Science.gov

Sample records for 3-dimensional objects ldrd

  1. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  2. Infants’ Representations of 3-Dimensional Occluded Objects

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa; Armstrong, Jennifer; Alexander, Gerianne

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants’ looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants’ representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants’ looking patterns in a novel manner and by comparing infants’ looking at a simple display in which a single 3-dimensional (3-D) object moves along a continuous trajectory to a more complex display in which two 3-D objects undergo trajectories that are interrupted behind an occluder. Six-month-old infants saw an occlusion sequence in which a ball moved along a linear path, disappeared behind a rectangular screen, and then a ball (ball-ball event) or a box (ball-box event) emerged at the other edge. An eye-tracking system recorded infants’ eye-movements during the event sequence. Results from examination of infants’ attention to the occluder indicate that during the occlusion interval infants looked longer to the side of the occluder behind which the moving occluded object was located, shifting gaze from one side of the occluder to the other as the object(s) moved behind the screen. Furthermore, when events included two objects, infants attended to the spatiotemporal coordinates of the objects longer than when a single object was involved. These results provide clear evidence that infants’ visual tracking is different in response to a one-object display than to a two-object display. Furthermore, this finding suggests that infants may require more focused attention to the hidden position of objects in more complex multiple-object displays and provides additional evidence that infants represent the spatial location of moving occluded objects. PMID:20926138

  3. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  4. RCS calculations of 3-dimensional objects, modeled by CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleeneer, I.; Schweicher, E.; Barel, A.

    1991-09-01

    All the steps are detailed that one has to perform to enable efficient Radar Cross Section calculation for objects with a complex and general shape. Only cavities are supposed to be nonexistent at this state of the work. Before the actual RCS calculations, preliminary treatments like systematic modeling, Hidden Faces removal, and automatic recognition of reflection and diffraction centers are realized. After the creation of the object's geometry and its adaptation to the direction of the observator, Physical Optics (PO) was used to determine the backscattered field, and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to evaluate the diffracted fields. Only monostatic scattering (i.e., backscattering) is considered.

  5. The Neural Representation of 3-Dimensional Objects in Rodent Memory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  6. Effects of Objective 3-Dimensional Measures of Facial Shape and Symmetry on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Cory D; Wehby, George L; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-09-01

    Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. The authors evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. The 3D facial images of 313 adults in Iowa were digitized with 32 landmarks, and objective 3D facial measurements capturing symmetric and asymmetric components of shape variation, centroid size, and fluctuating asymmetry were obtained from the 3D coordinate data using geo-morphometric analyses. Frontal and profile images of study participants were rated for facial attractiveness by 10 volunteers (5 women and 5 men) on a 5-point Likert scale and a visual analog scale. Multivariate regression was used to identify the effects of the objective 3D facial measurements on attractiveness ratings. Several objective 3D facial measurements had marked effects on attractiveness ratings. Shorter facial heights with protrusive chins, midface retrusion, faces with protrusive noses and thin lips, flat mandibular planes with deep labiomental folds, any cants of the lip commissures and floor of the nose, larger faces overall, and increased fluctuating asymmetry were rated as significantly (P < .001) less attractive. Perceptions of facial attractiveness can be explained by specific 3D measurements of facial shapes and fluctuating asymmetry, which have important implications for clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 2007 LDRD ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-16

    I am pleased to present the fiscal year 2007 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This represents the first year that SRNL has been eligible for LDRD participation and our results to date demonstrate we are off to an excellent start. SRNL became a National Laboratory in 2004, and was designated the 'Corporate Laboratory' for the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in 2006. As you will see, we have made great progress since these designations. The LDRD program is one of the tools SRNL is using to enable achievement of our strategic goals for the DOE. The LDRD program allows the laboratory to blend a strong basic science component into our applied technical portfolio. This blending of science with applied technology provides opportunities for our scientists to strengthen our capabilities and delivery. The LDRD program is vital to help SRNL attract and retain leading scientists and engineers who will help build SRNL's future and achieve DOE mission objectives. This program has stimulated our research staff creativity, while realizing benefits from their participation. This investment will yield long term dividends to the DOE in its Environmental Management, Energy, and National Security missions.

  8. Automatic path searching for interactive navigation support within virtual medical 3-dimensional objects.

    PubMed

    Noser, Hansrudi; Stern, Christian; Stucki, Peter

    2004-08-01

    This article proposes the use of a disembodied autonomous actor for navigation support within complex virtual medical objects reconstructed from Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Such objects are often maze-like, and users risk getting lost within them during Virtual Reality sessions. Therefore, users need paths for guided fly-throughs when performing non-invasive diagnostic tasks. We present a synthetic vision-based actor capable of finding collision-free paths from a given position to a goal point in environments containing loops and impasses. When navigating, the actor voxelizes the virtual environment and searches for collision-free paths in voxel space by using a back tracking search algorithm. Automata and rules control its search behaviour. The resulting paths can be used in dedicated virtual endoscopy applications. Our path search method has been tested within a variety of tubular virtual anatomical structures in 3D such as aortas, colons, or blood vessels of the brain. The actor finds paths within reasonable time limits, even when considering complex anatomical surface models. The method may be used as a valuable tool for assisting virtual endoscopic diagnostic and screening activities in the near future.

  9. Comparing our results - a GML3-based application schema for the exchange of 3-dimensional geomorphic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwner, M.-O.

    2009-04-01

    We present a GML-based application schema for the representation and exchange of true 3-dimensional geomorphologic landforms like rock slopes and their internal and interconnecting processes. Worldwide researchers of very different disciplines work on the behaviour of steep rock slopes and free faces. This behaviour is determined by many factors e.g. the rock slope's geometry, its internal structures, and processes that work on and below the surface. Erosion rates are of interest in terms of both, the geomorphological sediment approach as well as natural risk assessment. The latter refers to buildings and infrastructure in the close vicinity of free faces. While these topics are multi disciplinary research areas an agreement of data description and data exchange is essential to compare results. Geographical data can be shared over the Internet using Web Feature Services. The precondition is the development of a semantic model or ontology based on international standards like GML3 as an implementation of the ISO 109107 and others. Here we propose such an application model for data exchange purposes that fulfils the following requirements: First, an object-oriented view of landforms with a true 3D geometric data format was established. Second, the internal structure and attributes of landforms can be stored. Third, the interaction of processes and landforms is represented. Fourth, the change of all these mentioned attributes over time was considered.

  10. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  11. Tiger LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  12. LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems

    SciTech Connect

    HART,WILLIAM E.

    1999-12-01

    For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.

  13. The use of Argus® II retinal prosthesis by blind subjects to achieve localisation and prehension of objects in 3-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yvonne Hsu-Lin; Zhong, Joe Jianjiang; da Cruz, Lyndon

    2015-11-01

    The Argus® II retinal prosthesis system has entered mainstream treatment for patients blind from Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). We set out to evaluate the use of this system by blind subjects to achieve object localisation and prehension in 3-dimensional space. This is a single-centre, prospective, internally-controlled case series involving 5 blind RP subjects who received the Argus® II implant. The subjects were instructed to visually locate, reach and grasp (i.e. prehension) a small white cuboid object placed at random locations on a black worktop. A flashing LED beacon was attached to the reaching index finger (as a finger marker) to assess the effect of enhanced finger visualisation on performance. Tasks were performed with the prosthesis switched "on" or "off" and with the finger marker switched "on" or "off". Forty-eight trials were performed per subject. Trajectory of each subject's hand movement during the task was recorded by a 3D motion-capture unit (Qualysis®, see supplementary video) and analysed using a MATLAB script. Percentage of successful prehension±standard deviation was: 71.3 ± 27.1 % with prosthesis on and finger marker on; 77.5 ± 24.5 % with prosthesis on and finger marker off; 0.0 ± 0.0 % with prosthesis off and finger marker on, and 0.00 ± 0.00 % with prosthesis off and finger marker off. The finger marker did not have a significant effect on performance (P = 0.546 and 1, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, with prosthesis on and off respectively). With prosthesis off, none of the subjects were able to visually locate the target object and no initiation of prehension was attempted. With prosthesis on, prehension was initiated on 82.5 % (range 59-100 %) of the trials with 89.0 % (range 66.7-100 %) achieving successful prehension. Argus® II subjects were able to achieve object localisation and prehension better with their prosthesis switched on than off.

  14. 2013 SRNL LDRD Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, S.

    2014-03-07

    This report demonstrates the execution of our LDRD program within the objectives and guidelines outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the DOE Order 413.2b. The projects described within the report align purposefully with SRNL’s strategic vision and provide great value to the DOE. The diversity exhibited in the research and development projects underscores the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) mission and enhances that mission by developing the technical capabilities and human capital necessary to support future DOE-EM national needs. As a multiprogram national laboratory, SRNL is applying those capabilities to achieve tangible results for the nation in National Security, Environmental Stewardship, Clean Energy and Nuclear Materials Management.

  15. LDRD FY2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotta, P. R.; Kline, K. M.

    2005-02-28

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program is our primary means for pursuing innovative, long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that supports the missions of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and the National Nuclear Security Administration in national security, homeland security, energy security, environmental management, bioscience and healthcare technology, and breakthroughs in fundamental science and technology. The LDRD Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 and is administered by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office. The accomplishments described in this Annual Report demonstrate how the LDRD portfolio is strongly aligned with these missions and contributes to the Laboratory’s success in meeting its goals. The LDRD budget of $69.8 million for FY2004 sponsored 220 projects. These projects were selected through an extensive peer-review process to ensure the highest scientific and technical quality and mission relevance. Each year, the number of meritorious proposals far exceeds the funding available, making the selection a challenging one indeed. Our ongoing investments in LDRD have reaped long-term rewards for the Laboratory and the Nation. Many Laboratory programs trace their roots to research thrusts that began several years ago under LDRD sponsorship. In addition, many LDRD projects contribute to more than one mission area, leveraging the Laboratory’s multidisciplinary team approach to science and technology. Safeguarding the Nation from terrorist activity and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction will be an enduring mission of this Laboratory, for which LDRD will continue to play a vital role. The LDRD Program is a success story. Our projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and patents granted. With its reputation for sponsoring innovative projects, the LDRD Program is also a major vehicle

  16. Final LDRD report :

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  17. LDRD Annual Report FY2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sketchley, J A; Kotta, P; De Yoreo, J; Jackson, K; van Bibber, K

    2007-03-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program, authorized by Congress in 1991 and administered by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office, is our primary means for pursuing innovative, long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research that supports the missions of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and National Nuclear Security Administration in national security, energy security, environmental management, bioscience and technology to improve human health, and breakthroughs in fundamental science and technology. The accomplishments described in this Annual Report demonstrate the strong alignment of the LDRD portfolio with these missions and contribute to the Laboratory's success in meeting its goals. The LDRD budget of $92 million for FY2006 sponsored 188 projects. These projects were selected through an extensive peer-review process to ensure the highest scientific quality and mission relevance. Each year, the number of deserving proposals far exceeds the funding available, making the selection a tough one indeed. Our ongoing investments in LDRD have reaped long-term rewards for the Laboratory and the nation. Many Laboratory programs trace their roots to research thrusts that began several years ago under LDRD sponsorship. In addition, many LDRD projects contribute to more than one mission area, leveraging the Laboratory's multidisciplinary team approach to science and technology. Safeguarding the nation from terrorist activity and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction will be an enduring mission of this Laboratory, for which LDRD will continue to play a vital role. The LDRD Program is a success story. Our projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published in peer-reviewed journals, and patents granted. With its reputation for sponsoring innovative projects, the LDRD Program is also a major vehicle for attracting and retaining the best and the brightest

  18. SRNL LDRD ANNUAL REPORT 2008

    SciTech Connect

    French, T

    2008-12-29

    The Laboratory Director is pleased to have the opportunity to present the 2008 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) annual report. This is my first opportunity to do so, and only the second such report that has been issued. As will be obvious, SRNL has built upon the excellent start that was made with the LDRD program last year, and researchers have broken new ground in some important areas. In reviewing the output of this program this year, it is clear that the researchers implemented their ideas with creativity, skill and enthusiasm. It is gratifying to see this level of participation, because the LDRD program remains a key part of meeting SRNL's and DOE's strategic goals, and helps lay a solid scientific foundation for SRNL as the premier applied science laboratory. I also believe that the LDRD program's results this year have demonstrated SRNL's value as the EM Corporate Laboratory, having advanced knowledge in a spectrum of areas, including reduction of the technical risks of cleanup, separations science, packaging and transportation of nuclear materials, and many others. The research in support of Energy Security and National and Homeland Security has been no less notable. SRNL' s researchers have shown again that the nascent LDRD program is a sound investment for DOE that will pay off handsomely for the nation as time goes on.

  19. LDRD FY 2014 Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anita Gianotto; Dena Tomchak

    2013-08-01

    As required by DOE Order 413.2B the FY 2014 Program Plan is written to communicate ares of investment and approximate amounts being requested for the upcoming fiscal year. The program plan also includes brief highlights of current or previous LDRD projects that have an opportunity to impact our Nation's current and future energy challenges.

  20. Young children’s ability to use 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional symbols to show placements of body touches and hidden objects

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Nicole; London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated 3- to 5-year-old children’s ability to use dolls and human figure drawings as symbols to map body touches. In Experiment 1 stickers were placed on different locations of children’s bodies, and they were asked to indicate the location of the sticker using three different symbols: a doll, a human figure drawing, and the adult researcher. Performance on the tasks increased with age, but many 5-year-olds did not attain perfect performance. Surprisingly, younger children made more errors on the 2D human figure drawing task compared to the 3D doll and adult tasks. In Experiment 2, we compared children’s ability to use 3D and 2D symbols to indicate body touch as well as to guide their search for a hidden object. We replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for the body touch task: for younger children, 3D symbols were easier to use than 2D symbols. However, the reverse pattern was found for the object locations task with children showing superior performance using 2D drawings over 3D models. Though children showed developmental improvements in using dolls and drawings to show where they were touched, less than two-thirds of the 5-year-olds performed perfectly on the touch tasks. Developmental as well as forensic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25781003

  1. FY2014 LBNL LDRD Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Darren

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE’s National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE’s missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation. The LDRD program supports Berkeley Lab’s mission in many ways. First, because LDRD funds can be allocated within a relatively short time frame, Berkeley Lab researchers can support the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and serve the needs of the nation by quickly responding to forefront scientific problems. Second, LDRD enables Berkeley Lab to attract and retain highly qualified scientists and to support their efforts to carry out worldleading research. In addition, the LDRD program also supports new projects that involve graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, thus contributing to the education mission of Berkeley Lab.

  2. LDRD Report: Scheduling Irregular Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Boman, Erik G.

    2014-10-01

    This LDRD project was a campus exec fellowship to fund (in part) Donald Nguyen’s PhD research at UT-Austin. His work has focused on parallel programming models, and scheduling irregular algorithms on shared-memory systems using the Galois framework. Galois provides a simple but powerful way for users and applications to automatically obtain good parallel performance using certain supported data containers. The naïve user can write serial code, while advanced users can optimize performance by advanced features, such as specifying the scheduling policy. Galois was used to parallelize two sparse matrix reordering schemes: RCM and Sloan. Such reordering is important in high-performance computing to obtain better data locality and thus reduce run times.

  3. The usefulness of 3-dimensional endoscope systems in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Yuichi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    The image quality and performance of 3-dimensional video image systems has improved along with improvements in technology. However, objective evaluation on the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems is insufficient. Therefore, we decided to investigate the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems using the objective endoscopic surgery technology evaluating apparatus that we have developed, the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD). The participants were 28 student volunteers enrolled in Hiroshima University (17 men and 11 women, age: median 22.5, range 20-25), with no one having experienced endoscopic surgery training. Testing was carried out by dividing the subjects into two groups to initially carry out HUESAD with 2-dimensional video imaging (N = 14) and with 3-dimensional video imaging (N = 14). Questionnaires were carried out along with the investigation regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. The task was carried out for approximately 15 min regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. Lastly, the Mental Rotation Test, which is a standard space perception ability test, was used to evaluate the space perception ability. No difference was observed in the nauseous and uncomfortable feeling of practitioners between the two groups. Regarding smoothness, no difference was observed between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging (p = 0.8665). Deviation (space perception ability) and approaching time (accuracy) were significantly lower with 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging. Moreover, the approaching time (accuracy) significantly improved in 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging in the group with low space perception ability (p = 0.0085). Objective evaluation using HUESAD and subjective evaluation by questionnaire revealed that endoscopic surgery techniques significantly improved in 3-dimensional video

  4. Advanced polychromator systems for remote chemical sensing (LDRD project 52575).

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Allen, James Joe

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop a programmable diffraction grating fabricated in SUMMiT V{trademark}. Two types of grating elements (vertical and rotational) were designed and demonstrated. The vertical grating element utilized compound leveraged bending and the rotational grating element used vertical comb drive actuation. This work resulted in two technical advances and one patent application. Also a new optical configuration of the Polychromator was demonstrated. The new optical configuration improved the optical efficiency of the system without degrading any other aspect of the system. The new configuration also relaxes some constraint on the programmable diffraction grating.

