlined training has led to reduced training time. Surgery, as an experience-dependent craft specialty is affected more than other medical specialties. Trainees want to maximize all training opportunities in the clinical setting, and having predeveloped basic skills acquired on a simulated model can facilitate this.Here we describe the use of a novel model to design and raise local flaps in the face and scalp regions. The model consists of mannequin heads draped with porcine skin which is skewered with pins at strategic points to give a 3-dimensional model which closely resembles a cadaveric head.The advantages of this model are that it is life size and incorporates all the relevant anatomical features, which can be drawn on if required.This model was used on a recent course, Intermediate Skills in Plastic Surgery: Flaps Around the Face, at the Royal College of Surgeons England. The trainees found that practicing on the porcine skin gave them an opportunity to master the basics of flap design and implementation.In summary, this innovative 3-dimensional training model has received high levels of satisfaction and is currently as close as we can get to cadaveric dissection without the constraints and cost of using human tissue.

  18. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  19. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-01-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  20. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor.

  1. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  2. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  3. Superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models of growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. C.; Heymann, Gavin; Cornelis, Marie A.; DeClerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate a new method for superimposition of 3-dimensional (3D) models of growing subjects. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after Class III malocclusion orthopedic treatment with miniplates. Three observers independently constructed 18 3D virtual surface models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of 3 patients. Separate 3D models were constructed for soft-tissue, cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular surfaces. The anterior cranial fossa was used to register the 3D models of before and after treatment (about 1 year of follow-up). Results Three-dimensional overlays of superimposed models and 3D color-coded displacement maps allowed visual and quantitative assessment of growth and treatment changes. The range of interobserver errors for each anatomic region was 0.4 mm for the zygomatic process of maxilla, chin, condyles, posterior border of the rami, and lower border of the mandible, and 0.5 mm for the anterior maxilla soft-tissue upper lip. Conclusions Our results suggest that this method is a valid and reproducible assessment of treatment outcomes for growing subjects. This technique can be used to identify maxillary and mandibular positional changes and bone remodeling relative to the anterior cranial fossa. PMID:19577154

  4. An integrated 3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine for data-driven simulation of spatial genome organization.

    PubMed

    Szałaj, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Michalski, Paul; Pietal, Michal J; Luo, Oscar J; Sadowski, Michał; Li, Xingwang; Radew, Kamen; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding. This multilevel nature of ChIA-PET data offers an opportunity to use multiscale 3D models to study structural-functional relationships at multiple length scales, but doing so requires a structural modeling platform. Here, we report the development of 3D-GNOME (3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine), a complete computational pipeline for 3D simulation using ChIA-PET data. 3D-GNOME consists of three integrated components: a graph-distance-based heat map normalization tool, a 3D modeling platform, and an interactive 3D visualization tool. Using ChIA-PET and Hi-C data derived from human B-lymphocytes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-GNOME in building 3D genome models at multiple levels, including the entire genome, individual chromosomes, and specific segments at megabase (Mb) and kilobase (kb) resolutions of single average and ensemble structures. Further incorporation of CTCF-motif orientation and high-resolution looping patterns in 3D simulation provided additional reliability of potential biologically plausible topological structures.

  5. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  6. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  7. Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model

    PubMed Central

    Tezera, Liku B; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Chancellor, Andrew; Reichmann, Michaela T; Shammari, Basim Al; Brace, Patience; Batty, Alex; Tocheva, Annie; Jogai, Sanjay; Marshall, Ben G; Tebruegge, Marc; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Mansour, Salah; Elkington, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen–alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction. Infection in 3-D led to greater cellular survival and permitted longitudinal analysis over 21 days. Key features of human tuberculosis develop, and extracellular matrix integrity favours the host over the pathogen. We optimised multiparameter readouts to study emerging therapeutic interventions: cytokine supplementation, host-directed therapy and immunoaugmentation. Each intervention modulates the host-pathogen interaction, but has both beneficial and harmful effects. This methodology has wide applicability to investigate infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and develop novel drug regimes and vaccination approaches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21283.001 PMID:28063256

  8. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC.

  9. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  10. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  11. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models

    DOE PAGES

    Lund, Tina; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans -Thomas; ...

    2012-11-19

    Here, we study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced activity of the standing accretion shock instability in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.

  12. Visualization of the 3-dimensional flow around a model with the aid of a laser knife

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovoy, V. Y.; Ivanov, V. V.; Orlov, A. A.; Kharchenko, V. N.

    1984-01-01

    A method for visualizing the three-dimensional flow around models of various shapes in a wind tunnel at a Mach number of 5 is described. A laser provides a planar light flux such that any plane through the model can be selectively illuminated. The shape of shock waves and separation regions is then determined by the intensity of light scattered by soot particles in the flow.

  13. Remanent magnetization and 3-dimensional density model of the Kentucky anomaly region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Estes, R. H.; Myers, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Kentucky body was developed to fit surface gravity and long wavelength aeromagnetic data. Magnetization and density parameters for the model are much like those of Mayhew et al (1982). The magnetic anomaly due to the model at satellite altitude is shown to be much too small by itself to account for the anomaly measured by Magsat. It is demonstrated that the source region for the satellite anomaly is considerably more extensive than the Kentucky body sensu stricto. The extended source region is modeled first using prismatic model sources and then using dipole array sources. Magnetization directions for the source region found by inversion of various combinations of scalar and vector data are found to be close to the main field direction, implying the lack of a strong remanent component. It is shown by simulation that in a case (such as this) where the geometry of the source is known, if a strong remanent component is present its direction is readily detectable, but by scalar data as readily as vector data.

  14. Accretion Onto Supermassive Black Holes: Observational Signals from 3-Dimensional Disk Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Miller, Warner A.

    2003-01-01

    Our project was to model accretion flows onto supermassive black holes which reside in the centers of many galaxies. In this report we summarize the results which we obtained with the support of our NASA ATP grant. The scientific results associated with the grant are given in approximately chronological order. We also provide a list of references which acknowledge funding from this grant.

  15. A simple, analytic 3-dimensional downburst model based on boundary layer stagnation flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.; Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    A simple downburst model is developed for use in batch and real-time piloted simulation studies of guidance strategies for terminal area transport aircraft operations in wind shear conditions. The model represents an axisymmetric stagnation point flow, based on velocity profiles from the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) model developed by Proctor and satisfies the mass continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates. Altitude dependence, including boundary layer effects near the ground, closely matches real-world measurements, as do the increase, peak, and decay of outflow and downflow with increasing distance from the downburst center. Equations for horizontal and vertical winds were derived, and found to be infinitely differentiable, with no singular points existent in the flow field. In addition, a simple relationship exists among the ratio of maximum horizontal to vertical velocities, the downdraft radius, depth of outflow, and altitude of maximum outflow. In use, a microburst can be modeled by specifying four characteristic parameters, velocity components in the x, y and z directions, and the corresponding nine partial derivatives are obtained easily from the velocity equations.

  16. Estimation of Nasal Tip Support Using Computer-Aided Design and 3-Dimensional Printed Models

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Eric; Maducdoc, Marlon; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Palpation of the nasal tip is an essential component of the preoperative rhinoplasty examination. Measuring tip support is challenging, and the forces that correspond to ideal tip support are unknown. OBJECTIVE To identify the integrated reaction force and the minimum and ideal mechanical properties associated with nasal tip support. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three-dimensional (3-D) printed anatomic silicone nasal models were created using a computed tomographic scan and computer-aided design software. From this model, 3-D printing and casting methods were used to create 5 anatomically correct nasal models of varying constitutive Young moduli (0.042, 0.086, 0.098, 0.252, and 0.302 MPa) from silicone. Thirty rhinoplasty surgeons who attended a regional rhinoplasty course evaluated the reaction force (nasal tip recoil) of each model by palpation and selected the model that satisfied their requirements for minimum and ideal tip support. Data were collected from May 3 to 4, 2014. RESULTS Of the 30 respondents, 4 surgeons had been in practice for 1 to 5 years; 9 surgeons, 6 to 15 years; 7 surgeons, 16 to 25 years; and 10 surgeons, 26 or more years. Seventeen surgeons considered themselves in the advanced to expert skill competency levels. Logistic regression estimated the minimum threshold for the Young moduli for adequate and ideal tip support to be 0.096 and 0.154 MPa, respectively. Logistic regression estimated the thresholds for the reaction force associated with the absolute minimum and ideal requirements for good tip recoil to be 0.26 to 4.74 N and 0.37 to 7.19 N during 1- to 8-mm displacement, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study presents a method to estimate clinically relevant nasal tip reaction forces, which serve as a proxy for nasal tip support. This information will become increasingly important in computational modeling of nasal tip mechanics and ultimately will enhance surgical planning for rhinoplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

  17. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  18. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  19. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  20. 3-dimensional spatially organized PEG-based hydrogels for an aortic valve co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Puperi, Daniel S.; Balaoing, Liezl R.; O’Connell, Ronan W.; West, Jennifer L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically relevant in vitro models are needed to study disease progression and to develop and screen potential therapeutic interventions for disease. Heart valve disease, in particular, has no early intervention or non-invasive treatment because there is a lack of understanding the cellular mechanisms which lead to disease. Here, we establish a novel, customizable synthetic hydrogel platform that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and the factors which contribute to valve disease. Spatially localized cell adhesive ligands bound in the scaffold promote cell growth and organization of valve interstitial cells and valve endothelial cells in 3D co-culture. Both cell types maintained phenotypes, homeostatic functions, and produced zonally localized extracellular matrix. This model extends the capabilities of in vitro research by providing a platform to perform direct contact co-culture with cells in their physiologically relevant spatial arrangement. PMID:26241755

  1. 3-dimensional numerical modeling of an industrial radio frequency heating system using finite elements.

    PubMed

    Chan, T V Chow Ting; Tang, J; Younce, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new, yet simple and effective approach to modeling industrial Radio Frequency heating systems, using the wave equation applied in three dimensions instead of the conventional electrostatics method. The central idea is that the tank oscillatory circuit is excited using an external source. This then excites the applicator circuit which is then used to heat or dry the processed load. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical data, namely the S11-parameter, phase, and heating patterns for different sized loads and positions.

  2. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geometric Survey and Structural Modelling of the Dome of Pisa Cathedral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, D.; Barsotti, R.; Bennati, S.; Caroti, G.; Piemonte, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the preliminary results of a research project on the dome of Pisa Cathedral (Italy). The final objective of the present research is to achieve a deep understanding of the structural behaviour of the dome, through a detailed knowledge of its geometry and constituent materials, and by taking into account historical and architectural aspects as well. A reliable survey of the dome is the essential starting point for any further investigation and adequate structural modelling. Examination of the status quo on the surveys of the Cathedral dome shows that a detailed survey suitable for structural analysis is in fact lacking. For this reason, high-density and high-precision surveys have been planned, by considering that a different survey output is needed, according both to the type of structural model chosen and purposes to be achieved. Thus, both range-based (laser scanning) and image-based (3D Photogrammetry) survey methodologies have been used. This contribution introduces the first results concerning the shape of the dome derived from surveys. Furthermore, a comparison is made between such survey outputs and those available in the literature.

  3. Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Superimposition Techniques on Various Skeletal Structures of the Head Using Surface Models

    PubMed Central

    Pazera, Pawel; Zorkun, Berna; Katsaros, Christos; Ludwig, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the applicability, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of various 3D superimposition techniques for radiographic data, transformed to triangulated surface data. Methods Five superimposition techniques (3P: three-point registration; AC: anterior cranial base; AC + F: anterior cranial base + foramen magnum; BZ: both zygomatic arches; 1Z: one zygomatic arch) were tested using eight pairs of pre-existing CT data (pre- and post-treatment). These were obtained from non-growing orthodontic patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. All datasets were superimposed by three operators independently, who repeated the whole procedure one month later. Accuracy was assessed by the distance (D) between superimposed datasets on three form-stable anatomical areas, located on the anterior cranial base and the foramen magnum. Precision and reproducibility were assessed using the distances between models at four specific landmarks. Non parametric multivariate models and Bland-Altman difference plots were used for analyses. Results There was no difference among operators or between time points on the accuracy of each superimposition technique (p>0.05). The AC + F technique was the most accurate (D<0.17 mm), as expected, followed by AC and BZ superimpositions that presented similar level of accuracy (D<0.5 mm). 3P and 1Z were the least accurate superimpositions (0.790.05), the detected structural changes differed significantly between different techniques (p<0.05). Bland-Altman difference plots showed that BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, though it presented slightly higher random error. Conclusions Superimposition of 3D datasets using surface models created from voxel data can provide accurate, precise, and reproducible results, offering also high efficiency and increased post-processing capabilities. In

  4. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  5. Is a 3-Dimensional Stress Balance Ice-Stream Model Really Better Than a 2-Dimensional "Reduced Order" Ice-Stream Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O.; Macayeal, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    With growing observational awareness of numerous ice-stream processes occurring on short time and spatial scales, e.g., sub-ice-stream lake volume changes and grounding-line sediment wedge build-up, the question of how well models based on "reduced-order" dynamics can simulate ice-stream behavior becomes paramount. Reduced-order models of ice-streams are typically 2-dimensional, and capture only the largest-magnitude terms in the stress tensor (with other terms being constrained by various assumptions). In predicting the overall magnitude and large-scale pattern of ice-stream flow, the reduced-order models appear to be adequate. Efforts underway in the Glaciological Community to create 3-dimensional models of the "full" ice-stream stress balance, which relax the assumptions associated with reduced-order models, suggest that a cost/benefit analysis should be done to determine how likely these efforts will be fruitful. To assess the overall benefits of full 3-dimensional models in relation to the simpler 2-dimensional counterparts, we present model solutions of the full Stokes equations for ice-stream flow over a variety of basal perturbations (e.g., a sticky spot, a subglacial lake, a grounding line). We also present the solutions derived from reduced 2-dimensional models, and compare the two solutions to estimate effects of simplifications and neglected terms, as well as to advise on what circumstances 3-dimensional models are preferable to 2-dimensional models.

  6. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  7. A Novel 3 Dimensional Stromal-based Model for In Vitro Chemotherapy Sensitivity Testing of Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aljitawi, Omar S.; Li, Dandan; Xiao, Yinghua; Zhang, Da; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Lin, Tara L.; Kambhampati, Suman; Garimella, Rama

    2014-01-01

    The disparate responses of leukemia cells to chemotherapy in vivo, compared to in vitro, is partly related to the interactions of leukemic cells and the 3 dimensional (3D) bone marrow stromal microenvironment. We investigated the effects of chemotherapy agents on leukemic cell lines co-cultured with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hu-BM-MSC) in 3D. Comparison was made to leukemic cells treated in suspension, or grown on a hu-BM-MSC monolayer (2D conditions). We demonstrated that leukemic cells cultured in 3D were more resistant to drug-induced apoptosis compared to cells cultured in 2D or in suspension. We also demonstrated significant differences in leukemic cell response to chemotherapy using different leukemic cell lines cultured in 3D. We suggest that the differential responses to chemotherapy in 3D may be related to the expression of N-cadherin in the co-culture system. This unique model provides an opportunity to study leukemic cell responses to chemotherapy in 3D. PMID:23566162

  8. Solvable models with self-triality in statistical mechanics and field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, R.

    1981-02-09

    The notion of self-duality is extended to self-triality. One example from spin systems is given and completely solved by use of fermion variables. It is then shown that the O(8) Gross-Neveu model has self-triality: The Lagrangian L(psi)=L(R)=L(L) where psi is the original fermion while R and L are two types of kinks that occur dynamically. The anatomy of self-duality (triality) in the Ising and present examples is exposed as is the origin of the fermionic solutions.

  9. A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pashazadeh, Saeid; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatio-temporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods. PMID:22423198

  10. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C.; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  11. Development and Application of a 3-Dimensional Finite Element Model for Remediation Wellfield Management at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, K.; Maley, M. P.; Demir, Z.; Noyes, C.

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is on the Superfund National Priorities List, is implementing an extensive ground water remediation program. The environmental investigation covers an area of about 2 square miles, and is underlain by a thick sequence of heterogeneous alluvial sediments. These sediments have been subdivided into hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) bounded by thin confining layers that were identified using a deterministic approach. LLNL currently operates a large ground water extraction system that includes 80 ground water extraction wells connected to 25 separate treatment facilities. These combined facilities treated about 308 million gallons of ground water at an average combined flow rate of 600 gpm, and removed about 270 kg of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). To better manage this large complex remediation system, a 3-dimensional, finite-element numerical model was developed using FEFLOW. The model simulated a 7 square-mile portion of the large Livermore Valley ground water basin. The quality of the input data varied from highly detailed, in the environmental investigation areas, to sparse, near some of the model domain boundaries. These different data sets had to be integrated to obtain the necessary boundary conditions and input parameters for the model. Hydraulic conductivities were averaged from measured lithologic descriptions and hydraulic test data. Boundary conditions were based on a local and regional assessment of groundwater elevation data representative of observed inflow/outflow boundaries. The model was initially calibrated to a set of 8 distinct hydrologic stress periods over 12 years. Initial flow calibration for the model was achieved using the parameter estimation tool PEST. Through successive data analysis and calibration, optimal parameters were established for each HSU and expanded to 35 hydrologic stress periods covering the entire recorded hydrologic history. VOC transport was calibrated to 9 years of

  12. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do.

  13. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  14. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 3: Verification of 3-dimensional rigid-lid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Nwadike, E. V.; Sinha, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth (e.g., natural or man-made inland lakes) because surface elevation has been removed as a parameter. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions. The free-surface model also provides surface height variations with time.

  15. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 2: User's manual for 3-dimensional free-surface model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one-dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions.

  16. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  17. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able...

  18. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  19. Next Generation, Waveform Based 3-Dimensional Models & Metrics to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring in the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-20

    Indian tectonic plates . Without knowing the true lateral changes in anisotropy and including large continental provinces within the model it is...also significantly increase anomaly strength while sharpening the anomaly edges to create stronger and more pronounced tectonic structures. The

  20. Direct measurement of the 3-dimensional DNA lesion distribution induced by energetic charged particles in a mouse model tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mirsch, Johanna; Tommasino, Francesco; Frohns, Antonia; Conrad, Sandro; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas; Löbrich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Charged particles are increasingly used in cancer radiotherapy and contribute significantly to the natural radiation risk. The difference in the biological effects of high-energy charged particles compared with X-rays or γ-rays is determined largely by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition events. Part of the energy is deposited in a densely ionizing manner in the inner part of the track, with the remainder spread out more sparsely over the outer track region. Our knowledge about the dose distribution is derived solely from modeling approaches and physical measurements in inorganic material. Here we exploited the exceptional sensitivity of γH2AX foci technology and quantified the spatial distribution of DNA lesions induced by charged particles in a mouse model tissue. We observed that charged particles damage tissue nonhomogenously, with single cells receiving high doses and many other cells exposed to isolated damage resulting from high-energy secondary electrons. Using calibration experiments, we transformed the 3D lesion distribution into a dose distribution and compared it with predictions from modeling approaches. We obtained a radial dose distribution with sub-micrometer resolution that decreased with increasing distance to the particle path following a 1/r2 dependency. The analysis further revealed the existence of a background dose at larger distances from the particle path arising from overlapping dose deposition events from independent particles. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantification of the spatial dose distribution of charged particles in biologically relevant material, and will serve as a benchmark for biophysical models that predict the biological effects of these particles. PMID:26392532

  1. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  2. A Validation Study of a Novel 3-Dimensional MRI Modeling Technique to Identify the Anatomic Insertions of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Catherine; Pi, Yeli; Swami, Vimarsha; Mabee, Myles; Jaremko, Jacob L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anatomic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is the current gold standard in ACL reconstructive surgery. However, placement of femoral and tibial tunnels at the anatomic center of the ACL insertion sites can be difficult intraoperatively. We developed a “virtual arthroscopy” program that allows users to identify ACL insertions on preoperative knee magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and generates a 3-dimensional (3D) bone model that matches the arthroscopic view to help guide intraoperative tunnel placement. Purpose: To test the validity of the ACL insertion sites identified using our 3D modeling program and to determine the accuracy of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction guided by our “virtual arthroscopic” model. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Sixteen cadaveric knees were prescanned using routine MRI sequences. A trained, blinded observer then identified the center of the ACL insertions using our program. Eight knees were dissected, and the centers of the ACL footprints were marked with a screw. In the remaining 8 knees, arthroscopic ACL tunnels were drilled into the center of the ACL footprints based on landmarks identified using our virtual arthroscopic model. Postprocedural MRI was performed on all 16 knees. The 3D distance between pre- and postoperative 3D centers of the ACL were calculated by 2 trained, blinded observers and a musculoskeletal radiologist. Results: With 2 outliers removed, the postoperative femoral and tibial tunnel placements in the open specimens differed by 2.5 ± 0.9 mm and 2.9 ± 0.7 mm from preoperative centers identified on MRI. Postoperative femoral and tibial tunnel centers in the arthroscopic specimens differed by 3.2 ± 0.9 mm and 2.9 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that MRI-based 3D localization of the ACL and our virtual arthroscopic modeling program is feasible and does not show a statistically significant difference to an open arthrotomy approach

  3. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  4. A thermodynamic and mechanical model for formation of the Solar System via 3-dimensional collapse of the dusty pre-solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    The fundamental and shared rotational characteristics of the Solar System (nearly circular, co-planar orbits and mostly upright axial spins of the planets) record conditions of origin, yet are not explained by prevailing 2-dimensional disk models. Current planetary spin and orbital rotational energies (R.E.) each nearly equal and linearly depend on gravitational self-potential of formation (Ug), revealing mechanical energy conservation. We derive -ΔUg≅Δ.R.E. and stability criteria from thermodynamic principles, and parlay these relationships into a detailed model of simultaneous accretion of the protoSun and planets from the dust-bearing 3-d pre-solar nebula (PSN). Gravitational heating is insignificant because Ug is negative, the 2nd law of thermodynamics must be fulfilled, and ideal gas conditions pertain to the rarified PSN until the objects were nearly fully formed. Combined conservation of angular momentum and mechanical energy during 3-dimensional collapse of spheroidal dust shells in a contracting nebula provides ΔR.E.≅R.E. for the central body, whereas for formation of orbiting bodies, ΔR.E.≅R.E.f(1-If/Ii), where I is the moment of inertia. Orbital data for the inner planets follow 0.04×R.E.f≅-Ug which confirms conservation of angular momentum. Significant loss of spin, attributed to viscous dissipation during differential rotation, masks the initial spin of the un-ignited protoSun predicted by R.E.=-Ug. Heat production occurs after nearly final sizes are reached via mechanisms such as shear during differential rotation and radioactivity. We focus on the dilute stage, showing that the PSN was compositionally graded due to light molecules diffusing preferentially, providing the observed planetary chemistry, and set limits on PSN mass, density, and temperature. From measured planetary masses and orbital characteristics, accounting for dissipation of spin, we deduce mechanisms and the sequence of converting a 3-d dusty cloud to the present 2-d

  5. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  6. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT (EPA/600/SR-98/159)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able ...

  7. Utility of a 3-dimensional full-scale NaCl model for rib strut grafting for anterior fusion for cervicothoracic kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Muramoto, Akio; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Yagi, Hideki; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In severe spinal deformity, pain and neurological disorder may be caused by spinal cord compression. Surgery for spinal reconstruction is desirable, but may be difficult in a case with severe deformity. Here, we show the utility of a 3D NaCl (salt) model in preoperative planning of anterior reconstruction using a rib strut in a 49-year-old male patient with cervicothoracic degenerative spondylosis. We performed surgery in two stages: a posterior approach with decompression and posterior instrumentation with a pedicle screw; followed by a second operation using an anterior approach, for which we created a 3D NaCl model including the cervicothoracic lesion, spinal deformity, and ribs for anterior reconstruction. The 3D NaCl model was easily scraped compared with a conventional plaster model and was useful for planning of resection and identification of a suitable rib for grafting in a preoperative simulation. Surgery was performed successfully with reference to the 3D NaCl model. We conclude that preoperative simulation with a 3D NaCl model contributes to performance of anterior reconstruction using a rib strut in a case of cervicothoracic deformity. PMID:26412901

  8. A 3-dimensional trimeric β-barrel model for Chlamydia MOMP contains conserved and novel elements of Gram-negative bacterial porins.

    PubMed

    Feher, Victoria A; Randall, Arlo; Baldi, Pierre; Bush, Robin M; de la Maza, Luis M; Amaro, Rommie E

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Global control of Chlamydia will best be achieved with a vaccine, a primary target for which is the major outer membrane protein, MOMP, which comprises ~60% of the outer membrane protein mass of this bacterium. In the absence of experimental structural information on MOMP, three previously published topology models presumed a16-stranded barrel architecture. Here, we use the latest β-barrel prediction algorithms, previous 2D topology modeling results, and comparative modeling methodology to build a 3D model based on the 16-stranded, trimeric assumption. We find that while a 3D MOMP model captures many structural hallmarks of a trimeric 16-stranded β-barrel porin, and is consistent with most of the experimental evidence for MOMP, MOMP residues 320-334 cannot be modeled as β-strands that span the entire membrane, as is consistently observed in published 16-stranded β-barrel crystal structures. Given the ambiguous results for β-strand delineation found in this study, recent publications of membrane β-barrel structures breaking with the canonical rule for an even number of β-strands, findings of β-barrels with strand-exchanged oligomeric conformations, and alternate folds dependent upon the lifecycle of the bacterium, we suggest that although the MOMP porin structure incorporates canonical 16-stranded conformations, it may have novel oligomeric or dynamic structural changes accounting for the discrepancies observed.

  9. A 3-dimensional micro- and nanoparticle transport and filtration model (MNM3D) applied to the migration of carbon-based nanomaterials in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Carlo; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2016-10-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment can act both as contaminants, when they are unintentionally released, and as remediation agents when injected on purpose at contaminated sites. In this work two carbon-based NPs are considered, namely CARBO-IRON®, a new material developed for contaminated site remediation, and single layer graphene oxide (SLGO), a potential contaminant of the next future. Understanding and modeling the transport and deposition of such NPs in aquifer systems is a key aspect in both cases, and numerical models capable to simulate NP transport in groundwater in complex 3D scenarios are necessary. To this aim, this work proposes a modeling approach based on modified advection-dispersion-deposition equations accounting for the coupled influence of flow velocity and ionic strength on particle transport. A new modeling tool (MNM3D - Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries) is presented for the simulation of NPs injection and transport in 3D scenarios. MNM3D is the result of the integration of the numerical code MNMs (Micro and Nanoparticle transport, filtration and clogging Model - Suite) in the well-known transport model RT3D (Clement et al., 1998). The injection in field-like conditions of CARBO-IRON® (20 g/l) amended by CMC (4 g/l) in a 2D vertical tank (0.7 × 1.0 × 0.12 m) was simulated using MNM3D, and compared to experimental results under the same conditions. Column transport tests of SLGO at a concentration (10 mg/l) representative of a possible spill of SLGO-containing waste water were performed at different values of ionic strength (0.1 to 35 mM), evidencing a strong dependence of SLGO transport on IS, and a reversible blocking deposition. The experimental data were fitted using the numerical code MNMs and the ionic strength-dependent transport was up-scaled for a full scale 3D simulation of SLGO release and long-term transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. MNM3D showed to potentially represent a valid tool for

  10. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  11. The Spatiotemporal Stability of Dominant Frequency Sites in In-Silico Modeling of 3-Dimensional Left Atrial Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported that stable rotors were observed in in-silico human atrial fibrillation (AF) models, and were well represented by dominant frequency (DF). We explored the spatiotemporal stability of DF sites in 3D-AF models imported from patient CT images of the left atrium (LA). Methods We integrated 3-D CT images of the LA obtained from ten patients with persistent AF (male 80%, 61.8 ± 13.5 years old) into an in-silico AF model. After induction, we obtained 6 seconds of AF simulation data for DF analyses in 30 second intervals (T1–T9). The LA was divided into ten sections. Spatiotemporal changes and variations in the temporal consistency of DF were evaluated at each section of the LA. The high DF area was defined as the area with the highest 10% DF. Results 1. There was no spatial consistency in the high DF distribution at each LA section during T1–T9 except in one patient (p = 0.027). 2. Coefficients of variation for the high DF area were highly different among the ten LA sections (p < 0.001), and they were significantly higher in the four pulmonary vein (PV) areas, the LA appendage, and the peri-mitral area than in the other LA sections (p < 0.001). 3. When we conducted virtual ablation of 10%, 15%, and 20% of the highest DF areas (n = 270 cases), AF was changed to atrial tachycardia (AT) or terminated at a rate of 40%, 57%, and 76%, respectively. Conclusions Spatiotemporal consistency of the DF area was observed in 10% of AF patients, and high DF areas were temporally variable. Virtual ablation of DF is moderately effective in AF termination and AF changing into AT. PMID:27459377

  12. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  13. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  14. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  15. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  16. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  17. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  18. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  19. On the higher-spin spectrum in large N Chern-Simons vector models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giombi, S.; Gurucharan, V.; Kirilin, V.; Prakash, S.; Skvortsov, E.

    2017-01-01

    Chern-Simons gauge theories coupled to massless fundamental scalars or fermions define interesting non-supersymmetric 3d CFTs that possess approximate higher-spin symmetries at large N . In this paper, we compute the scaling dimensions of the higher-spin operators in these models, to leading order in the 1 /N expansion and exactly in the 't Hooft coupling. We obtain these results in two independent ways: by using conformal symmetry and the classical equations of motion to fix the structure of the current non-conservation, and by a direct Feynman diagram calculation. The full dependence on the 't Hooft coupling can be restored by using results that follow from the weakly broken higher-spin symmetry. This analysis also allows us to obtain some explicit results for the non-conserved, parity-breaking structures that appear in planar three-point functions of the higher-spin operators. At large spin, we find that the anomalous dimensions grow logarithmically with the spin, in agreement with general expectations. This logarithmic behavior disappears in the strong coupling limit, where the anomalous dimensions turn into those of the critical O( N ) or Gross-Neveu models, in agreement with the conjectured 3d bosonization duality.

  20. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  1. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  2. Transverse Instability of Line Solitary Waves in Massive Dirac Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry; Shimabukuro, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Working in the context of localized modes in periodic potentials, we consider two systems of the massive Dirac equations in two spatial dimensions. The first system, a generalized massive Thirring model, is derived for the periodic stripe potentials. The second one, a generalized massive Gross-Neveu equation, is derived for the hexagonal potentials. In both cases, we prove analytically that the line solitary waves are spectrally unstable with respect to periodic transverse perturbations of large periods. The spectral instability is induced by the spatial translation for the generalized massive Thirring model and by the gauge rotation for the generalized massive Gross-Neveu model. We also observe numerically that the spectral instability holds for the transverse perturbations of any period in the generalized massive Thirring model and exhibits a finite threshold on the period of the transverse perturbations in the generalized massive Gross-Neveu model.

  3. Invasive 3-Dimensional Organotypic Neoplasia from Multiple Normal Human Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ridky, Todd W.; Chow, Jennifer M.; Wong, David J.; Khavari, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Refined cancer models are required to assess the burgeoning number of potential targets for cancer therapeutics within a rapid and clinically relevant context. Here we utilize tumor-associated genetic pathways to transform primary human epithelial cells from epidermis, oropharynx, esophagus, and cervix into genetically defined tumors within a human 3-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment incorporating cell-populated stroma and intact basement membrane. These engineered organotypic tissues recapitulated natural features of tumor progression, including epithelial invasion through basement membrane, a complex process critically required for biologic malignancy in 90% of human cancers. Invasion was rapid, and potentiated by stromal cells. Oncogenic signals in 3-D tissue, but not 2-D culture, resembled gene expression profiles from spontaneous human cancers. Screening well-characterized signaling pathway inhibitors in 3-D organotypic neoplasia helped distil a clinically faithful cancer gene signature. Multi-tissue 3-D human tissue cancer models may provide an efficient and relevant complement to current approaches to characterize cancer progression. PMID:21102459

  4. A Seafloor Benchmark for 3-dimensional Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Webb, S. C.; Nooner, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an inexpensive, permanent seafloor benchmark to increase the longevity of seafloor geodetic measurements. The benchmark provides a physical tie to the sea floor lasting for decades (perhaps longer) on which geodetic sensors can be repeatedly placed and removed with millimeter resolution. Global coordinates estimated with seafloor geodetic techniques will remain attached to the benchmark allowing for the interchange of sensors as they fail or become obsolete, or for the sensors to be removed and used elsewhere, all the while maintaining a coherent series of positions referenced to the benchmark. The benchmark has been designed to free fall from the sea surface with transponders attached. The transponder can be recalled via an acoustic command sent from the surface to release from the benchmark and freely float to the sea surface for recovery. The duration of the sensor attachment to the benchmark will last from a few days to a few years depending on the specific needs of the experiment. The recovered sensors are then available to be reused at other locations, or again at the same site in the future. Three pins on the sensor frame mate precisely and unambiguously with three grooves on the benchmark. To reoccupy a benchmark a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) uses its manipulator arm to place the sensor pins into the benchmark grooves. In June 2014 we deployed four benchmarks offshore central Oregon. We used the ROV Jason to successfully demonstrate the removal and replacement of packages onto the benchmark. We will show the benchmark design and its operational capabilities. Presently models of megathrust slip within the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) are mostly constrained by the sub-aerial GPS vectors from the Plate Boundary Observatory, a part of Earthscope. More long-lived seafloor geodetic measures are needed to better understand the earthquake and tsunami risk associated with a large rupture of the thrust fault within the Cascadia subduction zone

  5. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  6. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  7. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  8. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, A.; Bochud, F.; Moeckli, R.

    2014-08-01

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  9. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maria P.; Kondapalli, Lavanya; Parsa, Cyrus; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Orlando, Robert; Pon, Doreen; Huang, Ying; Chow, Moses S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD) at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1), protective genes (EGFR and PPARD), and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors. PMID:25705238

  10. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  11. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  12. 3-Dimensional modeling of protein structures distinguishes closely related phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas (formerly mycoplasmalike organisms, MLOs) are cell wall-less bacteria that inhabit phloem tissue of plants and are transmitted from plant-to-plant by phloem-feeding insects. Numerous diseases affecting hundreds of plant species in many botanical families are attributed to infections by...

  13. 3-dimensional electronic structures of CaC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Junsung; Kim, Yeongwook; Kim, Keunsu; Rotenberg, Eli; Kim, Changyoung; Postech Collaboration; Advanced Light Source Collaboration; Yonsei University Team

    2014-03-01

    There is still remaining issues on origin of superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds, especially CaC6 because of its relatively high transition temperature than other GICs. There are two competing theories on where the superconductivity occurs in this material; intercalant metal or charge doped graphene layer. To elucidate this issue, it is necessary to confirm existence of intercalant driven band. Therefore, we performed 3 dimensional electronic structure studies with ARPES to find out 3d dispersive intercalant band. However, we could not observe it, instead observed 3d dispersive carbon band. This support the aspect of charge doped graphene superconductivity more than intercalant driving aspect.

  14. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  16. Scientific visualization of 3-dimensional optimized stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The design techniques and physics analysis of modern stellarator configurations for magnetic fusion research rely heavily on high performance computing and simulation. Stellarators, which are fundamentally 3-dimensional in nature, offer significantly more design flexibility than more symmetric devices such as the tokamak. By varying the outer boundary shape of the plasma, a variety of physics features, such as transport, stability, and heating efficiency can be optimized. Scientific visualization techniques are an important adjunct to this effort as they provide a necessary ergonomic link between the numerical results and the intuition of the human researcher. The authors have developed a variety of visualization techniques for stellarators which both facilitate the design optimization process and allow the physics simulations to be more readily understood.

  17. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  18. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  19. The first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions.

    PubMed

    Piedra-Garza, Luis Fernando; Reinoso, Santiago; Dickman, Michael H; Sanguineti, Michael M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2009-08-21

    Reaction of the (CH(3))(2)Sn(2+) electrophile toward trilacunary [A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)](n-) Keggin polytungstates (X = P(V), As(V), Si(IV)) with guanidinium as templating-cation resulted in the isostructural compounds Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-PW(9)O(34))] x 9 H(2)O (1), Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-AsW(9)O(34))] x 8 H(2)O (2) and Na(2)[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-SiW(9)O(34))] x 10 H(2)O (3). Compounds 1-3 constitute the first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions, as well as the first example of a dimethyltin-containing tungstosilicate in the case of 3, and they show a similar chiral architecture based on tetrahedrally-arranged {(CH(3))(2)Sn}(3)(A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)) monomeric building-blocks connected via intermolecular Sn-O=W bridges regardless of the size and/or charge of the heteroatom.