  5. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  6. FY 2014 LDRD Annual Report Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchak, Dena

    2015-02-01

    The FY 2014 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL's technical capabilities can support future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL - it provides a means for the laboratory to pursue novel scientific and engineering research in areas that are deemed too basic or risky for programmatic investments. This research enahnces technical capabilities at the laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities for skill building and partnership development.

  7. LDRD Highlights at the National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Alayat, R. A.

    2016-10-10

    To meet the nation’s critical challenges, the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have always pushed the boundaries of science, technology, and engineering. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 provided the basis for these laboratories to engage in the cutting edge of science and technology and respond to technological surprises, while retaining the best scientific and technological minds. To help re-energize this commitment, in 1991 the U.S. Congress authorized the national laboratories to devote a relatively small percentage of their budget to creative and innovative work that serves to maintain their vitality in disciplines relevant to DOE missions. Since then, this effort has been formally called the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. LDRD has been an essential mechanism to enable the laboratories to address DOE’s current and future missions with leading-edge research proposed independently by laboratory technical staff, evaluated through expert peer-review committees, and funded by the individual laboratories consistent with the authorizing legislation and the DOE LDRD Order 413.2C.

  8. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  9. Final report for LDRD project learning efficient hypermedia navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang; Laguna, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the work performed under the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}Learning Efficient Hypermedia Navigation.{close_quotes} The bulk of the work is contained in the software developed for the WWW and a copy of the software demonstrating its use has been submitted to the LDRD office.

  10. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  11. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  12. 2014 SRNL LDRD Annual Report, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mcwhorter, S.

    2015-03-15

    Laboratory Directed Research and Development is a congressionally authorized program that provides the ‘innovation inspiration’ from which many of the Laboratory’s multi-discipline advancements are made in both science and engineering technology. The program is the backbone for insuring that scientific, technical and engineering capabilities can meet current and future needs. It is an important tool in reducing the probability of technological surprise by allowing laboratory technical staff room to innovate and keep abreast of scientific breakthroughs. Drawing from the synergism among the EM and NNSA missions, and work from other federal agencies ensures that LDRD is the key element in maintaining the vitality of SRNL’s technical programs. The LDRD program aims to position the Laboratory for new business in clean energy, national security, nuclear materials management and environmental stewardship by leveraging the unique capabilities of the Laboratory to yield foundational scientific research in core business areas, while aligning with SRS strategic initiatives and maintaining a vision for ultimate DOE applications.

  13. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  14. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  15. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  16. Computational Biology: A Strategic Initiative LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Barksy, D; Colvin, M

    2002-02-07

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative LDRD project was to establish at LLNL a new core capability in computational biology, combining laboratory strengths in high performance computing, molecular biology, and computational chemistry and physics. As described in this report, this project has been very successful in achieving this goal. This success is demonstrated by the large number of referred publications, invited talks, and follow-on research grants that have resulted from this project. Additionally, this project has helped build connections to internal and external collaborators and funding agencies that will be critical to the long-term vitality of LLNL programs in computational biology. Most importantly, this project has helped establish on-going research groups in the Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, the Physics and Applied Technology Directorate, and the Computation Directorate. These groups include three laboratory staff members originally hired as post-doctoral researchers for this strategic initiative.

  17. Neurons to algorithms LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Aimone, James Bradley; Warrender, Christina E.; Trumbo, Derek

    2013-09-01

    Over the last three years the Neurons to Algorithms (N2A) LDRD project teams has built infrastructure to discover computational structures in the brain. This consists of a modeling language, a tool that enables model development and simulation in that language, and initial connections with the Neuroinformatics community, a group working toward similar goals. The approach of N2A is to express large complex systems like the brain as populations of a discrete part types that have specific structural relationships with each other, along with internal and structural dynamics. Such an evolving mathematical system may be able to capture the essence of neural processing, and ultimately of thought itself. This final report is a cover for the actual products of the project: the N2A Language Specification, the N2A Application, and a journal paper summarizing our methods.

  18. FY02 Engineering Technology Reports Volume 2: LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, Camille

    2003-03-01

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2002, and exemplifies Engineering's 50-year history of developing the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''To make programs succeed today and to ensure the vitality of the Laboratory tomorrow.'' Engineering's investment in new technologies is carried out through two programs, the ''Tech Base'' program (Volume I) and the LDRD program (Volume II). This report summarizes the LDRD portion of Engineering's Technology Program. LDRD is the vehicle for researching and developing those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge, or that require a significant level of research, or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice.'' Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2002, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology for national security applications.

  19. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  20. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  1. Precision guided parachute LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkey, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Precision Guided Parachute LDRD, a two year program at Sandia National Laboratories which developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) guided parachute capable of autonomous flight and landings. A detailed computer model of a gliding parachute was developed for software only simulations. A hardware in-the-loop simulator was developed and used for flight package system integration and design validation. Initial parachute drop tests were conducted at Sandia`s Coyote Canyon Cable Facility, followed by a series of airdrops using Ross Aircraft`s Twin Otter at the Burris Ranch Drop Zone. Final flights demonstrated in-flight wind estimation and the capability to fly a commanded heading. In the past, the cost and logistical complexity of an initial navigation system ruled out actively guiding a parachute. The advent of the low-cost, light-weight Global Positioning System (GPS) has eliminated this barrier. By using GPS position and velocity measurements, a guided parachute can autonomously steer itself to a targeted point on the ground through the use of control drums attached to the control lanyards of the parachute. By actively correcting for drop point errors and wind drift, the guidance accuracy of this system should be on the order of GPS position errors. This would be a significant improvement over unguided airdrops which may have errors of a mile or more.

  2. Final Report: CNC Micromachines LDRD No.10793

    SciTech Connect

    JOKIEL JR., BERNHARD; BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; BIEG, LOTHAR F.; ALLEN, JAMES J.

    2003-04-01

    The three-year LDRD ''CNC Micromachines'' was successfully completed at the end of FY02. The project had four major breakthroughs in spatial motion control in MEMS: (1) A unified method for designing scalable planar and spatial on-chip motion control systems was developed. The method relies on the use of parallel kinematic mechanisms (PKMs) that when properly designed provide different types of motion on-chip without the need for post-fabrication assembly, (2) A new type of actuator was developed--the linear stepping track drive (LSTD) that provides open loop linear position control that is scalable in displacement, output force and step size. Several versions of this actuator were designed, fabricated and successfully tested. (3) Different versions of XYZ translation only and PTT motion stages were designed, successfully fabricated and successfully tested demonstrating absolutely that on-chip spatial motion control systems are not only possible, but are a reality. (4) Control algorithms, software and infrastructure based on MATLAB were created and successfully implemented to drive the XYZ and PTT motion platforms in a controlled manner. The control software is capable of reading an M/G code machine tool language file, decode the instructions and correctly calculate and apply position and velocity trajectories to the motion devices linear drive inputs to position the device platform along the trajectory as specified by the input file. A full and detailed account of design methodology, theory and experimental results (failures and successes) is provided.

  3. Advanced nuclear measurements LDRD -- Sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-02-01

    This component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-PD has focused on the analysis and methodologies to quantify and characterize existing inventories of weapons and commercial fissile materials, as well as to, anticipate future forms and quantities to fissile materials. Historically, domestic safeguards had been applied to either pure uniform homogeneous material or to well characterized materials. The future is different simplistically, measurement challenges will be associated with the materials recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons in the US and Russia subject to disposition, the residues and wastes left over from the weapons production process, and from the existing and growing inventory of materials in commercial/civilian programs. Nuclear measurement issues for the fissile materials coming from these sources are associated with homogeneity, purity, and matrix effects. Specifically, these difficult-to-measure fissile materials are heterogeneous, impure, and embedded in highly shielding non-uniform matrices. Currently, each of these effects creates problems for radiation-based assay and it is impossible to measure material that has a combination of all these effects. Nuclear materials control and measurement is a dynamic problem requiring a predictive capability. This component has been tasked with helping select which future problems are the most important to target, during the last year accomplishments include: characterization of weapons waste fissile materials, identification of measurement problem areas, defining instrument requirements, and characterization of commercial fissile materials. A discussion of accomplishments in each of these areas is presented.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Annual Report FY 2013 LDRD Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dena Tomchak

    2014-03-01

    The FY 2013 LDRD Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL’s technical capabilities support the current and future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to INL—it provides a means for the Laboratory to maintain scientific and technical vitality while funding highly innovative, high-risk science and technology research and development (R&D) projects. The program enhances technical capabilities at the Laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities to explore proof-of-principle ideas, advanced studies of innovative concepts, and preliminary technical analyses. Established by Congress in 1991, the LDRD Program proves its benefit each year through new programs, intellectual property, patents, copyrights, national and international awards, and publications.

  5. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  6. Tactical Deployment and Management of Autonomous Agents, LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.

    2007-11-16

    This is the final report for FY07 for this ongoing LDRD. The project involves deriving a behavioral framework, algorithms, and science underlying a complex-adaptive network of cooperating sensors that secures the computational infrastructure of a multi-enterprise cooperative organization.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory LDRD Annual Report FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Dena Tomchak

    2013-03-01

    This report provides a glimpse into our diverse research and development portfolio, wwhich encompasses both advanced nuclear science and technology and underlying technologies. IN keeping with the mission, INL's LDRD program fosters technical capabilities necessary to support current and future DOE-Office of Nuclear Energy research and development needs.

  8. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  9. Labial morphology: a 3-dimensional anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Rosati, Riccardo; Peretta, Redento; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2009-09-01

    To develop a noninvasive 3-dimensional method to evaluate labial morphology and to assess gender-related differences in healthy young adults. Dental and lip impressions of 11 men and 10 women aged 21 to 34 years, with sound, full, permanent dentition were obtained. The models were digitized and 3-dimensional virtual reproductions obtained. The labial thickness, vermilion area, and volume of the upper and lower lips were measured from the digital reconstructions. The male and female data were compared using Student's t test. The mean lip thickness was significantly larger (P = .02) in men (14.3 mm) than in women (12.3 mm). The lower lip was thicker than the upper lip. The vermilion width was larger in men (75 mm) than in women (70 mm), and no differences were found for vermilion height (10 mm). In the upper lip, the height/width ratio was significantly larger in women (14.1%) than in men (12.3%). The vermilion surface area was slightly larger in men than in women (upper lip area: women, 467 mm(2); men, 501 mm(2); lower lip area: women, 491 mm(2); men, 569 mm(2)). The labial volume was significantly larger in men (upper lip, 2,390 mm(3); lower lip, 2,902 mm(3)) than in women (upper lip, 1,743 mm(3); lower lip, 1,764 mm(3); P = .021). The upper/lower lip area and volume ratios were similar in the 2 genders. Overall, men had larger lips than women. The inferior lip height/width ratio was similar in both genders, and men had a relatively thinner upper lip than women.

  10. Classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Geng Qiaozhi; Ren Mingming; Chen Zhiqi

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras. To begin with, we give some properties on (n+3)-dimensional n-Lie algebras. Then based on the properties, we obtain the classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras.

  11. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  12. Final Report of LDRD Project: An Electromagnetic Imaging System for Environmental Site Reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, G.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; Buttram, M.T.; Rinehart, L.F.; Helgeson, W.; Brown, D.; O'Malley, M.W.; Zutavern, F.J.; Aurand, J.; Arin, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the LDRD project titled: An Electromagnetic Imaging System for Environmental Site Reconnaissance. The major initial challenge of this LDRD was to develop a ground penetrating radar (GPR) whose peak and average radiated power surpassed that of any other in existence. Goals were set to use such a system to detect the following: (1) disrupted soil layers where there is potential for buried waste, (2) buried objects such as 55-gallon drums at depths up to 3 m, and (3) detecting contaminated soil. Initial modeling of the problem suggested that for soil conditions similar to Puerto Rican clay loam, moisture content 10 percent (conductivity = 0.01 mhos at 350 MHz), a buried 55-gallon drum could be detected in a straightforward manner by an UWB GPR system at a depth of 3 meters. From the simulations, the highest attenuation ({minus}50 dB) was the result of scattering from a 3-m deep vertically orientated drum. A system loss of {minus}100 dB is a typical limit for all kinds of radar systems (either direct time-domain or swept frequency). The modeling work also determined that the waveshape of the pulse scattered off the buried drum would be relatively insensitive to drum orientation, and thus easier to detect with the GPR system.

  13. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.

    2007-11-01

    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  14. LDRD final report on new homogeneous catalysts for direct olefin epoxidation (LDRD 52591).

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Karen; Smythe, Nicole A.; Moore, Joshua T.; Stewart, Constantine A.; Kemp, Richard Alan; Miller, James Edward; Kornienko, Alexander (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology); Denney, Melanie C. (University of Washington); Cetto, Kara L.

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel homogeneous epoxidation catalyst system that uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant, a ''Holy Grail'' in catalysis. While olefins (alkenes) that do not contain allylic hydrogens can be epoxidized directly using heterogeneous catalysts, most olefins cannot, and so a general, atom-efficient route is desired. While most of the work performed on this LDRD has been on pincer complexes of late transition metals, we also scouted out metal/ligand combinations that were significantly different, and unfortunately, less successful. Most of the work reported here deals with phosphorus-ligated Pd hydrides [(PCP)Pd-H]. We have demonstrated that molecular oxygen gas can insert into the Pd-H bond, giving a structurally characterized Pd-OOH species. This species reacts with oxygen acceptors such as olefins to donate an oxygen atom, although in various levels of selectivity, and to generate a [(PCP)Pd-OH] molecule. We discovered that the active [(PCP)Pd-H] active catalyst can be regenerated by addition of either CO or hydrogen. The demonstration of each step of the catalytic cycle is quite significant. Extensions to the pincer-Pd chemistry by attaching a fluorinated tail to the pincer designed to be used in solvents with higher oxygen solubilities are also presented.

  15. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  16. Final report on LDRD project "proliferation-resistant fuel cycles"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A

    1999-02-25

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues.

  17. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Ruellas, Antonio C O; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this article are to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article's online version for viewing and downloading using the reader's software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader's software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. When submitting manuscripts, authors can now upload 3D models that will allow readers to

  18. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  19. [Reformatting 3-dimensional medical images. Application to MRI and scanners].

    PubMed

    Cuchet, E; Lambert, F; Derosier, C

    1994-04-01

    Several kinds of images, each giving a different information, are now available to radiologists. The MRI images have excellent contrast resolution and enable soft tissues to be differentiated, but they do not distinguish structures with low water content, notably air and bone, whereas these are easily recognized by CT. The aim of this study is to present a simple, entirely radiologist-supervised method to examine the radiological data of any patient, obtained from several kinds of images. MRI is performed using a GEMS Signa, 1.5 Tesla, 4.9 version magnet. Acquisitions are T1- or T2-weighted spin-echo or gradient sequences, with a 256 or 512 matrix, on axial sections, with of without contrast injection. CT is performed using a GEMS Hi Speed scanner. Acquisitions are obtained on a 512 matrix and with a "Soft" or "Bone" filter, without contrast injection. The two series of sections are transmitted, through an Etherne network, to a Sun console where the two corresponding volumes are reconstructed on a GEMS Voxtol by means of a 3-dimensional soft ware for image treatment. At least 3 couples define the rotation and translation required for one of the two volumes to reset it in the guide mark of the other. The soft ware then looks for the best transformation, in terms of least square, between the two 3-dimensional volumes. The calculation demands only a few seconds. One of the two objects is then recalculated in the guide mark of the other. The cursor positioned by the user on any point of the object is linked to a second cursor which will automatically position itself on the corresponding point of the other object. The accuracy obtained (about one millimeter) is specified by the soft ware which indicates how to improve resetting. In addition to its teaching value, this superimposition image can help in the diagnosis and can be used for surgical stimulation because it is possible to mix the images. This mixing gives access to a new type of imaging, since the images spared

  20. LDRD final report: Physical simulation of nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports on the accomplishments of a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project whose objective was to initiate a research program for developing a fundamental understanding of multiphase multicomponent subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media and to develop parallel processing computational tools for numerical simulation of such problems. The main achievement of this project was the successful development of a general-purpose, unstructured grid, multiphase thermal simulator for subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media implemented for use on massively parallel (MP) computers via message-passing and domain decomposition techniques. The numerical platform provides an excellent base for new and continuing project development in areas of current interest to SNL and the DOE complex including, subsurface nuclear waste disposal and cleanup, groundwater availability and contamination studies, fuel-spill transport for accident analysis, and DNAPL transport and remediation.