  20. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  1. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  2. In vitro measurement of muscle volume with 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Walker, F; Caress, J; Hunt, C; Tegeler, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of muscle volume measurements with a new 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system, which allows a freehand scanning of the transducer with an improved quality of the ultrasound images and therefore the outlines of the muscles. Five resected cadaveric hand muscles were insonated and the muscle volumes calculated by 3-D reconstructions of the acquired 2-D ultrasound sections. Intra-reader, inter-reader and follow-up variability were calculated, as well as the volume of the muscle tissue measured by water displacement. In the results, 3-D ultrasound and water displacement measurements showed an average deviation of 10.1%; Data of 3-D ultrasound measurements were: intra-reader variability 2.8%; inter-reader variability 2.4% and follow-up variability 2.3%. 3-D measurements of muscle volume are valid and reliable. Serial sonographic measurements of muscle may be able to quantitate changes in muscle volume that occur in disease and recovery.

  3. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  4. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2006-09-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can organize into a prevascular network in vitro. When cultured in a spheroid coculture model with human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) form a 3-dimensional prevascular network within 10 days of in vitro culture. The formation of the prevascular network was promoted by seeding 2% or fewer HUVECs. Moreover, the addition of endothelial cells resulted in a 4-fold upregulation of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. The addition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not result in stabilization of the prevascular network. Upon implantation, the prevascular network developed further and structures including lumen could be seen regularly. However, anastomosis with the host vasculature was limited. We conclude that endothelial cells are able to form a 3-dimensional (3D) prevascular network in vitro in a bone tissue engineering setting. This finding is a strong indication that in vitro prevascularization is a promising strategy to improve implant vascularization in bone tissue engineering.

  5. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes. A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, “Stiff Rim” was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of “Crater Sign” and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US. In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with “Crater Sign” in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  6. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A

    2008-08-01

    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  7. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  8. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  9. A 3-dimensional theory of free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.D.; Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    In this paper, we present an analytical three-dimensional theory of free electron lasers. Under several assumptions, we arrive at an integral equation similar to earlier work carried out by Ching, Kim and Xie, but using a formulation better suited for the initial value problem of Coherent Electron Cooling. We use this model in later papers to obtain analytical results for gain guiding, as well as to develop a complete model of Coherent Electron Cooling.

  10. The distribution of particles in the plane dispersed by a simple 3-dimensional diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, Anders

    2002-11-01

    Populations of particles dispersed in the 2-dimensional plane from a single point-source may be grouped as focus expansion patterns, with an exponentially decreasing density, and more diffuse patterns with thicker tails. Exponentially decreasing distributions are often modelled as the result of 2-dimensional diffusion processes acting to disperse the particles, while thick-tailed distributions tend to be modelled by purely descriptive distributions. Models based on the Cauchy distribution have been suggested, but these have not been related to diffusion modelling. However, the distribution of particles dispersed from a point source by a 3-dimensional Brownian motion that incorporates a constant drift, under the condition that the particle starts at a given height and is stopped when it reaches the xy plane (zero height) may be shown to result in both slim-tailed exponentially decreasing densities, and thick-tailed polynomially decreasing densities with infinite mean travel distance from the source, depending on parameter values. The drift in the third coordinate represents gravitation, while the drift in the first and second represents a (constant) wind. Conditions for the density having exponentially decreasing tails is derived in terms of gravitation and wind, with a special emphasis on applications to light-weighted particles such as fungal spores.

  11. 3-Dimensional Immersive Visualization For Regional Water Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, J.; Razdan, A.; Shangraw, R.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2005-12-01

    As the population in the southwestern US grows, water planning requires increasingly creative solutions to manage valuable water resources at the local and regional level. The East Valley Water Forum (EVWF) is a regional cooperative of water providers east of Phoenix, Arizona, designing their water management plan for the next 25 years. Water resources in this region come from the Colorado River, the Salt River Project, groundwater, and other local and regional sources which provide resources that are subject to climatic variability. In order to best understand the physical and political relationships between water resources and their management, the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) analyzes hydrologic data in the region using USGS's MODFLOW software, which computes the status of groundwater resources in the region. However, in order to improve policy decision making using MODFLOW outputs, a comprehensive scientific understanding of the inputs, outputs and their uncertainties is needed. These uncertainties include intrinsic hydrologic uncertainty as well uncertainties in external controls such as drought and urban growth. The Decision Theater (DT) is a new facility at Arizona State University (ASU) that specializes in high resolution 3D immersive visualization of scientific data and models. The facility includes a room with a seven-paneled screen surrounding the viewers by 260 degrees for an immersive experience. It is an innovative tool for visualization of datasets from disparate sources for synthesis of complex spatial problems, and its staff is collaborating with the EVWF and the Bureau of Reclamation to better visualize their modeled water supply and demand scenarios under various drought conditions. The space provides a neutral setting for a workflow of data and model integration in which groups can iteratively assess, interact with, and gain intuition about the relevant data and models. This data integration results in visualizations that

  12. Magnetic flux ropes in 3-dimensional MHD simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogino, Tatsuki; Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere is presently simulated by a 3D, time-dependent, global MHD method in order to model the magnetopause and magnetotail generation of magnetic flux ropes. It is noted that strongly twisted and localized magnetic flux tubes simular to magnetic flux ropes appear at the subpolar magnetopause when the IMF has a large azimuthal component, as well as a southward component. Plasmoids are generated in the magnetotail after the formation of a near-earth magnetic neutral line; the magnetic field lines have a helical structure that is connected from dawn to dusk.

  13. Interfacial magnetic anisotropy from a 3-dimensional Rashba substrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwen; Haney, Paul M

    2016-07-18

    We study the magnetic anisotropy which arises at the interface between a thin film ferromagnet and a 3-d Rashba material. We use a tight-binding model to describe the bilayer, and the 3-d Rashba material characterized by the spin-orbit strength α and the direction of broken bulk inversion symmetry n̂. We find an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy in the ẑ × n̂ direction, where ẑ is the interface normal. For realistic values of α, the uniaxial anisotropy is of a similar order of magnitude as the bulk magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Evaluating the uniaxial anisotropy for a simplified model in 1-d shows that for small band filling, the in-plane easy axis anisotropy scales as α(4) and results from a twisted exchange interaction between the spins in the 3-d Rashba material and the ferromagnet. For a ferroelectric 3-d Rashba material, n̂ can be controlled with an electric field, and we propose that the interfacial magnetic anisotropy could provide a mechanism for electrical control of the magnetic orientation.

  14. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

  15. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  16. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf , Muhammad N.

    2016-01-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity. PMID:28008983

  17. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  18. MAPAG: a computer program to construct 2- and 3-dimensional antigenic maps.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, R C; Retegui, L A; Roguin, L P

    1994-01-01

    The contact area between an antibody (Ab) and the antigen (Ag) is called antigenic determinant or epitope. The first step in the characterization of an Ag by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is to map the relative distribution of the corresponding epitopes on the Ag surface. The computer program MAPAG has been devised to automatically construct antigenic maps. MAPAG is fed with a binary matrix of experimental data indicating the ability of paired MAb to bind or not simultaneously to the Ag. The program is interactive menu-driven and allows the user an easy data handling. MAPAG utilizes iterative processes to construct and to adjust the final map, which is graphically shown as a 2- or a 3-dimensional model. Additionally, the antigenic map obtained can be optionally modified by the user or readjusted by the program. The suitability of MAPAG was illustrated by running experimental data from literature and comparing antigenic maps constructed by the program with those elaborated by the investigators without the assistance of a computer. Furthermore, since some MAb could present negative allosteric effects leading to misinterpretation of data, MAPAG has been provided with an approximate reasoning module to solve such anomalous situations. Results indicated that the program can be successfully employed as a simple, fast and reliable antigenic model-builder.

  19. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2016-12-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity.

  20. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics. PMID:28105122

  1. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics.

  2. Preoperative 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Myoma and Endometrium Before Myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sa Ra; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kang, Byung Chul

    2017-02-01

    Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which, in turn, can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies. Current conventional 2-dimensional imaging has limitations in identifying precise locations of multiple myomas and the endometrium. In our experience, we preferred to use 3-dimensional imaging to delineate the myomas, endometrium, or blood vessels, which we were able to successfully reconstruct by using the following imaging method. To achieve 3-dimensional imaging, we matched T2 turbo spin echo images to detect uterine myomas and endometria with T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation-post images used to detect blood vessels by using an algorithm based on the 3-dimensional region growing method. Then, we produced images of the uterine myomas, endometria, and blood vessels using a 3-dimensional surface rendering method and successfully reconstructed selective 3-dimensional imaging for uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent blood vessels. A Web-based survey was sent to 66 gynecologists concerning imaging techniques used before myomectomy. Twenty-eight of 36 responding gynecologists answered that the 3-dimensional image produced in the current study is preferred to conventional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in identifying precise locations of uterine myomas and endometria. The proposed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method successfully reconstructed uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent vessels. We propose that this will be a helpful adjunct to uterine myomectomy as a preoperative imaging technique in future

  3. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  4. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  5. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering for fabricating 3-dimensional heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In addition to stem cell biology, tissue engineering is an essential research field for regenerative medicine. In contrast to cell injection, bioengineered tissue transplantation minimizes cell loss and has the potential to repair tissue defects. A popular approach is scaffold-based tissue engineering, which utilizes a biodegradable polymer scaffold for seeding cells; however, new techniques of cell sheet-based tissue engineering have been developed. Cell sheets are harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes by simply lowering the temperature. Monolayer or stacked cell sheets are transplantable directly onto damaged tissues and cell sheet transplantation has already been clinically applied. Cardiac cell sheet stacking produces pulsatile heart tissue; however, lack of vasculature limits the viable tissue thickness to 3 layers. Multistep transplantation of triple-layer cardiac cell sheets cocultured with endothelial cells has been used to form thick vascularized cardiac tissue in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro functional blood vessel formation within 3-dimensional (3D) tissues has been realized by successfully imitating in vivo conditions. Triple-layer cardiac cell sheets containing endothelial cells were layered on vascular beds and the constructs were media-perfused using novel bioreactor systems. Interestingly, cocultured endothelial cells migrate into the vascular beds and form perfusable blood vessels. An in vitro multistep procedure has also enabled the fabrication of thick, vascularized heart tissues. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering has revealed great potential to fabricate 3D cardiac tissues and should contribute to future treatment of severe heart diseases and human tissue model production.

  6. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Michael G; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L S

    2014-10-28

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity. Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-20mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30mol% DOTAP and ≤10mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposome size increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomes suggests concentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135nm diameter, -49 to +44mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoral subcompartments within spheroids.

  7. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  8. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  9. Quantum Algorithms for Fermionic Quantum Field Theories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-28

    a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The algorithm introduces new techniques to meet the additional challenges posed by...in fermionic field theories, exemplified by the massive Gross- Neveu model, a theory in two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. The...two spacetime dimensions with quartic interactions. Although our analysis is specific to this theory, our algorithm can be adapted to other massive

  10. On the disorder-driven quantum transition in three-dimensional relativistic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louvet, T.; Carpentier, D.; Fedorenko, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Weyl semimetals are topologically protected from a gap opening against weak disorder in three dimensions. However, a strong disorder drives this relativistic semimetal through a quantum transition towards a diffusive metallic phase characterized by a finite density of states at the band crossing. This transition is usually described by a perturbative renormalization group in d =2 +ɛ of a U (N ) Gross-Neveu model in the limit N →0 . Unfortunately, this model is not multiplicatively renormalizable in 2 +ɛ dimensions: An infinite number of relevant operators are required to describe the critical behavior. Hence its use in a quantitative description of the transition beyond one loop is at least questionable. We propose an alternative route, building on the correspondence between the Gross-Neveu and Gross-Neveu-Yukawa models developed in the context of high-energy physics. It results in a model of Weyl fermions with a random non-Gaussian imaginary potential which allows one to study the critical properties of the transition within a d =4 -ɛ expansion. We also discuss the characterization of the transition by the multifractal spectrum of wave functions.

  11. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency.

  12. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  13. LADCP Observations of the 3-Dimensional Velocity Field Associated with Internal Waves and Boundary-Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurnherr, A.; St Laurent, L.; Jacobs, S. S.; Kanzow, T.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ledwell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    While low-frequency processes in the ocean are primarily associated with (quasi-)horizontal, i.e. 2-dimensional, flows energetic high-frequency finescale processes, such as internal waves, hydraulic and other boundary-layer currents, are much more 3-dimensional. Due to recent advances in LADCP processing, it is now possible to derive full-depth snapshots of the 3-dimensional velocity field from standard CTD/LADCP casts. Applying the new method to data obtained in energetic regions of the ocean reveals velocity fields associated with vertical speeds ranging from a few cm/s to more than 20cm/s. Outside boundary layers, the vertical velocities are dominated by high-frequency (near-N) internal waves associated with small horizontal scales and the shapes of the corresponding vertical-velocity spectra in the finescale band are consistent with the Garrett-Munk model. In individual data sets the vertical-velocity spectral levels are correlated with coincident dissipation measurements derived from velocity microstructure, suggesting that a new finescale parameterization method for oceanic turbulence and diapycnal mixing based on LADCP-derived vertical velocities is possible. Near boundaries, there is evidence for large vertical velocities associated not just with waves, but also with seawater upwelling from beneath a fast-melting Antarctic ice shelf, with hydraulic overflow processes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and even with very large "overturns" over the flank of a ridge in Luzon strait.;

  14. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although there…

  15. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  16. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  17. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  18. Fast Apriori-based Graph Mining Algorithm and application to 3-dimensional Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshio; Washio, Takashi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Motoda, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi

    Apriori-based Graph Mining (AGM) algorithm efficiently extracts all the subgraph patterns which frequently appear in graph structured data. The algorithm can deal with general graph structured data with multiple labels of vartices and edges, and is capable of analyzing the topological structure of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze graph structured data for a 3-dimensional coordinate by AGM. In this method the distance between each vertex of a graph is calculated and added to the edge label so that AGM can handle 3-dimensional graph structured data. One problem in our approach is that the number of edge labels increases, which results in the increase of computational time to extract subgraph patterns. To alleviate this problem, we also propose a faster algorithm of AGM by adding an extra constraint to reduce the number of generated candidates for seeking frequent subgraphs. Chemical compounds with dopamine antagonist in MDDR database were analyzed by AGM to characterize their 3-dimensional chemical structure and correlation with physiological activity.

  19. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  20. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  1. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  2. Airway Wall Area Derived from 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis Differs among Lung Lobes in Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tho, Nguyen Van; Trang, Le Thi Huyen; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Emiko; Ryujin, Yasushi; Kanda, Rie; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Goto, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Kentaro; Higami, Yuichi; Seto, Ruriko; Nagao, Taishi; Oguma, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lan, Le Thi Tuyet; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background It is time-consuming to obtain the square root of airway wall area of the hypothetical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (√Aaw at Pi10), a comparable index of airway dimensions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), from all airways of the whole lungs using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis. We hypothesized that √Aaw at Pi10 differs among the five lung lobes and √Aaw at Pi10 derived from one certain lung lobe has a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs in smokers. Methods Pulmonary function tests and chest volumetric CTs were performed in 157 male smokers (102 COPD, 55 non-COPD). All visible bronchial segments from the 3rd to 5th generations were segmented and measured using commercially available 3-dimensional CT analysis software. √Aaw at Pi10 of each lung lobe was estimated from all measurable bronchial segments of that lobe. Results Using a mixed-effects model, √Aaw at Pi10 differed significantly among the five lung lobes (R2 = 0.78, P<0.0001). The Bland-Altman plots show that √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left upper lobe had a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs, while √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left lower lobe did not. Conclusion In male smokers, CT-derived airway wall area differs among the five lung lobes, and airway wall area derived from the right or left upper lobe is representative of the whole lungs. PMID:24865661

  3. Preliminary 3-Dimensional Geologic Map of the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, C. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Valin, Z. C.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Langenheim, V. E.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have constructed a preliminary 3-dimensional geologic map of the Santa Rosa Plain as a tool to address earthquake hazard and groundwater issues. The map allows integration of diverse datasets to produce a stratigraphic and structural architecture for the region. This framework can then be used to predict pathways of ground water flow and potential areas of enhanced or focused seismic shaking beneath the Santa Rosa Plain. The 3D map also allows us to identify relations which will require further refinement to develop a coherent 3D image of the crust. The 3D map, built using EarthVision 3D geologic mapping software, consists of three bounding components: fault surfaces, stratigraphic surfaces, and a basement upper surface. Fault surfaces are derived from geologic mapping, subsurface projection of fault dips from the surface geology and earthquake hypocenters. Stratigraphic surfaces are derived from the mapped geology, a digital elevation model and stratigraphic information from wells. A basement surface, predominantly composed of Mesozoic rocks of the Franciscan Complex, the mafic Coast Range Ophiolite and strata of the Great Valley Sequence, is derived from inversion of regional gravity measurements and constrained by well data. The preliminary 3D map of the Santa Rosa Plain area highlights two large basins (>2 km deep): the Windsor and Cotati basins. These basins are divided by a structural high associated with the W-NW-trending, NE-dipping Trenton thrust fault. The Cotati basin is further subdivided by a deeper basement ridge subparallel to the Trenton fault, which separates the basin beneath Cotati from the basin of Petaluma Valley to the southeast. Neither of the basement ridges breaks the surface, yet faults associated with the ridges could displace or truncate aquifers, provide channelways for groundwater flow between aquifers, or create zones of impermeability that disrupt the vertical and lateral continuity of groundwater flow. The complex configuration

  4. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  5. Introducing a well-ordered volume porosity in 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayela, Cédric; Lalo, Hélène; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present work is the introduction of a combined bottom-up and top-down approach to generate 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers, where the porosity in the volume of the free-standing microstructure is well-controlled. By combining the elaboration of a colloidal crystal, followed by electrodeposition, with a sacrificial layer process, free-standing macroporous gold cantilevers are fabricated collectively. In order to validate the proposed concept, a simple application to humidity sensing is evaluated using the devices as mass sensors. A large sensitivity of -529 ppm/%RH and low discrepancy are obtained experimentally, confirming the promising application potential of this original architecture.

  6. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  7. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  8. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  9. Grain boundary segregation in boron added interstitial free steels studied by 3-dimensional atom probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, K.; Larson, D.J.; Warren, P.J.; Smith, G.D.W.

    1999-04-09

    The development of deep-drawable sheet steels is of particular significance for the automotive industry. Titanium and/or niobium added extra-low carbon interstitial free (IF) steels are key materials. The virtually complete removal of carbon and nitrogen should lead to superior forming properties. However, the lack of solute carbon at grain boundaries significantly decreases the bonding force at the interfaces, which often causes intergranular brittle fracture when deeply drawn steel sheets are subjected to impact deformation at low temperature. This phenomenon is called secondary working embrittlement (SWE), and is a major problem when solute atoms such as phosphorus, manganese or silicon are added to increase the tensile strength of the steels. Small amounts of boron, which does not affect the formability of the steels significantly, are usually added as a remedial measure in such cases. The 3-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) combined with field ion microscopy (FIM) has the ability to produce 3-dimensional images from regions approximately 20nm*20nm*100nm in size, and identify each atomic species and the relative location of each atom with nearly lattice resolution. In this study, a combination of these methods was applied to produce FIM tips of IF steel containing grain boundaries. The authors report here the first observations of the segregation of boron in IF steels using 3DAP.

  10. Automated 3-Dimensional Brain Atlas Fitting to Microelectrode Recordings from Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Luján, J. Luis; Noecker, Angela M.; Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries commonly rely on brain atlases and microelectrode recordings (MER) to help identify the target location for electrode implantation. We present an automated method for optimally fitting a 3-dimensional brain atlas to intraoperative MER and predicting a target DBS electrode location in stereotactic coordinates for the patient. Methods We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We used a constrained optimization algorithm to maximize the MER points correctly fitted (i.e., contained) within the appropriate atlas nuclei. We compared our optimization approach to conventional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC/PC) scaling, and to manual fits performed by four experts. A theoretical DBS electrode target location in the dorsal STN was customized to each patient as part of the fitting process and compared to the location of the clinically defined therapeutic stimulation contact. Results The human expert and computer optimization fits achieved significantly better fits than the AC/PC scaling (80, 81, and 41% of correctly fitted MER, respectively). However, the optimization fits were performed in less time than the expert fits and converged to a single solution for each patient, eliminating interexpert variance. Conclusions and Significance DBS therapeutic outcomes are directly related to electrode implantation accuracy. Our automated fitting techniques may aid in the surgical decision-making process by optimally integrating brain atlas and intraoperative neurophysiological data to provide a visual guide for target identification. PMID:19556832

  11. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XμCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-μCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XμCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  12. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  13. Prosthesis-guided implant restoration of an auricular defect using computed tomography and 3-dimensional photographic imaging technologies: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuming; Leng, Xu; Zheng, Yaqi; Zhang, Dapeng; Wu, Guofeng

    2015-02-01

    The concept of prosthesis-guided implantation has been widely accepted for intraoral implant placement, although clinicians do not fully appreciate its use for facial defect restoration. In this clinical report, multiple digital technologies were used to restore a facial defect with prosthesis-guided implantation. A simulation surgery was performed to remove the residual auricular tissue and to ensure the correct position of the mirrored contralateral ear model. The combined application of computed tomography and 3-dimensional photography preserved the position of the mirrored model and facilitated the definitive implant-retained auricular prosthesis.

  14. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous...major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid ...potassium hydroxide 60 – 250 50 PAFC Pure H2 Phosphoric Acid 180 - 210 40 MCFC H2, CH4, CH3OH Molten Alkali Carbonate 600 – 700 45-55

  15. Image analysis and superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Styner, Martin A.; Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques can provide valuable information to clinicians and researchers. But as we move from traditional 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric analysis to new 3D techniques, it is often necessary to compare 2D with 3D data. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides simulation tools that can help bridge the gap between image types. CBCT acquisitions can be made to simulate panoramic, lateral, and posteroanterior cephalometric radioagraphs so that they can be compared with preexisting cephalometric databases. Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics include initial diagnosis and superimpositions for assessing growth, treatment changes, and stability. Three-dimensional CBCT images show dental root inclination and torque, impacted and supernumerary tooth positions, thickness and morphology of bone at sites of mini-implants for anchorage, and osteotomy sites in surgical planning. Findings such as resorption, hyperplasic growth, displacement, shape anomalies of mandibular condyles, and morphological differences between the right and left sides emphasize the diagnostic value of computed tomography acquisitions. Furthermore, relationships of soft tissues and the airway can be assessed in 3 dimensions. PMID:16679201

  16. Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.

    1983-08-01

    As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions.

  17. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost.

  18. Reflection of solar wind protons on the Martian bow shock: Investigations by means of 3-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, E.; Chanteur, G. M.; Modolo, R.; Dubinin, E.

    2012-09-01

    The reflection of solar wind protons on the Martian bow shock (BS) is investigated by means of three-dimensional simulation models. A two steps approach is adopted to allow a detailed analysis of the reflected population. Firstly, the 3-dimensional hybrid model of Modolo et al. (2005) is used to compute a stationary state of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with Mars. Secondly, the motion of test particles is followed in the electromagnetic field computed by the hybrid simulation meanwhile detection criteria defined to identify reflected protons are applied. This study demonstrates some effects of the large curvature of a planetary BS on the structure of the foreshock. Reflected protons encounter the BS in a region encompassing parts of the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks, and exit the shock mainly from the quasi-parallel region. The energy spectrum of all reflected protons extends from 0 to almost 15keV. A virtual omnidirectional detector (VOD) is used to compute the local omnidirectional flux of reflected protons at various locations upstream of the BS. Spatial variations of this omnidirectional flux indicate the location and spatial extent of the proton foreshock and demonstrate its shift, increasing with the distance downstream, in the direction opposite to the motional electric field of the SW. Local energy spectra computed from the VOD observations demonstrate the existence of an energy gradient along the direction of the convection electric field.

  19. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Methods Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant

  20. 3-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Bearing of Nielsen Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shinji; Heya, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koji; Yoshikawa, Osamu

    In 1995, the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake caused a large amount of destruction and structural failures. One example, whose mechanism is not fully clear, is the fracture of a bridge bearing of a Nielsen type bridge that does not occur under the ordinary static or dynamic loading conditions. The fracture probably resulted from very high stress due to an unexpected dynamic mechanism. In this paper, the 3-dimensional dynamic behavior of a Nielsen type bridge was analyzed by assuming a collision between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing, which might have occurred in the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. The numerical results show that an impact due to a relative velocity of 5˜6m/s between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing generates a stress sufficient to cause a fracture in the upper bearing. The observed features of the actual fracture surface was also simulated fairly closely.

  1. Investigation of 3-dimensional structural morphology for enhancing light trapping with control of surface haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongsik; Shin, Myunghun; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Sunbo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kang, Junyoung; Kim, Yongjun; Pham, Duy Phong; Jung, Junhee; Yi, Junsin

    2017-04-01

    A comparative study of 3-dimensional textured glass morphologies with variable haze value and chemical texturing of the glass substrates was conducted to enhance light trapping in silicon (Si) thin film solar cells (TFSCs). The light trapping characteristics of periodic honeycomb structures show enhanced transmittance and haze ratio in numerical and experimental approaches. The periodic honeycomb structure of notched textures is better than a random or periodic carved structure. It has high transmittance of ∼95%, and haze ratio of ∼52.8%, and the haze property of the angular distribution function of transmittance shows wide scattering angles in the long wavelength region because of the wide spacing and aspect ratio of the texture. The numerical and experimental approaches of the 3-D texture structures in this work will be useful in developing high-performance Si TFSCs with light trapping.

  2. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  3. Experimental determination of thermal profiles during laser spike annealing with quantitative comparison to 3-dimensional simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Krishna; Jung, Byungki; Willemann, Michael; Thompson, Michael O.; Clancy, Paulette

    2012-05-21

    Thin film platinum resistors were used to directly measure temperature profiles during laser spike annealing (LSA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Observed resistance changes were calibrated to absolute temperatures using the melting points of the substrate silicon and thin gold films. Both the time-dependent temperature experienced by the sample during passage of the focussed laser beam and profiles across the spatially dependent laser intensity were obtained with sub-millisecond time resolution and 50 {mu}m spatial resolution. Full 3-dimensional simulations incorporating both optical and thermal variations of material parameters were compared with these results. Accounting properly for the specific material parameters, good agreement between experiments and simulations was achieved. Future temperature measurements in complex environments will permit critical evaluation of LSA simulations methodologies.

  4. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  5. Surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta from Dawn FC using a 3 dimensional spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangjam, G.; Nathues, A.; Mengel, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Mann, P.; Cloutis, E. A.; Behrens, H.; Platz, T.; Schäfer, T.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The historic journey of the Dawn spacecraft in 2011- 2012 was a turning point in understanding asteroid (4) Vesta. The surface composition and lithology were analysed and mapped in earlier studies using Dawn imageries [1], [2]. We introduce here a 3 dimensional spectral approach to analyze and map the surface composition using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Various laboratory spectra of available HEDs and their mixtures, including new spectra measured in this work, were used. Band parameters were reviewed and modified wherever necessary to make the best use of the data. We particularly focused on carbonaceous-chondrite-bearing and olivine-bearing lithologies. An attempt has been made to distinguish glass/impact-melt lithologies.

  6. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  7. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  8. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  9. Selection of massive bone allografts using shape-matching 3-dimensional registration

    PubMed Central

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Cartiaux, Olivier; Cornu, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Massive bone allografts are used when surgery causes large segmental defects. Shape-matching is the primary criterion for selection of an allograft. The current selection method, based on 2-dimensional template comparison, is inefficient for 3-dimensional complex bones. We have analyzed a 3-dimensional (3-D) registration method to match the anatomy of the allograft with that of the recipient. Methods 3-D CT-based registration was performed to match the shapes of both bones. We used the registration to align the allograft volume onto the recipient's bone. Hemipelvic allograft selection was tested in 10 virtual recipients with a panel of 10 potential allografts, including one from the recipient himself (trap graft). 4 observers were asked to visually inspect the superposition of allograft over the recipient, to classify the allografts into 4 categories according to the matching of anatomic zones, and to select the 3 best matching allografts. The results obtained using the registration method were compared with those from a previous study on the template method. Results Using the registration method, the observers systematically detected the trap graft. Selections of the 3 best matching allografts performed using registration and template methods were different. Selection of the 3 best matching allografts was improved by the registration method. Finally, reproducibility of the selection was improved when using the registration method. Interpretation 3-D CT registration provides more useful information than the template method but the final decision lies with the surgeon, who should select the optimal allograft according to his or her own preferences and the needs of the recipient. PMID:20175643

  10. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  11. Culture of murine aortic explants in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix: a novel, miniaturized assay of angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reed, May J; Karres, Nathan; Eyman, Daniel; Vernon, Robert B

    2007-05-01

    Assays of angiogenesis in vitro are critical to the study of vascular morphogenesis and to the evaluation of therapeutic compounds that promote or inhibit vascular growth. Culture of explanted aortic segments from rats or mice in a 3-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the most effective ways to generate capillary-like endothelial sprouts in vitro. We have modified the classic aortic explant model by placing the aortic segments from mice within small (5.6 mm diameter, 30 microl volume) lenticular hydrogels of type I collagen supported at the edge by nylon mesh rings. This method of culture, referred to as the "miniature ring-supported gel" (MRSG) assay, optimizes handling, cytological staining, and conventional imaging of the specimen and permits use of minimal volumes of reagents in a 96-well tissue culture format. We have used the MRSG assay to quantify the impaired angiogenic response of aged mice relative to young mice and to show that aged mice have significantly decreased sprout formation, but have similar levels of invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells into the supportive ECM. The MRSG assay, which combines low volume, physically robust gels in conjunction with mouse aortic segments, may prove to be a highly useful tool in studies of the process and control of vascular growth.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Beg, Muhammad S.; Das, Prajnan; Meyer, Jeffrey

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for anal cancer and determine disease, patient, and treatment parameters that influence the result. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision model was designed with the various disease states for the base case of a 65-year-old patient with anal cancer treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Health states accounting for rates of local failure, colostomy failure, treatment breaks, patient prognosis, acute and late toxicities, and the utility of toxicities were informed by existing literature and analyzed with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, mean costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) for IMRT and 3D-CRT were $32,291 (4.81) and $28,444 (4.78), respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $128,233/QALY for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that IMRT was cost-effective in 22%, 47%, and 65% of iterations at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions: In our base model, IMRT was a cost-ineffective strategy despite the reduced acute treatment toxicities and their associated costs of management. The model outcome was sensitive to variations in local and colostomy failure rates, as well as patient-reported utilities relating to acute toxicities.

  13. Effects of Non-Uniform Wall Heating on Thermal and Momentum Fields in a 3-Dimensional Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarian, N.; Kleissl, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization progresses, microclimate modifications are also aggravated and the increasing environmental concerns call for more sophisticated methods of urban microclimate analysis. Comprehensive numerical simulations for a clear summer day in southern California are performed in a compact low-rise urban environment. The effect of realistic unsteady, non-uniform thermal forcing, that is caused by solar insolation and inter-building shadowing on thermal and flow conditions are analyzed based on Algebraic Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The urban thermal field is influenced by urban density, material properties and local weather conditions, as well as urban canyon flow. Urban canyon conditions are translated into vertical and horizontal bulk Richardson numbers indicating atmospheric instability and solar tilt with respect to the momentum forcing of the canyon vortex, respectively. The effect of roof heating is found to be critical on the vortex formation between buildings when the vertical bulk Richardson number is low. Variations of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients (CHTCs) along building walls are studied and the street canyon ventilation performance is characterized by the mean of air exchange rate (ACH). It is found that volumetric air exchange from street canyons, as well as the distribution of heat transfer along the wall depends strongly on the three-dimensional orientation of the heated wall in relation to wind direction. For example, air removal increases by surface heating and is larger when the leeward wall is heated. In summary, we demonstrate the importance of considering complex realistic conditions on 3-dimensional thermal and momentum fields in Urban Environments.

  14. 3-dimensionally integrated photo-detector for neutrino physics and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retiere, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are a promising solution for the detection of scintillation light of liquid Xenon and Argon in applications requiring minimum radioactivity content such as neutrinoless double beta decay. The nEXO experiment in particular is planning to use SiPM planes covering 5 m2 for the detection of the light emitted within 5tons of liquid Xenon. The 3-dimensionally digital integrated SiPMs (3DdSiPMs) is an emerging technology that if successful would challenge the analog SiPM technology. Indeed, by combining separate photo-detector and electronics chips within a single package, 3DdSiPM achieve excellent performances for photon counting and time stamping, while dissipating minimum power. Being mostly based on high purity silicon chips, 3DdSiPMs are also expected to achieve excellent radiopurity.The development of 3DdSiPMs for applications in liquid Xenon is expected to progress rapidly by altering the design of the first successful chip assembly developed for medical imaging, focusing on minimizing power dissipation and large area (> cm2) scaling. In this talk we will describe the 3DdSiPM concept a solution for ``light to bit conversion'' within a single package and show how it may revolutionize light detection in noble-gas liquids and beyond.

  15. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  16. The Effect of Asymmetric flow on the 3-Dimensional Symmetric Bogus Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J.; Cheong, H.; Hwang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of asymmetric flow on the 3-dimensional symmetric bogus vortex called as Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV) is investigated for 9 tropical cyclones (TCs) observed in Northwest Pacific. NCEP global reanalysis data were used as initial condition, and the high order spectral filter (HSF) were employed to separate asymmetric flow from disturbance flow as following: The first step is that the global field is decomposed into environment and disturbance field. And secondly, the disturbance field is transformed into cylindrical coordinates, and the Fourier transform is applied to the transformed data along the azimuth. Lastly, the inverse Fourier transform is carried out except for wavenumber (WN) 0 component, and it is added to SABV. To investigate the effect of asymmetric flow on the SABV, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) V3.2.1 was employed, which was set to have a single domain with 12 km resolution and YSU, WSM 6 and Kain-Fritsch schemes are used. With these methods, it was found that the track error at 48 h and 72 h was improved by about 13% and 16%, respectively, implying the asymmetric flow should be added to SABV for better performance.

  17. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  18. Inter-surface interactions in a 3-dimensional topological insulator : Bi2Se3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hosub; Song, Jung-Hwan; Freeman, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    Recently much attention has focused on 3-dimensional strong topological insulators as a new quantum state of matter, such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. One of their intriguing features is a topologically protected surface state whose quasiparticle dispersion shows a Dirac cone. Due to lack of backscattering and robustness against disorder and interaction, surface states have the potential to be perfect conducting channels which carry not only charge but also spin currents. Here, we present a theoretical study of electronic structures and surfaces of thin film Bi2Se3 using the highly precise FLAPW methodfootnotetext Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24, 864 (1981). Our calculated results focus on the interaction between surface states on opposing sides of the slab. The gap opening from the inter-surface interaction can be easily explained by simple symmetry arguments considering both time-reversal and spatial inversion. For a 6 quintuple layer slab (˜6 nm), a 1.06 meV gap at the γ point survives due to the inter-surface interactions, and we discuss how to preserve the massless excitations despite this inter-surface interaction.

  19. Polarization-independent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by using 3-dimensional plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Ren, Xingang; Xin, Jianzhuo; Lin, Peng; Leung, Dennis C. W.

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic back reflectors have recently become a promising strategy for realizing efficient organic solar cell (OSCs). Since plasmonic effects are strongly sensitive to light polarization, it is highly desirable to simultaneously achieve polarization-independent response and enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) by designing the nanostructured geometry of plasmonic reflector electrode. Here, through a strategic analysis of 2-dimensional grating (2D) and 3-dimensional patterns (3D), with similar periodicity as a plasmonic back reflector, we find that the OSCs with 3D pattern achieve the best PCE enhancement by 24.6%, while the OSCs with 2D pattern can offer 17.5% PCE enhancement compared to the optimized control OSCs. Importantly, compared with the 2D pattern, the 3D pattern shows a polarization independent plasmonic response, which will greatly extend its uses in photovoltaic applications. This work shows the significances of carefully selecting and designing geometry of plasmonic nanostructures in achieving high-efficient, polarization-independent plasmonic OSCs.