  1. LDRD final report : a lightweight operating system for multi-core capability class supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Hudson, Trammell B.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2010-09-01

    The two primary objectives of this LDRD project were to create a lightweight kernel (LWK) operating system(OS) designed to take maximum advantage of multi-core processors, and to leverage the virtualization capabilities in modern multi-core processors to create a more flexible and adaptable LWK environment. The most significant technical accomplishments of this project were the development of the Kitten lightweight kernel, the co-development of the SMARTMAP intra-node memory mapping technique, and the development and demonstration of a scalable virtualization environment for HPC. Each of these topics is presented in this report by the inclusion of a published or submitted research paper. The results of this project are being leveraged by several ongoing and new research projects.

  2. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  3. Diffractive Optics in the Infrared (DiOptIR) LDRD 67109 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Charles Fred; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Wendt, Joel Robert; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Samora, Sally; Carter, Tony Ray; Peters, David William; Shields, Eric A.

    2005-10-01

    This diffractive optical element (DOE) LDRD is divided into two tasks. In Task 1, we develop two new DOE technologies: (1) a broad wavelength band effective anti-reflection (AR) structure and (2) a design tool to encode dispersion and polarization information into a unique diffraction pattern. In Task 2, we model, design, and fabricate a subwavelength polarization splitter. The first technology is an anti-reflective (AR) layer that may be etched into the DOE surface. For many wavelengths of interest, transmissive silicon DOEs are ideal. However, a significant portion of light (30% from each surface) is lost due to Fresnel reflection. To address this issue, we investigate a subwavelength, surface relief structure that acts as an effective AR coating. The second DOE component technology in Task 1 is a design tool to determine the optimal DOE surface relief structure that can encode the light's degree of dispersion and polarization into a unique spatial pattern. Many signals of interest have unique spatial, temporal, spectral, and polarization signatures. The ability to disperse the signal into a unique diffraction pattern would result in improved signal detection sensitivity with a simultaneous reduction in false alarm. Task 2 of this LDRD project is to investigate the modeling, design, and fabrication of subwavelength birefringent devices for polarimetric spectral sensing and imaging applications. Polarimetric spectral sensing measures the spectrum of the light and polarization state of light at each wavelength simultaneously. The capability to obtain both polarization and spectral information can help develop target/object signature and identify the target/object for several applications in NP&MC and national security.

  4. From Idea to Innovation: The Role of LDRD Investments in Sandia's Recent Successful B61 Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Marie Danielle

    2015-11-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, authorized by U.S. Congress in 1991, enables Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories to devote a small portion of their research funding to high-risk and potentially high-payoff research. Because it is high-risk, LDRD-supported research may not lead to immediate mission impacts; however, many successes at DOE labs can be traced back to investments in LDRD. LDRD investments have a history of enabling significant payoffs for long-running DOE and NNSA missions and for providing anticipatory new technologies that ultimately become critical to future missions. Many of Sandia National Laboratories’ successes can be traced back to investments in LDRD. Capabilities from three LDRDs were critical to recent tests of the B61-12 gravity bomb—tests that would previously have only been performed experimentally.

  5. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  6. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  7. LDRD final report : autotuning for scalable linear algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Marker, Bryan

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress made as part of a one year lab-directed research and development (LDRD) project to fund the research efforts of Bryan Marker at the University of Texas at Austin. The goal of the project was to develop new techniques for automatically tuning the performance of dense linear algebra kernels. These kernels often represent the majority of computational time in an application. The primary outcome from this work is a demonstration of the value of model driven engineering as an approach to accurately predict and study performance trade-offs for dense linear algebra computations.

  8. LDRD project 151362 : low energy electron-photon transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James

    2013-09-01

    At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of electrons and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve transport at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-transport expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.

  9. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  10. FY06 LDRD Final Report: Broadband Radiation and Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, N; Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Sharpe, R; Jandhyala, V; Champagne, N; Rockway, J D; Pingenot, J

    2007-03-08

    This is the final report for LDRD 01-ERD-005. The Principle Investigator was Robert Sharpe. Collaborators included Niel Madsen, Benjamin Fasenfest, John D. Rockway, of the Defense Sciences Engineering Division (DSED), Vikram Jandhyala and James Pingenot from the University of Washington, and Mark Stowell of the Center for Applications Development and Software Engineering (CADSE). It should be noted that Benjamin Fasenfest and Mark Stowell were partially supported under other funding. The purpose of this LDRD effort was to enhance LLNL's computational electromagnetics capability in the area of broadband radiation and scattering. For radiation and scattering problems our transient EM codes are limited by the approximate Radiation Boundary Conditions (RBC's) used to model the radiation into an infinite space. Improved RBC's were researched, developed, and incorporated into the existing EMSolve finite-element code to provide a 10-100x improvement in the accuracy of the boundary conditions. Section I provides an introduction to the project and the project goals. Section II provides a summary of the project's research and accomplishments as presented in the attached papers.

  11. Nanoporous Silica Templated HeteroEpitaxy: Final LDRD Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David Bruce; Koleske, Daniel; Rowen, Adam M.; Williams, John Dalton; Fan, Hongyou; Arrington, Christian Lew

    2006-11-01

    This one-year out-of-the-box LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, and the UV curable epoxy, SU-8. Use of SU-8 as a growth mask represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist patterns and pilot work on using SU-8 as a DUV negative resist, another significant potential result. While the late start nature of this project pushed some of the initial research goals out of the time table, significant progress was made. 3 Acknowledgements This work was performed in part at the Nanoscience @ UNM facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ECS 03-35765). Sandia is multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United Stated Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported under the Sandia LDRD program (Project 99405). 4

  12. LDRD 2014 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2014, as required. In FY 2014, the BNL LDRD Program funded 40 projects, 8 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.6M.

  13. LDRD 2015 Annual Report: Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.

    2015-12-31

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is required to provide a program description and overview of its Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) to the Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with DOE Order 413.2B dated April 19, 2006. This report provides a detailed look at the scientific and technical activities for each of the LDRD projects funded by BNL in FY 2015, as required. In FY 2015, the BNL LDRD Program funded 43 projects, 12 of which were new starts, at a total cost of $9.5M.

  14. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Al-Ayat, R.; Walter, W. R.

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  15. Video Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Video-Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and testing video-based sensors for automated spacecraft guidance for several years, and the next generation of video sensor will have tracking rates up to 100 Hz and will be able to track multiple reflectors and targets. The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) developed over the past several years has performed well in testing and met the objective of being used as the terminal guidance sensor for an automated rendezvous and capture system. The first VGS was successfully tested in closed-loop 3-degree-of-freedom (3- DOF) tests in 1989 and then in 6-DOF open-loop tests in 1992 and closed-loop tests in 1993-4. Development and testing continued, and in 1995 approval was given to test the VGS in an experiment on the Space Shuttle. The VGS flew in 1997 and in 1998, performing well for both flights. During the development and testing before, during, and after the flight experiments, numerous areas for improvement were found. The VGS was developed with a sensor head and an electronics box, connected by cables. The VGS was used in conjunction with a target that had wavelength-filtered retro-reflectors in a specific pattern, The sensor head contained the laser diodes, video camera, and heaters and coolers. The electronics box contained a frame grabber, image processor, the electronics to control the components in the sensor head, the communications electronics, and the power supply. The system works by sequentially firing two different wavelengths of laser diodes at the target and processing the two images. Since the target only reflects one wavelength, it shows up well in one image and not at all in the other. Because the target's dimensions are known, the relative positions and attitudes of the target and the sensor can be computed from the spots reflected from the target. The system was designed to work from I

  16. Integrated computer control system CORBA-based simulator FY98 LDRD project final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Holloway, F W; Van Arsdall, P J

    1999-01-15

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-driven control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point

  17. Final Report for LDRD Feasibility Study 11-FS-0015 Feasibility of Asteroid Deflection Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Paul L.

    2011-11-10

    This report is a compilation of material generated in the course of the LDRD feasibility study 11-FS-0015, Feasibility of Asteroid Deflection Investigations. The descriptive material is from the web-based proposal for the project.

  18. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  19. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  20. Tracking of Nuclear Production using Indigenous Species: Final LDRD Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Alam, Mary Kathleen; McIntyre, Sarah K.; Volk, David; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Luxon, Bruce A.; Ansari, G. A. Shakeel

    2009-10-01

    Our LDRD research project sought to develop an analytical method for detection of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Our approach is distinctly different than current research involving hardware-based sensors. By utilizing the response of indigenous species of plants and/or animals surrounding (or within) a nuclear processing facility, we propose tracking 'suspicious molecules' relevant to nuclear materials processing. As proof of concept, we have examined TBP, tributylphosphate, used in uranium enrichment as well as plutonium extraction from spent nuclear fuels. We will compare TBP to the TPP (triphenylphosphate) analog to determine the uniqueness of the metabonomic response. We show that there is a unique metabonomic response within our animal model to TBP. The TBP signature can further be delineated from that of TPP. We have also developed unique methods of instrumental transfer for metabonomic data sets.

  1. Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.

  2. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O'Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  3. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  4. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  5. Airway growth and development: a computerized 3-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Stephen A; Jacobson, Richard; Khalessi, Sadri

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in the normal upper airway during growth and development using 3-dimensional computer analysis from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data to provide a normative reference. The airway size and respiratory mode are known to have a relationship to facial morphology and the development of a malocclusion. The use of CBCT, 3-dimensional imaging, and automated computer analysis in treatment planning allows the upper airway to be precisely evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the growth of the airway using 3-dimensional analysis and CBCT data from age 6 through old age, in 1300 normal individuals. The airway size and length increase until age 20 at which time a variable period of stability occurs. Next, the airway at first decreases slowly in size and then, after age 40, more rapidly. Normative data are provided in the present study for age groups from 6 to 60 years in relation to the airway total volume, smallest cross-sectional area and vertical length of the airway. This 3-dimensional data of the upper airway will provide a normative reference as an aid in the early understanding of respiration and dentofacial anatomy, which will help in early treatment planning. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 3-dimensional bundle adjustments in industrial metrology: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydosh, M.; LeCocq, C.; Ruland, R.; Wand, B.

    1992-07-01

    Several theodolite measurement systems are available for use in the industrial metrology market. Many of them offer a rigorous 3-dimensional bundle adjustment routine. In this paper several systems in use and available for evaluation purposes at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be tested and their results compared.

  7. Microdiagnostic Lab on a Chip - LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SMITH, NORMAN F.; SINCLAIR, MICHAEL B.; BAKER, MICHAEL S.; BITSIE, FERNANDO

    2002-03-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachining is a new technology for building micrometer ({micro}m) scale mechanical devices on silicon wafers using techniques and process tools borrowed from the manufacture of integrated circuits. Sandia National Laboratories has invested a significant effort in demonstrating the viability of polysilicon surface micromachining and has developed the Sandia Ultraplanar Micromachining Technology (SUMMiT V{trademark} ) process, which consists of five structural levels of polysilicon. A major advantage of polysilicon surface micromachining over other micromachining methods is that thousands to millions of thin film mechanical devices can be built on multiple wafers in a single fabrication lot and will operate without post-processing assembly. However, if thin film mechanical or surface properties do not lie within certain tightly set bounds, micromachined devices will fail and yield will be low. This results in high fabrication costs to attain a certain number of working devices. An important factor in determining the yield of devices in this parallel-processing method is the uniformity of these properties across a wafer and from wafer to wafer. No metrology tool exists that can routinely and accurately quantify such properties. Such a tool would enable micromachining process engineers to understand trends and thereby improve yield of micromachined devices. In this LDRD project, we demonstrated the feasibility of and made significant progress towards automatically mapping mechanical and surface properties of thin films across a wafer. The MEMS parametrics measurement team has implemented a subset of this platform, and approximately 30 wafer lots have been characterized. While more remains to be done to achieve routine characterization of all these properties, we have demonstrated the essential technologies. These include: (1) well-understood test structures fabricated side-by-side with MEMS devices, (2) well

  8. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  9. 3-dimensional versus conventional laparoscopy for benign hysterectomy: protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Elise; Bennich, Gitte; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Lindschou, Jannie; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Lassen, Pernille Danneskiold

    2017-09-07

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures for women of reproductive age. Laparoscopy was introduced in the 1990es and is today one of the recommended routes of surgery. A recent observational study showed that operative time for hysterectomy was significantly lower for 3-dimensional compared to conventional laparoscopy. Complication rates were similar for the two groups. No other observational studies or randomized clinical trials have compared 3-dimensional to conventional laparoscopy in patients undergoing total hysterectomy for benign disease. The objective of the study is to determine if 3D laparoscopy gives better quality of life, less postoperative pain, less per- and postoperative complications, shorter operative time, or a shorter stay in hospital and a faster return to work or normal life, compared to conventional laparoscopy for benign hysterectomy. The design is a randomised multicentre clinical trial. Participants will be 400 women referred for laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign indications. Patients will be randomized to 3-dimensional or conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy. Operative procedures will follow the same principles and the same standard whether the surgeon's vision is 3-dimensional or conventional laparoscopy. Primary outcomes will be the impact of surgery on quality of life, assessed by the SF 36 questionnaire, and postoperative pain, assessed by a Visual Analogue scale for pain measurement. With a standard deviation of 12 points on SF 36 questionnaire, a risk of type I error of 3.3% and a risk of type II error of 10% a sample size of 190 patients in each arm of the trial is needed. Secondarily, we will investigate operative time, time to return to work, length of hospital stay, and - and postoperative complications. This trial will be the first randomized clinical trial investigating the potential clinical benefits and harms of 3-dimensional compared to conventional laparoscopy. The results may provide more evidence

  10. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  11. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  12. Cohomological rigidity of manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Erokhovets, N. Yu.; Masuda, M.; Panov, T. E.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    A family of closed manifolds is said to be cohomologically rigid if a cohomology ring isomorphism implies a diffeomorphism for any two manifolds in the family. Cohomological rigidity is established here for large families of 3-dimensional and 6-dimensional manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes. The class \\mathscr{P} of 3-dimensional combinatorial simple polytopes P different from tetrahedra and without facets forming 3- and 4-belts is studied. This class includes mathematical fullerenes, that is, simple 3- polytopes with only 5-gonal and 6-gonal facets. By a theorem of Pogorelov, any polytope in \\mathscr{P} admits in Lobachevsky 3-space a right-angled realisation which is unique up to isometry. Our families of smooth manifolds are associated with polytopes in the class \\mathscr{P}. The first family consists of 3-dimensional small covers of polytopes in \\mathscr{P}, or equivalently, hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Löbell type. The second family consists of 6-dimensional quasitoric manifolds over polytopes in \\mathscr{P}. Our main result is that both families are cohomologically rigid, that is, two manifolds M and M' from either family are diffeomorphic if and only if their cohomology rings are isomorphic. It is also proved that if M and M' are diffeomorphic, then their corresponding polytopes P and P' are combinatorially equivalent. These results are intertwined with classical subjects in geometry and topology such as the combinatorics of 3-polytopes, the Four Colour Theorem, aspherical manifolds, a diffeomorphism classification of 6-manifolds, and invariance of Pontryagin classes. The proofs use techniques of toric topology. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  13. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  14. Spatial and temporal resolution of fluid flows: LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Schefer, R.W.; Perea, L.D.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) activity to develop a diagnostic technique for simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of fluid flows. The goal is to obtain two orders of magnitude resolution in two spatial dimensions and time simultaneously. The approach used in this study is to scale up Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to acquire meter-size images at up to 200 frames/sec. Experiments were conducted in buoyant, fully turbulent, non-reacting and reacting plumes with a base diameter of one meter. The PIV results were successful in the ambient gas for all flows, and in the plume for non-reacting helium and reacting methane, but not reacting hydrogen. No PIV was obtained in the hot combustion product region as the seed particles chosen vaporized. Weak signals prevented PLIF in the helium. However, in reacting methane flows, PLIF images speculated to be from Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbons were obtained which mark the flame sheets. The results were unexpected and very insightful. A natural fluorescence from the seed particle vapor was also noted in the hydrogen tests.

  15. Obstacle detection for autonomous navigation : an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, Denise D.

    2004-03-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Navigation'. The principal goal of this project was to develop a mathematical framework for obstacle detection. The framework provides a basis for solutions to many complex obstacle detection problems critical to successful autonomous navigation. Another goal of this project was to characterize sensing requirements in terms of physical characteristics of obstacles, vehicles, and terrain. For example, a specific vehicle traveling at a specific velocity over a specific terrain requires a sensor with a certain range of detection, resolution, field-of-view, and sufficient sensitivity to specific obstacle characteristics. In some cases, combinations of sensors were required to distinguish between different hazardous obstacles and benign terrain. In our framework, the problem was posed as a multidimensional, multiple-hypothesis, pattern recognition problem. Features were extracted from selected sensors that allow hazardous obstacles to be distinguished from benign terrain and other types of obstacles. Another unique thrust of this project was to characterize different terrain classes with respect to both positive (e.g., rocks, trees, fences) and negative (e.g., holes, ditches, drop-offs) obstacles. The density of various hazards per square kilometer was statistically quantified for different terrain categories (e.g., high desert, ponderosa forest, and prairie). This quantification reflects the scale, or size, and mobility of different types of vehicles. The tradeoffs between obstacle detection, position location, path planning, and vehicle mobility capabilities were also to be characterized.

  16. LDRD final report on gas separation by fullerene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Schirber, J.E.; Assink, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Loy, D.A.; Carlson, G.A.

    1996-07-01

    This LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project was funded for two years beginning in October 1992 (FY93) and was designed as a multidisciplinary approach to determining the structural and physical properties of C{sub 60} intercalated with various gases. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative permeation and diffusion of various gases with an ultimate goal of finding an effective filter for gas separations. A variety of probes including NMR, X-ray and neutron diffraction; IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy were employed on C{sub 60} impregnated with a number of gases including O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne, H{sub 2}, NO and CH{sub 4}. In order to increase the absorption and decrease the effective time constraints for bulk samples, these gases were intercalated into the C{sub 60} using pressures to several kbar. The results of these measurements which were quite encouraging for separation of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} and for H{sub 2} from N{sub 2} led to 17 manuscripts which have been published in peer reviewed journals. The abstracts of these manuscripts are shown below along with a complete citation to the full text.

  17. Cognitive and emotional processing in high novelty seeking associated with the L-DRD4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella G; Bitsios, Panos

    2009-06-01

    The personality trait of novelty seeking (NS) has been associated with the long variant of the dopamine D4 receptor (L-DRD4) VNTR polymorphism. This is the first study to examine the influence of L-DRD4 polymorphism on some of the cognitive (i.e. decision making) and emotional underpinnings of the NS phenotype. One hundred and eighteen healthy males grouped in a L-DRD4 (n=24) and a S-DRD4 (n=94) group, completed multimodal assessment for personality, planning for problem solving and decision making. Two age-matched L-DRD4 and S-DRD4 sub-samples (n=17 each) entered and completed emotional processing using startle modulation by affective pictures. ANOVAs showed that L-DRD4 individuals had higher NS, made more risky choices and won less money in the decision making task, but had intact planning for problem solving. They also had reduced startle reactivity and late startle modulation by both pleasant and unpleasant pictures. Early, attentional startle modulation by the affective pictures was intact. NS correlated negatively with startle reactivity and performance in the emotional decision task. These results suggest that the L-DRD4 polymorphism is associated with high NS and risk taking, under-reactivity to unconditioned aversive stimuli, constricted emotional responses but preserved attentional processing of emotional stimuli and efficient problem solving. These results extend animal evidence on DRD4-mediated control of decision making and emotional processing to humans. The proposed role of the NS phenotype in human evolution and in disorders of impulsivity is discussed under the light of the present findings.

  18. Cellular Changes of Stem Cells in 3-Dimensional Culture.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew P; Hou, Bo

    2017-06-12

    During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level. We also wanted to test the practicality of an in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system. We implemented a 3-dimensional cell culture model. The sample was composed of isolated mouse mesenchymal prefibroblast bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of 6- to 8-week-old wild-type C57BL6 mice. The cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated hydrogels along with fibrin and nodulin growth factors. The variables tested were a no-force model (control) and a force model. The force model required two 0.1-mm suture pins put through one 0.25-cm length of cell-gel matrix. After the experiments were run to completion, the samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm along the long axis for the force construct and encompassing the entire circular area of the control construct. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at 5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 models. The force model had longer and straighter primary cilia, less apoptosis, and an increase in cell proliferation. In addition, the shape of the cells was markedly different after the experiment. The results of the study suggest cells put under tensile stress have the ability to mechanically sense the environment to provide improved adaptation. Our work also confirms the usefulness of the in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system to mimic in vivo applications. Published by Elsevier

  19. [Bile duct reconstruction using 3-dimensional collagen tubes].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alonso, Alejandro José; del Olmo Rivas, Carlos; Machado Romero, Ignacio; Pérez Cabrera, Beatriz; Cañizares Garcia, Francisco Javier; Torne Poyatos, Pablo

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, with widespread laparoscopic cholecystectomy and liver transplantation, complications involving the biliary system are increasing. All current techniques have a high risk of recurrence or high-morbidity. A 3-dimensional collagen bile duct modified with agarose hydrogel was developed to substitute the affected extrahepatic bile duct. It was used in 40 guinea pigs and the histology and physiology was studied at 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months after transplantation. The graft shows to have a high potential in applications to treat hepatobiliary diseases which require surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. 3-dimensional electronic structures of CaC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Junsung; Kim, Yeongwook; Kim, Keunsu; Rotenberg, Eli; Kim, Changyoung; Postech Collaboration; Advanced Light Source Collaboration; Yonsei University Team

    2014-03-01

    There is still remaining issues on origin of superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds, especially CaC6 because of its relatively high transition temperature than other GICs. There are two competing theories on where the superconductivity occurs in this material; intercalant metal or charge doped graphene layer. To elucidate this issue, it is necessary to confirm existence of intercalant driven band. Therefore, we performed 3 dimensional electronic structure studies with ARPES to find out 3d dispersive intercalant band. However, we could not observe it, instead observed 3d dispersive carbon band. This support the aspect of charge doped graphene superconductivity more than intercalant driving aspect.

  1. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  2. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. As a promising alternative to multiple discrete edge-emitting lasers, a single wafer of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be lithographically patterned to achieve the desired layout of parallel line-shaped emitters, in which adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and thereby achieve a degree of intrinsic optical uniformity. Under this LDRD project, we have fabricated arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs to approximate a line-shaped illumination pattern, achieving optical fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. We have applied these VCSEL arrays to demonstrate single and dual parallel line-filament triggering of PCSS devices. Moreover, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices using VCSEL arrays. We have found that reliable triggering of multiple filaments requires matching of the turn-on time of adjacent VCSEL line-shaped-arrays to within approximately 1 ns. Additionally, we discovered that reliable triggering of PCSS devices at low voltages requires more optical power than we obtained with our first generation of VCSEL arrays. A second generation of higher-power VCSEL arrays was designed and fabricated at the end of this LDRD project, and testing with PCSS devices is currently underway (as of September 2008).

  3. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  4. Interface physics in microporous media : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Knutson, Chad E.; Noble, David R.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Chen, Ken Shuang; Giordano, Nicholas J.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Liu, Yihong

    2008-09-01

    This document contains a summary of the work performed under the LDRD project entitled 'Interface Physics in Microporous Media'. The presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, which can carry non-zero stresses, distinguishes multiphase flows from more readily understood single-phase flows. In this work the physics active at these interfaces has been examined via a combined experimental and computational approach. One of the major difficulties of examining true microporous systems of the type found in filters, membranes, geologic media, etc. is the geometric uncertainty. To help facilitate the examination of transport at the pore-scale without this complication, a significant effort has been made in the area of fabrication of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional micromodels. Using these micromodels, multiphase flow experiments have been performed for liquid-liquid and liquid-gas systems. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has been utilized to provide high resolution, three-dimensional reconstructions as well as time resolved, two-dimensional reconstructions. Computational work has focused on extending lattice Boltzmann (LB) and finite element methods for probing the interface physics at the pore scale. A new LB technique has been developed that provides over 100x speed up for steady flows in complex geometries. A new LB model has been developed that allows for arbitrary density ratios, which has been a significant obstacle in applying LB to air-water flows. A new reduced order model has been developed and implemented in finite element code for examining non-equilibrium wetting in microchannel systems. These advances will enhance Sandia's ability to quantitatively probe the rich interfacial physics present in microporous systems.

  5. Advancing the Fundamental Understanding of Fission: 2014 LDRD 20120077DR Review

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.; Tovesson, Fredrik K.; Sierk, Arnold John

    2014-02-06

    The following slides were presented as part of the LDRD 20120077DR Progress Appraisal Review held Tuesday, February 4, 2014. This is part of an ongoing project assessment the previous of which was documented in LA-UR-13-21182. This presentation documents the progress made against the goals agreed to as part of the 2013 review.

  6. XFEM: Exploratory Research into the Extended Finite-Element Method, FY02 LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MISH, K

    2003-02-26

    This report is one of two components, the first an overview document outlining the goals and results of the XFEM LDRD project, and the other (titled ''Structured Extended Finite Element Methods of Solids defined by Implicit Surfaces'') detailing the scientific advances developed under FY01/FY02 LDRD funding. The XFEM (Extended Finite-Element Method) Engineering LDRD/ER Project was motivated by three research and development goals: (1) the extensions of standard finite-element technology into important new research venues of interest to the Engineering Directorate, (2) the automation of much of the engineering analysis workflow, so as to improve the productivity of mesh-generation and problem setup processes, and (3) the development of scalable software tools to facilitate innovation in XFEM analysis and methods development. The driving principle behind this LDRD project was to demonstrate the computational technology required to perform mechanical analysis of complex solids, with minimal extra effort required on the part of mechanical analysts. This need arises both from the growing workload of LLNL analysts in problem setup and mesh generation, and from the requirement that actual as-built mechanical configurations be analyzed. Many of the most important programmatic drivers for mechanical analysis require that the actual (e.g., deformed, aged, damaged) geometric configuration of the solid be deduced and then accurately modeled: for this programmatic need, XFEM provides one of the only accurate methods available that can provide high-fidelity results.

  7. Sensor Based Process Control (SBPC) Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the activities and results of an LDRD entitled Sensor Based Process Control. This research examined the needs of the plating industry for monitor and control capabilities with particular emphasis on water effluent from rinse baths. A personal computer-based monitor and control development system was used as a test bed.

  8. Scientific visualization of 3-dimensional optimized stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The design techniques and physics analysis of modern stellarator configurations for magnetic fusion research rely heavily on high performance computing and simulation. Stellarators, which are fundamentally 3-dimensional in nature, offer significantly more design flexibility than more symmetric devices such as the tokamak. By varying the outer boundary shape of the plasma, a variety of physics features, such as transport, stability, and heating efficiency can be optimized. Scientific visualization techniques are an important adjunct to this effort as they provide a necessary ergonomic link between the numerical results and the intuition of the human researcher. The authors have developed a variety of visualization techniques for stellarators which both facilitate the design optimization process and allow the physics simulations to be more readily understood.

  9. [3-Dimensional model reconstruction of penis and surrounding tissue].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Heng; Cao, Chuan; Mei, Wen-Ming; Wang, Wen-Xian; Tan, Li-Wen; Li, Shi-Rong

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 3-Dimensional (3-D) model reconstruction of penis and surrounding structures based on magnetic resonance images, which may provide the model building method for modeling surgery of individual penoplasty. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of penis with different imaging parameters were evaluated. With the surface rendering construction, the 3D virtual model was established by Amira software. The anatomical details imaging is better in T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with 3.0 mm slice thickness. The established model based on the MR images can show the soft-tissue, suspensory ligament of the penis. The suspensory ligament stretches between the pubic symphysis and the corpora cavernosa. The penile roots attach to inferior ramus of pubis. MR imaging provides enough anatomical information for modeling. It can be used for the development of model surgery system of individual penoplasty.

  10. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Bart; Janssen, Stein; Mellema, Jos; Ring, David

    2016-05-01

    Olecranon fractures have variable size of the proximal fragment, patterns of fragmentation, and subluxation of the ulnohumeral joint that might be better understood and categorized on the basis of quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis. Mayo type I fractures are undisplaced, Mayo type II are displaced and stable, and Mayo type III are displaced and unstable. The last is categorized into anterior and posterior dislocations. The purpose of this study was to further clarify fracture morphology between Mayo type I, II, and III fractures. Three-dimensional models were created for a consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures that were evaluated with computed tomography. We determined the total number of fracture fragments, the volume and articular surface area of each fracture fragment, and the degree of displacement of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. Displaced olecranon fractures were more comminuted than nondisplaced fractures (P = .02). Displaced fractures without ulnohumeral subluxation were smallest in terms of both volume (P < .001) and articular surface involvement (P < .001) of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. There was no difference in average displacement of the proximal fragment between displaced fractures with and without ulnohumeral subluxation (P = .74). Anterior olecranon fracture-dislocations created more displaced (P = .04) and smaller proximal fragments than posterior fracture-dislocations (P = .005), with comparable fragmentation on average (P = .60). The ability to quantify volume, articular surface area, displacement, and fragmentation using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography should be considered when increased knowledge of fracture morphology and fracture patterns might be useful. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3-dimensional analysis of regenerative endodontic treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    EzEldeen, Mostafa; Van Gorp, Gertrude; Van Dessel, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the regeneration potential of dental tissues after regenerative endodontic treatment (RET). Nevertheless, a standard method for the evaluation of RET outcome is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized quantitative method for RET outcome analysis based on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) volumetric measurements. Five human teeth embedded in mandibular bone samples were scanned using both an Accuitomo 170 CBCT machine (Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a SkyScan 1174 micro-computed tomographic (μCT) system (SkyScan, Antwerp, Belgium). For subsequent clinical application, clinical data and low-dose CBCT scans (preoperatively and follow-up) from 5 immature permanent teeth treated with RET were retrieved. In vitro and clinical 3-dimensional image data sets were imported into a dedicated software tool. Two segmentation steps were applied to extract the teeth of interest from the surrounding tissue (livewire) and to separate tooth hard tissue and root canal space (level set methods). In vitro and clinical volumetric measurements were assessed separately for differences using Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the relation and agreement between the segmented CBCT and μCT volumes. The results showed no statistical differences and strong agreement between CBCT and μCT volumetric measurements. Volumetric comparison of the root hard tissue showed significant hard tissue formation. (The mean volume of newly formed hard tissue was 27.9 [±10.5] mm(3) [P < .05]). Analysis of 3-dimensional data for teeth treated with RET offers valuable insights into the treatment outcome and patterns of hard tissue formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of 3-Dimensional Printing on Cranial Neurosurgery Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Vakharia, Vejay N; Vakharia, Nilesh N; Hill, Ciaran S

    2016-04-01

    Shorter working times, reduced operative exposure to complex procedures, and increased subspecialization have resulted in training constraints within most surgical fields. Simulation has been suggested as a possible means of acquiring new surgical skills without exposing patients to the surgeon's operative "learning curve." Here we review the potential impact of 3-dimensional printing on simulation and training within cranial neurosurgery and its implications for the future. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a comprehensive search of PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. In total, 31 studies relating to the use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing within neurosurgery, of which 16 were specifically related to simulation and training, were identified. The main impact of 3D printing on neurosurgical simulation training was within vascular surgery, where patient-specific replication of vascular anatomy and pathologies can aid surgeons in operative planning and clip placement for reconstruction of vascular anatomy. Models containing replicas of brain tumors have also been reconstructed and used for training purposes, with some providing realistic representations of skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, dura, normal brain, and tumor tissue. 3D printing provides a unique means of directly replicating patient-specific pathologies. It can identify anatomic variation and provide a medium in which training models can be generated rapidly, allowing the trainee and experienced neurosurgeon to practice parts of operations preoperatively. Future studies are required to validate this technology in comparison with current simulators and show improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is

  14. Material Strength at High Pressure LDRD Strategic Initiative Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D H; Bonner, B P; Bulatov, V V; Cazamias, J U; Chandler, E A; Farber, D L; Moriarty, J A; Zaug, J M

    2004-03-02

    Various aspects of the Laboratory's national security mission are now highly dependent on accurate computer code simulations of plastic flow (i.e., non-reversible deformation) of materials under conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Strength models are typically dependent on pressure, temperature, and strain rate. Current strength models can not be extrapolated to high pressure because they are not based on the underlying mechanisms of plastic deformation. The critical need for predictive models of material strength, which describe flow stress in computer code simulations, has motivated LLNL's multiscale modeling efforts. Over the past three years, the ''Material Strength at High Pressure'' LDRD Strategic Initiative has established a framework for the development of predictive strength models for deformation of metals under conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Deformation experiments have been developed to measure the effect of high pressure on the yield strength and work hardening behavior of high purity Mo and Ta single crystals. The over arching goal of the SI is to experimentally validate multiscale-modeling capabilities for deformation of metals under conditions of high pressure. The work performed and accomplished is a necessary next step in the development of predictive strength models. Our initial experimental results show that the influence of pressure is to dramatically increase the work hardening rate of Ta. Bridgman also observed this in experiments performed in the 1950's. Currently there is very little modern data on this phenomena, or theoretical understanding. The work started by this SI is a first step in a comprehensive understanding of plasticity under conditions of high pressure and we expect eventually to be able to incorporate the proper physics into dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations to capture the increase in work hardening that we observe experimentally. In the following sections we briefly describe the work that was performed in

  15. An electro-dynamic 3-dimensional vibration test bed for engineering testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatzi, Mohammadsadegh; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Ahmed, Riaz; Banerjee, Sourav

    2017-04-01

    Primary objective of the work is to design, fabrication and testing of a 3-dimensional Mechanical vibration test bed. Vibration testing of engineering prototype devices in mechanical and industrial laboratories is essential to understand the response of the envisioned model under physical excitation conditions. Typically, two sorts of vibration sources are available in physical environment, acoustical and mechanical. Traditionally, test bed to simulate unidirectional acoustic or mechanical vibration is used in engineering laboratories. However, a device may encounter multiple uncoupled and/or coupled loading conditions. Hence, a comprehensive test bed in essential that can simulate all possible sorts of vibration conditions. In this article, an electrodynamic vibration exciter is presented which is capable of simulating 3-dimensional uncoupled (unidirectional) and coupled excitation, in mechanical environments. The proposed model consists of three electromagnetic shakers (for mechanical excitation). A robust electrical control circuit is designed to regulate the components of the test bed through a self-developed Graphical User Interface. Finally, performance of the test bed is tested and validated using commercially available piezoelectric sensors.