  20. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  1. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  2. Cerebral Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revealed by 3-Dimensional Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee-Hong; Emery, Derek; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction. Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS. PMID:27064416

  3. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  4. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  5. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  6. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  7. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications.

  8. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  9. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  10. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  11. Technique for comprehensive head and neck irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Walter, Alexander S.; Hoene, Ted A.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the technical and logistical complexities of matching photon and proton treatment modalities, we developed and implemented a technique of comprehensive head and neck radiation using 3-dimensional (3D) conformal proton therapy. A monoisocentric technique was used with a 30-cm snout. Cervical lymphatics were treated with 3 fields: a posterior-anterior field with a midline block and a right and a left posterior oblique field. The matchline of the 3 cervical nodal fields with the primary tumor site fields was staggered by 0.5 cm. Comparative intensity-modulated photon plans were later developed for 12 previously treated patients to provide equivalent target coverage, while matching or improving on the proton plans' sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Dosimetry to OARs was evaluated and compared by treatment modality. Comprehensive head and neck irradiation using proton therapy yielded treatment plans with significant dose avoidance of the oral cavity and midline neck structures. When compared with the generated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, the proton treatment plans yielded statistically significant reductions in the mean and integral radiation dose to the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and the maximally spared parotid gland. There was no significant difference in mean dose to the lesser-spared parotid gland by treatment modality or in mean or integral dose to the spared submandibular glands. A technique for cervical nodal irradiation using 3D conformal proton therapy with uniform scanning was developed and clinically implemented. Use of proton therapy for cervical nodal irradiation resulted in large volume of dose avoidance to the oral cavity and low dose exposure to midline structures of the larynx and the esophagus, with lower mean and integral dose to assessed OARs when compared with competing IMRT plans.

  12. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  13. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  14. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  15. Usefulness of 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection FDG PET images for the diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Song, Minchul; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Choi, Kang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the 2 methods. 3D-SSP showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values to discriminate different types of dementia compared with the visual method alone, except for AD/MCI specificity and FTD sensitivity. Correction of misdiagnosis after adding 3D-SSP images was greatest for AD/MCI (56%), followed by DLB (13%) and FTD (11%). Diagnostic confidence also increased in DLB (visual: 3.2; 3D-SSP: 4.1; P < 0.001), followed by AD/MCI (visual: 3.1; 3D-SSP: 3.8; P = 0.002) and FTD (visual: 3.5; 3D-SSP: 4.2; P = 0.022). Overall, 154/360 (43%) cases had a corrected misdiagnosis or improved diagnostic confidence for the correct diagnosis. The addition of 3D-SSP images to visual analysis helped to discriminate different types of dementia in FDG PET scans, by correcting misdiagnoses and enhancing diagnostic confidence in the correct diagnosis. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy and confidence by 3D-SSP images might help to determine the cause of dementia and appropriate treatment. PMID:27930593

  16. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  17. Design of biphasic polymeric 3-dimensional fiber deposited scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Moroni, L; Hendriks, J A A; Schotel, R; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    2007-02-01

    This report describes a novel system to create rapid prototyped 3-dimensional (3D) fibrous scaffolds with a shell-core fiber architecture in which the core polymer supplies the mechanical properties and the shell polymer acts as a coating providing the desired physicochemical surface properties. Poly[(ethylene oxide) terephthalate-co-poly(butylene) terephthalate] (PEOT/PBT) 3D fiber deposited (3DF) scaffolds were fabricated and examined for articular cartilage tissue regeneration. The shell polymer contained a higher molecular weight of the initial poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments used in the copolymerization and a higher weight percentage of the PEOT domains compared with the core polymer. The 3DF scaffolds entirely produced with the shell or with the core polymers were also considered. After 3 weeks of culture, scaffolds were homogeneously filled with cartilage tissue, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Although comparable amounts of entrapped chondrocytes and of extracellular matrix formation were found for all analyzed scaffolds, chondrocytes maintained their rounded shape and aggregated during the culture period on shell-core 3DF scaffolds, suggesting a proper cell differentiation into articular cartilage. This finding was also observed in the 3DF scaffolds fabricated with the shell composition only. In contrast, cells spread and attached on scaffolds made simply with the core polymer, implying a lower degree of differentiation into articular cartilaginous tissue. Furthermore, the shell-core scaffolds displayed an improved dynamic stiffness as a result of a "prestress" action of the shell polymer on the core one. In addition, the dynamic stiffness of the constructs increased compared with the stiffness of the bare scaffolds before culture. These findings suggest that shell-core 3DF PEOT/PBT scaffolds with desired mechanical and surface properties are a promising solution for improved cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery.

  19. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  20. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.

  1. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole A; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 22 subjects during active knee flexion and extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps muscle were identified and tracked through each time frame by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The moment arm (MA) and relative moment (RM, defined as the cross product of the tendon line-of-action and a line connecting the line-of-action with the patellar center of mass) were calculated for each quadriceps component. The tendencies of the VM and VL to produce patellar tilt were evenly balanced. Interestingly, the magnitude of RM-P(Spin) for the VM and VL is approximately four times greater than the magnitude of RM-P(Tilt) for the same muscles suggesting that patellar spin may play a more important role in patellofemoral kinematics than previously thought. Thus, a force imbalance that leads to excessive lateral tilt, such as VM weakness in patellofemoral pain syndrome, would produce excessive negative spin (positive spin: superior patellar pole rotates laterally) and to a much greater degree. This would explain the increased negative spin found in recent studies of patellar maltracking. Assessing the contribution of each quadriceps component in three dimensions provides a more complete understanding of muscle functionality.

  2. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  3. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  4. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  5. Human embryonic growth and development of the cerebellum using 3-dimensional ultrasound and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Rousian, M; Groenenberg, I A L; Hop, W C; Koning, A H J; van der Spek, P J; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA. Only scans with high-quality images of the fossa posterior were selected for the analysis. Measurements were performed offline in the coronal plane using 3D (4D view) and VR (V-Scope) software. The VR enables the observer to use all available dimensions in a data set by visualizing the volume as a "hologram." Total cerebellar diameter, left, and right hemispheric diameter, and thickness were measured using both the techniques. All measurements were performed 3 times and means were used in repeated measurements analysis. After exclusion criteria were applied 177 (28%) 3D data sets were available for further analysis. The median GA was 10 + 0 weeks and the median CRL was 31.4 mm (range: 5.2-79.0 mm). The cerebellar parameters could be measured from 7 gestational weeks onward. The total cerebellar diameter increased from 2.2 mm at 7 weeks of GA to 13.9 mm at 12 weeks of GA using VR and from 2.2 to 13.8 mm using 3D ultrasound. The reproducibility, established in a subset of 35 data sets, resulted in intraclass correlation coefficient values ≥0.98. It can be concluded that cerebellar measurements performed by the 2 methods proved to be reproducible and comparable with each other. However, VR-using all three dimensions-provides a superior method for the visualization of the cerebellum. The constructed reference values can be used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar growth and development.

  6. Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.

    PubMed

    Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K

    2010-11-05

    We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations.

  7. Use of 3-dimensional computed tomography to detect a barium-masked fish bone causing esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Atsushi; Tagami, Takashi; Kim, Shiei; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating esophageal foreign bodies and detecting perforation. However, when evaluation is difficult owing to the previous use of barium as a contrast medium, 3-dimensional CT may facilitate accurate diagnosis. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of esophageal perforation. Because barium had been used as a contrast medium for an esophagram performed at a previous hospital, horizontal CT and esophageal endoscopy could not be able to identify the foreign body or characterize the lesion. However, 3-dimensional CT clearly revealed an L-shaped foreign body and its anatomical relationships in the mediastinum. Accordingly, we removed the foreign body using an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The foreign body was the premaxillary bone of a sea bream. The patient was discharged without complications.

  8. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use.

  9. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. Methods From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Results Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2–A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery

  10. A Simple 3-Dimensional Printed Aid for a Corrective Palmar Opening Wedge Osteotomy of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Honigmann, Philipp; Thieringer, Florian; Steiger, Regula; Haefeli, Mathias; Schumacher, Ralf; Henning, Julia

    2016-03-01

    The reconstruction of malunited distal radius fractures is often challenging. Virtual planning techniques and guides for drilling and resection have been used for several years to achieve anatomic reconstruction. These guides have the advantage of leading to better operative results and faster surgery. Here, we describe a technique using a simple implant independent 3-dimensional printed drill guide and template to simplify the surgical reconstruction of a malunited distal radius fracture.

  11. Prenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography: comparison to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Bault, Jean-Philippe; Gilboa, Yinon; Yinon, Yoav; Hoffmann, Chen; Achiron, Reuven

    2012-10-01

    The pituitary gland is crucially important in the function of the endocrine axis. So far, antenatal depiction of the pituitary gland was possible only using magnetic resonance imaging. We describe antenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. The appearance of the gland on sonography seems to be superior compares to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. In cases with midline anomalies of the brain, face, or cranium, depiction of the pituitary gland is feasible and recommended.

  12. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  13. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  14. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  15. 3-Dimensional liver volume assessment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis during long-term oral nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, In Hee; Moon, Jin Chang; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae Ghon; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the effect of long-term oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) therapy on liver volume change in patients with suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis. METHODS We reviewed the data of naïve patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis, who had taken oral NUCs therapy, between 2003 and 2007 at Chonbuk University Hospital. We analyzed two consecutive sets of abdominal computerized tomography scans-one at the time of treatment initiation and another at the second-year follow-up. Liver volume was calculated by 3-dimensional liver extraction volumetry program. RESULTS A total of 55 patients (34 males) were included. There was 114.3 mL ± 167.8 mL (12.9% ± 17.9%) of increase in liver volume during the two years of NUCs therapy (993.8 mL ± 242.8 mL at baseline vs 1108.1 mL ± 263.3 mL at two-year follow-up, P < 0.001). The ratio of the measured baseline liver volume to the estimated standard liver volume was improved from 70.8% to 78.0%. An increase in liver volume was shown not only in patients with compensated cirrhosis (P = 0.046) but also in those with decompensated cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Significant factors for volume increases were Child-Turcotte-Pugh grade and model for end-stage liver disease score improvement without virological breakthrough. In multiple linear regression analysis, delta albumin and delta alanine aminotransferase levels showed a significant association with the increase in liver volume (P = 0.002 and 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION Long-term oral NUCs therapy in patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis lead to significant increase in liver volume assessed with 3-dimensional liver extraction volumetry program. PMID:28127203

  16. GOATS 2011 Adaptive and Collaborative Exploitation of 3-Dimensional Environmental Acoustics in Distributed Undersea Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    MIT continues to develop the OASES -3d modeling framework for target scattering and reverberation in shallow ocean waveguides. As was previously the...element-level timeseries using Green’s functions using legacy environmental acoustic models such as OASES , KRAKEN and BELLHOP. WORK COMPLETED...derive a confidence model and critical regions for the AUV to sample. The full field scattered field may be simulated using the SCATT- OASES

  17. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  18. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  19. Studies for the 3-Dimensional Structure, Composition, and Dynamic of Io's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is discussed for the following: (1) the exploration of new H and Cl chemistry in Io's atmosphere using the already developed two-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model of Wong and Smyth; and (2) for the development of a new three-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model for Io's atmosphere.

  20. Strain gradient development in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix scaffolds during in vitro mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Seifer, Benjamin J; Wagner, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed strain variations in 3D ECM scaffolds using a membrane-adherent model (MM) and a direct elongation model (DM). Computational models were solved for target strains from 1 to 10% at varied scaffold thicknesses and intra-scaffold slices. DM strain profiles were uniform within the scaffold and independent of thickness. However, a wide range of strains developed with substantial volume experiencing significantly off-target strain. MM strain profiles varied throughout the scaffold, exhibiting significantly reduced average strain with increasing thickness. These findings are important for tissue engineering studies since biological responses are commonly attributed to a single strain level that only partially describes the mechanical condition, making it difficult to develop precise causal relationships. Spatial strain variations and reduced average strain may warrant targeted sampling for cell response and should be taken into consideration by investigators using large-volume 3D scaffolds when engineering mechanically sensitive tissues.

  1. A system for extracting 3-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Cunningham, R.

    1976-01-01

    Obtaining accurate three-dimensional (3-D) measurement from a stereo pair of TV cameras is a task requiring camera modeling, calibration, and the matching of the two images of a real 3-D point on the two TV pictures. A system which models and calibrates the cameras and pairs the two images of a real-world point in the two pictures, either manually or automatically, was implemented. This system is operating and provides three-dimensional measurements resolution of + or - mm at distances of about 2 m.

  2. Retrodeformable cross sections for 3-dimensional structural analysis, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. E.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental tectonic problem is how deformation proceeds from hinterland to foreland in a fold and thrust belt (FTB). Wedge models explain many of the first-order observations found in most FTBs such as the internal deformation of material, thickening of hinterland, presence of a basal décollement, and an overall wedge shape that tapers to the foreland. These models currently have not been tested at the scale of the individual folds and faults. Moreover, most of the data available on, for instance, the sequence of events is best dated in the syntectonic sediments. Timing of uplift and motion of interior structures are not clear when using dates from these syntectonic sediments to some extent because an absolute connection between them is lacking. The purpose of this project is to develop a model for the evolution of the Ouachita orogen through the construction of a series of retrodeformable cross sections. A novel aspect of these cross sections is the combination of new and published thermal (i.e., illite ‘crystallinity’) and thermochronologic (i.e., zircon fission track) data collected at a variety of stratigraphic depths along the lines of section. These data will help to determine the cessation of thrust motion as well as the initial depth from which the thrust sheet emerged. An Ordovician Mazarn sample in the eastern exposed orogenic core has zircon grains with 55% reset fission track ages, whereas an overlying Ordovician Blakely sample about ~30 km to the southwest along strike has 15% being reset. Illite ‘crystallinity’ (IC) values indicate maximum burial metamorphism temperatures of anchizone (~250-350°C) coinciding with the location of the Ordovician Mazarn sample. Regionally, IC decreases from the culmination of the Benton Uplift and to the southwest along regional strike for samples that have similar stratigraphic age. These new timing and thermal constraints on an improved kinematic model are the necessary first steps in testing wedge models

  3. The effect of material composition of 3-dimensional graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanocomposites on DNA analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Wang, Xinxing; Nan, Fuxin; Jiao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls.

  4. Investigations on 3-dimensional temperature distribution in a FLATCON-type CPV module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfarth, Maike; Gamisch, Sebastian; Kraus, Harald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2013-09-01

    The thermal flow in a FLATCON®-type CPV module is investigated theoretically and experimentally. For the simulation a model in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software SolidWorks Flow Simulation was established. In order to verify the simulation results the calculated and measured temperatures were compared assuming the same operating conditions (wind speed and direction, direct normal irradiance (DNI) and ambient temperature). Therefore, an experimental module was manufactured and equipped with temperature sensors at defined positions. In addition, the temperature distribution on the back plate of the module was displayed by infrared images. The simulated absolute temperature and the distribution compare well with an average deviation of only 3.3 K to the sensor measurements. Finally, the validated model was used to investigate the influence of the back plate material on the temperature distribution by replacing the glass material by aluminum. The simulation showed that it is important to consider heat dissipation by radiation when designing a CPV module.

  5. Reconstruction of a 3-dimensional transonic rotor flow field from holographic interferogram data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. H.; Kittleson, J. K.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic interferometry and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) are used to determine the transonic velocity field of a model rotor blade in hover. A pulsed ruby laser recorded 40 interferograms with a 2-ft-diam view field near the model rotor-blade tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. After digitizing the interferograms and extracting fringe-order functions, the data are transferred to a CAT code. The CAT code then calculates the perturbation velocity in seeral planes above the blade surface. The values from the holography-CAT method compare favorably with previously obtained numerical computations in most locations near the blade tip. The results demonstrate the technique's potential for three-dimensional transonic rotor flow studies.

  6. Role of LRP-1 in cancer cell migration in 3-dimensional collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Appert-Collin, Aline; Bennasroune, Amar; Jeannesson, Pierre; Terryn, Christine; Fuhrmann, Guy; Morjani, Hamid; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2016-07-27

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a member of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) family, which is ubiquitously expressed and which is described as a multifunctional endocytic receptor which mediates the clearance of various extracellular matrix molecules including serine proteinases, proteinase-inhibitor complexes, and matricellular proteins. Several studies showed that high LRP-1 expression promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, and LRP-1 invalidation leads to cell motility abrogation in both tumor and non-tumor cells. Furthermore, our group has reported that LRP-1 silencing prevents the invasion of a follicular thyroid carcinoma despite increased pericellular proteolytic activities from MMP2 and uPA using a 2D-cell culture model. As the use of 3D culture systems is becoming more and more popular due to their promise as enhanced models of tissue physiology, the aim of the present work is to characterize for the first time how the 3D collagen type I matrix may impact the ability of LRP-1 to regulate the migratory properties of thyroid carcinoma using as a model FTC-133 cells. Our results show that inhibition of LRP-1 activity or expression leads to morphological changes affecting cell-matrix interactions, reorganizations of the actin-cytoskeleton especially by inhibiting FAK activation and increasing RhoA activity and MLC-2 phosphorylation, thus preventing cell migration. Taken together, our results suggest that LRP-1 silencing leads to a decrease of cell migratory capacity in a 3D configuration.

  7. Comparison of intraoral scanning and conventional impression techniques using 3-dimensional superimposition

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ye-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriate impression technique by analyzing the superimposition of 3D digital model for evaluating accuracy of conventional impression technique and digital impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients who had no periodontitis or temporomandibular joint disease were selected for analysis. As a reference model, digital impressions with a digital impression system were performed. As a test models, for conventional impression dual-arch and full-arch, impression techniques utilizing addition type polyvinylsiloxane for fabrication of cast were applied. 3D laser scanner is used for scanning the cast. Each 3 pairs for 25 STL datasets were imported into the inspection software. The three-dimensional differences were illustrated in a color-coded map. For three-dimensional quantitative analysis, 4 specified contact locations(buccal and lingual cusps of second premolar and molar) were established. For twodimensional quantitative analysis, the sectioning from buccal cusp to lingual cusp of second premolar and molar were acquired depending on the tooth axis. RESULTS In color-coded map, the biggest difference between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression was seen (P<.05). In three-dimensional analysis, the biggest difference was seen between intraoral scanning and dual-arch impression and the smallest difference was seen between dual-arch and full-arch impression. CONCLUSION The two- and three-dimensional deviations between intraoral scanner and dual-arch impression was bigger than full-arch and dual-arch impression (P<.05). The second premolar showed significantly bigger three-dimensional deviations than the second molar in the three-dimensional deviations (P>.05). PMID:26816576

  8. Study of journal bearing dynamics using 3-dimensional motion picture graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E.; Sosoka, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Computer generated motion pictures of three dimensional graphics are being used to analyze journal bearings under dynamically loaded conditions. The motion pictures simultaneously present the motion of the journal and the pressures predicted within the fluid film of the bearing as they evolve in time. The correct prediction of these fluid film pressures can be complicated by the development of cavitation within the fluid. The numerical model that is used predicts the formation of the cavitation bubble and its growth, downstream movement, and subsequent collapse. A complete physical picture is created in the motion picture as the journal traverses through the entire dynamic cycle.

  9. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  10. Whole-core comet solutions to a 3-dimensional PWR benchmark problem with gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with gadolinium was used to determine the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport method COMET. The benchmark problem contains 193 square fuel assemblies. The COMET solution (eigenvalue, assembly averaged and fuel pin averaged fission density distributions) was compared with those obtained from the corresponding Monte Carlo reference solution using the same 2-group material cross section library. The comparison showed that both the core eigenvalue and fission density distribution averaged over each assembly and fuel pin predicated by COMET agree very well with the corresponding MCNP reference solution if the incident flux response expansion used in COMET is truncated at 2nd order in the two spatial and the two angular variables. The benchmark calculations indicate that COMET has Monte Carlo accuracy. In, particular, the eigenvalue difference between the codes ranged from 17 pcm to 35 pcm, being within 2 standard deviations of the calculational uncertainty. The mean flux weighted relative differences in the assembly and fuel pin fission densities were 0.47% and 0.65%, respectively. It was also found that COMET's full (whole) core computational speed is 30,000 times faster than MCNP in which only 1/8 of the core is modeled. It is estimated that COMET would have been about over 6 orders of magnitude faster than MCNP if the full core were also modeled in MCNP. (authors)

  11. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    SciTech Connect

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  12. Nanophotonic light trapping in 3-dimensional thin-film silicon architectures.

    PubMed

    Lockau, Daniel; Sontheimer, Tobias; Becker, Christiane; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline; Schmidt, Frank; Rech, Bernd

    2013-01-14

    Emerging low cost and large area periodic texturing methods promote the fabrication of complex absorber structures for thin film silicon solar cells. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis of a 2 μm square periodic polycrystalline silicon absorber architecture designed in our laboratories. Simulations are performed on the basis of a precise finite element reconstruction of the experimentally realized silicon structure. In contrast to many other publications, superstrate light trapping effects are included in our model. Excellent agreement to measured absorptance spectra is obtained. For the inclusion of the absorber into a standard single junction cell layout, we show that light trapping close to the Yablonovitch limit can be realized, but is usually strongly damped by parasitic absorption.

  13. Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.

  14. Self-assembled proteinticle nanostructures for 3-dimensional display of antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Euna; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ahn, Keum-Young; Park, Jin-Seung; Lee, Jeewon

    2014-11-01

    ``Proteinticle'' is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for the surface display of SPAB. The dissociation constant (KD) in the binding of IgG to SPAB on the proteinticle surface was estimated based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model: KD was 1-3 orders-of-magnitude lower compared to the previously reported KD in the binding of IgG to Staphylococcal protein A. The surface density and distribution of SPAB and especially the existence of hot (or highly congested) spots of SPAB, which depend on the surface structure and the number of subunits as well as size and shape of proteinticle, is of crucial importance for the effective binding of IgG to SPAB on proteinticles. Although the five different proteinticles were demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, SPAB-mediated immobilization of IgG on the other proteinticles would be very useful for the fabrication of sensitive 3D immunoassay platforms.``Proteinticle'' is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for

  15. Application of a 3-dimensional printed navigation template in Bernese periacetabular osteotomies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, You; Kang, Xiaopeng; Li, Chuan; Xu, Xiaoshan; Li, Rong; Wang, Jun; Li, Wei; Luo, Haotian; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to describe the application of 3D printed templates for intraoperative navigation and simulation of periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) in a cadaveric model. Five cadaveric specimens (10 sides) underwent thin-slice computed tomographic scans of the ala of ilium downwards to the proximal end of femoral shaft. Bernese PAO was performed. Using Mimics v10.1 software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium), 3D computed tomographic reconstructions were created and the 4 standard PAO bone cuts—ischial, pubic, anterior, and posterior aspects of the ilium—as well as rotation of the dislocated acetabular bone blocks were simulated for each specimen. Using these data, custom 3D printed bone-drilling templates of the pelvis were manufactured, to guide surgical placement of the PAO bone cuts. An angle fix wedge was designed and printed, to help accurately achieve the predetermined rotation angle of the acetabular bone block. Each specimen underwent a conventional PAO. Preoperative, postsimulation, and postoperative lateral center-edge angles, acetabular indices, extrusion indices, and femoral head coverage were measured and compared; P and t values were calculated for above-mentioned measurements while comparing preoperative and postoperative data, and also in postsimulation and postoperative data comparison. All 10 PAO osteotomies were successfully completed using the 3D printed bone-drilling template and angle fix wedge. No osteotomy entered the hip joint and a single posterior column fracture was observed. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative measurements of the 10 sides showed statistically significant changes, whereas no statistically significant differences between postsimulation and postoperative values were noted, demonstrating the accuracy and utility of the 3D printed templates. The application of patient-specific 3D printed bone-drilling and rotation templates in PAO is feasible and may facilitate improved clinical outcomes

  16. Application of a 3-dimensional printed navigation template in Bernese periacetabular osteotomies: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Kang, Xiaopeng; Li, Chuan; Xu, Xiaoshan; Li, Rong; Wang, Jun; Li, Wei; Luo, Haotian; Lu, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the application of 3D printed templates for intraoperative navigation and simulation of periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) in a cadaveric model.Five cadaveric specimens (10 sides) underwent thin-slice computed tomographic scans of the ala of ilium downwards to the proximal end of femoral shaft. Bernese PAO was performed. Using Mimics v10.1 software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium), 3D computed tomographic reconstructions were created and the 4 standard PAO bone cuts-ischial, pubic, anterior, and posterior aspects of the ilium-as well as rotation of the dislocated acetabular bone blocks were simulated for each specimen. Using these data, custom 3D printed bone-drilling templates of the pelvis were manufactured, to guide surgical placement of the PAO bone cuts. An angle fix wedge was designed and printed, to help accurately achieve the predetermined rotation angle of the acetabular bone block. Each specimen underwent a conventional PAO. Preoperative, postsimulation, and postoperative lateral center-edge angles, acetabular indices, extrusion indices, and femoral head coverage were measured and compared; P and t values were calculated for above-mentioned measurements while comparing preoperative and postoperative data, and also in postsimulation and postoperative data comparison.All 10 PAO osteotomies were successfully completed using the 3D printed bone-drilling template and angle fix wedge. No osteotomy entered the hip joint and a single posterior column fracture was observed. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative measurements of the 10 sides showed statistically significant changes, whereas no statistically significant differences between postsimulation and postoperative values were noted, demonstrating the accuracy and utility of the 3D printed templates.The application of patient-specific 3D printed bone-drilling and rotation templates in PAO is feasible and may facilitate improved clinical outcomes, through the use

  17. MIRD pamphlet No. 23: quantitative SPECT for patient-specific 3-dimensional dosimetry in internal radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Frey, Eric C; Sgouros, George; Brill, A Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-08-01

    In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification-based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry.

  18. Fine designing 3-dimensional ZnO nanowalls with TiO2 nanoparticles for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Bayatloo, Elham

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we report a low-cost low-temperature hydrothermal technique for covering 3-dimensional (3-D) electrodeposited ZnO nanowall with thin layer of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on FTO substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell application, in a way that morphology and crystal structure of ZnO nanowalls were preserved. Comparing photovoltaic characteristics of devices with and without TiO2-coating layer, it was revealed that the 3-D ZnO/TiO2-nanostructured photoanode resulted in a 35 % cell performance improved mostly because of enhancement of short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc). The XRD pattern showed that 3-D ZnO nanowalls and TiO2 compose of wurtzite and anatase phases, respectively.

  19. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  20. New insights into the coronary artery bifurcation hypothesis-generating concepts utilizing 3-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W; Heo, Jung Ho; Gogas, Bill D; Okamura, Takayuki; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Garcìa-Garcìa, Hector M; van Geuns, Robert Jan

    2011-08-01

    Coronary artery bifurcations are a common challenging lesion subset accounting for approximately 10% to 20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions. The provisional T-stenting approach is generally recommended as the first-line management of most lesions. Carina shift is suggested to be the predominant mechanism of side-branch pinching during provisional T-stenting and has been indirectly inferred from bench work and other intravascular imaging modalities. Offline 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of patients studied in the first-in-man trial of the high-frequency (160 frames/s) Terumo optical frequency domain imaging system were undertaken using volume-rendering software. Through a series of 3D reconstructions, several novel hypothesis-generating concepts are presented.

  1. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during northward IMF conditions: Global 3-Dimensional MHD simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a

  2. The Effects of 3-Dimensional CADD Modeling on the Development of the Spatial Ability of Technology Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, K. Lynn; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial abilities are fundamental to human functioning in the physical world. Spatial reasoning allows people to use concepts of shape, features, and relationships in both concrete and abstract ways, to make and use things in the world, to navigate, and to communicate. Surgeons, pilots, architects, engineers, mechanics, builders, farmers, trades…

  3. The Bethe ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completely different setting, namely for the 1D oscillator in quantum mechanics.

  4. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Racquel E.; Sheets, Nathan C.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Nutting, Chris; Hall, Emma; Chera, Bhishamjit S.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  5. Image-driven cardiac left ventricle segmentation for the evaluation of multiview fused real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography images.

    PubMed

    Rajpoot, Kashif; Noble, J Alison; Grau, Vicente; Szmigielski, Cezary; Becher, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) permits the acquisition and visualization of the beating heart in 3D. Despite a number of efforts to automate the left ventricle (LV) delineation from RT3DE images, this remains a challenging problem due to the poor nature of the acquired images usually containing missing anatomical information and high speckle noise. Recently, there have been efforts to improve image quality and anatomical definition by acquiring multiple single-view RT3DE images with small probe movements and fusing them together after alignment. In this work, we evaluate the quality of the multiview fused images using an image-driven semiautomatic LV segmentation method. The segmentation method is based on an edge-driven level set framework, where the edges are extracted using a local-phase inspired feature detector for low-contrast echocardiography boundaries. This totally image-driven segmentation method is applied for the evaluation of end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) single-view and multiview fused images. Experiments were conducted on 17 cases and the results show that multiview fused images have better image segmentation quality, but large failures were observed on ED (88.2%) and ES (58.8%) single-view images.

  6. The First Observation of 3-Dimensional Motion and Twist in Sperm Flagella of the Stag Beetle Prosopocoilus inclinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Masaru; Kubo-Irie, Miyoko; Mohri, Hideo

    We discovered the 3-dimensional twist motion of sperm flagella of the stag beetle Prosopocoilus inclinates. The morphological features are discussed with experimental data obtained through various ‘imaging techniques’ including those developed in thermo-nuclear fusion research. The helical deformation length observed in the optical micrograph agreed statistically with those of transmission electron micrographs (TEM) on both ultra-thin section and negatively stained samples. This indicated that the helical twist mechanism of flagellar axoneme could be safely discussed from TEM. In order to elucidate this, we applied the newly developed Constrained Electron Beam Tomography (CEBT) technique adapted from our unique fusion plasma diagnosis. This requires basic assumptions of “the optimum deformation” and “the coherent length” as mathematical constraints. The results are the key parameters of the flagellum deformation, e.g. the helical pitch (HP) of both axoneme and mitochondrial derivatives as well as the phase slip (PS) between them. They allow the quantitative discussion on this motion.

  7. Do All Patients of Breast Carcinoma Need 3-Dimensional CT-Based Planning? A Dosimetric Study Comparing Different Breast Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Anusheel Pai, Rajeshri H.; Phurailatpam, Reena; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of dose distribution in a single plane (i.e., 2-dimensional [2D] planning) is simple and less resource-intensive than CT-based 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of the study was to determine if 2D planning could be an appropriate treatment in a subgroup of breast cancer patients based on their breast size. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent breast conservation were planned for radiotherapy. The patients were grouped in 3 different categories based on their respective chest wall separation (CWS) and the thickness of breast, as 'small,' 'medium,' and 'large.' Two more contours were taken at locations 5 cm superior and 5 cm inferior to the isocenter plane. Maximum dose recorded at specified points was compared in superior/inferior slices as compared to the central slice. The mean difference for small breast size was 1.93 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.08). For medium breas size, the mean difference was 2.98 (SD = 2.40). For the large breasts, the mean difference was 4.28 (SD = 2.69). Based on our dosimetric study, breast planning only on the single isocentric contour is an appropriate technique for patients with small breasts. However, for large- and medium-size breasts, CT-based planning and 3D planning have a definite role. These results can be especially useful for rationalizing treatment in busy oncology centers.

  8. ER:YAG laser for 3-dimensional debridement of canal systems: use of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    DiVito, Enrico; Lloyd, Adam

    2012-11-01

    Laser-activated irrigation at subablative levels has the potential for complete tubular dentin disinfection in endodontics. In spite of the cost of the laser hardware, being able to reach the panacea of bacterial elimination and debris removal is a remarkable achievement and could be a paradigm shift in success rates for endodontic cases. Moreover, with the trend toward more conservative canal preparation and single instrumentation techniques, canal disinfection with an irrigating needle that cannot deliver sufficient volume to the canal terminus, PIPS seems likely to remove the gross canal enlargement impediment. Further investigation into smaller canal preparation sizes are ongoing. Any office that performs soft and hard tissue already understands the benefits of a laser. Adaptation of laser-activated irrigation to endodontics is a simple transition that is already understood by the hundreds of participants already trained in PIPS laser-activated irrigation. Similarly, a protocol for elimination of microbes from periodontal pockets using PIPS has the potential for selective removal of both inflamed and ulcerated epithelial tissues commonly seen in periodontal pathoses. The fact that the PIPS photoacoustic effect does not create thermal damage and will travel 3-dimensionally wherever there is fluid, makes it advantageous as a treatment modality for removing biofilms associated with periodontal pockets that are in difficult to access furcation areas and interproximal vertical defects.

  9. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  10. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L

    2013-05-01

    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system.

  11. MIRD Pamphlet No. 23: Quantitative SPECT for Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Dosimetry in Internal Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George; Brill, A. Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification–based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry. PMID:22743252

  12. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  13. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  14. DNA damage intensity in fibroblasts in a 3-dimensional collagen matrix correlates with the Bragg curve energy distribution of a high LET particle

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Andres I.; Hight, Suzie K.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.; Rusek, Adam; Story, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The DNA double-strand break (DSB) damage response induced by high energy charged particles on lung fibroblast cells embedded in a 3-dimensional (3-D) collagen tissue equivalents was investigated using antibodies to the DNA damage response proteins gamma-histone 2AX (γ-H2AX) and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (p-DNA-PKcs). Materials and methods 3-D tissue equivalents were irradiated in positions across the linear distribution of the Bragg curve profiles of 307.7 MeV/nucleon, 556.9 MeV/nucleon, or 967.0 MeV/nucleon 56Fe ions at a dose of 0.30 Gy. Results Patterns of discrete DNA damage streaks across nuclei or saturated nuclear damage were observed, with saturated nuclear damage being more predominant as samples were positioned closer to the physical Bragg peak. Quantification of the DNA damage signal intensities at each distance for each of the examined energies revealed a biological Bragg curve profile with a pattern of DNA damage intensity similar to the physical Bragg curve for the particular energy. Deconvolution microscopy of nuclei with streaked or saturated nuclear damage pattern revealed more details of the damage, with evidence of double-strand breaks radially distributed from the main particle track as well as multiple discrete tracks within saturated damage nuclei. Conclusions These 3-D culture systems can be used as a biological substrate to better understand the interaction of heavy charged particles of different energies with tissue and could serve as a basis to model space-radiation-induced cancer initiation and progression. PMID:20201648

  15. Treatment-Related Morbidity in Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy With and Without Image Guidance Using Implanted Fiducial Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jasmeet; Greer, Peter B.; White, Martin A.; Parker, Joel; Patterson, Jackie; Tang, Colin I.; Capp, Anne; Wratten, Christopher; Denham, James W.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of rectal and urinary dysfunctional symptoms using image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with fiducials and magnetic resonance planning for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: During the implementation stages of IGRT between September 2008 and March 2010, 367 consecutive patients were treated with prostatic irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with and without IGRT (non-IGRT). In November 2010, these men were asked to report their bowel and bladder symptoms using a postal questionnaire. The proportions of patients with moderate to severe symptoms in these groups were compared using logistic regression models adjusted for tumor and treatment characteristic variables. Results: Of the 282 respondents, the 154 selected for IGRT had higher stage tumors, received higher prescribed doses, and had larger volumes of rectum receiving high dosage than did the 128 selected for non-IGRT. The follow-up duration was 8 to 26 months. Compared with the non-IGRT group, improvement was noted in all dysfunctional rectal symptoms using IGRT. In multivariable analyses, IGRT improved rectal pain (odds ratio [OR] 0.07 [0.009-0.7], P=.02), urgency (OR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P=<.01), diarrhea (OR 0.009 [0.02-0.35], P<.01), and change in bowel habits (OR 0.18 [0.06-0.52], P<.010). No correlation was observed between rectal symptom levels and dose-volume histogram data. Urinary dysfunctional symptoms were similar in both treatment groups. Conclusions: In comparison with men selected for non-IGRT, a significant reduction of bowel dysfunctional symptoms was confirmed in men selected for IGRT, even though they had larger volumes of rectum treated to higher doses.