  16. Automated 3-Dimensional Brain Atlas Fitting to Microelectrode Recordings from Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Luján, J. Luis; Noecker, Angela M.; Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries commonly rely on brain atlases and microelectrode recordings (MER) to help identify the target location for electrode implantation. We present an automated method for optimally fitting a 3-dimensional brain atlas to intraoperative MER and predicting a target DBS electrode location in stereotactic coordinates for the patient. Methods We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We used a constrained optimization algorithm to maximize the MER points correctly fitted (i.e., contained) within the appropriate atlas nuclei. We compared our optimization approach to conventional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC/PC) scaling, and to manual fits performed by four experts. A theoretical DBS electrode target location in the dorsal STN was customized to each patient as part of the fitting process and compared to the location of the clinically defined therapeutic stimulation contact. Results The human expert and computer optimization fits achieved significantly better fits than the AC/PC scaling (80, 81, and 41% of correctly fitted MER, respectively). However, the optimization fits were performed in less time than the expert fits and converged to a single solution for each patient, eliminating interexpert variance. Conclusions and Significance DBS therapeutic outcomes are directly related to electrode implantation accuracy. Our automated fitting techniques may aid in the surgical decision-making process by optimally integrating brain atlas and intraoperative neurophysiological data to provide a visual guide for target identification. PMID:19556832

  17. A new 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system of facial motion: an establishment and reliability test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs.

  18. Quantitative 3-Dimensional Imaging of Murine Neointimal and Atherosclerotic Lesions by Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Traditional methods for the analysis of vascular lesion formation are labour intensive to perform - restricting study to ‘snapshots’ within each vessel. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of optical projection tomographic (OPT) imaging for the 3-dimensional representation and quantification of intimal lesions in mouse arteries. Methods and Results Vascular injury was induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery or administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesion formation was examined by OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission. Lesions could be clearly identified and distinguished from the underlying vascular wall. Planimetric measurements of lesion area correlated well with those made from histological sections subsequently produced from the same vessels (wire-injury: R2 = 0.92; ligation-injury: R2 = 0.89; atherosclerosis: R2 = 0.85), confirming both the accuracy of this methodology and its non-destructive nature. It was also possible to record volumetric measurements of lesion and lumen and these were highly reproducible between scans (coefficient of variation = 5.36%, 11.39% and 4.79% for wire- and ligation-injury and atherosclerosis, respectively). Conclusions These data demonstrate the eminent suitability of OPT for imaging of atherosclerotic and neointimal lesion formation, providing a much needed means for the routine 3-dimensional analysis of vascular morphology in studies of this type. PMID:21379578

  19. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  20. In vitro measurement of muscle volume with 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Walker, F; Caress, J; Hunt, C; Tegeler, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of muscle volume measurements with a new 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system, which allows a freehand scanning of the transducer with an improved quality of the ultrasound images and therefore the outlines of the muscles. Five resected cadaveric hand muscles were insonated and the muscle volumes calculated by 3-D reconstructions of the acquired 2-D ultrasound sections. Intra-reader, inter-reader and follow-up variability were calculated, as well as the volume of the muscle tissue measured by water displacement. In the results, 3-D ultrasound and water displacement measurements showed an average deviation of 10.1%; Data of 3-D ultrasound measurements were: intra-reader variability 2.8%; inter-reader variability 2.4% and follow-up variability 2.3%. 3-D measurements of muscle volume are valid and reliable. Serial sonographic measurements of muscle may be able to quantitate changes in muscle volume that occur in disease and recovery.

  1. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  2. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  3. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  4. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  5. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  6. A 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Probe Visuospatial Trainer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Ryan T; Dove, Jesse C; Ratzlaff, Robert A; Diaz-Gomez, Jose L; Cox, Daniel J; Simon, Leslie V

    2017-09-04

    Training adult learners to use ultrasound in clinical practice relies on the ability of the learner to apply visuospatial concepts to the anatomy of the human body. We describe a visuospatial trainer that replicates the housing of an ultrasound transducer, through which a linear laser projects light in the same plane and orientation as the ultrasonic sound waves. We use this trainer in combination with a porcine heart dissection laboratory to teach bedside cardiac ultrasound and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Off-the-shelf components, including an on/off switch, a laser, and 2 ampere batteries are connected in series and placed inside the 3-dimensional (3D)-printed housing. The trainer's laser emission projects a red line that visually represents the ultrasound's field. Learners project the laser against a porcine or human heart in the orientation of the TTE window they wish to obtain and then dissect the heart in that plane, allowing for visualization of how grayscale images are obtained from 3D structures. Previous research has demonstrated that visuospatial aptitude is correlated with ultrasound procedural performance. We present this trainer and educational method as a specific training intervention that could enhance the visuospatial ability of the ultrasound learner. This visuospatial trainer and educational method present a novel process for enhancing learner understanding of 2-dimensional ultrasound images as they relate to 3D structures. Having a clear understanding of how images are generated in cross section may translate into more proficient adaptation of cardiac ultrasound and TTE.

  7. The first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions.

    PubMed

    Piedra-Garza, Luis Fernando; Reinoso, Santiago; Dickman, Michael H; Sanguineti, Michael M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2009-08-21

    Reaction of the (CH(3))(2)Sn(2+) electrophile toward trilacunary [A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)](n-) Keggin polytungstates (X = P(V), As(V), Si(IV)) with guanidinium as templating-cation resulted in the isostructural compounds Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-PW(9)O(34))] x 9 H(2)O (1), Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-AsW(9)O(34))] x 8 H(2)O (2) and Na(2)[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-SiW(9)O(34))] x 10 H(2)O (3). Compounds 1-3 constitute the first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions, as well as the first example of a dimethyltin-containing tungstosilicate in the case of 3, and they show a similar chiral architecture based on tetrahedrally-arranged {(CH(3))(2)Sn}(3)(A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)) monomeric building-blocks connected via intermolecular Sn-O=W bridges regardless of the size and/or charge of the heteroatom.

  8. 3-Dimensional simulation of the grain formation in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M. ); Tintillier, R. . Dept. Materiaux et Procedes-Direction Technique)

    1994-03-01

    A 3-dimensional (3-D) probabilistic model which has been developed previously for the prediction of grain structure formation during solidification is applied to thin superalloy plates produced using the investment-casting process. This model considers the random nucleation and orientation of nuclei formed at the mold surface and in the bulk of the liquid, the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips, and the preferential growth directions of the dendrite trunks and arms. In the present study, the grains are assumed to nucleate at the surface of the mold only. The computed grain structures, as observed in 2-dimensional (2-D) sections made parallel to the mold surface, are compared with experimental micrographs. The grain densities are then deduced as a function of the distance from the mold surface for both the experiment and the simulation. It is shown that these values are in good agreement, thus, providing validation of the grain formation mechanisms built into the 3-D probabilistic model. Finally, this model is further extended to more complex geometries and the 3-D computed grain structure of an equiaxed turbine-blade airfoil is compared with the experimental transverse section micrograph.

  9. Finger Character Recognition Using 3-Dimensional Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Kazuhiro; Ono, Satoshi; Wang, Yu; Nakayama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for Japanese finger character recognition, using a 3-dimensional (3D) scanner. A hand is a complex dexterous manipulator, evolved to be more complex than any other animals. The hand, being capable of making many different complex shapes, it is ideal for communicating using gestures. The recognition of a whole language, such as the Japanese finger characters, requires the differentiation of subtle similar positioning of each digit. To know the exact 3D position of the hand's digits and overall shape, data gloves had been developed, but these are inconvenient to use. 2D image recognition systems struggle with recreating the 3D information. To capture the 3D information, the proposed method uses a 3D scanner, and then makes matches with 3D templates representing each unique character. Experimental results show that the proposed method recognizes a greater number of characters than existing 2D-based systems with recognition accuracy, on average of 93% for 9 testees, and a peak of over 98% for 4 of them.

  10. The International Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional Radiation Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I3RC (International Intercomparison of 3-dimensional Radiation Codes) has as its primary goal to compare a wide variety of three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer methods applied to Earth's atmosphere, with a few selected cloud fields as input, and a few selected radiative quantities as output. Phases 1 and 2 are now complete, and participants represented institutions in Canada, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the USA, who met for two workshops in Tucson, Arizona USA, and compared results from 5 cloud fields of varying complexity, beginning with simplified atmosphere and surface, and proceeding to more realistic cases. Phase 3 is now underway, focusing on improvement and sharing of 3D radiation code, aided by working groups on "Approximations" and "Open Source". The "Approximations" group has so far focused on diffusive approximate methods in an attempt to gain advantages in execution time, and also to advance the understanding of 3D radiation processes. The "Open Source" subgroup is developing a Monte Carlo radiative transfer toolkit that makes state-of-the-art techniques available to a wide range of users. Activities of both subgroups are further explained at the I3RC website http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Participants in 13RC are forming a 3D Working Group under the auspices of the International Radiation Commission, and will meet for this and related activities at a workshop in Tucson in November 2002.

  11. 3-Dimensional Facial Analysis—Facing Precision Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Baynam, Gareth; Bauskis, Alicia; Pachter, Nicholas; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Palmer, Richard L.; Kung, Stefanie; Helmholz, Petra; Ridout, Michael; Walker, Caroline E.; Hawkins, Anne; Goldblatt, Jack; Weeramanthri, Tarun S.; Dawkins, Hugh J. S.; Molster, Caron M.

    2017-01-01

    Precision public health is a new field driven by technological advances that enable more precise descriptions and analyses of individuals and population groups, with a view to improving the overall health of populations. This promises to lead to more precise clinical and public health practices, across the continuum of prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. A phenotype is the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of a genotype with the environment. Precision (deep) phenotyping applies innovative technologies to exhaustively and more precisely examine the discrete components of a phenotype and goes beyond the information usually included in medical charts. This form of phenotyping is a critical component of more precise diagnostic capability and 3-dimensional facial analysis (3DFA) is a key technological enabler in this domain. In this paper, we examine the potential of 3DFA as a public health tool, by viewing it against the 10 essential public health services of the “public health wheel,” developed by the US Centers for Disease Control. This provides an illustrative framework to gage current and emergent applications of genomic technologies for implementing precision public health. PMID:28443272

  12. Invasive 3-Dimensional Organotypic Neoplasia from Multiple Normal Human Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ridky, Todd W.; Chow, Jennifer M.; Wong, David J.; Khavari, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Refined cancer models are required to assess the burgeoning number of potential targets for cancer therapeutics within a rapid and clinically relevant context. Here we utilize tumor-associated genetic pathways to transform primary human epithelial cells from epidermis, oropharynx, esophagus, and cervix into genetically defined tumors within a human 3-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment incorporating cell-populated stroma and intact basement membrane. These engineered organotypic tissues recapitulated natural features of tumor progression, including epithelial invasion through basement membrane, a complex process critically required for biologic malignancy in 90% of human cancers. Invasion was rapid, and potentiated by stromal cells. Oncogenic signals in 3-D tissue, but not 2-D culture, resembled gene expression profiles from spontaneous human cancers. Screening well-characterized signaling pathway inhibitors in 3-D organotypic neoplasia helped distil a clinically faithful cancer gene signature. Multi-tissue 3-D human tissue cancer models may provide an efficient and relevant complement to current approaches to characterize cancer progression. PMID:21102459

  13. Reduced order models for thermal analysis : final report : LDRD Project No. 137807.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD Senior's Council Project is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of Reduced Order Models (ROM) for application in the thermal analysis of complex engineering problems. Two basic approaches to developing a ROM for combined thermal conduction and enclosure radiation problems are considered. As a prerequisite to a ROM a fully coupled solution method for conduction/radiation models is required; a parallel implementation is explored for this class of problems. High-fidelity models of large, complex systems are now used routinely to verify design and performance. However, there are applications where the high-fidelity model is too large to be used repetitively in a design mode. One such application is the design of a control system that oversees the functioning of the complex, high-fidelity model. Examples include control systems for manufacturing processes such as brazing and annealing furnaces as well as control systems for the thermal management of optical systems. A reduced order model (ROM) seeks to reduce the number of degrees of freedom needed to represent the overall behavior of the large system without a significant loss in accuracy. The reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of the ROM leads to immediate increases in computational efficiency and allows many design parameters and perturbations to be quickly and effectively evaluated. Reduced order models are routinely used in solid mechanics where techniques such as modal analysis have reached a high state of refinement. Similar techniques have recently been applied in standard thermal conduction problems e.g. though the general use of ROM for heat transfer is not yet widespread. One major difficulty with the development of ROM for general thermal analysis is the need to include the very nonlinear effects of enclosure radiation in many applications. Many ROM methods have considered only linear or mildly nonlinear problems. In the present study a reduced order model is

  14. The 3-dimensional grid: a novel approach to stereoelectroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Munyon, Charles; Sweet, Jennifer; Luders, Hans; Lhatoo, Samden; Miller, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Successful surgical treatment of epilepsy requires accurate definition of areas of ictal onset and eloquent brain. Although invasive monitoring can help, subdural grids cannot sample sulci or subcortical tissue; traditional stereoelectroencephalography depth electrodes are usually placed too far apart to provide sufficient resolution for mapping. To report a strategy of depth electrode placement in a dense array to allow precise anatomic localization of epileptic and eloquent cortex. Twenty patients with medically intractable epilepsy either poorly localized or found to arise adjacent to eloquent areas underwent placement of arrays of depth electrodes into and around the putative area of seizure onset with the use of framed stereotaxy. Each array consisted of a "grid" of parallel electrodes in a rectangular pattern with 1 cm between entry sites. In a subset of patients, a few electrodes were placed initially, with additional electrodes placed in a second stage. Trajectories were modified to avoid cortical vessels defined on magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were monitored for 4 to 21 days to establish the precise location of seizure onset. Stimulation was performed to map cortical and subcortical eloquent regions. Electrode locations were coregistered for frameless stereotaxy during subsequent resection of seizure focus. Two hundred fifty-four electrodes were implanted. Discrete regions of seizure onset and functional cortex were identified, which were used during resection to remove epileptogenic tissue while preserving eloquent areas. There were no hemorrhagic or infectious complications; no patient suffered permanent neurological deficit. The 3-dimensional intraparenchymal grid is useful for identifying the location and extent of epileptic and eloquent brain.