  16. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Drop Landing Across 3 Institutions: Implications for Multicenter Research for Secondary ACL-Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Noehren, Brian W.; McNally, Michael; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Due to the limitations of single-center studies in achieving appropriate sampling with relatively rare disorders, multicenter collaborations have been proposed to achieve desired sampling levels. However, documented reliability of biomechanical data is necessary for multicenter injury-prevention studies and is currently unavailable. Objective To measure the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) biomechanical waveforms from kinetic and kinematic variables during a single-leg landing (SLL) performed at 3 separate testing facilities. Design Multicenter reliability study. Setting 3 laboratories. Patients 25 female junior varsity and varsity high school volleyball players who visited each facility over a 1-mo period. Intervention Subjects were instrumented with 43 reflective markers to record 3D motion as they performed SLLs. During the SLL the athlete balanced on 1 leg, dropped down off of a 31-cm-high box, and landed on the same leg. Kinematic and kinetic data from both legs were processed from 2 trials across the 3 laboratories. Main Outcome Measures Coefficients of multiple correlations (CMC) were used to statistically compare each joint angle and moment waveform for the first 500 ms of landing. Results Average CMC for lower-extremity sagittal-plane motion was excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .95, ankle .99). Average CMC for lower-extremity frontal-plane motion was also excellent between laboratories (hip .98, knee .80, ankle .93). Kinetic waveforms were repeatable in each plane of rotation (3-center mean CMC ≥.71), while knee sagittal-plane moments were the most consistent measure across sites (3-center mean CMC ≥.94). Conclusions CMC waveform comparisons were similar relative to the joint measured to previously published reports of between-sessions reliability of sagittal- and frontal-plane biomechanics performed at a single institution. Continued research is needed to further standardize technology and methods to help ensure that highly

  17. Promotion of osteointegration under diabetic conditions by tantalum coating-based surface modification on 3-dimensional printed porous titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Xiaofan; Ma, Xiangyu; Ma, Zhensheng; Zhang, Yang; Lu, Yizhao; Li, Xiang; Lei, Wei; Feng, Yafei

    2016-12-01

    Clinical evidence indicates a high failure rate for titanium implants (TiI) in diabetic patients, involving the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the implant/bone interface. Tantalum coating on titanium (TaTi) has exerted better tissue integration properties than TiI, but its biological performance under diabetic conditions remains elusive. To investigate whether TaTi may ameliorate diabetes-induced implant destabilization and the underlying mechanisms, primary rabbit osteoblasts cultured on 3-dimensional printed TiI and TaTi were exposed to normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS+NAC (a potent ROS inhibitor), and DS+SB203580 (a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor). An in vivo study was performed on diabetic sheep implanted with TiI or TaTi. Diabetes induced mitochondrial-derived ROS overproduction and caused cellular dysfunction and apoptosis, together with the activation of p38 MAPK in osteoblasts on TiI surface. Importantly, TaTi significantly attenuated ROS production and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and exerted more osseointegrative cell behavior than TiI, as shown by improved osteoblast adhesion, increased cell proliferation and differentiation and decreased apoptosis. These results were confirmed in vivo by the enhanced bone healing efficacy of TaTi. Moreover, treatment with NAC or SB203580 on TiI not only inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK but also improved cell function and alleviated apoptotic injury, whereas TaTi combined with NAC or SB203580 failed to further improve osteoblast functional recovery compared with TaTi alone. These results demonstrated that the tantalum coating markedly improved diabetes-induced impaired osteogenesis of TiI, which may be attributed to the suppression of the ROS-mediated p38 MAPK pathway.

  18. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  19. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  20. The Arp2/3 complex mediates multigeneration dendritic protrusions for efficient 3-dimensional cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anjil; Bajpai, Saumendra; Trenton, Nicholaus; Jayatilaka, Hasini; Longmore, Gregory D; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Arp2/3 is a protein complex that nucleates actin filament assembly in the lamellipodium in adherent cells crawling on planar 2-dimensional (2D) substrates. However, in physiopathological situations, cell migration typically occurs within a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, and little is known about the role of Arp2/3 and associated proteins in 3D cell migration. Using time resolved live-cell imaging and HT1080, a fibrosarcoma cell line commonly used to study cell migration, we find that the Arp2/3 complex and associated proteins N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate 3D cell migration. We report that this regulation is caused by formation of multigeneration dendritic protrusions, which mediate traction forces on the surrounding matrix and effective cell migration. The primary protrusions emanating directly from the cell body and prolonging the nucleus forms independent of Arp2/3 and dependent on focal adhesion proteins FAK, talin, and p130Cas. The Arp2/3 complex, N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate the secondary protrusions branching off from the primary protrusions. In 3D matrices, fibrosarcoma cells as well as migrating breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer cells do not display lamellipodial structures. This study characterizes the unique topology of protrusions made by cells in a 3D matrix and show that these dendritic protrusions play a critical role in 3D cell motility and matrix deformation. The relative contribution of these proteins to 3D migration is significantly different from their role in 2D migration.

  1. Patient-Reported Outcomes After 3-Dimensional Conformal, Intensity-Modulated, or Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Phillip J.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Sanda, Martin G.; Sandler, Howard. M.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Talcott, James A.; Coen, John J.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Shipley, William U.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Bekelman, Justin E.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested differing toxicity patterns for patients with prostate cancer who receive treatment with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or proton beam therapy (PBT). METHODS The authors reviewed patient-reported outcomes data collected prospectively using validated instruments that assessed bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) for patients with localized prostate cancer who received 3DCRT (n = 123), IMRT (n = 153) or PBT (n = 95). Clinically meaningful differences in mean QOL scores were defined as those exceeding half the standard deviation of the baseline mean value. Changes from baseline were compared within groups at the first post-treatment follow-up (2–3 months from the start of treatment) and at 12 months and 24 months. RESULTS At the first post-treatment follow-up, patients who received 3DCRT and IMRT, but not those who received PBT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in bowel QOL. At 12 months and 24 months, all 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful decrements in bowel QOL. Patients who received IMRT reported clinically meaningful decrements in the domains of urinary irritation/obstruction and incontinence at the first post-treatment follow-up. At 12 months, patients who received PBT, but not those who received IMRT or 3DCRT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in the urinary irritation/ obstruction domain. At 24 months, none of the 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful changes in urinary QOL. CONCLUSIONS Patients who received 3DCRT, IMRT, or PBT reported distinct patterns of treatment-related QOL. Although the timing of toxicity varied between the cohorts, patients reported similar modest QOL decrements in the bowel domain and minimal QOL decrements in the urinary domains at 24 months. Prospective randomized trials are needed to further examine these differences. PMID:23436283

  2. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  3. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  4. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  5. Automorphosis of higher plants in space is simulated by using a 3-dimensional clinostat or by application of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    In STS-95 space experiments, etiolated pea seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space have shown to be automorphosis. Epicotyls were almost straight but the most oriented toward the direction far from their cotyledons with ca. 45 degrees from the vertical line as compared with that on earth. In order to know the mechanism of microgravity conditions in space to induce automorphosis, we introduced simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat, resulting in the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth and development. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region or near cotyledonary node toward the direction far from the cotyledons with about 45 degrees in both seedlings grown on 1 g and under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat within 48 hrs after watering. Thereafter epicotyls grew keeping this orientation under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat, whereas those grown on 1 g changed the growth direction to vertical direction by negative gravitropic response. Automorphosis-like growth and development was induced by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid), but not an anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of inhibitors of stretch-activated channel, LaCl3 and GdCl3, and by the application of an inhibitor of protein kinase, cantharidin. These results suggest that automorphosis-like growth in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings is due to suppression of negative gravitropic responses on 1 g, and the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires for normal activities of auxin polar transport and the gravisensing system relating to calcium channels. Possible mechanisms of perception and transduction of gravity signals to induce automorphosis are discussed.

  6. Transformation of a 4-membered ring zinc phosphate SBU to a sodalite-related 3-dimensional structure through a linear chain structure.

    PubMed

    Dan, Meenakshi; Udayakumar, D; Rao, C N R

    2003-09-07

    A zero-dimensional zinc phosphate, comprising a 4-membered ring, is shown to spontaneously transform at room temperature, to a linear chain structure consisting of corner-shared 4-membered rings, the latter transforming to a 3-dimensional sodalite-related structure under mild conditions.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Visitors' Experiences and Knowledge Acquisition between a 3Dimensional Online and a Real-World Art Museum Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D' Alba, Adriana; Jones, Greg; Wright, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a study conducted in the fall of 2011 and the spring of 2012 which explored the use of existing 3D virtual environment technologies by bringing a selected permanent museum exhibit displayed at a museum located in central Mexico into an online 3Dimensional experience. Using mixed methods, the research study analyzed knowledge…

  8. On the Need for Comprehensive Validation of Deformable Image Registration, Investigated With a Novel 3-Dimensional Deformable Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, Titania; Das, Shiva; Adamovics, John; Benning, Ron; Oldham, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To introduce and evaluate a novel deformable 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system (Presage-Def/Optical-CT) and its application toward investigating the accuracy of dose deformation in a commercial deformable image registration (DIR) package. Methods and Materials: Presage-Def is a new dosimetry material consisting of an elastic polyurethane matrix doped with radiochromic leuco dye. Radiologic and mechanical properties were characterized using standard techniques. Dose-tracking feasibility was evaluated by comparing dose distributions between dosimeters irradiated with and without 27% lateral compression. A checkerboard plan of 5-mm square fields enabled precise measurement of true deformation using 3D dosimetry. Predicted deformation was determined from a commercial DIR algorithm. Results: Presage-Def exhibited a linear dose response with sensitivity of 0.0032 ΔOD/(Gy∙cm). Mass density is 1.02 g/cm{sup 3}, and effective atomic number is within 1.5% of water over a broad (0.03-10 MeV) energy range, indicating good water-equivalence. Elastic characteristics were close to that of liver tissue, with Young's modulus of 13.5-887 kPa over a stress range of 0.233-303 kPa, and Poisson's ratio of 0.475 (SE, 0.036). The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system successfully imaged the nondeformed and deformed dose distributions, with isotropic resolution of 1 mm. Comparison with the predicted deformed 3D dose distribution identified inaccuracies in the commercial DIR algorithm. Although external contours were accurately deformed (submillimeter accuracy), volumetric dose deformation was poor. Checkerboard field positioning and dimension errors of up to 9 and 14 mm, respectively, were identified, and the 3D DIR-deformed dose γ passing rate was only γ{sub 3%/3} {sub mm} = 60.0%. Conclusions: The Presage-Def/Optical-CT system shows strong potential for comprehensive investigation of DIR algorithm accuracy. Substantial errors in a commercial DIR were found in the conditions

  9. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  10. 3-D Visualisation: Using Internet-based Activities to Enhance Student Understanding of 3-dimensional Spatial Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial ability forms its own category separate from verbal ability. Various spatial abilities have been identified over the last three decades and classified into three types: mental rotation, spatial rotation and spatial visualization, which have been linked to high performance in STEM subjects. Geoscience demands spatial thinking from learners and practitioners, and spatial literacy has been seen as a fundamental skill in Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences (GEES disciplines) essential for progression. First year GEES students not only have to cope with new learning and teaching environments (Maguire et al., 2008), but, arriving with different science backgrounds, are faced with the challenge of developing essential skills that may be novel for them. These essential skills are subject-specific, as well as transferable, and require an understanding of 3-dimensional spatial relationships. However, spatial skills can be troublesome for some students to master. Not only do many students find difficulty in acquiring spatial skills, facing a succession of hurdles that need to be overcome in developing their understanding, but also educators, often strong spatial thinkers themselves and unaware of the degree to which some students are spatially-challenged, may find it difficult to help. Recent studies have suggested that performance on abstract and applied spatial tasks may be enhanced through instruction and practice and spatially-intensive geoscience courses may strengthen performance on spatial tasks. At Liverpool, many first year geoscience modules require understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, often from initial 2-D observations (e.g. mineralogy, petrography, vulcanology, sedimentology, palaeontology, geological map work, structural geology and fieldwork). In this paper we outline work, supported by the UK Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES), involving first year geosciences students at Liverpool, in which we explored

  11. Repeatability of choku-tsuki and oi-tsuki in shotokan karate: a 3-dimensional analysis with thirteen black-belt karateka.

    PubMed

    Sforza, C; Turci, M; Grassi, G P; Fragnito, N; Serrao, G; Ferrario, V F

    2001-06-01

    13 black-belt karateka performed two different standardized counter-offensive techniques. The trajectories of selected body landmarks were studied by using a computerized image analyzer that allows a 3-dimensional reconstruction of standardized movements. The repeatability of both karate techniques was quantified for each participant. Analysis confirmed that more experienced karateka obtained the best repeatability, as already demonstrated in a preliminary study conducted with a smaller sample of less experienced participants.

  12. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  13. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  14. Propensity Score-based Comparison of Long-term Outcomes With 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy vs Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Steven H.; Wang Lu; Myles, Bevan; Thall, Peter F.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Although 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is the worldwide standard for the treatment of esophageal cancer, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformality and reduces the radiation exposure to normal tissues. We hypothesized that the dosimetric advantages of IMRT should translate to substantive benefits in clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 676 nonrandomized patients (3D-CRT, n=413; IMRT, n=263) with stage Ib-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) esophageal cancers treated with chemoradiotherapy at a single institution from 1998-2008. An inverse probability of treatment weighting and inclusion of propensity score (treatment probability) as a covariate were used to compare overall survival time, interval to local failure, and interval to distant metastasis, while accounting for the effects of other clinically relevant covariates. The propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results: A fitted multivariate inverse probability weighted-adjusted Cox model showed that the overall survival time was significantly associated with several well-known prognostic factors, along with the treatment modality (IMRT vs 3D-CRT, hazard ratio 0.72, P<.001). Compared with IMRT, 3D-CRT patients had a significantly greater risk of dying (72.6% vs 52.9%, inverse probability of treatment weighting, log-rank test, P<.0001) and of locoregional recurrence (P=.0038). No difference was seen in cancer-specific mortality (Gray's test, P=.86) or distant metastasis (P=.99) between the 2 groups. An increased cumulative incidence of cardiac death was seen in the 3D-CRT group (P=.049), but most deaths were undocumented (5-year estimate, 11.7% in 3D-CRT vs 5.4% in IMRT group, Gray's test, P=.0029). Conclusions: Overall survival, locoregional control, and noncancer-related death were significantly better after IMRT than after 3D-CRT. Although these results need

  15. Potential for Improved Intelligence Quotient Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation for Whole-Ventricular Radiation in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon; Stinauer, Michelle; Rogers, Brion; Madden, Jennifer R.; Wilkening, Greta N.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of localized intracranial germinoma. We modeled the effect of the dosimetric differences on intelligence quotient (IQ). Method and Materials: Ten children with intracranial germinomas were used for planning. The prescription doses were 23.4 Gy to the ventricles followed by 21.6 Gy to the tumor located in the pineal region. For each child, a 3D-CRT and full arc VMAT was generated. Coverage of the target was assessed by computing a conformity index and heterogeneity index. We also generated VMAT plans with explicit temporal lobe sparing and with smaller ventricular margin expansions. Mean dose to the temporal lobe was used to estimate IQ 5 years after completion of radiation, using a patient age of 10 years. Results: Compared with the 3D-CRT plan, VMAT improved conformality (conformity index 1.10 vs 1.85), with slightly higher heterogeneity (heterogeneity index 1.09 vs 1.06). The averaged mean doses for left and right temporal lobes were 31.3 and 31.7 Gy, respectively, for VMAT plans and 37.7 and 37.6 Gy for 3D-CRT plans. This difference in mean temporal lobe dose resulted in an estimated IQ difference of 3.1 points at 5 years after radiation therapy. When the temporal lobes were explicitly included in the VMAT optimization, the mean temporal lobe dose was reduced 5.6-5.7 Gy, resulting in an estimated IQ difference of an additional 3 points. Reducing the ventricular margin from 1.5 cm to 0.5 cm decreased mean temporal lobe dose 11.4-13.1 Gy, corresponding to an estimated increase in IQ of 7 points. Conclusion: For treatment of children with intracranial pure germinomas, VMAT compared with 3D-CRT provides increased conformality and reduces doses to normal tissue. This may result in improvements in IQ in these children.

  16. Dependence of Coronary 3-Dimensional Dose Maps on Coronary Topologies and Beam Set in Breast Radiation Therapy: A Study Based on CT Angiographies

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Girinsky, Théodore; Paul, Jean-François; and others

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: In left-side breast radiation therapy (RT), doses to the left main (LM) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries are usually assessed after delineation by prior anatomic knowledge on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, dose sensitivity due to interindividual coronary topology variation was assessed, and hot spots were located. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two detailed heart models, created from heart computed tomography angiographies, were fitted into a single representative female thorax. Two breast RT protocols were then simulated into a treatment planning system: the first protocol comprised tangential and tumoral bed beams (TGs{sub T}B) at 50 + 16 Gy, the second protocol added internal mammary chain beams at 50 Gy to TGs{sub T}B (TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC). For the heart, the LAD, and the LM, several dose indicators were calculated: dose-volume histograms, mean dose (D{sub mean}), minimal dose received by the most irradiated 2% of the volume (D{sub 2%}), and 3-dimensional (3D) dose maps. Variations of these indicators with anatomies were studied. Results: For the LM, the intermodel dispersion of D{sub mean} and D{sub 2%} was 10% and 11%, respectively, with TGs{sub T}B and 40% and 80%, respectively, with TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC. For the LAD, these dispersions were 19% (D{sub mean}) and 49% (D{sub 2%}) with TGs{sub T}B and 35% (D{sub mean}) and 76% (D{sub 2%}) with TGs{sub T}B{sub I}MC. The 3D dose maps revealed that the internal mammary chain beams induced hot spots between 20 and 30 Gy on the LM and the proximal LAD for some coronary topologies. Without IMC beams, hot spots between 5 and 26 Gy are located on the middle and distal LAD. Conclusions: Coronary dose distributions with hot spot location and dose level can change significantly depending on coronary topology, as highlighted by 3D coronary dose maps. In clinical practice, coronary imaging may be required for a relevant coronary dose assessment

  17. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  18. Integration of 3-dimensional surgical and orthodontic technologies with orthognathic "surgery-first" approach in the management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Feinberg, Mark; Vishwanath, Meenakshi; Nalaka Jayaratne, Yasas Shri; Steinbacher, Derek M; Nanda, Ravindra; Uribe, Flavio

    2015-12-01

    Recent innovations in technology and techniques in both surgical and orthodontic fields can be integrated, especially when treating subjects with facial asymmetry. In this article, we present a treatment method consisting of 3-dimensional computer-aided surgical and orthodontic planning, which was implemented with the orthognathic surgery-first approach. Virtual surgical planning, fabrication of surgical splints using the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technique, and prediction of final orthodontic occlusion using virtual planning with robotically assisted customized archwires were integrated for this patient. Excellent esthetic and occlusal outcomes were obtained in a short period of 5.5 months.

  19. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Dong, Daming; Du, Xiaofan; Zheng, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost. PMID:27782074

  20. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm.

  1. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies.

  2. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Dong, Daming; Du, Xiaofan; Zheng, Wengang

    2016-10-22

    Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  3. Development of an Autonomous, Dual Chamber Bioreactor for the Growth of 3-Dimensional Epithelial-Stromal Tissues in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Wettergreen, Matthew A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel, autonomous bioreactor that can provide for the growth and maintenance in microgravity of 3-D organotypic epithelial-stromal cultures that require an air-liquid interface. These complex 3-D tissue models accurately represent the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics observed in normal human epithelial tissues, including the skin, esophagus, lung, breast, pancreas, and colon. However, because of their precise and complex culture requirements, including that of an air-liquid interface, these 3-D models have yet to be utilized for life sciences research aboard the International Space Station. The development of a bioreactor for these cultures will provide the capability to perform biological research on the ISS using these realistic, tissue-like human epithelial-stromal cell models and will contribute significantly to advances in fundamental space biology research on questions regarding microgravity effects on normal tissue development, aging, cancer, and other disease processes. It will also allow for the study of how combined stressors, such as microgravity with radiation and nutritional deficiencies, affect multiple biological processes and will provide a platform for conducting countermeasure investigations on the ISS without the use of animal models. The technology will be autonomous and consist of a cell culture chamber that provides for air-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-air exchanges within the chambers while maintaining the growth and development of the biological samples. The bioreactor will support multiple tissue types and its modular design will provide for incorporation of add-on capabilities such as microfluidics drug delivery, media sampling, and in situ biomarker analysis. Preliminary flight testing of the hardware will be conducted on a parabolic platform through NASA's Flight Opportunities Program.

  4. A 3 dimensional assessment of the depth of tumor invasion in microinvasive tongue squamous cell carcinoma - A case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amit-Byatnal, Aditi; Natarajan, Jayalakshmi; Shenoy, Satish; Kamath, Asha; Hunter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the depth of tumor invasion (DI) in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) of the tongue is critical to prognosis. An arithmetic model is generated to determine a reliable method of measurement of DI and correlate this with the local recurrence. Material and Methods Tumor thickness (TT) and DI were measured in tissue sections of 14 cases of MISCC of the tongue, by manual ocular micrometer and digital image analysis at four reference points (A, B, C, and D). The comparison of TT and DI with relevant clinicopathologic parameters was assessed using Mann Whitney U test. Reliability of these methods and the values obtained were compared and correlated with the recurrence of tumors by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. 3D reconstruction of the lesion was done on a Cartesian coordinate system. X face was on the YZ plane and Z face was on the XY plane of the coordinate system. Results Computer generated 3D model of oral mucosa in four cases that recurred showed increased DI in the Z coordinate compared to the XY coordinate. The median DI measurements between XY and Z coordinates in these cases showed no significant difference (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, p = 0.068). Conclusions The assessment of DI in 3 dimensions is critical for accurate assessment of MISCC and precise DI allows complete removal of tumor. Key words:Depth of invasion, tumor thickness, microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, tongue squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26449426

  5. Establishment and Analysis of the 3-dimensional (3D) Spheroids Generated from the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line HK1

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Kalaivani; Sankar, Prabu Siva; Xiang, Benedict Lian Shi; Soo-Beng, Alan Khoo; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Mohana-Kumaran, Nethia

    2016-01-01

    Spheroids have been shown to recapitulate the tumour in vivo with properties such as the tumour microenvironment, concentration gradients, and tumour phenotype. As such, it can serve as a platform for determining the growth and invasion behaviour pattern of the cancer cells as well as be utilised for drug sensitivity assays; capable of exhibiting results that are closer to what is observed in vivo compared to two-dimensional (2D) cell culture assays. This study focused on establishing a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model using the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cell line, HK1 and analysing its growth and invasion phenotypes. The spheroids will also serve as a model to elucidate their sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug, Flavopiridol. The liquid overlay method was employed to generate the spheroids which was embedded in bovine collagen I matrix for growth and invasion phenotypes observation. The HK1 cells formed compact spheroids within 72 hours. Our observation from the 3 days experiments revealed that the spheroids gradually grew and invaded into the collagen matrix, showing that the HK1 spheroids are capable of growth and invasion. Progressing from these experiments, the HK1 spheroids were employed to perform a drug sensitivity assay using the chemotherapeutic drug, Flavopiridol. The drug had a dose-dependent inhibition on spheroid growth and invasion. PMID:27965750

  6. Fermion masses without symmetry breaking in two spacetime dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenTov, Yoni

    2015-07-01

    I study the prospect of generating mass for symmetry-protected fermions without breaking the symmetry that forbids quadratic mass terms in the Lagrangian. I focus on 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the hope that this can provide guidance for interacting fermions in 3+1 dimensions. I first review the SO(8) Gross-Neveu model and emphasize a subtlety in the triality transformation. Then I focus on the " m = 0" manifold of the SO(7) Kitaev-Fidkowski model. I argue that this theory exhibits a phenomenon similar to "parity doubling" in hadronic physics, and this leads to the conclusion that the fermion propagator vanishes when p μ = 0. I also briefly explore a connection between this model and the two-channel, single-impurity Kondo effect. This paper may serve as an introduction to topological superconductors for high energy theorists, and perhaps as a taste of elementary particle physics for condensed matter theorists.

  7. Exotic quantum phase transitions of strongly interacting topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, Kevin; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-03-01

    Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions. The first is a quantum phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase, which cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting fully gapped phase. At the latter quantum critical point the single-particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps both close. We argue that the first quantum phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions, while the second quantum phase transition is a topological phase transition described by a bosonic O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a Θ term.

  8. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-08-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.

  9. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. The developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material's pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials. PMID:27572475

  10. Full-coverage film cooling: 3-dimensional measurements of turbulence structure and prediction of recovery region hydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrodynamic measurements were made with a triaxial hot-wire in the full-coverage region and the recovery region following an array of injection holes inclined downstream, at 30 degrees to the surface. The data were taken under isothermal conditions at ambient temperature and pressure for two blowing ratios: M = 0.9 and M = 0.4. Profiles of the three main velocity components and the six Reynolds stresses were obtained at several spanwise positions at each of the five locations down the test plate. A one-equation model of turbulence (using turbulent kinetic energy with an algebraic mixing length) was used in a two-dimensional computer program to predict the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles in the recovery region. A new real-time hotwire scheme was developed to make measurements in the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer over the full-coverage surface.

  11. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; Webb, Samuel; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-08-30

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metal deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. In conclusion, the developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material’s pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.

  12. An Evaluation of Matrix-Containing and Humanised Matrix-Free 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Systems for Studying Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Grace C.; Morris, Paul G.; Moss, Marcus A.; Maltby, Sarah L.; Palmer, Chelsea A.; Nash, Claire E.; Smart, Emily; Holliday, Deborah L.; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background 3D cell cultures are emerging as more physiologically meaningful alternatives to monolayer cultures for many biological applications. They are attractive because they more closely mimic in vivo morphology, especially when co-cultured with stromal fibroblasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the efficacy of 3 different 3D cell culture systems; collagen I, low attachment culture vessels and a modification of Fibrolife®, a specialised humanised cell culture medium devoid of animal-derived components, using breast cancer cell lines representative of the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, cultured alone or with human mammary fibroblasts with a view to developing matrix-free humanised systems. 3D collagen I culture supported the growth of a range of breast cancer cell lines. By modifying the composition of Fibrolife® to epiFL, matrix-free cell culture was possible. During sequential transfer to epiFL breast cancer cells gradually detached from the flask, growing progressively as spheroids. Phenotype was stable and reversible with cells remaining actively proliferating and easily accessible throughout culture. They could also be revived from frozen stocks. To achieve co-culture with fibroblasts in epiFL required use of low attachment culture vessels instead of standard plastic as fibroblasts remained adherent in epiFL. Here, cancer cell spheroids were allowed to form before adding fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical examination showed fibroblasts scattered throughout the epithelial spheroid, not dissimilar to the relationship of tumour stroma in human breast cancer. Conclusions Because of its ease of handling, matrix-free 3D cell culture may be a useful model to study the influence of fibroblasts on breast cancer epithelial cells with use of epiFL culture medium taking this a step further towards a fully humanised 3D model. This methodology could be applied to other types of cancer cell lines, making this a versatile technique for cancer

  13. The 3-Dimensional Inner and Outer Structure of Ejecta Around Eta Carinae as Detected by the STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The HST/STIS instrument was used successfully to perform a complete mapping of the Homunculus nebula at two wavelength ranges including H-alpha and H-beta with a spectral resolving power of about 5000 and a spatial resolution of 0.1". The individual spectra were merged to synthesize three-dimensional data cubes that contain a set of images of Eta Car with spatial resolution of 0.10 to 0.251, sliced at velocity increment of 10 -- 30 km/s. For the first time this unique method allows us to diagnose the origin of intrinsic narrow emission structure of the nebula with high spatial and velocity resolution. Our initial analysis revealed the inner emission structure appeared to trace an elongated bipolar shell (possibly other shells as well) with a scale size of an arcsecond (i.e., "little homunculus in the Homunculus"). Furthermore, the mapping data cube revealed that the "fan" or "paddle" -- often referred as the source of peculiar blue-shifted intrinsic emissions including the Strontium cloud -- is not the source of intrinsic emissions. The fan is not even a part of the equatorial disk, but is spatially separated from the peculiar emission structure. Indeed we suggest that the fan is a surface of the Northwest lobe, possibly revealed by a blowout of the equatorial disk. We will use a number of visualization techniques (tomographic animations and simple 3-D models) to show these structures. These new results have strong impact upon future numerical modelings of the Homunculus nebula and of understanding of the evolution of the ejecta powered by the central source(s).

  14. High- and low-LET Radiation-induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts who participate in extended ISS missions and will be an even greater concern for future manned lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D in vitro cellular environment can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected in the first cell cycle after irradiation using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference in the

  15. Fibrin and collagen differentially but synergistically regulate sprout angiogenesis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in 3-dimensional matrix.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaodong; Tonnesen, Marcia G; Mousa, Shaker A; Clark, Richard A F

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated event involving complex, dynamic interactions between microvascular endothelial cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Alteration of ECM composition and architecture is a hallmark feature of wound clot and tumor stroma. We previously reported that during angiogenesis, endothelial cell responses to growth factors are modulated by the compositional and mechanical properties of a surrounding three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) that is dominated by either cross-linked fibrin or type I collagen. However, the role of 3D ECM in the regulation of angiogenesis associated with wound healing and tumor growth is not well defined. This study investigates the correlation of sprout angiogenesis and ECM microenvironment using in vivo and in vitro 3D angiogenesis models. It demonstrates that fibrin and type I collagen 3D matrices differentially but synergistically regulate sprout angiogenesis. Thus blocking both integrin alpha v beta 3 and integrin alpha 2 beta 1 might be a novel strategy to synergistically block sprout angiogenesis in solid tumors.

  16. Relating structure and composition with accessibility of a single catalyst particle using correlative 3-dimensional micro-spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yijin; Meirer, Florian; Krest, Courtney M.; ...

    2016-08-30

    To understand how hierarchically structured functional materials operate, analytical tools are needed that can reveal small structural and chemical details in large sample volumes. Often, a single method alone is not sufficient to get a complete picture of processes happening at multiple length scales. Here we present a correlative approach combining three-dimensional X-ray imaging techniques at different length scales for the analysis of metal poisoning of an individual catalyst particle. The correlative nature of the data allowed establishing a macro-pore network model that interprets metal accumulations as a resistance to mass transport and can, by tuning the effect of metalmore » deposition, simulate the response of the network to a virtual ageing of the catalyst particle. In conclusion, the developed approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view on dynamic changes in a material’s pore space, which is an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials.« less

  17. Effects of different abutment connection designs on the stress distribution around five different implants: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Balik, Ali; Karatas, Meltem Ozdemir; Keskin, Haluk

    2012-09-01

    The stability of the bone-implant interface is required for the long-term favorable clinical outcome of implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation. The implant failures that occur after the functional loading are mainly related to biomechanical factors. Micro movements and vibrations due to occlusal forces can lead to mechanical complications such as loosening of the screw and fractures of the abutment or implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the strain distributions in the connection areas of different implant-abutment connection systems under similar loading conditions. Five different implant-abutment connection designs from 5 different manufacturers were evaluated in this study. The investigation was performed with software using the finite element method. The geometrical modeling of the implant systems was done with CATIA virtual design software. The MSC NASTRAN solver and PATRAN postprocessing program were used to perform the linear static solution. According to the analysis, the implant-abutment connection system with external hexagonal connection showed the highest strain values, and the internal hexagonal implant-abutment connection system showed the lowest strain values. Conical + internal hexagonal and screw-in implant abutment connection interface is more successful than other systems in cases with increased vertical dimension, particularly in the posterior region.

  18. Application of 3-dimensional radiation transport codes to the analysis of the CRBR prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chatani, K. )

    1992-08-01

    This report summarizes the calculational results from analyses of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment Comparisons of calculated and measured results are presented, major emphasis being placed on results at bends in the chaseway. Calculations were performed with three three-dimensional radiation transport codes: the discrete ordinates code TORT and the Monte Carlo code MORSE, both developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the discrete ordinates code ENSEMBLE, developed by Japan. The calculated results from the three codes are compared (1) with previously-calculated DOT3.5 two-dimensional results, (2) among themselves, and (3) with measured results. Calculations with TORT used both the weighted-difference and nodal methods. Only the weighted-difference method was used in ENSEMBLE. When the calculated results were compared to measured results, it was found that calculation-to-experiment (C/E) ratios were good in the regions of the chaseway where two-dimensional modeling might be difficult and where there were no significant discrete ordinates ray effects. Excellent agreement was observed for responses dominated by thermal neutron contributions. MORSE-calculated results and comparisons are described also, and detailed results are presented in an appendix.

  19. S-matrices and integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombardelli, Diego

    2016-08-01

    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU(2), SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu models. In loving memory of Lilia Grandi.

  20. Protein Expression Differences of 2-Dimensional and Progressive 3-Dimensional Cell Cultures of Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer Cell Line H460.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Mohan, Divya K; Sahu, Bellona

    2016-11-18

    Non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) constitutes about 75-80% of lung cancers. The challenge to tackle cancers is in early diagnosis and arriving at safer therapeutic options. In vitro studies using cancer cell lines continue to contribute significantly in understanding cancers. Cell culture methods have evolved and the recent developments in 3 dimensional (3D) cell cultures are inducing greater resemblance of the in vitro cultured cells with in vivo conditions. In this study, we established 3D aggregates of H460 cell line on agarose hydrogels and studied the protein expression differences among cells grown as monolayers (2D) and the progressively developing 3D aggregates from days 2 to 10. Analysis included matching of those proteins expressed by the developing aggregates and the available literature on progressing tumors in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TriTel 3 dimensional space dosimetric telescope in the European Student Earth Orbiter project of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila

    2012-02-01

    The development of the European Student Earth Orbiter (ESEO) was announced in the year of 2008 by the European Space Agency for students interested in the space exploration. The Budapest University of Technology and Economics joined this international cooperation with three student groups among other participating European universities. One of them is the ESEO-TriTel team. The development of the TriTel 3D silicon detector telescope began in the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago in order to determine the average radiation quality factor of the space radiation field for dosimetric purposes. In the year 2011—before the start of the ESEO mission—it will be operated on board the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) and will be installed in the Russian segment of the ISS as well. The ESEO version of TriTel will fly higher than the ISS version, at an altitude of 520 km. At this altitude the Earth's geomagnetic field is much lower and the spectrum of the radiation field is also different. In the ESEO-TriTel experiment the anisotropies in the radiation field, the effects of the Earth shadow and the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) will be analysed and the results will be compared with the fluxes calculated with the standard AP-8 and AE-8 trapped proton and electron models. In the near future the frequency of manned space flights will probably increase, we can think of the continuous human presence in the near-Earth region (low Earth orbits) or the proposed human Mars expedition. That is why the cosmic radiation field is interesting not only in the near-Earth region but at higher altitudes or in the interplanetary field as well. The present paper addresses the optimal shielding of the dosimetric telescopes of TriTel in order to avoid the saturation of the electronics. The amount of optimal shielding is equivalent to the effective thickness of astronaut's space suit, which means that the same dose will be measured as what the

  2. Prediction of carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces with 3-dimensional probability density distributions of interacting atoms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Keng-Chang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Peng, Hung-Pin; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chen, Jun-Bo; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Non-covalent protein-carbohydrate interactions mediate molecular targeting in many biological processes. Prediction of non-covalent carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces not only provides insights into the functions of the query proteins; information on key carbohydrate-binding residues could suggest site-directed mutagenesis experiments, design therapeutics targeting carbohydrate-binding proteins, and provide guidance in engineering protein-carbohydrate interactions. In this work, we show that non-covalent carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces can be predicted with relatively high accuracy when the query protein structures are known. The prediction capabilities were based on a novel encoding scheme of the three-dimensional probability density maps describing the distributions of 36 non-covalent interacting atom types around protein surfaces. One machine learning model was trained for each of the 30 protein atom types. The machine learning algorithms predicted tentative carbohydrate binding sites on query proteins by recognizing the characteristic interacting atom distribution patterns specific for carbohydrate binding sites from known protein structures. The prediction results for all protein atom types were integrated into surface patches as tentative carbohydrate binding sites based on normalized prediction confidence level. The prediction capabilities of the predictors were benchmarked by a 10-fold cross validation on 497 non-redundant proteins with known carbohydrate binding sites. The predictors were further tested on an independent test set with 108 proteins. The residue-based Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) for the independent test was 0.45, with prediction precision and sensitivity (or recall) of 0.45 and 0.49 respectively. In addition, 111 unbound carbohydrate-binding protein structures for which the structures were determined in the absence of the carbohydrate ligands were predicted with the trained predictors. The overall

  3. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Recht, Abram; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  4. A small cosmological constant due to non-perturbative quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the ‘unnatural smallness’ of the cosmological constant, arguing that the stress-energy tensor of the Standard Model should be given by = ρvac ημν, with a vacuum energy ρvac that differs from the usual ‘dimensional analysis’ result by an exponentially small factor associated with non-perturbative effects. We substantiate our proposal by a rigorous analysis of a toy model, namely the two-dimensional Gross-Neveu model. The stress energy operator is constructed concretely via the operator-product-expansion, and the inherent ambiguities in its construction are carefully examined. Our result for the vacuum energy is then obtained from the assumptions that (a) the OPE-coefficients have an analytic dependence on g, which we propose to be a generic feature of QFT, and that (b) the vacuum energy vanishes to all orders in perturbation theory. Our result can also be interpreted as saying that, while the semi-classical Einstein’s equation can be fulfilled in Minkowski space at the perturbative level, it cannot at the non-perturbative level. Extrapolating our result from the Gross-Neveu model to the Standard Model, one would expect to find \\rho _vac\\sim \\Lambda ^4 e^{-O(1)/g^2}, where Λ is an energy scale such as Λ = MH, and g is a gauge coupling such as g2/4π = αEW. Assuming this extrapolation is justified, the exponentially small factor due to non-perturbative effects would explain why this quantity is tiny, instead of strictly zero.

  5. C T for non-unitary CFTs in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Hugh; Stergiou, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The coefficient C T of the conformal energy-momentum tensor two-point function is determined for the non-unitary scalar CFTs with four- and six-derivative kinetic terms. The results match those expected from large- N calculations for the CFTs arising from the O( N) non-linear sigma and Gross-Neveu models in specific even dimensions. C T is also calculated for the CFT arising from ( n - 1)-form gauge fields with derivatives in 2 n + 2 dimensions. Results for ( n - 1)-form theory extended to general dimensions as a non-gauge-invariant CFT are also obtained; the resulting C T differs from that for the gauge-invariant theory. The construction of conformal primaries by subtracting descendants of lower-dimension primaries is also discussed. For free theories this also leads to an alternative construction of the energy-momentum tensor, which can be quite involved for higher-derivative theories.

  6. 3-Dimensional Response of Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Composites 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. R. Soni, S. Chandrashekara, G. P . Tandon, U. Santhosh, T. Isiao 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPRT...any layer, these are U, V, W, 11, V , X, *, P , ,p2, s, , s 2 , t, , t2 where the first six refer to the weighted displacement functions and the three...0, U, V, H, al, , P , ,S and t1 . Additionally there were three extra variables p2N, s2N and t2 N in layer N (at the free surface of the laminate

  7. Advances in 3-dimensional braiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Cirrelia; Reid, Rona; El-Shiekh, Aly

    1992-01-01

    This paper encompasses an overview of the history of 3-D braiding and an in-depth survey of the most recent, technological advances in machine design and implementation. Its purpose is to review the major efforts of university and industry research and development into the successful machining of this textile process.

  8. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Thompson, Ann; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Kolsky, Michal Schneider; Devereux, Thomas; Lim, Andrew; Siva, Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimum isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.

  9. The value of 3-dimensional longitudinal strain in the evaluation of complex coronary lesions in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zekun; Dai, Jianwei; Wu, Dan; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Jun; Li, Guoying; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Hongqiang; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the value of 3-dimensional global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) derived from the 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the diagnosis of the complex non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) by comparing GPLS to the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score. A total of 59 inpatients with NSTE-ACS in our hospital between October 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled into our study. All these subjects underwent the coronary angiography (CAG) and 3D-STE examination. The results of CAG were used to calculate the SYNTAX scores in each subject. The GPLS was assessed with speckle-tracking analysis using the dedicated software developed by GE Healthcare (Horten, Norway). We grouped all subjects according to the SYNTAX scores. A total of 23 patients (39%) were grouped as complex NSTE-ACS in our experiment. In our analysis, the values of GPLS significantly decreased from low SYNTAX scores to intermediate or high SYNTAX scores (−14.0 ± 2.7% and −9.5 ± 2.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that GPLS and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for complex NSTE-ACS. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for GPLS to evaluate patients with complex NSTE-ACS was 0.882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.797–0.967, P < 0.001) with an optimal cutoff value of −11.76% (sensitivity 82.6% and specificity 83.3%). The evaluative value of the adjusted AUC for evaluating patients with complex NSTE-ACS improved after inclusion of GPLS (C statistics, 0.827–0.948, P < 0.001). The value of GPLS is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary artery lesions, according to SYNTAX score. Therefore, our study indicates that GPLS could be reproducible and efficient to evaluate the complex coronary artery disease in NSTE-ACS patients. PMID:27684797

  10. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kwon, Sojung; Nam, Seo Hee; Jung, Jae Woo; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Ji Eon; Cheong, Jin-Gyu; Cho, Chang Yun; Kim, Somi; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Tai Young; Jung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jung Weon

    2017-04-01

    Membrane proteins sense extracellular cues and transduce intracellular signaling to coordinate directionality and speed during cellular migration. They are often localized to specific regions, as with lipid rafts or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains; however, the dynamic interactions of tetraspanins with diverse receptors within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains on cellular surfaces remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of tetraspan(in) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5)-enriched microdomains (T5ERMs) on the directionality of cell migration. Physical association of TM4SF5 with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin α5 was visualized by live fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and higher-resolution microscopy at the leading edge of migratory cells, presumably forming TM4SF5-enriched microdomains. Whereas TM4SF5 and EGFR colocalized at the migrating leading region more than at the rear, TM4SF5 and integrin α5 colocalized evenly throughout cells. Cholesterol depletion and disruption in TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, including N-glycosylation and palmitoylation, altered TM4SF5 interactions and cellular localization, which led to less cellular migration speed and directionality in 2- or 3-dimensional conditions. TM4SF5 controlled directional cell migration and invasion, and importantly, these TM4SF5 functions were dependent on cholesterol, TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, and EGFR and integrin α5 activity. Altogether, we showed that TM4SF5 dynamically interacted with EGFR and integrin α5 in migratory cells to control directionality and invasion.-Kim, H.-J., Kwon, S., Nam, S. H., Jung, J. W., Kang, M., Ryu, J., Kim, J. E., Cheong, J.-G., Cho, C. Y., Kim, S., Song, D.-G., Kim, Y.-N., Kim, T. Y., Jung, M.-K., Lee, K.-M., Pack, C.-G., Lee, J. W. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

  11. Mechanism reduction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol for integration into a 3-dimensional regional Air Quality Model: α-pinene oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, A. G.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Makar, P. A.

    2008-07-01

    A detailed α-pinene oxidation mechanism was reduced systematically through the successive application of five mechanism reduction techniques. The resulting reduced mechanism preserves the ozone- and organic aerosol-forming properties of the original mechanism, while using less species. The methodologies employed included a directed relation graph method with error propagation (DRGEP, which removed a large number of redundant species and reactions), principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix (PCA, used to remove unnecessary reactions), the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA, used to remove some QSS species), an iterative screening method (ISSA, which removes redundant species and reactions simultaneously), and a new lumping approach dependant on the hydrocarbon to NOx ratio (which reduced the number of species in mechanism subsets for specific hydrocarbon to NOx ranges). This multistage methodology results in a reduction ratio of 2.5 for the number of both species and reactions compared with the full mechanism. The simplified mechanism reproduces the important gas and aerosol phase species (the latter are examined in detail by individual condensing species as well as in classes according to four functional groups: PANs, nitrates, organic peroxides, and organic acids). The total SOA mass is also well represented in the condensed mechanism, to within 16% of the detailed mechanism under a wide range of conditions. The methodology described here is general, and may be used in general mechanism reduction problems.

  12. Mechanism reduction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol for integration into a 3-dimensional regional air quality model: α-pinene oxidation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, A. G.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Makar, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed α-pinene oxidation mechanism was reduced systematically through the successive application of five mechanism reduction techniques. The resulting reduced mechanism preserves the ozone- and organic aerosol-forming properties of the original mechanism, while using less species. The methodologies employed included a directed relation graph method with error propagation (DRGEP, which removed a large number of redundant species and reactions), principal component analysis of the rate sensitivity matrix (PCA, used to remove unnecessary reactions), the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA, used to remove some QSS species), an iterative screening method (ISSA, which removes redundant species and reactions simultaneously), and a new lumping approach dependent on the hydrocarbon to NOx ratio (which reduced the number of species in mechanism subsets for specific hydrocarbon to NOx ranges). This multistage methodology results in a reduction ratio of 2.5 for the number of both species and reactions compared with the full mechanism. The simplified mechanism reproduces the important gas and aerosol phase species (the latter are examined in detail by individual condensing species as well as in classes according to four functional groups: PANs, nitrates, organic peroxides, and organic acids). The total SOA mass is also well represented in the condensed mechanism, to within 16% of the detailed mechanism under a wide range of conditions. The methodology described here is general, and may be used in general mechanism reduction problems.

  13. Inter-observer agreement between 2-dimensional CT versus 3-dimensional I-Space model in the Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Drijkoningen, Tessa; Knoter, Robert; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Beeres, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The I-Space is a radiological imaging system in which Computed Tomography (CT)-scans can be evaluated as a three dimensional hologram. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of virtual reality (I-Space) in diagnosing acute occult scaphoid fractures. Methods: A convenient cohort of 24 patients with a CT-scan from prior studies, without a scaphoid fracture on radiograph, yet high clinical suspicion of a fracture, were included in this study. CT-scans were evaluated in the I-Space by 7 observers of which 3 observers assessed the scans in the I-Space twice. The observers in this study assessed in the I-Space whether the patient had a scaphoid fracture. The kappa value was calculated for inter- and intra-observer agreement. Results: The Kappa value varied from 0.11 to 0.33 for the first assessment. For the three observers who assessed the CT-scans twice; observer 1 improved from a kappa of 0.33 to 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.74, P=0.01), observer 2 from 0.17 to 0.78 (95% CI 0.36-1.0, P<0.001), and observer 3 from 0.11 to 0.24 (95% CI 0.0-0.77, P=0.24). Conclusion: Following our findings the I-Space has a fast learning curve and has a potential place in the diagnostic modalities for suspected scaphoid fractures. PMID:27847847

  14. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  15. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of the skin-sparing effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jo, In Young; Kim, Shin-Wook; Son, Seok Hyun

    2017-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skin-sparing effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with early left-sided breast cancer. Twenty left breast cancer patients treated with whole breast radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study, and the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were generated for each patient. To evaluate the dose delivered to the skin, 2 mm thickness skin (2-mm skin) and 3 mm thickness skin (3-mm skin) were contoured and a dosimetric comparison between the 2 plans was performed. The target volume coverage was better in IMRT than in 3D-CRT. The mean dose was 50.8 Gy for 3D-CRT and 51.1 Gy for IMRT. V40Gy was 99.4% for 3D-CRT and 99.9% for IMRT. In the case of skin, the mean dose was higher in 3D-CRT than in IMRT (mean dose of 2-mm skin: 32.8 Gy and 24.2 Gy; mean dose of 3-mm skin: 37.2 Gy and 27.8 Gy, for 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively). These results indicated that the skin-sparing effect is more prominent in IMRT compared to 3D-CRT without compromising the target volume coverage.

  17. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Gastric Cancer: A Dosimetric Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Tomotherapy (registered) and Conventional Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dahele, Max; Skinner, Matthew; Schultz, Brenda; Cardoso, Marlene; Bell, Chris; Ung, Yee C.

    2010-07-01

    Some patients with gastric cancer benefit from post-operative chemo-radiotherapy, but adequately irradiating the planning target volume (PTV) whilst avoiding organs at risk (OAR) can be difficult. We evaluate 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (CRT), conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (TT). TT, 2 and 5-field (F) CRT and IMRT treatment plans with the same PTV coverage were generated for 5 patients and compared. Median values are reported. The volume of left/right kidney receiving at least 20Gy (V20) was 57/51% and 51/60% for 2 and 5F-CRT, and 28/14% for TT and 27/19% for IMRT. The volume of liver receiving at least 30Gy (V30) was 45% and 62% for 2 and 5F-CRT, and 37% for TT and 35% for IMRT. With TT, 98% of the PTV received 95-105% of the prescribed dose, compared with 45%, 34% and 28% for 2F-CRT, 5F-CRT and IMRT respectively. Using conventional metrics, conventional IMRT can achieve comparable PTV coverage and OAR sparing to TT, but at the expense of PTV dose heterogeneity. Both irradiate large volumes of normal tissue to low doses. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical impact of these technologies.

  18. Use of Multi-Level Wells in Developing a 3-Dimensional Understanding of Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Migration at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K M; Nichols, R L; Flach, G P; Sappington, F; Simmons, J L; Betivas, C R; Shoffner, L R; Falise, F R

    2003-02-25

    Understanding the flow of groundwater and contaminants in 3-dimensions, along with hydraulic properties, is instrumental in selection and implementation of successful remediation efforts. Advances in multi-level groundwater monitoring at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are enabling engineers and geologists to collect the needed characterization data in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The SRS has developed a new multi-level groundwater monitoring well, "StrataSampler", which is being deployed for characterization and monitoring at several large groundwater plumes on the SRS. The installation method used allowed collection of data during the drilling process allowing optimization of screen placement within the aquifers and minimization of drilling costs and waste generation. Data generated during the installation of the StrataSamplers along with data collected from the installed wells is being used to understand the 3-dimensional nature of contaminant fate and transport. The L-Area Southern Groundwater Operable Unit is the first full-scale deployment of StrataSampler wells at SRS. Twenty-two StrataSampler wells with a total of 52 sampling zones were installed. The installation, development, hydraulic testing, sampling of the StrataSamplers at this unit and the resulting understanding of the contaminant plumes will be discussed in the paper and presentation.

  19. Application of Curved MPR Algorithm to High Resolution 3 Dimensional T2 Weighted CISS Images for Virtual Uncoiling of Membranous Cochlea as an Aid for Cochlear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Y

    2017-01-01

    Introduction With the use of various surgical techniques, types of implants, the preoperative assessment of cochlear dimensions is becoming increasingly relevant prior to cochlear implantation. High resolution CISS protocol MRI gives a better assessment of membranous cochlea, cochlear nerve, and membranous labyrinth. Curved Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR) algorithm provides better images that can be used for measuring dimensions of membranous cochlea. Aim To ascertain the value of curved multiplanar reconstruction algorithm in high resolution 3-Dimensional T2 Weighted Gradient Echo Constructive Interference Steady State (3D T2W GRE CISS) imaging for accurate morphometry of membranous cochlea. Materials and Methods Fourteen children underwent MRI for inner ear assessment. High resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS sequence was used to obtain images of cochlea. Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm was used to virtually uncoil the membranous cochlea on the volume images and cochlear measurements were done. Results Virtually uncoiled images of membranous cochlea of appropriate resolution were obtained from the volume data obtained from the high resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS images, after using curved MPR reconstruction algorithm mean membranous cochlear length in the children was 27.52 mm. Maximum apical turn diameter of membranous cochlea was 1.13 mm, mid turn diameter was 1.38 mm, basal turn diameter was 1.81 mm. Conclusion Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm applied to CISS protocol images facilitates in getting appropriate quality images of membranous cochlea for accurate measurements. PMID:28384958

  20. Optic Strut and Para-clinoid Region – Assessment by Multi-detector Computed Tomography with Multiplanar and 3 Dimensional Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Ravikiran, S.R.; Kumar, Ashvini; Chavadi, Channabasappa; Pulastya, Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate thickness, location and orientation of optic strut and anterior clinoid process and variations in paraclinoid region, solely based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images with multiplanar (MPR) and 3 dimensional (3D) reconstructions, among Indian population. Materials and Methods Ninety five CT scans of head and paranasal sinuses patients were retrospectively evaluated with MPR and 3D reconstructions to assess optic strut thickness, angle and location, variations like pneumatisation, carotico-clinoid foramen and inter-clinoid osseous ridge. Results Mean optic strut thickness was 3.64mm (±0.64), optic strut angle was 42.67 (±6.16) degrees. Mean width and length of anterior clinoid process were 10.65mm (±0.79) and 11.20mm (±0.95) respectively. Optic strut attachment to sphenoid body was predominantly sulcal as in 52 cases (54.74%) and was most frequently attached to anterior 2/5th of anterior clinoid process, seen in 93 sides (48.95%). Pneumatisation of optic strut occurred in 23 sides. Carotico-clinoid foramen was observed in 42 cases (22.11%), complete foramen in 10 cases (5.26%), incomplete foramen in 24 cases (12.63%) and contact type in 8 cases (4.21%). Inter-clinoid osseous bridge was seen unilaterally in 4 cases. Conclusion The study assesses morphometric features and anatomical variations of paraclinoid region using MDCT 3D and multiplanar reconstructions in Indian population. PMID:26557589

  1. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    PubMed

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  2. Regorafenib as a potential adjuvant chemotherapy agent in disseminated small colon cancer: Drug selection outcome of a novel screening system using nanoimprinting 3-dimensional culture with HCT116-RFP cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Aoyama, Hironori; Adachi, Naoya; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy following primary surgical treatment is suggested to be beneficial in eradicating invisible disseminated small tumors in colon cancer; however, an effective drug remains to be developed. Recently, we reported a novel drug screening system using a nanoimprinting 3-dimensional (3D) culture that creates multicellular spheroids, which simulate in vivo conditions and, thereby, predict effective drugs in vivo. This study aimed to perform drug selection using our recently developed 3D culture system in a human colon cancer HCT116 cell line stably expressing red fluorescent protein (HCT116-RFP), to determine the most effective agent in a selection of clinically used antitumor agents for colon cancer. In addition, we confirmed the efficacy of the selected drug regorafenib, in vivo using a mouse model of disseminated small tumors. HCT116-RFP cells were cultured using a nanoimprinting 3D culture and in vitro drug selection was performed with 8 clinically used drugs [bevacizumab, capecitabine, cetuximab, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan, oxaliplatin, panitumumab and regorafenib]. An in vivo study was performed in mice bearing HCT116-RFP intraperitoneally disseminated small tumors using 3'-[18F]-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine-positron emission tomography and fluorescence microscopy imaging to evaluate the therapeutic effects. Regorafenib was determined to be the most effective drug in the 3D culture, and significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo, compared to the untreated control and 5-FU-treated group. The drug 5-FU is commonly used in colon cancer treatment and was used as a reference. Our results demonstrate that regorafenib is a potentially efficacious adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of disseminated small colon cancer and, therefore, warrants further preclinical and clinical studies.

  3. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, James M. Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  4. Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Moon, Myeong Ho; Lee, Yong Hae; Koh, In Chang; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D) extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D) volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture. Methods This retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30) or the medial wall (group M, n=30). The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters. Results Varying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R2=32.2%−62.1%). Conclusions Both the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm3) occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm2). Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes. PMID:28194344

  5. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  6. Epicardial delivery of VEGF and cardiac stem cells guided by 3-dimensional PLLA mat enhancing cardiac regeneration and angiogenesis in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jung; Kyung, Hei-Won; Katila, Pramila; Lee, Jeong-Han; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Yang, Young-Il; Lee, Seung-Jin

    2015-05-10

    Congestive heart failure is mostly resulted in a consequence of the limited myocardial regeneration capacity after acute myocardial infarction. Targeted delivery of proangiogenic factors and/or stem cells to the ischemic myocardium is a promising strategy for enhancing their local and sustained therapeutic effects. Herein, we designed an epicardial delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mat applied to the acutely infarcted myocardium. The fibrous VEGF-loaded PLLA mat was fabricated by an electrospinning method using PLLA solution emulsified VEGF. This mat not only allowed for sustained release of VEGF for 4weeks but boosted migration and proliferation of both endothelial cells and CSCs in vitro. Furthermore, sustained release of VEGF showed a positive effect on in vitro capillary-like network formation of endothelial cells compared with bolus treatment of VEGF. PLLA mat provided a permissive 3-dimensional (3D) substratum that led to spontaneous cardiomyogenic differentiation of CSCs in vitro. Notably, sustained stimulation by VEGF-loaded PLLA mat resulted in a substantial increase in the expression of proangiogenic mRNAs of CSCs in vitro. The epicardially implanted VEGF-loaded PLLA mat showed modest effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in the acutely infarcted hearts. However, co-implantation of VEGF and CSCs using the PLLA mat showed meaningful therapeutic effects on angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis compared with controls, leading to reduced cardiac remodeling and enhanced global cardiac function. Collectively, the PLLA mat allowed a smart cargo that enabled the sustained release of VEGF and the delivery of CSCs, thereby synergistically inducing angiogenesis and cardiomyogenesis in acute myocardial infarction.

  7. One-Year Clinical and Radiological Results of a Prospective, Investigator-Initiated Trial Examining a Novel, Purely Autologous 3-Dimensional Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation Product in the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Gerwien, Philip; Helmert, Benjamin; Schattenberg, Torsten; Weckbach, Sabine; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta; Lehmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background: The 3-dimensional autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT3D) comprises isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, cultivation to spheroids, and transplantation into the cartilage defect. Objectives: To evaluate the patients’ general health and functionality and to assess the defect repair after ACT3D with spheroids by MRI and MOCART scoring. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with isolated chondral lesions of the knee underwent ACT3D with spheroids through medial arthrotomy. Patient-administered scores were assessed at baseline (day before transplantation), at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. MRI and MOCART scoring were performed at 3 and 12 months after ACT3D. Results: Patients were diagnosed with full-thickness patellofemoral (n = 16), femoral condylar (n = 18), or both defect types (n = 3), International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3 or 4, with defect sizes between 1.0 and 12.0 cm2. On average, 59.5 spheroids/cm2 in defect size were transplanted. An overall statistically significant improvement from baseline to 12 months was observed for all assessment scores (Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], SF-36, Tegner) combined with a significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and an advanced defect filling. Subgroup analyses revealed a positive clinical outcome independent on defect size, defect locations, spheroid dosage, age, duration of symptoms, and severity of complaints at baseline. Seven patients experienced in total 8 adverse events, of which knee joint effusion and blocking were assessed as possibly or probably related to ACT3D. Conclusions: The patient-administered assessment scores along with the fast defect filling with ACT3D using spheroids demonstrated an increase in activity level and quality of life after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:26069617

  8. Impact of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy and 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy/5-Fluorouracil on Quality of Life of Patients Managed for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Michala; Halkett, Georgia; Borg, Martin; Zissiadis, Yvonne; Kneebone, Andrew; Spry, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL) results for patients receiving chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients (n=41 locally advanced, n=22 postsurgery) entered the B9E-AY-S168 study and received 1 cycle of induction gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} weekly Multiplication-Sign 3 with 1-week break) followed by 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) (54 Gy locally advanced and 45 Gy postsurgery) and concomitant continuous-infusion 5-fluorouracil (5FU) (200 mg/m{sup 2}/d throughout RT). After 4 weeks, patients received an additional 3 cycles of consolidation gemcitabine chemotherapy. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires at baseline, before RT/5FU, at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion. Results: The patterns of change in global QOL scores differed between groups. In the locally advanced group global QOL scores were +13, +8, +3, and +1 compared with baseline before RT/5FU (P=.008), at end of RT/5FU, before consolidation gemcitabine, and at treatment completion, respectively. In the postsurgery group, global QOL scores were -3, +4, +15, and +17 compared with baseline at the same time points, with a significant improvement in global QOL before consolidation gemcitabine (P=.03). No significant declines in global QOL were reported by either cohort. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that global QOL and associated function and symptom profiles for pancreatic chemoradiation therapy differ between locally advanced and postsurgery patients, likely owing to differences in underlying disease status. For both groups, the treatment protocol was well tolerated and did not have a negative impact on patients' global QOL.

  9. Clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated by FDG-PET/CT-based 3-dimensional planning for the first brachytherapy session

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Ju, Sang Gyu; Nam, Heerim; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided 3-dimensional brachytherapy (3D-BT) planning for the first brachytherapy session. We retrospectively analyzed 87 patients with cervical cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT). Primary tumor size was ≤4 cm in 22 patients (25.3%), >4 cm and ≤6 cm in 45 patients (51.7%), and >6 cm in 20 patients (23.0%). The median total dose of external beam RT was 50.4 (50.4–60.4) Gy. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT with an iridium-192 source was performed. The clinical target volume (CTV) for 3D-BT included the entire cervix and the abnormal FDG-uptake with a 1-cm expansion. A planned total dose was 24 Gy at 4 Gy per insertion 3 times per week using a tandem and 2 ovoids. The mean D95 and D90 for the CTV were 73.4 (±5.9) Gy and 77.9 (±6.9) Gy, respectively (EQD2, α/β=10). The D2cc for the rectum and bladder was 374 (±97.4) cGy and 394 (±107.6) cGy per fraction, respectively. The EQD2 (α/β=3) for the D2cc was 74.5 (±12.4) Gy for the rectum and 77.3 (±14.6) Gy for the bladder. The median follow-up period was 40 (8–61) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rates were 84.7%, 72.1%, and 89.2%, respectively. The 3-year LC rate was 100% for tumors ≤ 4 cm, 91.1% for tumors > 4 cm and ≤ 6 cm, and 70.5% for tumors > 6 cm (P = 0.014). Local failure developed in 9 patients. Three patients had local failures outside of the CTV. Grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal bleeding developed in 5, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. One patient experienced rectovaginal fistula. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT planning is a feasible approach, which showed favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:27336876

  10. Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for pancreatic malignancies: Dosimetric comparison with sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nabavizadeh, Nima Simeonova, Anna O.; Waller, Joseph G.; Romer, Jeanna L.; Monaco, Debra L.; Elliott, David A.; Tanyi, James A.; Fuss, Martin; Thomas, Charles R.; Holland, John M.

    2014-10-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) is an iteration of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), both of which deliver highly conformal dose distributions. Studies have shown the superiority of VMAT and IMRT in comparison with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs-at-risk (OARs) sparing. This is the first study examining the benefits of VMAT in pancreatic cancer for doses more than 55.8 Gy. A planning study comparing 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT was performed in 20 patients with pancreatic cancer. Treatments were planned for a 25-fraction delivery of 45 Gy to a large field followed by a reduced-volume 8-fraction external beam boost to 59.4 Gy in total. OARs and PTV doses, conformality index (CI) deviations from 1.0, monitor units (MUs) delivered, and isodose volumes were compared. IMRT and VMAT CI deviations from 1.0 for the large-field and the boost plans were equivalent (large field: 0.032 and 0.046, respectively; boost: 0.042 and 0.037, respectively; p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Both IMRT and VMAT CI deviations from 1.0 were statistically superior to 3D-CRT (large field: 0.217, boost: 0.177; p < 0.05 for all comparisons). VMAT showed reduction of the mean dose to the boost PTV (VMAT: 61.4 Gy, IMRT: 62.4 Gy, and 3D-CRT: 62.3 Gy; p < 0.05). The mean number of MUs per fraction was significantly lower for VMAT for both the large-field and the boost plans. VMAT delivery time was less than 3 minutes compared with 8 minutes for IMRT. Although no statistically significant dose reduction to the OARs was identified when comparing VMAT with IMRT, VMAT showed a reduction in the volumes of the 100% isodose line for the large-field plans. Dose escalation to 59.4 Gy in pancreatic cancer is dosimetrically feasible with shorter treatment times, fewer MUs delivered, and comparable CIs for VMAT when compared with IMRT.

  11. Utility of 3-dimensional echocardiography, global longitudinal strain, and exercise stress echocardiography to detect cardiac dysfunction in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Khouri, Michel G; Hornsby, Whitney E; Risum, Niels; Velazquez, Eric J; Thomas, Samantha; Lane, Amy; Scott, Jessica M; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Herndon, James E; Mackey, John R; Douglas, Pamela S; Jones, Lee W

    2014-02-01

    Conventional resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessments have limitations for detecting doxorubicin (DOX)-related cardiac dysfunction. Novel resting echocardiographic parameters, including 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and global longitudinal strain (GLS), have potential for early identification of chemotherapy-related myocardial injury. Exercise "stress" is an established method to uncover impairments in cardiac function but has received limited attention in the adult oncology setting. We evaluated the utility of an integrated approach using 3DE, GLS, and exercise stress echocardiography for detecting subclinical cardiac dysfunction in early breast cancer patients treated with DOX-containing chemotherapy. Fifty-seven asymptomatic women with early breast cancer (mean 26 ± 22 months post-chemotherapy) and 20 sex-matched controls were studied. Resting left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by LVEF using 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and 3DE and by GLS using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). After resting assessments, subjects completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with stress 2DE. Resting LVEF was lower in patients than controls by 3DE (55 ± 4 vs. 59 ± 5 %; p = 0.005) but not 2DE (56 ± 4 vs. 58 ± 3 %; p = 0.169). 10 of 51 (20 %) patients had GLS greater than or equal to -17 %, which was below the calculated lower limit of normal (control mean 2SD); this patient subgroup had a mean 20 % impairment in GLS (-16.1 ± 0.9 vs. -20.1 ± 1.5 %; p < 0.001), despite similar LVEF by 2DE and 3DE compared to controls (p > 0.05). Cardiopulmonary function (VO2peak) was 20 % lower in patients than controls (p < 0.001). Exercise stress 2DE assessments of stroke volume (61 ± 11 vs. 69 ± 15 ml; p = 0.018) and cardiac index (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 3.1 ± 0.8 l min(-1) m(-2) mean increase; p = 0.003) were lower in patients than controls. Post-exercise increase in cardiac index predicted VO2peak (r = 0.429, p = 0

  12. Microfluidic cell culture chip with multiplexed medium delivery and efficient cell/scaffold loading mechanisms for high-throughput perfusion 3-dimensional cell culture-based assays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Siou; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2011-06-01

    This study reports a microfluidic cell culture chip consisting of 48 microbioreactors for high-throughput perfusion 3-dimensional (3-D) cell culture-based assays. Its advantages include the capability for multiplexed and backflow-free medium delivery, and both efficient and high-throughput micro-scale, 3-D cell culture construct loading. In this work, the microfluidic cell culture chip is fabricated using two major processes, specifically, a computer-numerical-controlled (CNC) mold machining process and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication process. The chip is composed of micropumps, microbioreactors, connecting microchannels and a cell/agarose scaffold loading mechanism. The performance of the new pneumatic micropumps and the cell/agarose scaffold loading mechanism has been experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that this proposed multiplexed medium-pumping design is able to provide a uniform pumping rate ranging from 1.5 to 298.3 μl hr(-1) without any fluid backflow and the resultant medium contamination. In addition, the simple cell/agarose loading method has been proven to be able to load the 3-D cell culture construct uniformly and efficiently in all 48 microbioreactors investigated. Furthermore, a micro-scale, perfusion, 3-D cell culture-based assay has been successfully demonstrated using this proposed cell culture chip. The experimental results are also compared to a similar evaluation using a conventional static 3-D cell culture with a larger scale culture. It is concluded that the choice of a cell culture format can influence assay results. As a whole, because of the inherent advantages of a miniaturized perfusion 3-D cell culture assay, the cell culture chip not only can provide a stable, well-defined and more biologically-meaningful culture environment, but it also features a low consumption of research resources. Moreover, due to the integrated medium pumping mechanism and the simple cell/agarose loading method, this chip is

  13. The Effect of Dose-Volume Parameters and Interfraction Interval on Cosmetic Outcome and Toxicity After 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Kara Lynne; Hepel, Jaroslaw T.; Hiatt, Jessica R.; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wazer, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose-volume parameters and the interfraction interval (IFI) as they relate to cosmetic outcome and normal tissue effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Eighty patients were treated by the use of 3D-CRT to deliver APBI at our institutions from 2003-2010 in strict accordance with the specified dose-volume constraints outlined in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 (NSABP-B39/RTOG 0413) protocol. The prescribed dose was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions delivered twice daily. Patients underwent follow-up with assessment for recurrence, late toxicity, and overall cosmetic outcome. Tests for association between toxicity endpoints and dosimetric parameters were performed with the chi-square test. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of interfraction interval (IFI) with these outcomes. Results: At a median follow-up time of 32 months, grade 2-4 and grade 3-4 subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 31% and 7.5% of patients, respectively. Subcutaneous fibrosis improved in 5 patients (6%) with extended follow-up. Fat necrosis developed in 11% of women, and cosmetic outcome was fair/poor in 19%. The relative volume of breast tissue receiving 5%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% (V5-V100) of the prescribed dose was associated with risk of subcutaneous fibrosis, and the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% (V50-V100) was associated with fair/poor cosmesis. The mean IFI was 6.9 hours, and the minimum IFI was 6.2 hours. The mean and minimum IFI values were not significantly associated with late toxicity. Conclusions: The incidence of moderate to severe late toxicity, particularly subcutaneous fibrosis and fat necrosis and resulting fair/poor cosmesis, remains high with continued follow-up. These toxicity endpoints are associated with several dose-volume parameters. Minimum and mean IFI values were

  14. 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla for Early Response Assessment of Glioblastoma Patients During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Muruganandham, Manickam; Clerkin, Patrick P.; Smith, Brian J.; Anderson, Carryn M.; Morris, Ann; Capizzano, Aristides A.; Magnotta, Vincent; McGuire, Sarah M.; Smith, Mark C.; Bayouth, John E.; Buatti, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) proton spectroscopic imaging for treatment planning and its implications for early response assessment in glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma had 3D-MR proton spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) along with T2 and T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR images at simulation and at boost treatment planning after 17 to 20 fractions of radiation therapy. All patients received standard radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide. Imaging for response assessment consisted of MR scans every 2 months. Progression-free survival was defined by the criteria of MacDonald et al. MRSI images obtained at initial simulation were analyzed for choline/N-acetylaspartate ratios (Cho/NAA) on a voxel-by-voxel basis with abnormal activity defined as Cho/NAA ≥2. These images were compared on anatomically matched MRSI data collected after 3 weeks of RT. Changes in Cho/NAA between pretherapy and third-week RT scans were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests and correlated with progression-free survival, radiation dose and location of recurrence using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: After a median follow-up time of 8.6 months, 50% of patients had experienced progression based on imaging. Patients with a decreased or stable mean or median Cho/NAA values had less risk of progression (P<.01). Patients with an increase in mean or median Cho/NAA values at the third-week RT scan had a significantly greater chance of early progression (P<.01). An increased Cho/NAA at the third-week MRSI scan carried a hazard ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.71; P=.03). Most patients received the prescription dose of RT to the Cho/NAA ≥2 volume, where recurrence most often occurred. Conclusion: Change in mean and median Cho/NAA detected at 3 weeks was a significant predictor of

  15. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4° to 77.8°, the average SNB from 89.2° to 81.1°, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7° to 11.4°. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8° to 155.9° (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis.

  16. Effects of a Herbal Medicine, Yukgunja-Tang, on Functional Dyspepsia Patients Classified by 3-Dimensional Facial Measurement: A Study Protocol for Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo-Hyung; Yeo, Inkwon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Functional dyspepsia (FD), a common upper gastrointestinal disease, is difficult to manage because of the limitations of current conventional treatments. Yukgunja-tang (YGJT) is widely used to treat FD in clinical practice in Korea, Japan, and China. However, YGJT significantly improves few symptoms of FD. In Korean medicine, FD is a well-known functional gastric disease that shows difference in the effect of herbal medicine depending on constitution or type of Korean medicine diagnosis. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement using a 3-dimensional facial shape diagnostic system (3-FSDS). Methods. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-center trial will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients. Eligible subjects will be initially classified as two types by 3-dimensional facial measurement using the 3-FSDS. Ninety-six subjects (48 subjects per each type) will be enrolled. These subjects will be randomly allocated into treatment or control groups in a 2 : 1 ratio. YGJT or placebo will be administered to each group during the 8-week treatment period. The primary outcome is total dyspepsia symptom scale, and the secondary outcomes include single dyspepsia symptom scale, proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief, visual analog scale, Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version, functional dyspepsia-related quality of life, and spleen qi deficiency questionnaire. Discussion. This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement. We will compare the treatment effect of the YGJT on FD patients classified as two types using the 3-FSDS. The results of this trial will help the FD patients improve the symptoms and quality of life effectively and provide objective evidence for prescribing the YGJT to FD patients in clinical practice. Trial Registration. This

  17. 3-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements and direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor computers - Part II: direct data-space inverse solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.