  15. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  16. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A

    2008-08-01

    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  17. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  19. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography measurements of coronoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David

    2015-03-01

    Using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography (Q3DCT) modeling, we tested the null hypothesis that there was no difference in fracture fragment volume, articular surface involvement, and number of fracture fragments between coronoid fracture types and patterns of traumatic elbow instability. We studied 82 patients with a computed tomography scan of a coronoid fracture using Q3DCT modeling. Fracture fragments were identified and fragment volume and articular surface involvement were measured within fracture types and injury patterns. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the Q3DCT data of the coronoid fractures. Fractures of the coronoid tip (n = 45) were less fragmented and had the smallest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with anteromedial facet fractures (n = 20) and base fractures (n = 17). Anteromedial facet and base fractures were more fragmented than tip fractures, and base fractures had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with tip and anteromedial facet fractures. We found similar differences between fracture types described by Regan and Morrey. Furthermore, fractures associated with terrible triad fracture dislocation (n = 42) had the smallest fragment volume, and fractures associated with olecranon fracture dislocations (n = 17) had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with the other injury patterns. Analyzing fractures of the coronoid using Q3DCT modeling demonstrated that fracture fragment characteristics differ significantly between fracture types and injury patterns. Detailed knowledge of fracture characteristics and their association with specific patterns of traumatic elbow instability may assist decision making and preoperative planning. Quantitative 3DCT modeling can provide a more detailed understanding of fracture morphology, which might guide decision making and implant development. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  20. Brain tumor surgery with 3-dimensional surface navigation.

    PubMed

    Mert, Ayguel; Buehler, Katja; Sutherland, Garnette R; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Widhalm, Georg; Kasprian, Gregor; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Precise lesion localization is necessary for neurosurgical procedures not only during the operative approach, but also during the preoperative planning phase. To evaluate the advantages of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain surface visualization over conventional 2-dimensional (2-D) magnetic resonance images for surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in brain tumor surgery. Preoperative 3-D brain surface visualization was performed with neurosurgical planning software in 77 cases (58 gliomas, 7 cavernomas, 6 meningiomas, and 6 metastasis). Direct intraoperative navigation on the 3-D brain surface was additionally performed in the last 20 cases with a neurosurgical navigation system. For brain surface reconstruction, patient-specific anatomy was obtained from MR imaging and brain volume was extracted with skull stripping or watershed algorithms, respectively. Three-dimensional visualization was performed by direct volume rendering in both systems. To assess the value of 3-D brain surface visualization for topographic lesion localization, a multiple-choice test was developed. To assess accuracy and reliability of 3-D brain surface visualization for intraoperative orientation, we topographically correlated superficial vessels and gyral anatomy on 3-D brain models with intraoperative images. The rate of correct lesion localization with 3-D was significantly higher (P = .001, χ), while being significantly less time consuming (P < .001, χ) compared with 2-D images. Intraoperatively, visual correlation was found between the 3-D images, superficial vessels, and gyral anatomy. The proposed method of 3-D brain surface visualization is fast, clinically reliable for preoperative anatomic lesion localization and patient-specific planning, and, together with navigation, improves intraoperative orientation in brain tumor surgery and is relatively independent of brain shift.

  1. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  2. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes. A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, “Stiff Rim” was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of “Crater Sign” and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US. In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with “Crater Sign” in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  3. Final report on LDRD project 52722 : radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Karpen, Gary D.; Montano, Victoria A.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project 'Radiation Hardened Optoelectronic Components for Space-Based Applications.' The aim of this LDRD has been to investigate the radiation hardness of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodiodes by looking at both the effects of total dose and of single-event upsets on the electrical and optical characteristics of VCSELs and photodiodes. These investigations were intended to provide guidance for the eventual integration of radiation hardened VCSELs and photodiodes with rad-hard driver and receiver electronics from an external vendor for space applications. During this one-year project, we have fabricated GaAs-based VCSELs and photodiodes, investigated ionization-induced transient effects due to high-energy protons, and measured the degradation of performance from both high-energy protons and neutrons.

  4. Exploration of cloud computing late start LDRD #149630 : Raincoat. v. 2.1.

    SciTech Connect

    Echeverria, Victor T.; Metral, Michael David; Leger, Michelle A.; Gabert, Kasimir Georg; Edgett, Patrick Garrett; Thai, Tan Q.

    2010-09-01

    This report contains documentation from an interoperability study conducted under the Late Start LDRD 149630, Exploration of Cloud Computing. A small late-start LDRD from last year resulted in a study (Raincoat) on using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to enhance security in a hybrid cloud environment. Raincoat initially explored the use of OpenVPN on IPv4 and demonstrates that it is possible to secure the communication channel between two small 'test' clouds (a few nodes each) at New Mexico Tech and Sandia. We extended the Raincoat study to add IPSec support via Vyatta routers, to interface with a public cloud (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)), and to be significantly more scalable than the previous iteration. The study contributed to our understanding of interoperability in a hybrid cloud.

  5. Development of highly integrated magetically and electrostatically actuated micropumps : LDRD 64709 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Hendrix, Jason R.; Zwolinski, Andrew

    2003-12-01

    The pump and actuator systems designed and built in the SUMMiT{trademark} process, Sandia's surface micromachining polysilicon MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabrication technology, on the previous campus executive program LDRD (SAND2002-0704P) with FSU/FAMU (Florida State University/Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University) were characterized in this LDRD. These results demonstrated that the device would pump liquid against the flow resistance of a microfabricated channel, but the devices were determined to be underpowered for reliable pumping. As a result a new set of SUMMiT{trademark} pumps with actuators that generate greater torque will be designed and submitted for fabrication. In this document we will report details of dry actuator/pump assembly testing, wet actuator/pump testing, channel resistance characterization, and new pump/actuator design recommendations.

  6. Laser Spray Fabrication for Net-Shape Rapid Product Realization LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Jeantette, F.P.; Keicher, D.M.; Oliver, M.S.; Reckaway, D.E.; Romero, J.A.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.D.

    1999-04-01

    The primary purpose of this LDRD project was to characterize the laser deposition process and determine the feasibility of fabricating complex near-net shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Process characterization provided direction in developing a system to fabricate complex shapes directly from a CAD solid model. Our goal for this LDRD was to develop a system that is robust and provides a significant advancement to existing technologies (e.g., polymeric-based rapid prototyping, laser welding). Development of the process will allow design engineers to produce functional models of their designs directly from CAD files. The turnaround time for complex geometrical shaped parts will be hours instead of days and days instead of months. With reduced turnaround time, more time can be spent on the product-design phase to ensure that the best component design is achieved. Maturation of this technology will revolutionize the way the world produces structural components.

  7. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  8. LDRD final report : robust analysis of large-scale combinatorial applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Robert D.; Morrison, Todd; Hart, William Eugene; Benavides, Nicolas L.; Greenberg, Harvey J.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2007-09-01

    Discrete models of large, complex systems like national infrastructures and complex logistics frameworks naturally incorporate many modeling uncertainties. Consequently, there is a clear need for optimization techniques that can robustly account for risks associated with modeling uncertainties. This report summarizes the progress of the Late-Start LDRD 'Robust Analysis of Largescale Combinatorial Applications'. This project developed new heuristics for solving robust optimization models, and developed new robust optimization models for describing uncertainty scenarios.

  9. Overview of Stellarator Divertor Studies: Final Report of LDRD Project 01-ERD-069

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M E; Rognlien, T D; Koniges, A; Unmansky, M; Hill, D N

    2003-01-21

    A summary is given of the work carried out under the LDRD project 01-ERD-069 entitled Stellarator Divertor Studies. This project has contributed to the development of a three-dimensional edge-plasma modeling and divertor diagnostic design capabilities at LLNL. Results are demonstrated by sample calculations and diagnostic possibilities for the edge plasma of the proposed U.S. National Compact Stellarator Experiment device. Details of the work are contained in accompanying LLNL reports that have been accepted for publication.

  10. Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry LDRD 13-0144 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Romero, Vicente J.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Rushdi, Ahmad A.; Abdelkader, Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    This SAND report summarizes our work on the Sandia National Laboratory LDRD project titled "Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry" which was project #165617 and proposal #13-0144. This report merely summarizes our work. Those interested in the technical details are encouraged to read the full published results, and contact the report authors for the status of the software and follow-on projects.

  11. Injection-locked composite lasers for mm-wave modulation : LDRD 117819 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred; Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G.; Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L.; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring mutual injection locking of composite-cavity lasers for enhanced modulation responses. The program focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the frequency enhancement previously demonstrated for optically injection locked lasers. This was then applied to the development of a theoretical description of strongly coupled laser microsystems. This understanding was validated experimentally with a novel 'photonic lab bench on a chip'.

  12. Final Report on LDRD Project: High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SERKLAND, DARWIN K.; GEIB, KENT M.; BLANSETT, ETHAN L.; KARPEN, GARY D.; PEAKE, GREGORY M.; HARGETT, TERRY; MONTANO, VICTORIA; SULLIVAN, CHARLES T.; ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; RIENSTRA, JEFFREY L.

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''High-Bandwidth Optical Data Interconnects for Satellite Applications.'' The goal of this LDRD has been to address the future needs of focal-plane-array (FPA) sensors by exploring the use of high-bandwidth fiber-optic interconnects to transmit FPA signals within a satellite. We have focused primarily on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) based transmitters, due to the previously demonstrated immunity of VCSELs to total radiation doses up to 1 Mrad. In addition, VCSELs offer high modulation bandwidth (roughly 10 GHz), low power consumption (roughly 5 mW), and high coupling efficiency (greater than -3dB) to optical fibers. In the first year of this LDRD, we concentrated on the task of transmitting analog signals from a cryogenic FPA to a remote analog-to-digital converter. In the second year, we considered the transmission of digital signals produced by the analog-to-digital converter to a remote computer on the satellite. Specifically, we considered the situation in which the FPA, analog-to-digital converter, and VCSEL-based transmitter were all cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This situation requires VCSELs that operate at cryogenic temperature, dissipate minimal heat, and meet the electrical drive requirements in terms of voltage, current, and bandwidth.

  13. Final report on LDRD project :leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Terry W.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas; Ongstand, Andrea; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Montano, Victoria A.

    2005-11-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ''Leaky-mode VCSELs for photonic logic circuits''. Leaky-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) offer new possibilities for integration of microcavity lasers to create optical microsystems. A leaky-mode VCSEL output-couples light laterally, in the plane of the semiconductor wafer, which allows the light to interact with adjacent lasers, modulators, and detectors on the same wafer. The fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs based on effective index modification was proposed and demonstrated at Sandia in 1999 but was not adequately developed for use in applications. The aim of this LDRD has been to advance the design and fabrication of leaky-mode VCSELs to the point where initial applications can be attempted. In the first and second years of this LDRD we concentrated on overcoming previous difficulties in the epitaxial growth and fabrication of these advanced VCSELs. In the third year, we focused on applications of leaky-mode VCSELs, such as all-optical processing circuits based on gain quenching.

  14. Final report of LDRD project: Electromagnetic impulse radar for detection of underground structures

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.; Aurand, J.; Buttram, M.; Zutavern, F.; Brown, D.; Helgeson, W.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the LDRD project titled: Electromagnetic impulse radar for the detection of underground structures. The project met all its milestones even with a tight two year schedule and total funding of $400 k. The goal of the LDRD was to develop and demonstrate a ground penetrating radar (GPR) that is based on high peak power, high repetition rate, and low center frequency impulses. The idea of this LDRD is that a high peak power, high average power radar based on the transmission of short impulses can be utilized effect can be utilized for ground penetrating radar. This direct time-domain system the authors are building seeks to increase penetration depth over conventional systems by using: (1) high peak power, high repetition rate operation that gives high average power, (2) low center frequencies that better penetrate the ground, and (3) short duration impulses that allow for the use of downward looking, low flying platforms that increase the power on target relative to a high flying platform. Specifically, chirped pulses that are a microsecond in duration require (because it is difficult to receive during transmit) platforms above 150 m (and typically 1 km) while this system, theoretically could be at 10 m above the ground. The power on target decays with distance squared so the ability to use low flying platforms is crucial to high penetration. Clutter is minimized by time gating the surface clutter return. Short impulses also allow gating (out) the coupling of the transmit and receive antennas.

  15. Multi-attribute criteria applied to electric generation energy system analysis LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Drennen, Thomas E.; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Paananen, Orman Henrie; Jones, Scott A.; Ortner, Juergen G.; Brewer, Jeffrey D.; Valdez, Maximo M.

    2005-10-01

    This report began with a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve Sandia National Laboratories multidisciplinary capabilities in energy systems analysis. The aim is to understand how various electricity generating options can best serve needs in the United States. The initial product is documented in a series of white papers that span a broad range of topics, including the successes and failures of past modeling studies, sustainability, oil dependence, energy security, and nuclear power. Summaries of these projects are included here. These projects have provided a background and discussion framework for the Energy Systems Analysis LDRD team to carry out an inter-comparison of many of the commonly available electric power sources in present use, comparisons of those options, and efforts needed to realize progress towards those options. A computer aid has been developed to compare various options based on cost and other attributes such as technological, social, and policy constraints. The Energy Systems Analysis team has developed a multi-criteria framework that will allow comparison of energy options with a set of metrics that can be used across all technologies. This report discusses several evaluation techniques and introduces the set of criteria developed for this LDRD.

  16. FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-11-12

    The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.

  17. Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

    2006-02-09

    SP-100 was designed to use mono-uranium nitride fuel. Although the SP-100 reactor was not commissioned, tens of thousand of nitride fuel pellets were manufactured and lots of them, cladded in Nb-1-Zr had been irradiated in fast test reactors (FFTF and EBR-II) with good irradiation results. The Russian Naval submarines also use nitride fuel with stainless steel cladding (HT-9) in Pb-Bi coolant. Although the operating experience of the Russian submarine is not readily available, such combination of fuel, cladding and coolant has been proposed for a commercial-size liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (BREST-300). Uranium mono-nitride fuel is studied in this LDRD Project due to its favorable properties such as its high actinide density and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of mono-nitride is 10 times higher than that of oxide (23 W/m-K for UN vs. 2.3 W/m-K for UO{sub 2} at 1000 K) and its melting temperature is much higher than that of metal fuel (2630 C for UN vs. 1132 C for U metal). It also has relatively high actinide density, (13.51 gU/cm{sup 3} in UN vs. 9.66 gU/cm{sup 3} in UO{sub 2}) which is essential for a compact reactor core design. The objective of this LDRD Project is to: (1) Establish a manufacturing capability for uranium-based ceramic nuclear fuel, (2) Develop a computational capability to analyze nuclear fuel performance, (3) Develop a modified UN-based fuel that can support a compact long-life reactor core, and (4) Collaborate with the Nuclear Engineering Department of UC Berkeley on nitride fuel reprocessing and disposal in a geologic repository.

  18. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for prosthetic valve endocarditis: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Kort, Smadar

    2006-02-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography is a relatively new technology with rapidly growing potential applications. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a challenging diagnosis despite improvements in image qualities obtained by both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. The purpose of this article is to present 4 cases of suggested prosthetic valve endocarditis, in which real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was performed, and to discuss the potential use of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for this application.

  19. LDRD final report on massively-parallel linear programming : the parPCx system.

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, Ojas; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Boman, Erik Gunnar

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the research and development performed from October 2002 to September 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories under the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project ''Massively-Parallel Linear Programming''. We developed a linear programming (LP) solver designed to use a large number of processors. LP is the optimization of a linear objective function subject to linear constraints. Companies and universities have expended huge efforts over decades to produce fast, stable serial LP solvers. Previous parallel codes run on shared-memory systems and have little or no distribution of the constraint matrix. We have seen no reports of general LP solver runs on large numbers of processors. Our parallel LP code is based on an efficient serial implementation of Mehrotra's interior-point predictor-corrector algorithm (PCx). The computational core of this algorithm is the assembly and solution of a sparse linear system. We have substantially rewritten the PCx code and based it on Trilinos, the parallel linear algebra library developed at Sandia. Our interior-point method can use either direct or iterative solvers for the linear system. To achieve a good parallel data distribution of the constraint matrix, we use a (pre-release) version of a hypergraph partitioner from the Zoltan partitioning library. We describe the design and implementation of our new LP solver called parPCx and give preliminary computational results. We summarize a number of issues related to efficient parallel solution of LPs with interior-point methods including data distribution, numerical stability, and solving the core linear system using both direct and iterative methods. We describe a number of applications of LP specific to US Department of Energy mission areas and we summarize our efforts to integrate parPCx (and parallel LP solvers in general) into Sandia's massively-parallel integer programming solver PICO (Parallel Interger and Combinatorial Optimizer). We

  20. Accuracy of 3-dimensional curvilinear measurements on digital models with intraoral scanners.

    PubMed

    Mack, Spencer; Bonilla, Tammy; English, Jeryl D; Cozad, Benjamin; Akyalcin, Sercan

    2017-09-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate and compare the digital dental models generated from 2 commercial intraoral scanners with manual measurements when performing 3-dimensional surface measurements along a curved line (curvilinear). Dry mandibles (n = 61) with intact dentition were used. The mandibles were digitized using 2 chair-side intraoral scanners: Cadent iTero (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif) and Lythos Digital Impression system (Ormco, Orange, Calif). Digitized 3-dimensional models were converted to individual stereolithography files and used with commercial software to obtain the curvilinear measurements. Manual measurements were carried out directly on the mandibular teeth. Measurements were made on different locations on the dental arch in various directions. One-sample t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. To further graphically examine the accuracy between the different methods, Bland-Altman plots were computed. The level of significance was set at P <0.05. There were no significant differences between any of the paired methods; this indicated a certain level of agreement between the methods tested (P >0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed no fixed bias of 1 approach vs the other, and random errors were detected in all comparisons. Although the mean biases of the digital models obtained by the iTero and Lythos scanners, when compared with direct caliper measurements, were low, the comparison of the 2 intraoral scanners yielded the lowest mean bias. No comparison displayed statistical significance for the t scores; this indicated the absence of proportional bias in these comparisons. The intraoral scanners tested in this study produced digital dental models that were comparatively accurate when performing direct surface measurements along a curved line in 3 dimensions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  2. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing to Create Patient-Specific Thoracic Spine Models as Task Trainers.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Jelliffe; Baribeau, Yanick; Bortman, Jeffrey; Mahmood, Feroze; Shnider, Marc; Ahmed, Muneeb; Mashari, Azad; Amir, Rabia; Amador, Yannis; Matyal, Robina

    Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a technically challenging procedure with a high failure rate of 24% to 32% nationwide. Residents in anesthesiology have limited opportunities to practice this technique adequately, and there are no training tools available for this purpose. Our objective was to build a low-cost patient-specific thoracic epidural training model. We obtained thoracic computed tomography scan data from patients with normal and kyphotic spine. The thoracic spine was segmented from the scan, and a 3-dimensional model of the spine was generated and printed. It was then placed in a customized wooden box and filled with different types of silicone to mimic human tissues. Attending physicians in our institution then tested the final model. They were asked to fill out a brief questionnaire after the identification of the landmarks and epidural space using ultrasound and real-time performance for a thoracic epidural on the model (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/AAP/A197). Likert scoring system was used for scoring. The time to develop this simulator model took less than 4 days, and the materials cost approximately $400. Fourteen physicians tested the model for determining the realistic sensation while palpating the spinous process, needle entry through the silicone, the "pop" sensation and ultrasound fidelity of the model. Whereas the tactile fidelity scores were "neutral" (3.08, 3.06, and 3.0, respectively), the ultrasound guidance and overall suitability for residents were highly rated as being the most realistic (4.85 and 4.0, respectively). It is possible to develop homemade, low-cost, patient-specific, and high-fidelity ultrasound guidance simulators for resident training in thoracic epidurals using 3-dimensional printing technology.

  3. Quantitative comparison of operative skill using 2- and 3-dimensional monitors during laparoscopic phantom tasks.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Masayasu; Kanaji, Shingo; Otake, Yoshito; Harada, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Hiasa, Yuta; Sato, Yoshinobu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    The recent development of stereoscopic images using 3-dimensional monitors is expected to improve techniques for laparoscopic operation. Several studies have reported technical advantages in using 3-dimensional monitors with regard to operative accuracy and working speed, but there are few reports that analyze forceps motions by 3-dimensional optical tracking systems during standardized laparoscopic phantom tasks. We attempted to develop a 3-dimensional motion analysis system for assessing laparoscopic tasks and to clarify the efficacy of using stereoscopic images from a 3-dimensional monitor to track forceps movement during laparoscopy. Twenty surgeons performed 3 tasks (Task 1: a simple operation by the dominant hand, Task 2: a simple operation using both hands, Task 3: a complicated operation using both hands) under 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems. We tracked and recorded the motion of forceps tips with an optical marker captured by a 3-dimensional position tracker. We analyzed factors such as forceps path lengths, operation times, and technical errors for each task and compared the results of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional monitors. Mean operation times and technical errors were improved significantly for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system compared with the 2-dimensional system; in addition, mean path lengths for the forceps tips were shorter for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system. We found that stereoscopic images using a 3-dimensional monitor improved operative techniques with regard to increased accuracy and shorter path lengths for forceps movement, which resulted in a shorter operation time for basic phantom laparoscopic tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eyeglass Large Aperture, Lightweight Space Optics FY2000 - FY2002 LDRD Strategic Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R

    2003-02-10

    A series of studies by the Air Force, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA have identified the critical role played by large optics in fulfilling many of the space related missions of these agencies. Whether it is the Next Generation Space Telescope for NASA, high resolution imaging systems for NRO, or beam weaponry for the Air Force, the diameter of the primary optic is central to achieving high resolution (imaging) or a small spot size on target (lethality). While the detailed requirements differ for each application (high resolution imaging over the visible and near-infrared for earth observation, high damage threshold but single-wavelength operation for directed energy), the challenges of a large, lightweight primary optic which is space compatible and operates with high efficiency are the same. The advantage of such large optics to national surveillance applications is that it permits these observations to be carried-out with much greater effectiveness than with smaller optics. For laser weapons, the advantage is that it permits more tightly focused beams which can be leveraged into either greater effective range, reduced laser power, and/or smaller on-target spot-sizes; weapon systems can be made either much more effective or much less expensive. This application requires only single-wavelength capability, but places an emphasis upon robust, rapidly targetable optics. The advantages of large aperture optics to astronomy are that it increases the sensitivity and resolution with which we can view the universe. This can be utilized either for general purpose astronomy, allowing us to examine greater numbers of objects in more detail and at greater range, or it can enable the direct detection and detailed examination of extra-solar planets. This application requires large apertures (for both light-gathering and resolution reasons), with broad-band spectral capability, but does not emphasize either large fields-of-view or pointing agility. Despite

  5. FY08 LDRD Final Report A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media LDRD Project Tracking Code: 05-ERD-079

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, A

    2009-01-29

    The LDRD project 'A New Method for Wave Propagation in Elastic Media' developed several improvements to the traditional finite difference technique for seismic wave propagation, including a summation-by-parts discretization which is provably stable for arbitrary heterogeneous materials, an accurate treatment of non-planar topography, local mesh refinement, and stable outflow boundary conditions. This project also implemented these techniques in a parallel open source computer code called WPP, and participated in several seismic modeling efforts to simulate ground motion due to earthquakes in Northern California. This research has been documented in six individual publications which are summarized in this report. Of these publications, four are published refereed journal articles, one is an accepted refereed journal article which has not yet been published, and one is a non-refereed software manual. The report concludes with a discussion of future research directions and exit plan.

  6. Systematic Review of the Use of 3-Dimensional Printing in Surgical Teaching and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Benjamin; Momin, Sheikh; Coumbe, Ben; Woin, Evelina; Griffin, Michelle; Butler, Peter

    2017-07-17

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in medicine has rapidly expanded in recent years as the technology has developed. The potential uses of 3D printing are manifold. This article provides a systematic review of the uses of 3D printing within surgical training and assessment. A structured literature search of the major literature databases was performed in adherence to PRISMA guidelines. Articles that met predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were appraised with respect to the key objectives of the review and sources of bias were analysed. Overall, 49 studies were identified for inclusion in the qualitative analysis. Heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures used prohibited meaningful meta-analysis. 3D printing has been used in surgical training across a broad range of specialities but most commonly in neurosurgery and otorhinolaryngology. Both objective and subjective outcome measures have been studied, demonstrating the usage of 3D printed models in training and education. 3D printing has also been used in anatomical education and preoperative planning, demonstrating improved outcomes when compared to traditional educational methods and improved patient outcomes, respectively. 3D printing technology has a broad range of potential applications within surgical education and training. Although the field is still in its relative infancy, several studies have already demonstrated its usage both instead of and in addition to traditional educational methods. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual 3-dimensional preoperative planning with the dextroscope for excision of a 4th ventricular ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Anil, S M; Kato, Y; Hayakawa, M; Yoshida, K; Nagahisha, S; Kanno, T

    2007-04-01

    Advances in computer imaging and technology have facilitated enhancement in surgical planning with a 3-dimensional model of the surgical plan of action utilizing advanced visualization tools in order to plan individual interactive operations with the aid of the dextroscope. This provides a proper 3-dimensional imaging insight to the pathological anatomy and sets a new dimension in collaboration for training and education. The case of a seventeen-year-old female, being operated with the aid of a preoperative 3-dimensional virtual reality planning and the practical application of the neurosurgical operation, is presented. This young lady presented with a two-year history of recurrent episodes of severe, global, throbbing headache with episodes of projectile vomiting associated with shoulder pain which progressively worsened. She had no obvious neurological deficits on clinical examination. CT and MRI showed a contrast-enhancing midline posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Utilizing virtual imaging technology with the aid of a dextroscope which generates stereoscopic images, a 3-dimensional image was produced with the CT and MRI images. A preoperative planning for excision of the lesion was made and a real-time 3-dimensional volume was produced and surgical planning with the dextroscope was made and the lesion excised. Virtual reality has brought new proportions in 3-dimensional planning and management of various complex neuroanatomical problems that are faced during various operations. Integration of 3-dimensional imaging with stereoscopic vision makes understanding the complex anatomy easier and helps improve decision making in patient management.

  8. MEMS Adaptive Optics Devices: LDRD No. 02-1385 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    DAGEL, DARYL J.; ALLEN, JAMES J.

    2002-12-01

    The primary goal of this portion of the LDRD is to develop a vertical programmable diffraction grating that can be fabricated with Sandia's Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology, the SUMMiT V{trademark} process. This grating is targeted for use in a chemical detection system dubbed the Polychromator. A secondary goal is to design diffraction grating structures with additional degrees of freedom (DOF). Gratings with 2.5 microns of vertical stroke have been realized. In addition, rotational DOF grating structures have been successfully actuated, and a structure has been developed that minimizes residual stress effects.

  9. LDRD Final Report: Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements (04-ERD-057)

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D; Burke, J; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Forssen, C; Gueorguiev, V; Hoffman, R D

    2007-02-23

    Research carried out in the framework of the LDRD project ''Surrogate Nuclear Reactions and the Origin of the Heavy Elements'' (04-ERD-057) is summarized. The project was designed to address the challenge of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions involving unstable targets, with a particular emphasis on reactions that play a key role in the production of the elements between Iron and Uranium. This report reviews the motivation for the research, introduces the approach employed to address the problem, and summarizes the resulting scientific insights, technical findings, and related accomplishments.

  10. Parallel Computation Chemistry Using Constraints: Final Report, LDRD 97-0301, Case 3504140000

    SciTech Connect

    Todd D. Plantenga

    1998-11-01

    Computer modeling to estimate material properties, design chem/bio sensors, and evaluate protein-protein interactions all require solving force field equations for molecular structures that contain tens of thousands of covalently connected atoms. Potential energy minimization is a key step in the calculation, but stiff covalent bonding forces make optimization difficult and expensive. This two-year LDRD developed two classes of advanced minimization algorithms that were specialized for chemistry applications and distributed computing machines. The project led to two successful algorithms that were implemented in three Sandia computational chemistry codes to support various users.

  11. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  12. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  13. [Initial experiences with digital 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetry imaging].

    PubMed

    Surwald, C; Ward-Booth, P

    2000-05-01

    A digitised three-dimensional (3-D) image of the face has many valuable uses. These include accurate measurements of facial morphology, clinical documentation and objective analyses of surgical procedures. A new system presented here, based on stereophotogrammetric techniques, instantaneously captures digitised images using high-resolution cameras. It has an accuracy of more than 0.5 mm RMS and creates the 3-D image from approximately 20,000 points. The principles of the image capturing are demonstrated and the potential uses discussed. Surgical changes of the soft tissue in two patients following orthognathic surgery are also illustrated. This new capturing and measurement system provides a simple method of determining 3-D changes in soft tissue following surgery and is a useful tool for clinical purposes.

  14. Automatic noncontact 3-dimensional gauging via sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Shawn; Tavormina, Joseph J.

    1993-09-01

    Manufacturers are now driving toward the increased use of automation and the goal of zero-defects. As quality is improved and defect rates approach the popularized " Six-Sigma" level (customarily 3. 4 defects per million) manual or sampled measurementtechniques limit the achievementof product quality and manufacturing cost objectives. New automated inspection and gaging technology is required for process verification and control. To be competitive in the current manufacturing environment new gaging technology must be integrated into the manufacturing process to provide on-line feedback. The co-authors are founders of CogniSense a technology company dedicated to industrial inspection and gaging applications which use non-contact sensing techniques. CogniSense is currently applying its technology in the precision metalforming and other manufacturing industries to perform automatic dimensional measurement and provide real time information used to control and fine-tune the manufacturing process. A variety of sensors are used to detect the characteristics of parts on-line as they are produced. Data from multiple sensors is " fused" and analyzed by a dedicated microcomputer which evaluates the sensory signature and calculates critical dimensions from the sensor input to determine whether parts are within the acceptable tolerance range. Pattern recognition algorithms are used to automatically select the sensors which provide the most important information about critical part characteristics and dimensions. These algorithms operate by observing the changes in sensor output as critical features of the part are varied. The decision-making algorithms

  15. Designing 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality Using Panoramic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Abd Arif, Wan Norazlinawati; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Abdullah, Azrai; Sivapalan, Subarna

    The high demand to improve the quality of the presentation in the knowledge sharing field is to compete with rapidly growing technology. The needs for development of technology based learning and training lead to an idea to develop an Oil and Gas Plant Virtual Environment (OGPVE) for the benefit of our future. Panoramic Virtual Reality learning based environment is essential in order to help educators overcome the limitations in traditional technical writing lesson. Virtual reality will help users to understand better by providing the simulations of real-world and hard to reach environment with high degree of realistic experience and interactivity. Thus, in order to create a courseware which will achieve the objective, accurate images of intended scenarios must be acquired. The panorama shows the OGPVE and helps to generate ideas to users on what they have learnt. This paper discusses part of the development in panoramic virtual reality. The important phases for developing successful panoramic image are image acquisition and image stitching or mosaicing. In this paper, the combination of wide field-of-view (FOV) and close up image used in this panoramic development are also discussed.

  16. Cerebral Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revealed by 3-Dimensional Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee-Hong; Emery, Derek; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction. Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS. PMID:27064416

  17. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  18. Superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models of growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. C.; Heymann, Gavin; Cornelis, Marie A.; DeClerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate a new method for superimposition of 3-dimensional (3D) models of growing subjects. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after Class III malocclusion orthopedic treatment with miniplates. Three observers independently constructed 18 3D virtual surface models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of 3 patients. Separate 3D models were constructed for soft-tissue, cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular surfaces. The anterior cranial fossa was used to register the 3D models of before and after treatment (about 1 year of follow-up). Results Three-dimensional overlays of superimposed models and 3D color-coded displacement maps allowed visual and quantitative assessment of growth and treatment changes. The range of interobserver errors for each anatomic region was 0.4 mm for the zygomatic process of maxilla, chin, condyles, posterior border of the rami, and lower border of the mandible, and 0.5 mm for the anterior maxilla soft-tissue upper lip. Conclusions Our results suggest that this method is a valid and reproducible assessment of treatment outcomes for growing subjects. This technique can be used to identify maxillary and mandibular positional changes and bone remodeling relative to the anterior cranial fossa. PMID:19577154

  19. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  20. Interactive 3-dimensional virtual reality rehabilitation for patients with chronic imbalance and vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Chen, Shuya; Wang, Pa-Chun; Su, Mu-Chun; Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Po-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic imbalance is common in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Vestibular rehabilitation is effective in improving upright balance control. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises, such as Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, include simple repetitive movements and have limited feedback and adaptive training protocols. Interactive systems based on virtual reality (VR) technology may improve vestibular rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional VR system for vestibular rehabilitation. In 49 subjects with vestibular dysfunction, VR rehabilitation exercises were performed in 6 sessions. Before and after rehabilitation, subjects were evaluated for performance of the training exercises; the center of pressure was measured for 20 seconds and balance indices were determined. Five training scores (total 6) showed a significant improvement. For balance indices in condition of non-stimulation, all of them (total 5) showed a trend of improvement, in which there was a significant improvement in mean mediolateral. For balance indices in condition of post-stimulation, there was a significant improvement in statokinesigram and maximum mediolateral. The VR rehabilitation exercises were effective in improving upright balance control in patients with vestibular dysfunction.