    2016-01-01

    Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.

  18. Evaluation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion techniques in the rat by in-vitro 3-dimensional micro- and nano computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. Methods 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm)3 or nano-CT at 500 nm3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. The arterial vascular volume fraction and gray scale attenuation was determined and the significance of differences in measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Results Micro-CT provided quantitative information on vascular morphology. Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased significantly (p < 0.001), independently of the number of macrospheres, and was comparable to the suture method. We established gray scale measurements by which focal cerebral ischemia could be radiographically categorized (p < 0.001). Nano-CT imaging demonstrates collateral perfusion related to different occluded vessel territories after macrosphere perfusion. Conclusion Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. PMID:20509884

  19. Effects of gape and tooth position on bite force and skull stress in the dingo (Canis lupus dingo) using a 3-dimensional finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jason; Wroe, Stephen; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin; Clausen, Philip

    2008-05-21

    Models of the mammalian jaw have predicted that bite force is intimately linked to jaw gape and to tooth position. Despite widespread use, few empirical studies have provided evidence to validate these models in non-human mammals and none have considered the influence of gape angle on the distribution of stress. Here using a multi-property finite element (FE) model of Canis lupus dingo, we examined the influence of gape angle and bite point on both bite force and cranial stress. Bite force data in relation to jaw gape and along the tooth row, are in broad agreement with previously reported results. However stress data showed that the skull of C. l. dingo is mechanically suited to withstand stresses at wide gapes; a result that agreed well with previously held views regarding carnivoran evolution. Stress data, combined with bite force information, suggested that there is an optimal bite angle of between 25 degrees and 35 degrees in C. l. dingo. The function of these rather small bite angles remains unclear.

  20. 3-Dimensional Patient-Derived Lung Cancer Assays Reveal Resistance to Standards-of-Care Promoted by Stromal Cells but Sensitivity to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Onion, David; Argent, Richard H; Reece-Smith, Alexander M; Craze, Madeleine L; Pineda, Robert G; Clarke, Philip A; Ratan, Hari L; Parsons, Simon L; Lobo, Dileep N; Duffy, John P; Atherton, John C; McKenzie, Andrew J; Kumari, Rajendra; King, Peter; Hall, Brett M; Grabowska, Anna M

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition that current preclinical models do not reflect the tumor microenvironment in cellular, biological, and biophysical content and this may have a profound effect on drug efficacy testing, especially in the era of molecular-targeted agents. Here, we describe a method to directly embed low-passage patient tumor-derived tissue into basement membrane extract, ensuring a low proportion of cell death to anoikis and growth complementation by coculture with patient-derived cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). A range of solid tumors proved amenable to growth and pharmacologic testing in this 3D assay. A study of 30 early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens revealed high levels of de novo resistance to a large range of standard-of-care agents, while histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and their combination with antineoplastic drugs displayed high levels of efficacy. Increased resistance was seen in the presence of patient-derived CAFs for many agents, highlighting the utility of the assay for tumor microenvironment-educated drug testing. Standard-of-care agents showed similar responses in the 3D ex vivo and patient-matched in vivo models validating the 3D-Tumor Growth Assay (3D-TGA) as a high-throughput screen for close-to-patient tumors using significantly reduced animal numbers. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 753-63. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Wind-tunnel tests on a 3-dimensional fixed-geometry scramjet inlet at M = 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. N.; Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a baseline scramjet inlet model having fixed geometry and swept leading edges at M = 2.30, 2.96, 3.95, and 4.60 in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The unit Reynolds number of the tests was held constant at 6.56 million per meter (2 million per foot). The objectives of the tests were to establish inlet performance and starting characteristics in the lower Mach number range of operation (less than M = 5). Surface pressures obtained on the inlet components are presented, along with the results of the internal flow surveys made at the throat and capture stations of the inlet. Contour plots of the inlet-flow-field parameters such as Mach numbers, pressure recovery, flow capture, local static and total pressure ratios at the survey stations are shown for the test Mach numbers.

  2. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  3. Comparison between a reanalyzed product by 3-dimensional variational assimilation technique and observations in the Ulleung Basin of the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Ho; Chang, Kyung-Il; Park, Jong Jin; Park, Seon Ki; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Gyu; Jung, Kyung Tae; Kim, Kuh

    2009-09-01

    Reanalyzed products from a MOM3-based East Sea Regional Ocean Model with a 3-dimentional variational data assimilation module (DA-ESROM), have been compared with the observed hydrographic and current datasets in the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East/Japan Sea (EJS). Satellite-borne sea surface temperature and sea surface height data, and in-situ temperature profiles have been assimilated into the DA-ESROM. The performance of the DA-ESROM appears to be efficient enough to be used in an operational ocean forecast system. Comparing with the results from Mitchell et al. [Mitchell, D. A., Watts, D. R., Wimbush, M., Teague, W.J., Tracey, K. L., Book, J. W., Chang, K.-I., Suk, M.-S., Yoon, J.-H., 2005a. Upper circulation patterns in the Ulleung Basin. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1617-1638.], the DA-ESROM fairly well simulates the high variability of the Ulleung Warm Eddy and Dok Cold Eddy as well as the branching of the Tsushima Warm Current in the UB. The overall root-mean-square error between 100 m temperature field reproduced by the DA-ESROM and the observed 100-dbar temperature field is 2.1 °C, and the spatially averaged grid-to-grid correlation between the two temperature fields is high with a mean value of 0.79 for the inter-comparison period. The DA-ESROM reproduces the development of strong southward North Korean Cold Current (NKCC) in summer consistent with the observational results, which is thought to be an improvement of the previous numerical models in the EJS. The reanalyzed products show that the NKCC is about 35 km wide, and flows southward along the Korean coast from spring to summer with maximum monthly mean volume transport of about 0.8 Sv in August-September.

  4. M-BAND analysis of chromosome aberration induced by Fe-ions in human epithelial cells cultured in 3-dimensional matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied lowand high-LET radiationinduced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D cellular environment in vitro can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137 Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultured at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference of the chromosome aberration yield between 2D and 3D cell cultures for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures

  5. M-BAND Analysis of Chromosome Aberration Induced by Fe-Ions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured in 3-Dimensional Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions pose a great health risk to astronauts in extended ISS and future lunar and Mars missions. High-LET heavy ions are particularly effective in causing various biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts and cancer induction. Most of these biological endpoints are closely related to chromosomal damage, which can be utilized as a biomarker for radiation insults. Previously, we had studied low- and high-LET radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells cultured in 2-dimension (2D) using the multicolor banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. However, it has been realized that the biological response to radiation insult in a 2D cellular environment in vitro can differ significantly from the response in 3-dimension (3D) or at the actual tissue level. In this study, we cultured human epithelial cells in 3D to provide a more suitable model for human tissue. Human mammary epithelia cells (CH184B5F5/M10) were grown in Matrigel to form 3D structures, and exposed to Fe-ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory or 137Cs-gamma radiation source at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. After exposure, cells were allowed to repair for 16hr before dissociation and subcultued at low density in 2D. G2 and metaphase chromosomes in the first cell cycle were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed using mBAND technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of interchromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intrachromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Our data indicate a significant difference of the chromosome aberration yield between 2D and 3D cell cultures for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures

  6. Stress and strain analysis of the bone-implant interface: a comparison of fiber-reinforced composite and titanium implants utilizing 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Akikazu; Ballo, Ahmed M; Lassila, Lippo V J; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Närhi, Timo O; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-03-01

    This study analyzed stress and strain mediated by 2 different implant materials, titanium (Ti) and experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), on the implant and on the bone tissue surrounding the implant. Three-dimensional finite element models constructed from a mandibular bone and an implant were subjected to a load of 50 N in vertical and horizontal directions. Postprocessing files allowed the calculation of stress and strain within the implant materials and stresses at the bone-to-implant interface (stress path). Maximum stress concentrations were located around the implant on the rim of the cortical bone in both implant materials; Ti and overall stresses decreased toward the Ti implant apex. In the FRC implant, a stress value of 0.6 to 2.0 MPa was detected not only on the screw threads but also on the implant surface between the threads. Clear differences were observed in the strain distribution between the materials. Based on the results, the vertical load stress range of the FRC implant was close to the stress level for optimal bone growth. Furthermore, the stress at the bone around the FRC implant was more evenly distributed than that with Ti implant.

  7. Solvent-Directed Sol-Gel Assembly of 3-Dimensional Graphene-Tented Metal Oxides and Strong Synergistic Disparities in Lithium Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Jianchao; An, Yonghao; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Tran, Ich C.; Liu, Yuanyue; Wood, Brandon C.; Biener, Juergen; Jiang, Hanqing; Tang, Ming; Wang, Y. Morris

    2016-03-21

    Graphene/metal oxide (GMO) nanocomposites promise a broad range of utilities for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), pseudocapacitors, catalysts, and sensors. When applied as anodes for LIBs, GMOs often exhibit high capacity, improved rate capability and cycling performance. Numerous studies have attributed these favorable properties to a passive role played by the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of graphene in enabling metal oxides (MOs) to achieve near-theoretical capacities. In contrast, the effects of MOs on the active lithium storage mechanisms of graphene remain enigmatic. Via a unique two-step solvent-directed sol-gel process, we have synthesized and directly compared the electrochemical performance of several representative GMOs, namely Fe2O3/graphene, SnO2/graphene, and TiO2/graphene. We observe that MOs can play an equally important role in empowering graphene to achieve large reversible lithium storage capacity. The magnitude of capacity improvement is found to scale roughly with the surface coverage of MOs, and depend sensitively on the type of MOs. We define a synergistic factor based on the capacity contributions. Our quantitative assessments indicate that the synergistic effect is most achievable in conversion-reaction GMOs (Fe2O3/graphene and SnO2/graphene) but not in intercalation-based TiO2/graphene. However, a long cycle stability up to 2000 cycles was observed in TiO2/graphene nanocomposites. We propose a surface coverage model to qualitatively rationalize the beneficial roles of MOs to graphene. Our first-principles calculations further suggest that the extra lithium storage sites could result from the formation of Li2O at the interface with graphene during the conversion-reaction. These results suggest an effective pathway for reversible lithium storage in graphene and shift design paradigms for graphene-based electrodes.

  8. Comparative Validity and Reproducibility Study of Various Landmark-Oriented Reference Planes in 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis for Patients Receiving Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ling; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-01-01

    5 horizontal reference planes were reliable and comparable for 3D craniomaxillofacial analysis. These reference planes were useful in standardizing the orientation of 3D skull models. PMID:25668209

  9. Preliminary Stress Calculations and 3-Dimensional Mohr Circle Diagrams for a Proposed Borehole to be Drilled into the Tohoku Fault Zone, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nale, S.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid response drilling of recently ruptured faults can provide important information about faulting and rupture processes of large earthquakes that cannot be directly obtained by other means. Quickly following a large seismic event, drilling operations can acquire measurements of temperature, stress and geologic data to study the fault friction, strength and healing, stress changes, and physical and chemical properties of a fault. The great Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) of March 11, 2011 is unique in both its large magnitude and that the fault ruptured updip to the surface of the trench. Seismic reflection surveys from before and after the event show that at 7 kilometers ocean depth, the fault would be intersected by a drill hole at approximately 900 meters below the sea floor. There is great potential for a large amount of information to be learned of faulting and earthquake mechanisms in subduction zone thrust faults from rapid response drilling into the Tohoku fault. As of yet, no drilling has been done for any purposes at the ocean depth of the Tohoku fault zone. To determine the feasibility of a borehole to be drilled into the Tohoku fault for research purposes, calculations must be completed to model the stresses acting on the wellbore in the pressure conditions at the drilling depth, up to 7.9 kilometers below sea level. Mohr diagrams demonstrate under what conditions the borehole will collapse in on itself. Effective stresses (σ1, σ2 and σ3) acting on the fault were calculated, from which the stresses acting on the wellbore walls (σθθ, σrr and σzz) were obtained. Calculations for the hoop (circumferential) stress, σθθ, radial stress, σrr, and stress acting parallel to the wellbore axis, σzz, were made based on assumed values for the Tohoku fault zone (i.e. coefficient of friction, cohesion, pore pressure, fault dip, rock density, and depth). For these experiments, two end members were considered involving (1) an optimally dipping reverse

  10. 3-Dimensional Protein Structure of Influenza

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The loss of productivity due to flu is staggering. Costs range as much as $20 billio a year. High mutation rates of the flu virus have hindered development of new drugs or vaccines. The secret lies in a small molecule which is attached to the host cell's surface. Each flu virus, no matter what strain, must remove this small molecule to escape the host cell to spread infection. Using data from space and earth grown crystals, researchers from the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) are desining drugs to bind with this protein's active site. This lock and key fit reduces the spread of flu in the body by blocking its escape route. In collaboration with its corporate partner, the CMC has refined drug structure in preparation for clinical trials. Tested and approved relief is expected to reach drugstores by year 2004.

  11. Visual Form Detection in 3-Dimensional Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    term goal has been to understand the "input" aspect of human cognition . The urge to achieve this goal has been undiminished for what is now, to my...justifications: Since space is not given by any property of a stimulus, it must be constructed (inferred; synthesized) by the nonsensory (intellectual- cognitive ...scenes so superloaded with svymbolie meanin that they tgp cognitive and symbolic processes quite different from the raw and immediate form perception

  12. Formability of tufted 3-dimensional composite reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling Shan; Wang, Peng; Legrand, Xavier; Soulat, Damien

    2016-10-01

    In the aerospace industry, more and more complex preform for composite parts are needed. Traditionally, laminated reinforcement is largely used as the method. The development of tufting technology has now advanced to a stage whereby it can be employed to produce the 3D textile composite reinforcements. Because the tufting technology is user-friendly, in this study, the tufting parameters (tufting density, tufting length, tufting yarn orientations…) are varied, in order to improve the understanding of formability of the tufted 3D fabric during manufacturing, in particular the influence of the tufting yarns, the present work is performed to analyse the preforming behaviours of tufted 3D reinforcement in the hemispherical stamping process. The preforming behaviours are also compared with the ones of the multilayered forming. Interply sliding and winkling phenomenon during forming are fully influenced by tufting yarns on the material draw-in, by the orientations of tufting yarn, …

  13. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  14. [3-dimensional photogrammetry assessment of facial contours].

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, D; Gäbel, H; Schettler, D

    1997-02-01

    In Germany, three-dimensional non-invasive measurement techniques are not in routine use for medical purposes. Completely integrated applications of photogrammetric technology are lacking. The results of clinical examination, X-rays and pre- and postoperative photographs from different angles have been used for medical analysis. In an interdisciplinary research project we tested the general applicability of photogrammetric measurement systems. We examined patients with malformations of the mandible-maxilla complex by taking pictures of the face. In order to assess the surface structure we projected regular patterns onto the surface. We calculated about 500 points on the surface with accuracy better than 0.2 mm. Graphical analyses of measurement results are presented in clinically relevant form. We produce representations of the faces in auto-CAD by means of regular meshes which allow views from any perspective, longitudinal and lateral sections. In addition to calculating angles, distances, surfaces and volumes, visualisation of shape is a useful aid in documentation and quantification of changes of soft tissue of the human face under surgery treatment.

  15. 3-Dimensional Portrait of the Female CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemasters, Linda; Roach, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Dobie and Hummel (2001) asserted that the school superintendency is the most male-dominated position within the field of education. According to a 1992 study, 72% of educators were women; however, only 13.2% of superintendents are women (Glass, 1992). The most recent survey by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) found that…

  16. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  17. Quantum Field Theory of Kosterlitz-Thouless Phase Transitions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Michael Charles

    1980-12-01

    A general quantum field-theoretic formalism for the study of Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition is developed and applied to several models. The structure of the free, massless scalar field is discussed, making explicit its connection with the Gaussian model. The close connection of the spin-wave and vortex operators with two-dimensional fermion-boson equivalences is stressed. The critical behavior of the planar model is reviewed, using field-theoretic methods applied to the sine-Gordon model. The Kosterlitz -Thouless phase transition in two-dimensional dislocation -mediated melting is studied using a vector generalization of the sine-Gordon model. Recent second-order renormalization group calculations are confirmed, and the issue of universal third-order corrections is discussed. It is shown that the Gross-Neveu model can be interpreted as a massive theory associated with a Kosterlitz-Thouless critical point. Finally, the Ising and Baxter models are studied using the methods developed here. It is shown that the vortex and spin-wave excitations in the Ising model conspire to produce a free, massive Majorana fermion field theory in the continuum limit. The formalism is then extended to the Baxter model. Recent results on the Baxter and Ashkin-Teller models are rederived and extended.

  18. 1/N

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.

    1980-03-01

    There exist families of field theories with symmetry group SO(N) (or SU(N)) that become simpler as N becomes larger. More precisely, the solutions to these theories possess an expansion in powers of 1/N. This expansion is the subject of these lectures. The 1/N expansion can be used to analyze model field theories. The 1/N expansion is developed for phi/sup 4/ theory and applied to two two-dimensional models with similar combinatoric structures, the Gross-Neveu model and the CP/sup N-1/ model. These models display (in the leading 1/N approximation) such interesting phenomena as asymptotic freedom, dynamical symmetry breaking, dimensional transmutation, and non-perturbative confinement. It is possible that the 1/N expansion, with N the number of colors, might fruitfully be applied to quantum chromodynamics. Unfortunately, it is not possible to make a decisive test of the approximation, because no one knows how to compute even the first term in the expansion in closed form. However, it is possible to argue that this first term, whatever its detailed form, has many properties that are also shared by the real world, and which are otherwise underived from field theory. These include the saturation of scattering amplitudes by an infinite number of narrow resonances, the essential feature of dual-resonance models. (RWR)

  19. Phase transitions in hexagonal, graphene-like lattice sheets and nanotubes under the influence of external conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, D.; Klimenko, K. G.; Kolmakov, P. B.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider a class of (2+1)D schematic models with four-fermion interactions that are effectively used in studying condensed-matter systems with planar crystal structure, and especially graphene. Symmetry breaking in these models occurs due to a possible appearance of condensates. Special attention is paid to the symmetry properties of the appearing condensates in the framework of discrete chiral and C, P and T transformations. Moreover, boundary conditions corresponding to carbon nanotubes are considered and their relations with the effect of an applied external magnetic field are studied. To this end we calculated the effective potential for the nanotube model including effects of finite temperature, density and an external magnetic field. As an illustration we made numerical calculations of the chiral symmetry properties in a simpler Gross-Neveu model with only one condensate taken into account. We also investigated the phase structure of the nanotube model under the influence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and demonstrated that there is a nontrivial relation between the magnitude of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, compactification of the spatial dimension and thermal restoration of the originally broken chiral symmetry.

  20. Renormalisation des theories de champs non commutatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignes-Tourneret, Fabien

    2006-12-01

    Very high energy physics needs a coherent description of the four fundamental forces. Non-commutative geometry is a promising mathematical framework which already allowed to unify the general relativity and the standard model, at the classical level, thanks to the spectral action principle. Quantum field theories on non-commutative spaces is a first step towards the quantification of such a model. These theories can't be obtained simply by writing usual field theory on non-commutative spaces. Such attempts exhibit indeed a new type of divergencies, called ultraviolet/infrared mixing, which prevents renormalisability. H. Grosse and R. Wulkenhaar showed, with an example, that a modification of the propagator may restore renormalisability. This thesis aims at studying the generalization of such a method. We studied two different models which allowed to specify certain aspects of non-commutative field theory. In x space, the major technical difficulty is due to oscillations in the interaction part. We generalized the results of T. Filk in order to exploit such oscillations at best. We were then able to distinguish between two mixings, renormalizable or not. We also bring the notion of orientability to light : the orientable non-commutative Gross-Neveu model is renormalizable without any modification of its propagator. The adaptation of multi-scale analysis to the matrix basis emphasized the importance of dual graphs and represents a first step towards a formulation of field theory independent of the underlying space.

  1. Dosimetric study of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer and comparison with 3-dimensional conformal technique for definitive radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Falk, Alexander T.; Auberdiac, Pierre; Cartier, Lysian; Vallard, Alexis; Ollier, Edouard; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Khodri, Moustapha; Chargari, Cyrus; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: For patients with cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves target coverage and allows dose escalation while reducing the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). In this study, we compared dosimetric parameters among 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), “step-and-shoot” IMRT, and volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in a series of patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) from December 2008 to March 2010 at our department were selected for this study. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated following the guidelines of the Gyn IMRT consortium that included cervix, uterus, parametrial tissues, and the pelvic nodes including presacral. The median age was 57 years (range: 30 to 85 years). All 10 patients had squamous cell carcinoma with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIIB. All patients were treated by VMAT. OAR doses were significantly reduced for plans with intensity-modulated technique compared with 3D-CRT except for the dose to the vagina. Between the 2 intensity-modulated techniques, significant difference was observed for the mean dose to the small intestine, to the benefit of VMAT (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in terms of OARs sparing for VMAT although there was a tendency for a slightly decreased average dose to the rectum: − 0.65 Gy but not significant (p = 0.07). The intensity modulation techniques have many advantages in terms of quality indexes, and particularly OAR sparing, compared with 3D-CRT. Following the ongoing technologic developments in modern radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the intensity-modulated techniques on prospective studies of a larger scale.

  2. Calibration of the normal cutoff values of systolic dyssynchrony of the left ventricular synchronicity in normal subjects using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography and the effects of age and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Yan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Jun; Tang, Li; Yip, Gabriel; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-05-01

    The normal data of left ventricular (LV) synchronicity by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) are lacking. We assessed the normal range/cutoff values of LV dyssynchrony parameters by RT3DE. For this purpose, RT3DE was performed in 130 healthy subjects, aged 53 ± 12 years. Time to the point of minimal regional systolic volume (Tmsv) was measured from time-volume curves in each segment. Standard deviation (SD) and maximal difference (Dif) of Tmsv were calculated from 16 (6 basal/6 mid/4 apical), 12 (6 basal/6 mid), and 6 (basal) LV segments together with the corresponding parameters adjusted by R-R interval. The data show non-significant difference between Tmsv-16-SD (9.24 ± 3.54 ms) and Tmsv-12-SD (8.80 ± 3.82 ms); with a correlation between two by both unadjusted (ms; r = 0.87) and adjusted (%R-R; r = 0.84) methods (P < 0.001). Heart rate correlated negatively with Tmsv (r = -0.13 to -0.34, P < 0.05-0.001) but had no effect on parameters adjusted for %R-R. Age and gender did not affect any of these parameters. Inter-observer variability was 3.3-4.6 % for 16, 4.8-9.1 % for 12, and 14.4-19.7 % for 6 segments. Thus, RT3DE is a reliable technique for detecting LV systolic dyssynchrony whereas the heart rate, but not age and gender, affects Tmsv parameters. Dyssynchrony parameters by 16 or 12 segments are superior to 6 segments in yielding comprehensive information and lower variability.

  3. Exotic quantum phase transitions of 2+1d Dirac fermions, and connections to 2d and 3d topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagle, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions, each with connections to symmetry protected topological states. 1) The first is a continuous phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase. Because there is no spontaneous symmetry breaking, this transition cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. We argue that this phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions. 2) The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting gapped phase. At the critical point the single particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps close. We argue that this transition is described by a bosonic O(4) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a topological Θ-term.

  4. Interaction-Induced Dirac Fermions from Quadratic Band Touching in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Murthy, Ganpathy; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the effect of local interactions on the quadratic band touching (QBT) of the Bernal honeycomb bilayer model using renormalization group (RG) arguments and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. We present a RG argument which predicts, contrary to previous studies, that weak interactions do not flow to strong coupling even if the free dispersion has a QBT. Instead, they generate a linear term in the dispersion, which causes the interactions to flow back to weak coupling. Consistent with this RG scenario, in unbiased QMC simulations of the Hubbard model we find compelling evidence that antiferromagnetism turns on at a finite U /t despite the U =0 hopping problem having a QBT. The onset of antiferromagnetism takes place at a continuous transition which is consistent with (2 +1 )D Gross-Neveu criticality. We conclude that generically in models of bilayer graphene, even if the free dispersion has a QBT, small local interactions generate a Dirac phase with no symmetry breaking and that there is a finite-coupling transition out of this phase to a symmetry-broken state.

  5. Etude des chaines de spins par les methodes de la theorie quantique des champs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dave

    Notre etude porte sur la chaine de spins en zigzag avec dimerisation dans le cas des spins 1/2 et 1. L'echelle de spin ordinaire et la chaine en zigzag simple en sont des cas particuliers. Dans la limite continue, ces systemes sont decrits par des modeles Wess-Zumino-Witten couples. Afin de pouvoir calculer les fonctions de correlation, nous exposons differentes equivalences quantiques permettant de simplifier les calculs. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1/2, nous demontrons l'equivalence avec un modele de type Gross-Neveu, en fonction de fermions de Majorana; ces fermions decrivent alors les excitations elementaires du systeme. Nous exposons une vision classique de ces excitations afin de voir les mecanismes de confinement des spinons. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1, l'etude est plus complexe. Nous pouvons decrire le systeme a l'aide de modeles sine-Gordon perturbes par de nombreuses interactions. En se limitant aux plus importantes, nous pouvons expliquer le comportement du gap en fonction du couplage interchaine observe numeriquement.

  6. Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique

    A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).

  7. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  8. Differentiation and Genomic Instability in a Human Mammary Cell Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R.; Kale, R.; Pettengill, O.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Harvest of prophylactic mastectomy specimens from an obligate heterozygote for ataxia-telangiectasia provided autologous fibroblasts as well epithelial cells (HMEC). The routine availability of these autologous cells has provided an opportunity to study cell-cell interactions in coculture and monoculture, and in 3-dimensional cultures grown in the NASA rotating bioreactor. HMEC and stromal fibroblasts grown in 2-dimensional monoculture were both observed to produce extracellular matrix. Similar matrix was encountered in 3-dimensional cultures containing HMEC. Metaphases were analyzed. For stromal fibroblasts, genomic aberrations were found in 18% of metaphase spreads. For HMEC, aberrations were greater such that a majority were found to be abnormal. The level of genomic instability determined for these noncancerous cells in 2-dimensional monoculture should be useful for generating a human cell model that can correlate the effects of differentiation in 3-dimensional coculture on the level of genomic instability.

  9. Baroclinic Features In The Irish Sea: Modelling Their Impact On Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. T.; Proctor, R.

    Seasonal cycles in the Irish Sea have been simulated with a 3-dimensional hydrody- namic model capable of resolving the internal baroclinic radius of deformation. The main features of the hydrodynamics are reproduced, most notably the thermally strat- ifed 'gyre' region west of the Isle of Man and the associated tidal fronts. Ecosystem dynamics have been coupled to the hydrodynamics with the emphasis on primary production. Additional 1-dimensional coupled model experiments indicate the role that the 3-dimensional baroclinic processes play in determining primary production and show why 1-dimensional model simulations need to be treated with care in areas where baroclinic currents exist.

  10. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Yan, Yan; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Bosch, Walter R.; Winter, Kathryn; Galvin, James M.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Morton, Gerard C.; Parliament, Matthew B.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  11. Constituent Components of Out-of-Field Scatter Dose for 18-MV Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy: A Comparison With 6-MV and Implications for Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben, Jeremy D.; Smith, Ryan; Lancaster, Craig M.; Haynes, Matthew; Jones, Phillip; Panettieri, Vanessa

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To characterize and compare the components of out-of-field dose for 18-MV intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and their 6-MV counterparts and consider implications for second cancer induction. Methods and Materials: Comparable plans for each technique/energy were delivered to a water phantom with a sloping wall; under full scatter conditions; with field edge abutting but outside the bath to prevent internal/phantom scatter; and with shielding below the linear accelerator head to attenuate head leakage. Neutron measurements were obtained from published studies. Results: Eighteen-megavolt IMRT produces 1.7 times more out-of-field scatter than 18-MV 3D-CRT. In absolute terms, however, differences are just approximately 0.1% of central axis dose. Eighteen-megavolt IMRT reduces internal/patient scatter by 13%, but collimator scatter (C) is 2.6 times greater than 18-MV 3D-CRT. Head leakage (L) is minimal. Increased out-of-field photon scatter from 18-MV IMRT carries out-of-field second cancer risks of approximately 0.2% over and above the 0.4% from 18-MV 3D-CRT. Greater photoneutron dose from 18-MV IMRT may result in further maximal, absolute increased risk to peripheral tissue of approximately 1.2% over 18-MV 3D-CRT. Out-of-field photon scatter remains comparable for the same modality irrespective of beam energy. Machine scatter (C+L) from 18 versus 6 MV is 1.2 times higher for IMRT and 1.8 times for 3D-CRT. It is 4 times higher for 6-MV IMRT versus 3D-CRT. Reduction in internal scatter with 18 MV versus 6 MV is 27% for 3D-CRT and 29% for IMRT. Compared with 6-MV 3D-CRT, 18-MV IMRT increases out-of-field second cancer risk by 0.2% from photons and adds 0.28-2.2% from neutrons. Conclusions: Out-of-field photon dose seems to be independent of beam energy for both techniques. Eighteen-megavolt IMRT increases out-of-field scatter 1.7-fold over 3D-CRT because of greater collimator scatter despite

  12. Exotic supersymmetry of the kink-antikink crystal, and the infinite period limit

    SciTech Connect

    Plyushchay, Mikhail S.; Arancibia, Adrian; Nieto, Luis-Miguel

    2011-03-15

    Some time ago, Thies et al. showed that the Gross-Neveu model with a bare mass term possesses a kink-antikink crystalline phase. Corresponding self-consistent solutions, known earlier in polymer physics, are described by a self-isospectral pair of one-gap periodic Lame potentials with a Darboux displacement depending on the bare mass. We study an unusual supersymmetry of such a second-order Lame system, and show that the associated first-order Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian possesses its own nonlinear supersymmetry. The Witten index is ascertained to be zero for both of the related exotic supersymmetric structures, each of which admits several alternatives for the choice of a grading operator. A restoration of the discrete chiral symmetry at zero value of the bare mass, when the kink-antikink crystalline condensate transforms into the kink crystal, is shown to be accompanied by structural changes in both of the supersymmetries. We find that the infinite period limit may or may not change the index. We also explain the origin of the Darboux-dressing phenomenon recently observed in a nonperiodic self-isospectral one-gap Poeschl-Teller system, which describes the Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu kink-antikink baryons.

  13. Lectures on Yangian symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loebbert, Florian

    2016-08-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss the topic of Yangian symmetry from various perspectives. Forming the classical counterpart of the Yangian and an extension of ordinary Noether symmetries, first the concept of nonlocal charges in classical, two-dimensional field theory is reviewed. We then define the Yangian algebra following Drinfel’d's original motivation to construct solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. Different realizations of the Yangian and its mathematical role as a Hopf algebra and quantum group are discussed. We demonstrate how the Yangian algebra is implemented in quantum, two-dimensional field theories and how its generators are renormalized. Implications of Yangian symmetry on the two-dimensional scattering matrix are investigated. We furthermore consider the important case of discrete Yangian symmetry realized on integrable spin chains. Finally we give a brief introduction to Yangian symmetry in planar, four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory and indicate its impact on the dilatation operator and tree-level scattering amplitudes. These lectures are illustrated by several examples, in particular the two-dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model, the Heisenberg spin chain and { N }=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions.

  14. Massless and massive higher spins from anti-de Sitter space waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwak, Seungho; Kim, Jaewon; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-11-01

    Understanding Higgs mechanism for higher-spin gauge fields is an outstanding open problem. We investigate this problem in the context of Kaluza-Klein compactification. Starting from a free massless higher-spin field in ( d + 2)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and compactifying over a finite angular wedge, we obtain an infinite tower of heavy, light and massless higher-spin fields in ( d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. All massive higher-spin fields are described gauge invariantly in terms of Stueckelberg fields. The spectrum depends on the boundary conditions imposed at both ends of the wedges. We observed that higher-derivative boundary condition is inevitable for spin greater than three. For some higher-derivative boundary conditions, equivalently, spectrum-dependent boundary conditions, we get a non-unitary representation of partially-massless higher-spin fields of varying depth. We present intuitive picture which higher-derivative boundary conditions yield non-unitary system in terms of boundary action. We argue that isotropic Lifshitz interfaces in O( N ) Heisenberg magnet or O( N ) Gross-Neveu model provides the holographic dual conformal field theory and propose experimental test of (inverse) Higgs mechanism for massive and partially massless higher-spin fields.

  15. On the stability of steady states in a granuloma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Lam, King-Yeung

    We consider a free boundary problem for a system of two semilinear parabolic equations. The system represents a simple model of granuloma, a collection of immune cells and bacteria filling a 3-dimensional domain Ω(t) which varies in time. We prove the existence of stationary spherical solutions and study their linear asymptotic stability as time increases to infinity.

  16. Modeling the shock initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Jonathan; Mas, Eric M; Leininger, Lara; Springer, H Keo

    2008-01-01

    The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT).

  17. Symmetry Breaking in a Model for Nodal Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brokaw, Charles J.

    2005-03-01

    Nodal cilia are very short cilia found in the embryonic node on the ventral surface of early mammalian embryos. They create a right to left fluid flow that is responsible for determining the normal asymmetry of the internal organs of the mammalian body. To do this, the distal end of the cilium must circle in a counterclockwise sense. Computer simulations with 3-dimensional models of flagella allow examination of 3-dimensional movements such as those of nodal cilia. 3-dimensional circling motions of short cilia can be achieved with velocity controlled models, in which dynein activity is regulated by sliding velocity. If dyneins on one outer doublet are controlled by the sliding velocity experienced by that doublet, the system is symmetric, and the 3-dimensional models can show either clockwise or counterclockwise circling. My computer simulations have examined two possible symmetry breaking mechanisms: 1) dyneins on doublet N are regulated by a mixture of the sliding velocities experienced by doublets N and N+1 (numbered in a clockwise direction, looking from the base). or 2) symmetry is broken by an off-axis force that produces a right-handed twist of the axoneme, consistent with observations that some dyneins can rotate their substrate microtubules in a clockwise direction.

  18. A Neural Model of Visually Guided Steering, Obstacle Avoidance, and Route Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David M.; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    A neural model is developed to explain how humans can approach a goal object on foot while steering around obstacles to avoid collisions in a cluttered environment. The model uses optic flow from a 3-dimensional virtual reality environment to determine the position of objects on the basis of motion discontinuities and computes heading direction,…

  19. Molecular model of the neural dopamine transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G.

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the action of dopamine by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons, and is the main molecular target of amphetamines and cocaine. DAT and the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaA) are secondary transporter proteins that carry small molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using ion gradients as energy source. A 3-dimensional projection map of the E. coli NhaA has confirmed a topology of 12 membrane spanning domains, and was previously used to construct a 3-dimensional NhaA model with 12 trans-membrane α-helices (TMHs). The NhaA model, and site directed mutagenesis data on DAT, were used to construct a detailed 3-dimensional DAT model using interactive molecular graphics and empiric force field calculations. The model proposes a dopamine transport mechanism involving TMHs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11. Asp79, Tyr252 and Tyr274 were the primary cocaine binding residues. Binding of cocaine or its analogue, (-)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT), seemed to lock the transporter in an inactive state, and thus inhibit dopamine transport. The present model may be used to design further experimental studies of the molecular structure and mechanisms of DAT and other secondary transporter proteins.

  20. Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

  1. FinFET Doping; Material Science, Metrology, and Process Modeling Studies for Optimized Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.; Shayesteh, M.

    2011-01-07

    In this review paper the challenges that face doping optimization in 3-dimensional (3D) thin-body silicon devices will be discussed, within the context of material science studies, metrology methodologies, process modeling insight, ultimately leading to optimized device performance. The focus will be on ion implantation at the method to introduce the dopants to the target material.

  2. Surface relief model for photopolymers without cover plating.

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Marini, S; Beléndez, A; Pascual, I

    2011-05-23

    Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information to characterize and understand the material behaviour. In this paper we present a 3-dimensional model based on direct measurements of parameters to predict the relief structures generated on the material. This model is successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. The importance of monomer diffusion in depth is also discussed.

  3. Impact modeling with Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stellingwerf, R.F.; Wingate, C.A.

    1993-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) can be used to model hypervelocity impact phenomena via the addition of a strength of materials treatment. SPH is the only technique that can model such problems efficiently due to the combination of 3-dimensional geometry, large translations of material, large deformations, and large void fractions for most problems of interest. This makes SPH an ideal candidate for modeling of asteroid impact, spacecraft shield modeling, and planetary accretion. In this paper we describe the derivation of the strength equations in SPH, show several basic code tests, and present several impact test cases with experimental comparisons.

  4. LHD Plasma Modeling and Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    The transport/heating modeling and equilibrium/stability analysis have been carried out for LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas. A new simulation code TOTAL (TOroidal Transport Analysis Linkage) is developed, which consists of the 3-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC including bootstrap current and 1-dimensional transport code HTRANS including helical-ripple transport determined as well as anomalous transport. This code clarified the favorable effect of bootstrap current on the neoclassical confinement in LHD. The 3-dimensional stability analysis using CAS3D code has been done and clarified the ballooning mode structure peculiar to the LHD high-beta plasmas. The 5-dimensional simulation code has been developed to analyze the NBI or ECH heating power depositions in LHD plasmas, and the particle orbit effects of high-energy particles are clarified. The plasma rotation analysis is also carried out related to the possibility of the electric-field transition and the plasma confinement improvement in LHD.

  5. With the advent of domestic 3-dimensional (3D) printers and their associated reduced cost, is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Christopher; Campo-Celaya, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy is the backbone of medical education and new techniques to improve learning are frequently explored. With the introduction of 3D printers specifically for the home market, the price of this technology has reached affordable levels. Using patient scan data, accurate 3D models can be printed that represent real human variation in anatomy to provide an innovative, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to anatomical teaching. Is it now time for every medical school to have their own 3D printer?

  6. SIMULATION OF A METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) PLUME WITH MODFLOW, MT3D AND THE HYDROCARBON SPILL SCREENING MODEL (HSSM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An MTBE plume in the Upper Glacial Aquifer of Long Island, NY was simulated by combining MODFLOW and MT3D with a semi-analytical model for a gasoline release. The first step was to develop and calibrate a 3-dimensional steady-state numerical ground water flow model of the aquife...

  7. A 3-D Model of Signaling and Transport Pathways in Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, A A; Westbrook, C K

    2005-04-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model was developed to simulate the spatial and chemical evolution of calcium ions inside an array of human epithelial kidney cells. This is a prototype model, intended to develop a methodology to incorporate much more complex interactions of metabolic and other processes within many types of cells and lead to increased ability to predict cellular responses to disease as well as to chemical and biological warfare situations. Preliminary tests of the model are described.

  8. Type II Bi1 − xWxO1.5 + 1.5x: a (3 + 3)-dimensional commensurate modulation that stabilizes the fast-ion conducting delta phase of bismuth oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wind, Julia; Auckett, Josie E.; Withers, Ray L.; Piltz, Ross O.; Maljuk, Andrey; Ling, Chris D.

    2015-01-01

    The Type II phase in the Bi1 − xWxO1.5 + 1.5x system is shown to have a (3 + 3)-dimensional modulated δ-Bi2O3-related structure, in which the modulation vector ∊ ‘locks in’ to a commensurate value of 1/3. The structure was refined in a 3 × 3 × 3 supercell against single-crystal Laue neutron diffraction data. Ab initio calculations were used to test and optimize the local structure of the oxygen sublattice around a single mixed Bi/W site. The underlying crystal chemistry was shown to be essentially the same as for the recently refined (3 + 3)-dimensional modulated structure of Type II Bi1 − xNbxO1.5 + x (Ling et al., 2013 ▸), based on a transition from fluorite-type to pyrochlore-type via the appearance of W4O18 ‘tetrahedra of octahedra’ and chains of corner-sharing WO6 octahedra along 〈110〉F directions. The full range of occupancies on this mixed Bi/W site give a hypothetical solid-solution range bounded by Bi23W4O46.5 (x = 0.148) and Bi22W5O48 (x = 0.185), consistent with previous reports and with our own synthetic and analytical results. PMID:26634724

  9. High-gradient operators in perturbed Wess-Zumino-Witten field theories in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Mudry, C.; Ludwig, A. W. W.; Furusaki, A.

    2010-11-01

    Many classes of non-linear sigma models (NL σMs) are known to contain composite operators with an arbitrary number 2 s of derivatives ("high-gradient operators") which appear to become strongly relevant within renormalization group (RG) calculations at one (or fixed higher) loop order, when the number 2 s of derivatives becomes large. This occurs at many conventional fixed points of NL σMs which are perturbatively accessible within the usual ɛ-expansion in d=2+ɛ dimensions. Since such operators are not prohibited from occurring in the action, they appear to threaten the very existence of such fixed points. At the same time, for NL σMs describing metal-insulator transitions of Anderson localization in electronic conductors, the strong RG-relevance of these operators has been previously related to statistical properties of the conductance of samples of large finite size ("conductance fluctuations"). In this paper, we analyze this question, not for perturbative RG treatments of NL σMs, but for two-dimensional Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) models at level k, perturbatively in the current-current interaction of the Noether current ("non-Abelian Thirring/Gross-Neveu models"). WZW models are special ("Principal Chiral") NL σMs on a Lie Group G with a WZW term at level k. In these models the role of high-gradient operators is played by homogeneous polynomials of order 2 s in the Noether currents, whose scaling dimensions we analyze. For the Lie Supergroup G=GL(2N|2N) and k=1, this corresponds to time-reversal invariant problems of Anderson localization in the so-called chiral symmetry classes, and the strength of the current-current interaction, a measure of the strength of disorder, is known to be completely marginal (for any k). We find that all high-gradient (polynomial) operators are, to one loop order, irrelevant or relevant depending on the sign of that interaction.

  10. Manipulating Heat Flow through 3 Dimensional Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-02

    Nanoscale Phononic Crystal Structure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861214047 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Baowen Li 5d...through computer simulation, how the three dimensional (3D) phononic crystal structures can confine phonon and thus reduce thermal conductivity...phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. The

  11. [Initial experiences with digital 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetry imaging].

    PubMed

    Surwald, C; Ward-Booth, P

    2000-05-01

    A digitised three-dimensional (3-D) image of the face has many valuable uses. These include accurate measurements of facial morphology, clinical documentation and objective analyses of surgical procedures. A new system presented here, based on stereophotogrammetric techniques, instantaneously captures digitised images using high-resolution cameras. It has an accuracy of more than 0.5 mm RMS and creates the 3-D image from approximately 20,000 points. The principles of the image capturing are demonstrated and the potential uses discussed. Surgical changes of the soft tissue in two patients following orthognathic surgery are also illustrated. This new capturing and measurement system provides a simple method of determining 3-D changes in soft tissue following surgery and is a useful tool for clinical purposes.

  12. Aerodynamics of 3-dimensional bodies in transitional flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. Leith

    1987-01-01

    Based on considerations of fluid dynamic simulation appropriate to hypersonic, viscous flow over blunt-nosed lifting bodies, a method was presented earlier for estimating drag coefficients in the transitional-flow regime. The extension of the same method to prediction of lift coefficients is presented. Correlation of available experimental data by a simulation parameter appropriate for this purpose is the basis for the procedure described. The ease of application of the method makes it useful for preliminary studies which involve a wide variety of three-dimensional vehicle configurations or a range of angles of attack of a given vehicle.

  13. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  14. Ultrasonic nondestructive characterization of composites with 3-dimensional architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1992-01-01

    The development and implementation of advanced composite material systems and their associated technologies are critical for success in the highly competitive world aerospace market. Acceptance of advance production methods and field support of structures made with these new materials require the development of quantitative, cost-effective, inspection methods. The results of quantitative ultrasonic through-transmission imaging of composites with complex three-dimensional architecture using phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive techniques are presented.

  15. Materials and Modulators for True 3-Dimensional Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 31 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display. Visible light is...laser scanned with two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 32 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display

  16. Development and applications of 3-dimensional integration nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Eunmi; Son, Hyungbin; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Unlike conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar structures, signal or power is supplied through through-silicon via (TSV) in three-dimensional (3D) integration technology to replace wires for binding the chip/wafer. TSVs have becomes an essential technology, as they satisfy Moore's law. This 3D integration technology enables system and sensor functions at a nanoscale via the implementation of a highly integrated nano-semiconductor as well as the fabrication of a single chip with multiple functions. Thus, this technology is considered to be a new area of development for the systemization of the nano-bio area. In this review paper, the basic technology required for such 3D integration is described and methods to measure the bonding strength in order to measure the void occurring during bonding are introduced. Currently, CMOS image sensors and memory chips associated with nanotechnology are being realized on the basis of 3D integration technology. In this paper, we intend to describe the applications of high-performance nano-biosensor technology currently under development and the direction of development of a high performance lab-on-a-chip (LOC).

  17. Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...

  18. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  19. A 3-dimensional mass conserving element for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, G.; Suri, M.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of finite element schemes has been used in the numerical approximation of compressible flows particularly in underwater acoustics. In many instances instabilities have been generated due to the lack of mass conservation. Two- and three-dimensional elements are developed which avoid these problems.

  20. Designing 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality Using Panoramic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Abd Arif, Wan Norazlinawati; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Abdullah, Azrai; Sivapalan, Subarna

    The high demand to improve the quality of the presentation in the knowledge sharing field is to compete with rapidly growing technology. The needs for development of technology based learning and training lead to an idea to develop an Oil and Gas Plant Virtual Environment (OGPVE) for the benefit of our future. Panoramic Virtual Reality learning based environment is essential in order to help educators overcome the limitations in traditional technical writing lesson. Virtual reality will help users to understand better by providing the simulations of real-world and hard to reach environment with high degree of realistic experience and interactivity. Thus, in order to create a courseware which will achieve the objective, accurate images of intended scenarios must be acquired. The panorama shows the OGPVE and helps to generate ideas to users on what they have learnt. This paper discusses part of the development in panoramic virtual reality. The important phases for developing successful panoramic image are image acquisition and image stitching or mosaicing. In this paper, the combination of wide field-of-view (FOV) and close up image used in this panoramic development are also discussed.

  1. Agent-Based Target Detection in 3-Dimensional Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    thesis along this line is discussed in Chapter 11. 2 D. THESIS ORGANIZATION The remainder of this thesis is organized into 4 chapters as follows : 1...Vertex and fragment shader programs are used to make comparisons of the stored images. All the renders and calculations are performed on the Graphics...not implemented in the demonstration program. Once the two images are generated they are further processed as follows : 1. The Line of Sight Check At

  2. Review of 3-dimensional Facial Anatomy: Injecting Fillers and Neuromodulators

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, David A.; Scheuer, Jack F.; Villanueva, Nathaniel L.; Pezeshk, Ronnie A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: To achieve consistent results utilizing facial injectables, practitioners must understand the pertinent anatomy of the forehead, temple, cheek, nose, and perioral areas. A detailed understanding of facial blood vessels, nerves, and musculature is essential for safe and effective placement of fillers and neuromodulators. PMID:28018775

  3. 3-dimensional telepresence system for a robotic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Matthew O.; McKay, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A telepresence system includes a camera pair remotely controlled by a control module affixed to an operator. The camera pair provides for three dimensional viewing and the control module, affixed to the operator, affords hands-free operation of the camera pair. In one embodiment, the control module is affixed to the head of the operator and an initial position is established. A triangulating device is provided to track the head movement of the operator relative to the initial position. A processor module receives input from the triangulating device to determine where the operator has moved relative to the initial position and moves the camera pair in response thereto. The movement of the camera pair is predetermined by a software map having a plurality of operation zones. Each zone therein corresponds to unique camera movement parameters such as speed of movement. Speed parameters include constant speed, or increasing or decreasing. Other parameters include pan, tilt, slide, raise or lowering of the cameras. Other user interface devices are provided to improve the three dimensional control capabilities of an operator in a local operating environment. Such other devices include a pair of visual display glasses, a microphone and a remote actuator. The pair of visual display glasses are provided to facilitate three dimensional viewing, hence depth perception. The microphone affords hands-free camera movement by utilizing voice commands. The actuator allows the operator to remotely control various robotic mechanisms in the remote operating environment.

  4. Graviton 1-loop partition function for 3-dimensional massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Grumiller, Daniel; Vassilevich, Dmitri

    2010-11-01

    Thegraviton1-loop partition function in Euclidean topologically massivegravity (TMG) is calculated using heat kernel techniques. The partition function does not factorize holomorphically, and at the chiral point it has the structure expected from a logarithmic conformal field theory. This gives strong evidence for the proposal that the dual conformal field theory to TMG at the chiral point is indeed logarithmic. We also generalize our results to new massive gravity.

  5. Fiber Scanning Array for 3 Dimensional Topographic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Rabine, David L.; Poulios, Demetrios; Blair, J. Bryan; Stysley, Paul R.; Kay, Richard; Clarke, Greg; Bufton, Jack

    2013-01-01

    We report on the design and development of a fiber optic scanning 3-D LIDAR employing a switched fiber array. This design distributes ns length laser pulses over a sample field, collects the return pulses, and assembles them into a 3-D image. This instrument is a reduced size version consisting of 35 beams, and will serve as a proof-of-principle demonstration for a planned 1000 beam instrument for Earth and planetary topographical missions.

  6. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1999-02-09

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focusing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data. 18 figs.

  7. 3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

  8. Method of fabricating a 3-dimensional tool master

    DOEpatents

    Bonivert, William D.; Hachman, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method for the fabrication of an imprint tool master. The process begins with a metallic substrate. A layer of photoresist is placed onto the metallic substrate and a image pattern mask is then aligned to the mask. The mask pattern has opaque portions that block exposure light and "open" or transparent portions which transmit exposure light. The photoresist layer is then exposed to light transmitted through the "open" portions of the first image pattern mask and the mask is then removed. A second layer of photoresist then can be placed onto the first photoresist layer and a second image pattern mask may be placed on the second layer of photoresist. The second layer of photoresist is exposed to light, as before, and the second mask removed. The photoresist layers are developed simultaneously to produce a multi-level master mandrel upon which a conductive film is formed. A tool master can now be formed onto the conductive film. An imprint tool is then produced from the tool master. In one embodiment, nickel is electroplated onto the tool master to produce a three-dimensional imprint tool.

  9. Minimum-fuel, 3-dimensional flightpath guidance of transfer jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum fuel, three dimensional flightpaths for commercial jet aircraft are discussed. The theoretical development is divided into two sections. In both sections, the necessary conditions of optimal control, including singular arcs and state constraints, are used. One section treats the initial and final portions (below 10,000 ft) of long optimal flightpaths. Here all possible paths can be derived by generating fields of extremals. Another section treats the complete intermediate length, three dimensional terminal area flightpaths. Here only representative sample flightpaths can be computed. Sufficient detail is provided to give the student of optimal control a complex example of a useful application of optimal control theory.

  10. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Using an Individual 3-Dimensionally Printed Surgical Guide.

    PubMed

    Golab, Adam; Smektala, Tomasz; Krolikowski, Marcin; Slojewski, Marcin

    2016-05-13

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is an endoscopic technique used for treating large stones, multiple stones, and staghorn calculi. Although minimally invasive, complication rate of PNL reaches 25%, and it is partially associated with needle puncture during nephrostomy tract preparation. Continuous improvement of armamentarium and imaging methods and the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations optimize the procedure; however, the rapid and precise establishment of the nephrostomy tract is still difficult. In the present short communication, we present the PNL procedure assisted by a personalized 3D-printed surgical guide (SG) to ensure fast and precise needle access to the renal collecting system. We also describe the workflow for SG preparation, which consists of CT image acquisition and data segmentation, planning a safe needle insertion path, SG designing, and guide manufacturing. With the growing market of low-cost 3D printers, the presented technique can shorten the PNL procedure time and decrease the complication rate associated with needle puncture in a cost-efficient manner.

  11. 3-dimensional throat region segmentation from MRI data based on Fourier interpolation and 3-dimensional level set methods.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sean; Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Di Caterina, Gaetano; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for 3D throat region segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. The proposed algorithm initially pre-processes the MRI data to increase the contrast between the throat region and its surrounding tissues and to reduce artifacts. Isotropic 3D volume is reconstructed using the Fourier interpolation. Furthermore, a cube encompassing the throat region is evolved using level set method to form a smooth 3D boundary of the throat region. The results of the proposed algorithm on real and synthetic MRI data are used to validate the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm.

  12. Potential applications of three-dimensional geoscientific mapping and modeling systems to regional hydrogeological assessments at Yucca mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A. Keith; Kolm, Kenneth E.

    Three-dimensional Geoscientific Information Systems (GSIS) are being evaluated for supporting 3-D ground-water modeling activities required to evaluate the paleo-, present, and future hydrology at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed site of the nation’s repository for high-level nuclear waste. The complexity of the regional ground-water system requires the use of a 3-dimensional ground-water modeling approach integrated with a true 3-dimensional geologic model. Integrated GSIS offers important capabilities for: 1) necessary data management and data audit trails; 2) the integration of diverse data sources; 3) rapid development, visualization, and testing of alternative model conceptualizations; and 4) integration with the numerical modeling steps.

  13. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  14. Discovery of Hyperpolarized Molecular Imaging Biomarkers in a Novel Prostate Tissue Slice Culture Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    compatible bioreactor and that hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopy could be employed to study real-time metabolism of normal and malignant tissues. The...function of prostate tissue slice cultures (TCSs) in an nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-compatible, 3-dimensional tissue culture bioreactor , (2) to use...the TSC/NMR bioreactor model to identify hyperpolarized metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer presence and aggressiveness, and (3) to use the TSC

  15. Bidirectional reflectance modeling of non-homogeneous plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions were measured for corn and soybean leaves. The measurements clearly show that leaves are complex scatterers and considerable specular reflectance is possible. Because of the character of leaf reflectance, true leaf reflectance is larger than the nadir reflectances that are normally used to represent leaves. A 3-dimensional reflectance model, named BIGAR (Bidirectional General Array Model), was developed and compared with measurements from corn and soybean. The model is based on the concept that heterogeneous canopies can be described by a combination of many subcanopies, which contain all the foliage, and these subcanopy envelopes can be characterized by ellipsoids of various sizes and shapes. The model/measurement comparison results indicate that this relatively simple model captures the essential character of row crop BRDF's. Finally, two soil BDRF models were developed: one represents soil particles as rectangular blocks and the other represents soil particles as spheres. The sphere model was found to be superior.

  16. Analysis of a model for the effects of an external toxin on anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Weedermann, Marion

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been modeled as a two-stage process using coupled chemostat models with non-monotone growth functions, [9]. This study incorporates the effects of an external toxin. After reducing the model to a 3-dimensional system, global stability of boundary and interior equilibria is proved using differential inequalities and comparisons to the corresponding toxin-free model. Conditions are given under which the behavior of the toxin-free model is preserved. Introduction of the toxin results in additional patterns such as bistabilities of coexistence steady states or of a periodic orbit and an interior steady state.

  17. Eastern Aleutian volcanic arc digital model - version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Barnett, Adrienne

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional model (Figure 1) of the interaction of oceanic and continental tectonic plates along the eastern portion of the Aleutian volcanic arc helps in the visualization of basic tectonic, geodetic, and geophysical data in this active plate boundary region. The model is constrained by topographic, bathymetric, and seismic data and by the principle of isostasy. Examination of free-air gravity anomalies over the region indicates where the flexural strength of the down-going oceanic slab disturbs local isostatic balance and where low-density sediments have accumulated in the trench and forearc regions.

  18. Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

  19. 3D/2D model-to-image registration applied to TIPS surgery.

    PubMed

    Jomier, Julien; Bullitt, Elizabeth; Van Horn, Mark; Pathak, Chetna; Aylward, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a novel model-to-image registration technique which aligns a 3-dimensional model of vasculature with two semiorthogonal fluoroscopic projections. Our vascular registration method is used to intra-operatively initialize the alignment of a catheter and a preoperative vascular model in the context of image-guided TIPS (Transjugular, Intrahepatic, Portosystemic Shunt formation) surgery. Registration optimization is driven by the intensity information from the projection pairs at sample points along the centerlines of the model. Our algorithm shows speed, accuracy and consistency given clinical data.

  20. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  1. Limiting case of modified electroweak model for contracted gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N. A.

    2011-06-15

    The modification of the Electroweak Model with 3-dimensional spherical geometry in the matter fields space is suggested. The Lagrangian of this model is given by the sum of the free (without any potential term) matter fields Lagrangian and the standard gauge fields Lagrangian. The vector boson masses are generated by transformation of this Lagrangian from Cartesian coordinates to coordinates on the sphere S{sup 3}. The limiting case of the bosonic part of the modified model, which corresponds to the contracted gauge group SU(2; j) x U(1) is discussed. Within framework of the limit model Z boson and electromagnetic fields can be regarded as external ones with respect to W-boson fields in the sence that W-boson fields do not effect on these external fields. The masses of all particles of the Electroweak Model remain the same, but field interactions in contracted model are more simple as compared with the standard Electroweak Model.

  2. Percutaneous Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Patient-specific Three-dimensional Computer-based Heart Model and Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-12-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement.

  3. STEPS: Modeling and Simulating Complex Reaction-Diffusion Systems with Python.

    PubMed

    Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We describe how the use of the Python language improved the user interface of the program STEPS. STEPS is a simulation platform for modeling and stochastic simulation of coupled reaction-diffusion systems with complex 3-dimensional boundary conditions. Setting up such models is a complicated process that consists of many phases. Initial versions of STEPS relied on a static input format that did not cleanly separate these phases, limiting modelers in how they could control the simulation and becoming increasingly complex as new features and new simulation algorithms were added. We solved all of these problems by tightly integrating STEPS with Python, using SWIG to expose our existing simulation code.

  4. Topological solitons in the supersymmetric Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin

    2017-01-01

    A supersymmetric extension of the Skyrme model was obtained recently, which consists of only the Skyrme term in the Nambu-Goldstone (pion) sector complemented by the same number of quasi-Nambu-Goldstone bosons. Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction yields a kinetic term in three or lower dimensions and a potential term in two dimensions, preserving supersymmetry. Euclidean solitons (instantons) are constructed in the supersymmetric Skyrme model. In four dimensions, the soliton is an instanton first found by Speight. Scherk-Schwarz dimensional reduction is then performed once to get a 3-dimensional theory in which a 3d Skyrmion-instanton is found and then once more to get a 2d theory in which a 2d vortex-instanton is obtained. Although the last one is a global vortex it has finite action in contrast to conventional theory. All of them are non-BPS states breaking all supersymmetries.

  5. Development of a Constitutive Model of Polypropylene for Thermoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, C.; Martin, P.; Menary, G.; Sweeney, J.; Caton-Rose, P.; Spencer, P.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper the authors outline a constitutive model, implemented within finite element analyses, which was developed for large deformation, high temperature multi-axial stretching of polypropylenes. The model has been generalised to a fully 3-dimensional thermally coupled form. The paper describes how model parameters were characterised using constant width, biaxial and sequential stretching of polypropylenes at elevated temperature using a custom built flexible biaxial stretching machine developed at Queen's University Belfast. The paper presents results of finite element model predictions of material stretching behaviour compared to range of physical experiments. The results presented in the paper confirm that this model is very effective in predicting the complex thermo-mechanical behaviours of polypropylenes at elevated temperatures.

  6. Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-08

    A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  7. Modeling The Shock Initiation of PBX-9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-01

    The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate the code predictions. The SMIS tests use a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments at a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model [2] in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT). The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations accurately reproduce the 'Go/No-Go' threshold of the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied in a predictive fashion for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  8. A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.

    2015-02-01

    A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.

  9. A method for using solid modeling CAD software to create an implant library for the fabrication of a custom abutment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Rimei; Ren, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaojie

    2017-02-01

    This article describes a method that incorporates the solid modeling CAD software Solidworks with a dental milling machine to fabricate individual abutments in house. This process involves creating an implant library with 3-dimensional (3D) models and manufacturing a base, scan element, abutment, and crown anatomy. The 3D models can be imported into any dental computer-aided design and computer-aided (CAD-CAM) manufacturing system. This platform increases abutment design flexibility, as the base and scan elements can be designed to fit several shapes as needed to meet clinical requirements.

  10. New experimental models of skin homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Larcher, F; Espada, J; Díaz-Ley, B; Jaén, P; Juarranz, A; Quintanilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis, whose regulation at the molecular level is still poorly understood, is intimately related to the functions of epidermal stem cells. Five research groups have been brought together to work on new in vitro and in vivo skin models through the SkinModel-CM program, under the auspices of the Spanish Autonomous Community of Madrid. This project aims to analyze the functions of DNA methyltransferase 1, endoglin, and podoplanin in epidermal stem cell activity, homeostasis, and skin cancer. These new models include 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, immunodeficient skin-humanized mice, and genetically modified mice. Another aim of the program is to use skin-humanized mice to model dermatoses such as Gorlin syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum in order to optimize new protocols for photodynamic therapy.

  11. Modeling biogeochemical cycles in Chesapeake Bay with a coupled physical biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Hood, Raleigh R.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we describe the development and validation of a relatively simple biogeochemical model of Chesapeake Bay. This model consists of a 3-dimensional, prognostic hydrodynamic model that is coupled to an NPZD-type open ocean ecosystem model, which has been modified by adding additional compartments and parameterizations of biogeochemical processes that are important in estuarine systems. These modifications include an empirical optical model for predicting the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd, compartments for representing oxygen and suspended sediment concentrations, and parameterizations of phosphorus limitation, denitrification, and seasonal changes in ecosystem structure and temperature effects. To show the overall performance of the coupled physical-biological model, the modeled dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids and light attenuation coefficient in 1995 (a dry year) and 1996 (a very wet year) are examined and compared with observations obtained from the Chesapeake Bay Program. We demonstrate that this relatively simple model is capable of producing the general distribution of each field (both the mean and variability) in the main stem of the Bay. And the model is robust enough to generate reasonable results under both wet and dry conditions. Some significant discrepancies are also observed, such as overestimation of phytoplankton concentrations in shoal regions and overestimation of oxygen concentrations in deep channels, which reveal some deficiencies in the model formulation. Some potential improvements and remedies are suggested. Sensitivity studies on selected parameters are also reported.

  12. Evaluating the accuracy of diffusion MRI models in white matter.

    PubMed

    Rokem, Ariel; Yeatman, Jason D; Pestilli, Franco; Kay, Kendrick N; Mezer, Aviv; van der Walt, Stefan; Wandell, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Models of diffusion MRI within a voxel are useful for making inferences about the properties of the tissue and inferring fiber orientation distribution used by tractography algorithms. A useful model must fit the data accurately. However, evaluations of model-accuracy of commonly used models have not been published before. Here, we evaluate model-accuracy of the two main classes of diffusion MRI models. The diffusion tensor model (DTM) summarizes diffusion as a 3-dimensional Gaussian distribution. Sparse fascicle models (SFM) summarize the signal as a sum of signals originating from a collection of fascicles oriented in different directions. We use cross-validation to assess model-accuracy at different gradient amplitudes (b-values) throughout the white matter. Specifically, we fit each model to all the white matter voxels in one data set and then use the model to predict a second, independent data set. This is the first evaluation of model-accuracy of these models. In most of the white matter the DTM predicts the data more accurately than test-retest reliability; SFM model-accuracy is higher than test-retest reliability and also higher than the DTM model-accuracy, particularly for measurements with (a) a b-value above 1000 in locations containing fiber crossings, and (b) in the regions of the brain surrounding the optic radiations. The SFM also has better parameter-validity: it more accurately estimates the fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) in each voxel, which is useful for fiber tracking.

  13. Coupling Planet Simulator Mars, a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere, to the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, O. J.; Grieger, B.; Keller, H. U.; Greve, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F.

    2007-11-01

    A general circulation model of the Martian Atmosphere is coupled with a 3-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model of the polar ice caps. With this combination a series of experiments is carried out to investigate the impact of long-term obliquity change on the Martian north polar ice cap (NPC). The behaviour of the NPC is tested under obliquities of θ=15∘, 25∘ and 35∘. With increasing obliquity the area covered by the NPC gets smaller but does not vanish. However, when started from an ice-free condition the models develop an ice cap only for low obliquities. The 'critical' obliquity at which a build-up of a new polar cap is possible is θ=22∘.

  14. Analytic gravitational-force calculations for models of the Kuiper Belt, with application to the Pioneer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin

    2005-10-15

    We use analytic techniques to study the gravitational force that would be produced by different Kuiper-Belt mass distributions. In particular, we study the 3-dimensional rings (and wedge) whose densities vary as the inverse of the distance, as a constant, as the inverse-squared of the distance, as well as that which varies according to the Boss-Peale model. These analytic calculations yield physical insight into the physics of the problem. They also verify that physically viable models of this type can produce neither the magnitude nor the constancy of the Pioneer anomaly.

  15. Development of a Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Model for Propagation of Transient Sounds in Very Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Mark W; Luczkovich, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    This finite-difference time domain (FDTD) model for sound propagation in very shallow water uses pressure and velocity grids with both 3-dimensional Cartesian and 2-dimensional cylindrical implementations. Parameters, including water and sediment properties, can vary in each dimension. Steady-state and transient signals from discrete and distributed sources, such as the surface of a vibrating pile, can be used. The cylindrical implementation uses less computation but requires axial symmetry. The Cartesian implementation allows asymmetry. FDTD calculations compare well with those of a split-step parabolic equation. Applications include modeling the propagation of individual fish sounds, fish aggregation sounds, and distributed sources.

  16. Long-range transport of anthropogenic sulfur in an on-line tracer model

    SciTech Connect

    Dastoor, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    An Eulerian global meteorological tracer transport model has been constructed for simulating the long range transport of anthropogenic sulfur. The advantage of this model is that the physical processes in the atmosphere, advection and chemical conversions are calculated within one consistent modeling system. The global model presented here includes the dynamics of meteorological and tracer fields, thermodynamics, cloud processes, turbulent boundary layer mixing, multiple 3-dimensional anthropogenic sulfur emission sources, dry and aqueous-phase chemical processes for sulfur, dry deposition process and the precipitation scavenging of sulfur. In contrast to an off-line chemical transport model the dynamic global tracer model is capable of studying the interaction between pollutant, radiative and hydrological budgets and atmospheric circulation.

  17. Quantum field theory on toroidal topology: Algebraic structure and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E.

    2014-05-01

    The development of quantum theory on a torus has a long history, and can be traced back to the 1920s, with the attempts by Nordström, Kaluza and Klein to define a fourth spatial dimension with a finite size, being curved in the form of a torus, such that Einstein and Maxwell equations would be unified. Many developments were carried out considering cosmological problems in association with particle physics, leading to methods that are useful for areas of physics, in which size effects play an important role. This interest in finite size effect systems has been increasing rapidly over the last decades, due principally to experimental improvements. In this review, the foundations of compactified quantum field theory on a torus are presented in a unified way, in order to consider applications in particle and condensed matter physics. The theory on a torus ΓDd=(S1)d×RD-d is developed from a Lie-group representation and c*c*-algebra formalisms. As a first application, the quantum field theory at finite temperature, in its real- and imaginary-time versions, is addressed by focusing on its topological structure, the torus Γ41. The toroidal quantum-field theory provides the basis for a consistent approach of spontaneous symmetry breaking driven by both temperature and spatial boundaries. Then the superconductivity in films, wires and grains are analyzed, leading to some results that are comparable with experiments. The Casimir effect is studied taking the electromagnetic and Dirac fields on a torus. In this case, the method of analysis is based on a generalized Bogoliubov transformation, that separates the Green function into two parts: one is associated with the empty space-time, while the other describes the impact of compactification. This provides a natural procedure for calculating the renormalized energy-momentum tensor. Self interacting four-fermion systems, described by the Gross-Neveu and Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, are considered. Then finite size effects on

  18. Numerical modeling of nonintrusive inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.; Morgan, J.; Sale, K.

    1992-12-01

    A wide variety of nonintrusive inspection systems have been proposed in the past several years for the detection of hidden contraband in airline luggage and shipping containers. The majority of these proposed techniques depend on the interaction of radiation with matter to produce a signature specific to the contraband of interest, whether drugs or explosives. In the authors` role as diagnostic specialists in the Underground Test Program over the past forty years, L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a technique expertise in the combined numerical and experimental modeling of these types of system. Based on their experience, they are convinced that detailed numerical modeling provides a much more accurate estimate of the actual performance of complex experiments than simple analytical modeling. Furthermore, the construction of detailed numerical prototypes allows experimenters to explore the entire region of parameter space available to them before committing their ideas to hardware. This sort of systematic analysis has often led to improved experimental designs and reductions in fielding costs. L-Division has developed an extensive suite of computer codes to model proposed experiments and possible background interactions. These codes allow one to simulate complex radiation sources, model 3-dimensional system geometries with {open_quotes}real world{close_quotes} complexity, specify detailed elemental distributions, and predict the response of almost any type of detector. In this work several examples are presented illustrating the use of these codes in modeling experimental systems at LLNL and their potential usefulness in evaluating nonintrusive inspection systems is discussed.

  19. Stochastic modelling of evaporation based on copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko

    2015-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is an important process in the water cycle that represents a considerable amount of moisture lost through evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from plants in a watershed. Therefore, an accurate estimate of evapotranspiration rates is necessary, along with precipitation data, for running hydrological models. Often, daily reference evapotranspiration is modelled based on the Penman, Priestley-Taylor or Hargraeves equation. However, each of these models requires extensive input data, such as daily mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation. Yet, in design studies, such data is unavailable in case stochastically generated time series of precipitation are used to force a hydrologic model. In the latter case, an alternative model approach is needed that allows for generating evapotranspiration data that are consistent with the accompanying precipitation data. This contribution presents such an approach in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by three- and four-dimensional vine copulas. Based on a case study of 72 years of evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation data, observed in Uccle, Belgium, it was found that canonical vine copulas (C-Vines) in which bivariate Frank copulas are employed perform very well in preserving the dependencies between variables. While 4-dimensional C-Vine copulas performed best in simulating time series of evapotranspiration, a 3-dimensional C-Vine copula (relating evapotranspiration, daily precipitation depth and temperature) still allows for modelling evapotranspiration, though with larger error statistics.

  20. Simulations of Keratoconus Patient Vision with Optical Eye Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ming

    2007-11-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is an eye condition that involves progressive corneal thinning. Pushed by the intraocular pressure, the weakened cornea bulges outward and creates an irregular surface shape. The result is degraded vision that is difficult to correct with regular eye glasses or contact lens. In this study we use the optical lens design software, ZeMax, and patient data including cornea topography and refraction prescription to construct KC eye models. The variation of KC ``cone height'' on the cornea is used to simulate KC progression. The consequent patients' night vision and Snellen letter chart vision at 20 feet are simulated using these anatomically accurate 3-dimensional models. 100 million rays are traced for each image simulation. Animated results illustrate the change of KC visual acuity with the progression of disease. This simulation technique provides a comprehensive tool for medical training and patient consultation/education.

  1. Reservoir model for Hillsboro gas storage field management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, Emmanuel O.; Kemppainen, Curt; Morgan, Jim; ,

    1995-01-01

    A 3-dimensional reservoir model is used to understand the behavior of the Hillsboro Gas Storage Field and to investigate the field's performance under various future development. Twenty-two years of the gas storage reservoir history, comprising the initial gas bubble development and seasonal gas injection and production cycles, are examined with a full-field, gas water, reservoir simulation model. The results suggest that the gas-water front is already in the vicinity of the west observation well that increasing the field's total gas-in-place volume would cause gas to migrate beyond the east, north and west observation well. They also suggest that storage enlargement through gas injection into the lower layers may not prevent gas migration. Moreover, the results suggest that the addition of strategically-located new wells would boost the simulated gas deliverabilities.

  2. Development of a numerical model for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of railway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Ju; Cho, Eun Sang; Ham, Jun Su; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Tae Heon

    2016-04-01

    In the field of civil engineering, analyzing dynamic response was main concern for a long time. These analysis methods can be divided into moving load analysis method and moving mass analysis method, and formulating each an equation of motion has recently been studied after dividing vehicles and bridges. In this study, the numerical method is presented, which can consider the various train types and can solve the equations of motion for a vehicle-bridge interaction analysis by non-iteration procedure through formulating the coupled equations for motion. Also, 3 dimensional accurate numerical models was developed by KTX-vehicle in order to analyze dynamic response characteristics. The equations of motion for the conventional trains are derived, and the numerical models of the conventional trains are idealized by a set of linear springs and dashpots with 18 degrees of freedom. The bridge models are simplified by the 3 dimensional space frame element which is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The rail irregularities of vertical and lateral directions are generated by PSD functions of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA).

  3. The topographical model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karin; De Nino, Scott; Fletcher, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Relapses and progression contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course, but neither the relationship between them nor the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity has been fully characterized. A hypothesis-driven, biologically informed model could build on the clinical phenotypes to encompass the dynamic admixture of factors underlying MS disease course. In this medical hypothesis, we put forth a dynamic model of MS disease course that incorporates localization and other drivers of disability to propose a clinical manifestation framework that visualizes MS in a clinically individualized way. The topographical model encapsulates 5 factors (localization of relapses and causative lesions; relapse frequency, severity, and recovery; and progression rate), visualized utilizing dynamic 3-dimensional renderings. The central hypothesis is that, like symptom recrudescence in Uhthoff phenomenon and pseudoexacerbations, progression clinically recapitulates prior relapse symptoms and unmasks previously silent lesions, incrementally revealing underlying lesion topography. The model uses real-time simulation software to depict disease course archetypes and illuminate several well-described but poorly reconciled phenomena including the clinical/MRI paradox and prognostic significance of lesion location and burden on disease outcomes. Utilization of this model could allow for earlier and more clinically precise identification of progressive MS and predictive implications can be empirically tested. PMID:27648465

  4. Some results on hyperscaling in the 3D Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.; Kawashima, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    The authors review exact studies on finite-sized 2 dimensional Ising models and show that the point for an infinite-sized model at the critical temperature is a point of nonuniform approach in the temperature-size plane. They also illuminate some strong effects of finite-size on quantities which do not diverge at the critical point. They then review Monte Carlo studies for 3 dimensional Ising models of various sizes (L = 2--100) at various temperatures. From these results they find that the data for the renormalized coupling constant collapses nicely when plotted against the correlation length, determined in a system of edge length L, divided by L. They also find that {zeta}{sub L}/L {ge} 0.26 is definitely too large for reliable studies of the critical value, g*, of the renormalized coupling constant. They have reasonable evidence that {zeta}{sub L}/L {approx} 0.1 is adequate for results that are within one percent of those for the infinite system size. On this basis, they have conducted a series of Monte Carlo calculations with this condition imposed. These calculations were made practical by the development of improved estimators for use in the Swendsen-Wang cluster method. The authors found from these results, coupled with a reversed limit computation (size increases with the temperature fixed at the critical temperature), that g* > 0, although there may well be a sharp downward drop in g as the critical temperature is approached in accord with the predictions of series analysis. The results support the validity of hyperscaling in the 3 dimensional Ising model.

  5. The critical indices of the quark gluon bags with surface tension model with tricritical endpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanytskyi, A. I.

    2012-04-01

    The critical indices α', β, γ' and δ of the quark gluon bags with surface tension model with the tricritical endpoint are calculated as functions of the usual parameters of this model and two newly introduces parameters (indices) in order to perform a thorough comparison with the critical exponents of other models. It is shown that for the newly introduced indices χ=0 and ξT⩽1 there is a branch of solutions for which the critical exponents of the present model and the statistical multifragmentation model coincide, otherwise these models have different critical exponents. The critical exponents α', β, γ' and δ of ordinary liquids and 3-dimensional Ising model are reproduced by several sets of the model parameters, but the resulting range of the Fisher exponent τ is rather narrow and lies between 20/11 and 2. The scaling relations for the found critical exponents are verified and it is demonstrated that for the standard definition of the index α' the Fisher and Griffiths scaling inequalities are not fulfilled for some values of the model parameters, whereas the Liberman scaling inequality is always obeyed. It is also shown that the specially defined index αs' recovers the scaling relations. A thorough analysis of the critical exponents obeying the scaling relations along with the condition αs'>-β is performed. The found solutions enable us to reproduce the critical exponents of the 3-dimensional O(4) spin model and to show that for this case the exponent τ falls almost in the same range of values as for the ordinary liquids.

  6. Improving of local ozone forecasting by integrated models.

    PubMed

    Gradišar, Dejan; Grašič, Boštjan; Božnar, Marija Zlata; Mlakar, Primož; Kocijan, Juš

    2016-09-01

    This paper discuss the problem of forecasting the maximum ozone concentrations in urban microlocations, where reliable alerting of the local population when thresholds have been surpassed is necessary. To improve the forecast, the methodology of integrated models is proposed. The model is based on multilayer perceptron neural networks that use as inputs all available information from QualeAria air-quality model, WRF numerical weather prediction model and onsite measurements of meteorology and air pollution. While air-quality and meteorological models cover large geographical 3-dimensional space, their local resolution is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, empirical methods have the advantage of good local forecasts. In this paper, integrated models are used for improved 1-day-ahead forecasting of the maximum hourly value of ozone within each day for representative locations in Slovenia. The WRF meteorological model is used for forecasting meteorological variables and the QualeAria air-quality model for gas concentrations. Their predictions, together with measurements from ground stations, are used as inputs to a neural network. The model validation results show that integrated models noticeably improve ozone forecasts and provide better alert systems.

  7. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, David Lopes; Holdsworth, Peter C W

    2016-04-27

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume [Formula: see text] is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio [Formula: see text]and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case [Formula: see text] of a macroscopically large slab ([Formula: see text]) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  8. Thermal stress analysis in permanent mold processing determining mold life and utilizing a combined thermomechanical finite element model

    SciTech Connect

    Fackeldey, M.; Guan, J.; Helling, V.; Sahm, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Permanent mold casting offers various advantages, but its process control requires high technical skill, especially when cast iron is utilized. Thermal stresses resulting from non-uniform cooling and hindering of shrinkage frequently cause cracks, which can lead to a destruction of the permanent mold. In this paper an in-house 3-dimensional finite element model is presented, which allows an easy and comfortable analysis of the origin of thermal and residual stresses. By varying single parameters, i.e. the initial temperature as well as the mold geometry, the process may be evaluated. This leads to an optimization of the process and allows an assessment of the mold life.

  9. Finite-size scaling of the magnetization probability density for the critical Ising model in slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Cardozo, David; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetization probability density in d  =  2 and 3 dimensional Ising models in slab geometry of volume L\\paralleld-1× {{L}\\bot} is computed through Monte-Carlo simulation at the critical temperature and zero magnetic field. The finite-size scaling of this distribution and its dependence on the system aspect-ratio ρ =\\frac{{{L}\\bot}}{{{L}\\parallel}} and boundary conditions are discussed. In the limiting case ρ \\to 0 of a macroscopically large slab ({{L}\\parallel}\\gg {{L}\\bot} ) the distribution is found to scale as a Gaussian function for all tested system sizes and boundary conditions.

  10. A Computational Model of Cerebral Cortex Folding

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jingxin; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Faraco, Carlos; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2010-01-01

    The geometric complexity and variability of the human cerebral cortex has long intrigued the scientific community. As a result, quantitative description of cortical folding patterns and the understanding of underlying folding mechanisms have emerged as important research goals. This paper presents a computational 3-dimensional geometric model of cerebral cortex folding initialized by MRI data of a human fetal brain and deformed under the governance of a partial differential equation modeling cortical growth. By applying different simulation parameters, our model is able to generate folding convolutions and shape dynamics of the cerebral cortex. The simulations of this 3D geometric model provide computational experimental support to the following hypotheses: 1) Mechanical constraints of the skull regulate the cortical folding process. 2) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the global cell growth rate of the whole cortex. 3) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on relative rates of cell growth in different cortical areas. 4) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the initial geometry of the cortex. PMID:20167224

  11. Jets and storm tracks in ?-plane models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Harvey, Ben

    2013-04-01

    We will present new results from linear calculations and non-linear simulations of a two-layer baroclinic ?-plane model. The model consists of two interacting levels with dynamical temperature anomalies (as in the Eady model), but by its nature provides a consistent description of the continuous 3-dimensional velocity field inside the domain. Our set-up has realistic jet-profiles, yet has a very low-dimensional parameter space. The model is shown to exhibit realistic linear baroclinic instability properties. In addition, it is shown that the introduction of a ?-plane term induces a jet and a storm-track that is highly non-linear: it exhibits a realistic spiral jet structure and jet-exit region, as is the case for the observed N. Hemisphere jet on Earth. This seems to imply that the variability of the N. Atlantic jet stream is not the result of complex topographic and orographic boundary conditions in the N. Hemisphere, as recent simulations appear to suggest, but rather the result of the spherical geometry of the Earth, setting the right conditions for relevant non-linear interactions between Rossby waves and the jet.

  12. Pulmonary Nodule Detection Model Based on SVM and CT Image Feature-Level Fusion with Rough Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiling; Zhang, Junjie; Shi, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the detection accuracy of pulmonary nodules in CT image, considering two problems of pulmonary nodules detection model, including unreasonable feature structure and nontightness of feature representation, a pulmonary nodules detection algorithm is proposed based on SVM and CT image feature-level fusion with rough sets. Firstly, CT images of pulmonary nodule are analyzed, and 42-dimensional feature components are extracted, including six new 3-dimensional features proposed by this paper and others 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional features. Secondly, these features are reduced for five times with rough set based on feature-level fusion. Thirdly, a grid optimization model is used to optimize the kernel function of support vector machine (SVM), which is used as a classifier to identify pulmonary nodules. Finally, lung CT images of 70 patients with pulmonary nodules are collected as the original samples, which are used to verify the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model by four groups' comparative experiments. The experimental results show that the effectiveness and stability of the proposed model based on rough set feature-level fusion are improved in some degrees. PMID:27722173

  13. hPSC-derived lung and intestinal organoids as models of human fetal tissue.

    PubMed

    Aurora, Megan; Spence, Jason R

    2016-12-15

    In vitro human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived tissues are excellent models to study certain aspects of normal human development. Current research in the field of hPSC derived tissues reveals these models to be inherently fetal-like on both a morphological and gene expression level. In this review we briefly discuss current methods for differentiating lung and intestinal tissue from hPSCs into individual 3-dimensional units called organoids. We discuss how these methods mirror what is known about in vivo signaling pathways of the developing embryo. Additionally, we will review how the inherent immaturity of these models lends them to be particularly valuable in the study of immature human tissues in the clinical setting of premature birth. Human lung organoids (HLOs) and human intestinal organoids (HIOs) not only model normal development, but can also be utilized to study several important diseases of prematurity such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

  14. A novel modelling and simulation method of hip joint surface contact stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monan; Wang, Lei; Li, Pengcheng; Fu, Yili

    2017-01-02

    Understanding the hip joint surface contact stress distribution characteristics is helpful to determine hip joint biomechanical features and abnormal pathological behavior. Firstly, a 3-dimensional static hip joint biomechanical model is built using analytical method of model in order to study biomechanical properties including bearing area, stress distribution and the peak value of the contact stress of the femoral head, which reveals the relationship between the biomechanical properties and its geometric parameters. Secondly, based on the finite element analysis of the hip joint model, the contact stress distribution on the surface of femoral head is acquired under the condition of the different joint force and the acetabulum coverage rate. Finally, according to the evaluation of the femoral head surface stress and contact stress peak under different load distribution, accuracy and universality of the biomechanical model is verified.

  15. Modeling Europa's Dust Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, B.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Europa maintaining a probably sporadic water vapor plume constitutes a huge scientific opportunity for NASA's upcoming mission to this Galilean moon. Measuring the properties of material emerging from interior sources offers a unique chance to understand conditions at Europa's subsurface ocean. Exploiting results obtained for the Enceladus plume, we adjust the ejection model by Schmidt et al. [2008] to the conditions at Europa. In this way, we estimate properties of a possible, yet unobserved dust component of the Europa plume. For a size-dependent speed distribution of emerging ice particles we use the model from Kempf et al. [2010] for grain dynamics, modified to run simulations of plumes on Europa. Specifically, we model emission from the two plume locations determined from observations by Roth et al. [2014] and also from other locations chosen at the closest approach of low-altitude flybys investigated in the Europa Clipper study. This allows us to estimate expected fluxes of ice grains on the spacecraft. We then explore the parameter space of Europa dust plumes with regard to particle speed distribution parameters, plume location, and spacecraft flyby elevation. Each parameter set results in a 3-dimensional particle density structure through which we simulate flybys, and a map of particle fallback ('snowfall') on the surface of Europa. Due to the moon's high escape speed, a Europa plume will eject few to no particles that can escape its gravity, which has several further consequences: (i) For given ejection velocity a Europa plume will have a smaller scale height, with a higher particle number densities than the plume on Enceladus, (ii) plume particles will not feed the diffuse Galilean dust ring, (iii) the snowfall pattern on the surface will be more localized about the plume location, and will not induce a global m = 2 pattern as seen on Enceladus, and (iv) safely observing an active plume will require low altitude flybys, preferably at 50

  16. The Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) - Validation of a long-term atmospheric dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettrich, Sebastian; Wildermuth, Hans; Strobl, Christopher; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years, the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) has been developed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Society for Plant and Reactor Security (GRS). ARTM is an atmospheric dispersion model for continuous long-term releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere, based on the Lagrangian particle model. This model, developed in the first place as a more realistic replacement for the out-dated Gaussian plume models, is currently being optimised for further scientific purposes to study atmospheric dispersion in short-range scenarios. It includes a diagnostic wind field model, allows for the application of building structures and multiple sources (including linear, 2-and 3-dimensional source geometries), and considers orography and surface roughness. As an output it calculates the activity concentration, dry and wet deposition and can model also the radioactive decay of Rn-222. As such, ARTM requires to undergo an intense validation process. While for short-term and short-range models, which were mainly developed for examining nuclear accidents or explosions, a few measurement data-sets are available for validation, data-sets for validating long-term models are very sparse and the existing ones mostly prove to be not applicable for validation. Here we present a strategy for the validation of long-term Lagrangian particle models based on the work with ARTM. In our validation study, the first part we present is a comprehensive analysis of the model sensitivities on different parameters like e.g. (simulation grid size resolution, starting random number, amount of simulation particles, etc.). This study provides a good estimation for the uncertainties of the simulation results and consequently can be used to generate model outputs comparable to the available measurements data at various distances from the emission source. This comparison between measurement data from selected scenarios and simulation results

  17. MoFvAb: Modeling the Fv region of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bujotzek, Alexander; Fuchs, Angelika; Qu, Changtao; Benz, Jörg; Klostermann, Stefan; Antes, Iris; Georges, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3-dimensional structure of the antigen-binding region of antibodies enables numerous useful applications regarding the design and development of antibody-based drugs. We present a knowledge-based antibody structure prediction methodology that incorporates concepts that have arisen from an applied antibody engineering environment. The protocol exploits the rich and continuously growing supply of experimentally derived antibody structures available to predict CDR loop conformations and the packing of heavy and light chain quickly and without user intervention. The homology models are refined by a novel antibody-specific approach to adapt and rearrange sidechains based on their chemical environment. The method achieves very competitive all-atom root mean square deviation values in the order of 1.5 Å on different evaluation datasets consisting of both known and previously unpublished antibody crystal structures. PMID:26176812

  18. Heat transfer model of hyporthermic intracarotid infusion of cold saline for stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John

    2006-01-01

    A 3-dimensional hemispheric computational brain model is developed to simulate infusion of cold saline in the carotid arteries in terms of brain cooling for stroke therapy. The model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation, with four tissue layers: white matter, gray matter, skull, and scalp. The stroke lesion is simulated by reducing blood flow to a selected volume of the brain by a factor of one-third, and brain metabolism by 50%. A stroke penumbra was also generated surrounding the core lesion (blood volume reduction 25%, metabolism reduction 20%). The finite difference method was employed to solve the system of partial differential equations. This model demonstrated a reduction in brain temperature, at the stroke lesion, to 32 degrees C in less than 10 minutes.

  19. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jobe, M.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Rochau, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E.

    2015-05-15

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (∼20 MA, ∼100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ∼13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  20. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Brent Manley; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Reneker, Joseph; Rochau, Gregory A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Strizic, T.

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  1. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    DOE PAGES

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; ...

    2015-05-18

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (~20 MA, ~100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ~13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiativemore » output from this combined system. Furthermore, guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.« less

  2. A dosimetric model for the heterogeneous delivery of radioactive nanoparticles In vivo: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, Andrew B; Attayek, Peter; Midkiff, Bentley; Huang, Leaf

    2017-03-17

    ᅟ: Accurate and quantitative dosimetry for internal radiation therapy can be especially challenging, given the heterogeneity of patient anatomy, tumor anatomy, and source deposition. Internal radiotherapy sources such as nanoparticles and monoclonal antibodies require high resolution imaging to accurately model the heterogeneous distribution of these sources in the tumor. The resolution of nuclear imaging modalities is not high enough to measure the heterogeneity of intratumoral nanoparticle deposition or intratumoral regions, and mathematical models do not represent the actual heterogeneous dose or dose response. To help answer questions at the interface of tumor dosimetry and tumor biology, we have modeled the actual 3-dimensional dose distribution of heterogeneously delivered radioactive nanoparticles in a tumor after systemic injection.

  3. Tensile and Laterally Confined Compression Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    3 Fig. 3 Schematic of VARTM setup...Fabrication and Void Content 4.1 Infusion The panels were made using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) system. Figure 3 illustrates...a schematic of VARTM process. There are many benefits to this process, some of which include shorter mold time, lower tooling costs, reduced volatile

  4. A Fast Apparent-Horizon Finder for 3-Dimensional Cartesian Grids in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    In 3 + 1 numerical simulations of dynamic black hole spacetimes, it's useful to be able to find the apparent horizon(s) (AH) in each slice of a time evolution. A number of AH finders are available, but they often take many minutes to run, so they're too slow to be practically usable at each time step. Here I present a new AH finder, AHFINDERDIRECT, which is very fast and accurate, typically taking only a few seconds to find an AH to ~ 10-5m accuracy on a GHz-class processor. I assume that an AH to be searched for is a Strahlkörper (``star-shaped region'') with respect to some local origin, and so parameterize the AH shape by r = h(angle) for some single-valued function h: S2 --> R+. The AH equation then becomes a nonlinear elliptic PDE in h on S2, whose coefficients are algebraic functions of gij, Kij, and the Cartesian-coordinate spatial derivatives of gij. I discretize S2 using 6 angular patches (one each in the neighborhood of the +/-x, +/-y, and +/-z axes) to avoid coordinate singularities, and finite difference the AH equation in the angular coordinates using 4th order finite differencing. I solve the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations (for h at the angular grid points) by Newton's method, using a ``symbolic differentiation'' technique to compute the Jacobian matrix. AHFINDERDIRECT is implemented as a thorn in the CACTUS computational toolkit, and will be made freely available starting in fall 2003.

  5. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm−1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems. PMID:26522846

  6. [3-dimensional approach to spinal deformities. Application to the study of the prognosis of pediatric scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Graf, H; Hecquet, J; Dubousset, J

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized a computer for a spatial analysis of deformities of the spine using antero-posterior and lateral radiographs. The posterior limits of the sacral plateau and the centre of each vertebral plateau was demarcated on the antero-posterior radiograph. The posterior margin of each vertebra was demarcated on the lateral radiograph. With this information, the computer can make a picture as if the spine were seen from above and vertebral rotation can be assessed. The vertebrae are of different colours according to their level. Thirty cases have been studied and six types of infantile scoliosis defined - scoliosis with a localised hyper-rotation like a hairpin, scoliosis with rotary dislocation at the junction of two rotational levels, infantile scoliosis with a moderate curve, progressive scoliosis, benign scoliosis and spontaneously regressive scoliosis of the newborn. This study was shown that prognostic features were in accordance with classical assessments.

  7. 3-Dimensional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Atlas of the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Rumple, Ashley; McMurray, Matthew; Johns, Josephine; Lauder, Jean; Makam, Pooja; Radcliffe, Marlana; Oguz, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical atlases play an important role in the analysis of neuroimaging data in rodent neuroimaging studies. Having a high resolution, detailed atlas not only can expand understanding of rodent brain anatomy, but also enables automatic segmentation of new images, thus greatly increasing the efficiency of future analysis when applied to new data. These atlases can be used to analyze new scans of individual cases using a variety of automated segmentation methods. This project seeks to develop a set of detailed 3D anatomical atlases of the brain at postnatal day 5 (P5), 14 (P14), and adults (P72) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Our methods consisted of first creating a template image based on fixed scans of control rats, then manually segmenting various individual brain regions on the template. Using itk-SNAP software, subcortical and cortical regions, including both white matter and gray matter structures, were manually segmented in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. The P5, P14, and P72 atlases had 39, 45, and 29 regions segmented, respectively. These atlases have been made available to the broader research community. PMID:23861758

  8. Theranostic 3-Dimensional nano brain-implant for prolonged and localized treatment of recurrent glioma.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ranjith; Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskar Reddy; Gowd, G Siddaramana; Ashokan, Anusha; Thomas, John; Peethambaran, Reshmi; Thomas, Anoop; Unni, Ayalur Kodakara Kochugovindan; Panikar, Dilip; Nair, Shantikumar V; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2017-03-06

    Localized and controlled delivery of chemotherapeutics directly in brain-tumor for prolonged periods may radically improve the prognosis of recurrent glioblastoma. Here, we report a unique method of nanofiber by fiber controlled delivery of anti-cancer drug, Temozolomide, in orthotopic brain-tumor for one month using flexible polymeric nano-implant. A library of drug loaded (20 wt%) electrospun nanofiber of PLGA-PLA-PCL blends with distinct in vivo brain-release kinetics (hours to months) were numerically selected and a single nano-implant was formed by co-electrospinning of nano-fiber such that different set of fibres releases the drug for a specific periods from days to months by fiber-by-fiber switching. Orthotopic rat glioma implanted wafers showed constant drug release (116.6 μg/day) with negligible leakage into the peripheral blood (<100 ng) rendering ~1000 fold differential drug dosage in tumor versus peripheral blood. Most importantly, implant with one month release profile resulted in long-term (>4 month) survival of 85.7% animals whereas 07 day releasing implant showed tumor recurrence in 54.6% animals, rendering a median survival of only 74 days. In effect, we show that highly controlled drug delivery is possible for prolonged periods in orthotopic brain-tumor using combinatorial nanofibre libraries of bulk-eroding polymers, thereby controlling glioma recurrence.

  9. A semi-direct solver for compressible 3-dimensional rotational flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. C.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    An iterative procedure is presented for solving steady inviscid 3-D subsonic rotational flow problems. The procedure combines concepts from classical secondary flow theory with an extension to 3-D of a novel semi-direct Cauchy-Riemann solver. It is developed for generalized coordinates and can be exercised using standard finite difference procedures. The stability criterion of the iterative procedure is discussed along with its ability to capture the evolution of inviscid secondary flow in a turning channel.

  10. Multiple Assets Position Determination in a 3-Dimensional Environment Using the APRS Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    PRX = PTX + GTX – LTX – LFS – LM + GRX – L [9] RX where: PRX = received power (dBm) PTX = transmitter output power (dBm) GTX = transmitter...receiver losses = 3 dB iv Replacing all the above values to the Link Budget formula we get: PRX = PTX + GTX – LTX – LFS – LM + GRX – LRX <=> PRX = 37...threshold for PRX sensitivity. Reception is reliable when PRX > PRS .For our experiment we have: PRX = -90dBm > PRS =-122 dBm, so reception is reliable and

  11. See-Through Technology for Biological Tissue: 3-Dimensional Visualization of Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tissue clearing technology is currently one of the fastest growing fields in biomedical sciences. Tissue clearing techniques have become a powerful approach to understand further the structural information of intact biological tissues. Moreover, technological improvements in tissue clearing and optics allowed the visualization of neural network in the whole brain tissue with subcellular resolution. Here, we described an overview of various tissue-clearing techniques, with focus on the tissue-hydrogel mediated clearing methods, and discussed the main advantages and limitations of transparent tissue for clinical diagnosis. PMID:27230455

  12. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  13. New method for sperm evaluation by 3-dimensional laser scanning microscopy in different laboratory animal species.

    PubMed

    Weber, Klaus; Waletzky, Alexander; Fendl, Diana; Ordóñez, Patricia; Takawale, Pradeep; Hein, Felix; Riedel, Wolfram; König, Andres; Kunze, Marc; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Rivera, Javier; Quirici, Roberto; Romano, Ivano; Paepke, Susanne; Okazaki, Yoshimasa; Hardisty, Jerry F

    2014-01-01

    Sperm analysis is one of the end points in reproductive toxicology studies. Different methods for quantitative sperm analysis have been described. For qualitative morphological sperm analysis, either such techniques or smears of sperm and histological sperm staging are in use. Any of these methods provides morphological results on a light microscopy level. Laser scanning microscopy is a technique using a focused laser for scanning an object. The Olympus 3D Laser Scanning Microscope LEXT OLS4000 with optional possibilities of differential interference contrast provides a microscopic method for visualizing microasperities, which are far beyond the resolving power of a typical light or laser microscope. This technique was applied to sperm of mice, rats, rabbits, and cynomolgus monkeys at magnifications up to ×17 090. The obtained images are comparable to those of a scanning electron microscope under relatively low-power magnifications. Measurements on sperm parameters were taken by an integrated image analysis software tool. Abnormalities were easily detectable.

  14. Evaluation of Forming Limit by the 3 Dimensional Local Bifurcation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Ryuichi; Nakazawa, Yoshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Uemura, Gen; Mori, Naomichi

    2007-05-17

    A theoretical prediction and evaluation method for the sheet metal formability is developed on the basis of the three-dimensional local bifurcation theory previously proposed by authors. The forming limit diagram represented on the plane defined by the ratio of stress component to work-hardening rate is perfectly independent of plastic strain history. The upper and the lower limit of the sheet formability are indicated by the 3D critical line and the Stoeren-Rice's critical line on this plane, respectively. In order to verify the above mentioned behavior of the proposed forming limit diagram, the experimental research is also conducted. From the standpoint of the mechanical instability theory, a new concept called instability factor is introduced. It represents a degree of acceleration by current stress for developing the local bifurcation mode toward a fracture. The instability factor provides a method to evaluate a forming allowance which is useful to appropriate identification for a forming limit and to optimize the forming condition. The proposed criterion provides not only the moment to initiate the necking but also the local bifurcation mode vector and the direction of necking line.

  15. Roles of cell confluency and fluid shear in 3-dimensional intracellular forces in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sung Sik; del Álamo, Juan C; Park, Joon Seok; Li, Yi-Shuan; Nguyen, Hong A; Teng, Dayu; Wang, Kuei-Chun; Flores, Leona; Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Lasheras, Juan C; Chien, Shu

    2012-07-10

    We use a novel 3D inter-/intracellular force microscopy technique based on 3D traction force microscopy to measure the cell-cell junctional and intracellular tensions in subconfluent and confluent vascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers under static and shear flow conditions. We found that z-direction cell-cell junctional tensions are higher in confluent EC monolayers than those in subconfluent ECs, which cannot be revealed in the previous 2D methods. Under static conditions, subconfluent cells are under spatially non-uniform tensions, whereas cells in confluent monolayers are under uniform tensions. The shear modulations of EC cytoskeletal remodeling, extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesions, and cell-cell junctions lead to significant changes in intracellular tensions. When a confluent monolayer is subjected to flow shear stresses with a high forward component comparable to that seen in the straight part of the arterial system, the intracellular and junction tensions preferentially increase along the flow direction over time, which may be related to the relocation of adherens junction proteins. The increases in intracellular tensions are shown to be a result of chemo-mechanical responses of the ECs under flow shear rather than a direct result of mechanical loading. In contrast, the intracellular tensions do not show a preferential orientation under oscillatory flow with a very low mean shear. These differences in the directionality and magnitude of intracellular tensions may modulate translation and transcription of ECs under different flow patterns, thus affecting their susceptibility for atherogenesis.

  16. A Novel Medical Image Protection Scheme Using a 3-Dimensional Chaotic System

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chong; Zhang, Gao-yuan; Bian, Ou; Lei, Wei-min; Ma, Hong-feng

    2014-01-01

    Recently, great concerns have been raised regarding the issue of medical image protection due to the increasing demand for telemedicine services, especially the teleradiology service. To meet this challenge, a novel chaos-based approach is suggested in this paper. To address the security and efficiency problems encountered by many existing permutation-diffusion type image ciphers, the new scheme utilizes a single 3D chaotic system, Chen's chaotic system, for both permutation and diffusion. In the permutation stage, we introduce a novel shuffling mechanism, which shuffles each pixel in the plain image by swapping it with another pixel chosen by two of the three state variables of Chen's chaotic system. The remaining variable is used for quantification of pseudorandom keystream for diffusion. Moreover, the selection of state variables is controlled by plain pixel, which enhances the security against known/chosen-plaintext attack. Thorough experimental tests are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed scheme provides an effective and efficient way for real-time secure medical image transmission over public networks. PMID:25541941

  17. INTEGRATING LIDAR AND SATELLITE OPTICAL DEPTH WITH AMBIENT MONITORING FOR 3-DIMENSIONAL PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of in-situ PM2.5, sunphotometers, upward pointing lidar and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) instruments have been employed to better understand variability in the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 at the surface. Previous studies have shown good correlation be...

  18. Texture Library for 3-Dimensional Visualization Systems. Revised. SBIR- A93-030

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-29

    visualization system much like wallpaper is applied to walls. Texture patterns, however, can include transparent cut-outs, so that outlines of objects...the four colors of the print separation (cyan, magenta, yellow , and black) should be used to achieve pleasing results for certain objects or surfaces...0.2717, bougainvillea red 12.0n Flower, "potato plant" 2.5P 4/10 strong violet 41,18,84 0.2619, 0.1903, 12.00 Flower, daisy 5Y 8.5/12 vivid yellow

  19. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R.; Landers, James P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures. PMID:26924294

  20. Processing of 3-Dimensional Flash Lidar Terrain Images Generated From an Airborne Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Busch, George; Vanek, Michael; Reisse, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Data from the first Flight Test of the NASA Langley Flash Lidar system have been processed. Results of the analyses are presented and discussed. A digital elevation map of the test site is derived from the data, and is compared with the actual topography. The set of algorithms employed, starting from the initial data sorting, and continuing through to the final digital map classification is described. The accuracy, precision, and the spatial and angular resolution of the method are discussed.

  1. Adaptive and Collaborative Exploitation of 3 Dimensional Environmental Acoustics in Distributed Undersea Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. GOATS 2014 Adaptive and Collaborative Exploitation of 3...littoral MCM and ASW, exploiting collaborative and environmentally adaptive, bi- and multi-static, passive and active sonar configurations for...collected in one or two passes around a target. The end goal would be to have multiple AUVs in a target field able to work collaboratively to classify

  2. BOPACE 3-D (the Boeing Plastic Analysis Capability for 3-dimensional Solids Using Isoparametric Finite Elements)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The BOPACE 3-D is a finite element computer program, which provides a general family of three-dimensional isoparametric solid elements, and includes a new algorithm for improving the efficiency of the elastic-plastic-creep solution procedure. Theoretical, user, and programmer oriented sections are presented to describe the program.

  3. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R; Landers, James P

    2016-02-29

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures.

  4. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ˜40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ˜50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  5. Joint Inversion for 3-Dimensional S-Velocity Mantle Structure Along the Tethyan Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Provencal and Pannonian Basins, Tyrrhenian and Aegean Seas , Arabian and Nubian shields, and the Anatolian and Iranian Plateaus are underlain by... Sea broke up the Nubian-Arabian Shield and these provinces could have similar crustal petrology. Both provinces have volcanics and it has been...the Arabian Shield, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. We also have good coverage of northeast Africa, the Red Sea , and parts of the Russian Platform. We

  6. Fabrication of a 3 dimensional dielectrophoresis electrode by a metal inkjet printing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Yun, Gyu-Young; Koh, Yul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a micro electrode fabrication method by a metal inkjet printing technology for the bio-applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). The electrodes are composed of bottom planar gold (Au) electrodes and three dimensional (3D) silver (Ag) electrodes fabricated locally on the Au electrode through metal inkjet printing. We observed the negative DEP characteristics of the 4 μm polystyrene beads on the both electrodes at the 500 kHz, AC 20 Vpp point. The number of beads trapped on the printed Ag electrode is 79 and 25 on the planar Au electrode because of spatially larger electric field in a 3D electrode system.

  7. Theranostic 3-Dimensional nano brain-implant for prolonged and localized treatment of recurrent glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Ranjith; Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskar Reddy; Gowd, G. Siddaramana; Ashokan, Anusha; Thomas, John; Peethambaran, Reshmi; Thomas, Anoop; Unni, Ayalur Kodakara Kochugovindan; Panikar, Dilip; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2017-01-01

    Localized and controlled delivery of chemotherapeutics directly in brain-tumor for prolonged periods may radically improve the prognosis of recurrent glioblastoma. Here, we report a unique method of nanofiber by fiber controlled delivery of anti-cancer drug, Temozolomide, in orthotopic brain-tumor for one month using flexible polymeric nano-implant. A library of drug loaded (20 wt%) electrospun nanofiber of PLGA-PLA-PCL blends with distinct in vivo brain-release kinetics (hours to months) were numerically selected and a single nano-implant was formed by co-electrospinning of nano-fiber such that different set of fibres releases the drug for a specific periods from days to months by fiber-by-fiber switching. Orthotopic rat glioma implanted wafers showed constant drug release (116.6 μg/day) with negligible leakage into the peripheral blood (<100 ng) rendering ~1000 fold differential drug dosage in tumor versus peripheral blood. Most importantly, implant with one month release profile resulted in long-term (>4 month) survival of 85.7% animals whereas 07 day releasing implant showed tumor recurrence in 54.6% animals, rendering a median survival of only 74 days. In effect, we show that highly controlled drug delivery is possible for prolonged periods in orthotopic brain-tumor using combinatorial nanofibre libraries of bulk-eroding polymers, thereby controlling glioma recurrence. PMID:28262735

  8. Engineering strategies to recapitulate epithelial morphogenesis within synthetic 3 dimensional extracellular matrix with tunable mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Miroshnikova, Y.A.; Jorgens, D.M.; Spirio, L.; Auer, M.; Sieminski-Sarang, A.L.; Weaver, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties (e.g. stiffness) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) influence cell fate and tissue morphogenesis and contribute to disease progression. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ECM rigidity modulates cell behavior and fate remains rudimentary. To address this issue, a number of two and three dimensional (3D) hydrogel systems have been used to explore the effects of mechanical properties of the ECM on cell behavior. Unfortunately, many of these systems have limited application because fiber architecture, adhesiveness and/or pore size often change in parallel when gel elasticity is varied. Here we describe the use of ECM-adsorbed, synthetic, self-assembling peptide gels (SAPs) that are able to recapitulate normal epithelial acini morphogenesis and gene expression in a 3D context. By exploiting the range of visco-elasticity attainable with these SAP gels, and their ability to recreate native-like ECM fibril topology with minimal variability in ligand density and pore size, we were able to reconstitute normal versus tumor-like phenotype and gene expression patterns in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Accordingly, this SAP hydrogel system presents the first tunable system capable of independently assessing the interplay between ECM stiffness and multi-cellular epithelial phenotype in a 3D context. PMID:21441648

  9. A 3-dimensional Bergman kernel method with applications to rectangular domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, S.; Falcao, M. I.; Gurlebeck, K.; Malonek, H.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we revisit the so-called Bergman kernel method--BKM--for solving conformal mapping problems and propose a generalized BKM-approach to extend the theory to three-dimensional mapping problems. A special software package for quaternions was developed for the numerical experiments.

  10. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm-1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  11. Globally regular instability of 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime.

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Piotr; Jałmużna, Joanna

    2013-07-26

    We consider three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the AdS3 spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of AdS3. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have energy below the black hole threshold. This situation appears to be challenging for the cosmic censor. Analyzing the energy spectrum of the cascade we determine the width ρ(t) of the analyticity strip of solutions in the complex spatial plane and argue by extrapolation that ρ(t) does not vanish in finite time. This provides evidence that the turbulence is too weak to produce a naked singularity and the solutions remain globally regular in time, in accordance with the cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  12. A new optical system for 3-dimensional mapping of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sandra; Almeida, José B.

    2007-07-01

    In this work the authors present an optical corneal tomographer that uses two Scheimpflug cameras attached to an innovative illumination system that allows a rotary scanning of the entire cornea. The measurements are made from corneal optical sections obtained by illumination with a collimated beam expanded in a fan by a small cylindrical lens. This lens is provided with motor driven rotation in order to perform automated rotary scan of the whole cornea. The authors expect to achieve a scanning speed that will allow producing complete tomography maps without consideration of eye movements. Two Scheimpflug cameras are used to ca