  1. Enhanced Vapor-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media - LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Sandia National Laboratories, an investigation into the existence of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion (EVD) in porous media has been conducted. A thorough literature review was initially performed across multiple disciplines (soil science and engineering), and based on this review, the existence of EVD was found to be questionable. As a result, modeling and experiments were initiated to investigate the existence of EVD. In this LDRD, the first mechanistic model of EVD was developed which demonstrated the mechanisms responsible for EVD. The first direct measurements of EVD have also been conducted at multiple scales. Measurements have been made at the pore scale, in a two- dimensional network as represented by a fracture aperture, and in a porous medium. Significant enhancement of vapor-phase transport relative to Fickian diffusion was measured in all cases. The modeling and experimental results provide additional mechanisms for EVD beyond those presented by the generally accepted model of Philip and deVries (1957), which required a thermal gradient for EVD to exist. Modeling and experimental results show significant enhancement under isothermal conditions. Application of EVD to vapor transport in the near-surface vadose zone show a significant variation between no enhancement, the model of Philip and deVries, and the present results. Based on this information, the model of Philip and deVries may need to be modified, and additional studies are recommended.

  2. Multi-Target Camera Tracking, Hand-off and Display LDRD 158819 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance-based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn’t lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that take live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identify individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then display the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of current capability.

  3. Multi-target camera tracking, hand-off and display LDRD 158819 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2014-10-01

    Modern security control rooms gather video and sensor feeds from tens to hundreds of cameras. Advanced camera analytics can detect motion from individual video streams and convert unexpected motion into alarms, but the interpretation of these alarms depends heavily upon human operators. Unfortunately, these operators can be overwhelmed when a large number of events happen simultaneously, or lulled into complacency due to frequent false alarms. This LDRD project has focused on improving video surveillance-based security systems by changing the fundamental focus from the cameras to the targets being tracked. If properly integrated, more cameras shouldn't lead to more alarms, more monitors, more operators, and increased response latency but instead should lead to better information and more rapid response times. For the course of the LDRD we have been developing algorithms that take live video imagery from multiple video cameras, identifies individual moving targets from the background imagery, and then displays the results in a single 3D interactive video. In this document we summarize the work in developing this multi-camera, multi-target system, including lessons learned, tools developed, technologies explored, and a description of current capability.

  4. Validated modeling of distributed energy resources at distribution voltages : LDRD project 38672.

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, Mark E.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    2004-03-01

    A significant barrier to the deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) onto the power grid is uncertainty on the part of utility engineers regarding impacts of DER on their distribution systems. Because of the many possible combinations of DER and local power system characteristics, these impacts can most effectively be studied by computer simulation. The goal of this LDRD project was to develop and experimentally validate models of transient and steady state source behavior for incorporation into utility distribution analysis tools. Development of these models had not been prioritized either by the distributed-generation industry or by the inverter industry. A functioning model of a selected inverter-based DER was developed in collaboration with both the manufacturer and industrial power systems analysts. The model was written in the PSCAD simulation language, a variant of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), a code that is widely used and accepted by utilities. A stakeholder team was formed and a methodology was established to address the problem. A list of detailed DER/utility interaction concerns was developed and prioritized. The list indicated that the scope of the problem significantly exceeded resources available for this LDRD project. As this work progresses under separate funding, the model will be refined and experimentally validated. It will then be incorporated in utility distribution analysis tools and used to study a variety of DER issues. The key next step will be design of the validation experiments.

  5. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  6. Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Woven Composites by Mark Pankow, Ashiq Quabili, Stephen Whittie, and Chian Yen Approved for public release; distribution...2016 US Army Research Laboratory Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites by Mark...Properties of Various 3-Dimensional Woven Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark Pankow

  7. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autonomous intelligent assembly systems LDRD 105746 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert J.

    2013-04-01

    This report documents a three-year to develop technology that enables mobile robots to perform autonomous assembly tasks in unstructured outdoor environments. This is a multi-tier problem that requires an integration of a large number of different software technologies including: command and control, estimation and localization, distributed communications, object recognition, pose estimation, real-time scanning, and scene interpretation. Although ultimately unsuccessful in achieving a target brick stacking task autonomously, numerous important component technologies were nevertheless developed. Such technologies include: a patent-pending polygon snake algorithm for robust feature tracking, a color grid algorithm for uniquely identification and calibration, a command and control framework for abstracting robot commands, a scanning capability that utilizes a compact robot portable scanner, and more. This report describes this project and these developed technologies.

  9. LANL LDRD-funded project: Test particle simulations of energetic ions in natural and artificial radiation belts

    SciTech Connect

    Cowee, Misa; Liu, Kaijun; Friedel, Reinhard H.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    2012-07-17

    We summarize the scientific problem and work plan for the LANL LDRD-funded project to use a test particle code to study the sudden de-trapping of inner belt protons and possible cross-L transport of debris ions after a high altitude nuclear explosion (HANE). We also discuss future application of the code for other HANE-related problems.

  10. FY05 LDRD Final Report, A Revolution in Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Balhorn, R; Barty, A; Barsky, D; Bogan, M; Chung, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; Ishii, H; London, R; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Segelke, B; Szoke, A; Szoke, H; Trebes, J; Wootton, A; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Lejon, S; der Spoel, D v; Howells, M; He, H; Spence, J; Nugent, K; Ingerman, E

    2006-01-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are currently under development and will provide a peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than modern synchrotrons. The goal of this project was to perform the fundamental research to evaluate the possibility of harnessing these unique x-ray sources to image single biological particles and molecules at atomic resolution. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental verification where possible, they showed that it should indeed be possible to record coherent scattering patterns from single molecules with pulses that are shorter than the timescales for the degradation of the structure due to the interaction with those pulses. They used these models to determine the effectiveness of strategies to allow imaging using longer XFEL pulses and to design validation experiments to be carried out at interim ultrafast sources. They also developed and demonstrated methods to recover three-dimensional (3D) images from coherent diffraction patterns, similar to those expected from XFELs. The images of micron-sized test objects are the highest-resolution 3D images of any noncrystalline material ever formed with x-rays. The project resulted in 14 publications in peer-reviewed journals and four records of invention.

  11. The Reliability of a Novel Mobile 3-dimensional Wound Measurement Device.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Ersilia L; Kumar, Anagha; Bigham, Thomas E; Maselli, Kathryn M; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Objective assessment of wound dimensions is essential for tracking progression and determining treatment effectiveness. A reliability study was designed to establish intrarater and interrater reliability of a novel mobile 3-dimensional wound measurement (3DWM) device. Forty-five wounds were assessed by 2 raters using a 3DWM device to obtain length, width, area, depth, and volume measurements. Wounds were also measured manually, using a disposable ruler and digital planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to establish intrarater and interrater reliability. High levels of intrarater and interrater agreement were observed for area, length, and width; ICC = 0.998, 0.977, 0.955 and 0.999, 0.997, 0.995, respectively. Moderate levels of intrarater (ICC = 0.888) and interrater (ICC = 0.696) agreement were observed for volume. Lastly, depth yielded an intrarater ICC of 0.360 and an interrater ICC of 0.649. Measures from the 3DWM device were highly correlated with those obtained from scaled photography for length, width, and area (ρ = 0.997, 0.988, 0.997, P < 0.001). The 3DWM device yielded correlations of ρ = 0.990, 0.987, 0.996 with P < 0.001 for length, width, and area when compared to manual measurements. The 3DWM device was found to be highly reliable for measuring wound areas for a range of wound sizes and types as compared to manual measurement and digital planimetry. The depth and therefore volume measurement using the 3DWM device was found to have a lower ICC, but volume ICC alone was moderate. Overall, this device offers a mobile option for objective wound measurement in the clinical setting.

  12. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  13. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  14. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  15. Preoperative 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Myoma and Endometrium Before Myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sa Ra; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kang, Byung Chul

    2017-02-01

    Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which, in turn, can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies. Current conventional 2-dimensional imaging has limitations in identifying precise locations of multiple myomas and the endometrium. In our experience, we preferred to use 3-dimensional imaging to delineate the myomas, endometrium, or blood vessels, which we were able to successfully reconstruct by using the following imaging method. To achieve 3-dimensional imaging, we matched T2 turbo spin echo images to detect uterine myomas and endometria with T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation-post images used to detect blood vessels by using an algorithm based on the 3-dimensional region growing method. Then, we produced images of the uterine myomas, endometria, and blood vessels using a 3-dimensional surface rendering method and successfully reconstructed selective 3-dimensional imaging for uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent blood vessels. A Web-based survey was sent to 66 gynecologists concerning imaging techniques used before myomectomy. Twenty-eight of 36 responding gynecologists answered that the 3-dimensional image produced in the current study is preferred to conventional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in identifying precise locations of uterine myomas and endometria. The proposed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method successfully reconstructed uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent vessels. We propose that this will be a helpful adjunct to uterine myomectomy as a preoperative imaging technique in future

  16. LDRD Final Report: Adaptive Methods for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, M R; Garaizar, F X; Hittinger, J A

    2003-01-29

    The goal of this project was to investigate the utility of parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in the simulation of laser plasma interaction (LPI). The scope of work included the development of new numerical methods and parallel implementation strategies. The primary deliverables were (1) parallel adaptive algorithms to solve a system of equations combining plasma fluid and light propagation models, (2) a research code implementing these algorithms, and (3) an analysis of the performance of parallel AMR on LPI problems. The project accomplished these objectives. New algorithms were developed for the solution of a system of equations describing LPI. These algorithms were implemented in a new research code named ALPS (Adaptive Laser Plasma Simulator) that was used to test the effectiveness of the AMR algorithms on the Laboratory's large-scale computer platforms. The details of the algorithm and the results of the numerical tests were documented in an article published in the Journal of Computational Physics [2]. A principal conclusion of this investigation is that AMR is most effective for LPI systems that are ''hydrodynamically large'', i.e., problems requiring the simulation of a large plasma volume relative to the volume occupied by the laser light. Since the plasma-only regions require less resolution than the laser light, AMR enables the use of efficient meshes for such problems. In contrast, AMR is less effective for, say, a single highly filamented beam propagating through a phase plate, since the resulting speckle pattern may be too dense to adequately separate scales with a locally refined mesh. Ultimately, the gain to be expected from the use of AMR is highly problem-dependent. One class of problems investigated in this project involved a pair of laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. Under certain conditions, energy can be transferred from one beam to the other via a resonant interaction with an ion acoustic wave in the crossing region. AMR provides an

  17. Axes of resistance for tooth movement: does the center of resistance exist in 3-dimensional space?

    PubMed

    Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Budiman, Amanda; Burstone, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The center of resistance is considered the most important reference point for tooth movement. It is often stated that forces through this point will result in tooth translation. The purpose of this article is to report the results of numeric experiments testing the hypothesis that centers of resistance do not exist in space as 3-dimensional points, primarily because of the geometric asymmetry of the periodontal ligament. As an alternative theory, we propose that, for an arbitrary tooth, translation references can be determined by 2-dimensional projection intersections of 3-dimensional axes of resistance. Finite element analyses were conducted on a maxillary first molar model to determine the position of the axes of rotation generated by 3-dimensional couples. Translation tests were performed to compare tooth movement by using different combinations of axes of resistance as references. The couple-generated axes of rotation did not intersect in 3 dimensions; therefore, they do not determine a 3-dimensional center of resistance. Translation was obtained by using projection intersections of the 2 axes of resistance perpendicular to the force direction. Three-dimensional axes of resistance, or their 2-dimensional projection intersections, should be used to plan movement of an arbitrary tooth. Clinical approximations to a small 3-dimensional "center of resistance volume" might be adequate in nearly symmetric periodontal ligament cases. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  19. A Systematic Review to Uncover a Universal Protocol for Accuracy Assessment of 3-Dimensional Virtually Planned Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Ramy M; Shaheen, Eman; Falter, Bart; Araya, Sebastian; Politis, Constantinus; Swennen, Gwen R J; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review methods used for assessing the accuracy of 3-dimensional virtually planned orthognathic surgery in an attempt to reach an objective assessment protocol that could be universally used. A systematic review of the currently available literature, published until September 12, 2016, was conducted using PubMed as the primary search engine. We performed secondary searches using the Cochrane Database, clinical trial registries, Google Scholar, and Embase, as well as a bibliography search. Included articles were required to have stated clearly that 3-dimensional virtual planning was used and accuracy assessment performed, along with validation of the planning and/or assessment method. Descriptive statistics and quality assessment of included articles were performed. The initial search yielded 1,461 studies. Only 7 studies were included in our review. An important variability was found regarding methods used for 1) accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery or 2) validation of the tools used. Included studies were of moderate quality; reviewers' agreement regarding quality was calculated to be 0.5 using the Cohen κ test. On the basis of the findings of this review, it is evident that the literature lacks consensus regarding accuracy assessment. Hence, a protocol is suggested for accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery with the lowest margin of error. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  1. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.

  2. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Armstrong, Charles W.; Rankin, James M.; Rogers, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. Design and Setting: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. Subjects: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. Measurements: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. Results: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. Conclusions: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time. PMID:12937432

  3. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Armstrong, Charles W; Rankin, James M; Rogers, Burton

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. DESIGN AND SETTING: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. SUBJECTS: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. RESULTS: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. CONCLUSIONS: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time.

  4. A Customized Bolus Produced Using a 3-Dimensional Printer for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient’s skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. Methods We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. Results The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. Conclusions A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses. PMID:25337700

  5. Utility of novel 3-dimensional stereoscopic vision system for endoscopic sinonasal and skull-base surgery.

    PubMed

    Manes, R Peter; Barnett, Sam; Batra, Pete S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of novel 3-dimensional (3D) endoscopy during endoscopic sinonasal and skull base surgery. Eight surgeries were performed in 7 patients between August 2009 and March 2010 at a tertiary care academic medical center. A high-definition 2-dimensional (2D) endoscopy system was employed in all cases. The Visionsense stereoscopic system (Orangeburg, NY) was incorporated during key portions of the procedures. Two independent surgeons assessed utility of the technology for the following 2 variables: (1) ability to facilitate orientation and depth perception; and (2) impact on completeness of surgery and potential complications. The mean age was 50.4 years and the male:female ratio was 6:1. Indications included anterior skull base (ASB) tumor resection (5), directed skull base biopsies (2), and ethmoid dissection adjacent to dehiscent skull base/optic nerve in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (1). Endoscopic orientation and depth perception was aided using the 3D endoscope in all cases. Additional interventions were performed in 3 cases (37.5%), including tumor resection (1) and removal of remnant ethmoid partitions (2). Limitations posed included inability to visualize a type III frontal cell (1) and loss of orientation during ASB reconstruction due to overmagnification (1). No complications were observed in this patient series. This preliminary study demonstrated the effectiveness of binocular 3D endoscopy during sinonasal and skull-base surgery. The technology facilitated depth perception and completeness of surgery without increase in complications. Additional experience is warranted to define its role in the endoscopic surgical paradigm. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  6. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

    2005-11-01

    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  7. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  8. Final report on LDRD project: Simulation/optimization tools for system variability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Bierbaum; R. F. Billau; J. E. Campbell; K. D. Marx; R. J. Sikorski; B. M. Thompson; S. D. Wix

    1999-10-01

    >This work was conducted during FY98 (Proposal Number 98-0036) and FY99 (Proposal Number 99-0818) under the auspices of the Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. Electrical simulation typically treats a single data point in the very large input space of component properties. For electrical simulation to reach its full potential as a design tool, it must be able to address the unavoidable variability and uncertainty in component properties. Component viability is strongly related to the design margin (and reliability) of the end product. During the course of this project, both tools and methodologies were developed to enable analysis of variability in the context of electrical simulation tools. Two avenues to link relevant tools were also developed, and the resultant toolset was applied to a major component.

  9. Final report on LDRD Project: Quantum confinement and light emission in silicon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Guilinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1995-02-01

    Electrochemically formed porous silicon (PS) was reported in 1991 to exhibit visible photoluminescence. This discovery could lead to the use of integrated silicon-based optoelectronic devices. This LDRD addressed two general goals for optical emission from Si: (1) investigate the mechanisms responsible for light emission, and (2) tailor the microstructure and composition of the Si to obtain photoemission suitable for working devices. PS formation, composition, morphology, and microstructure have been under investigation at Sandia for the past ten years for applications in silicon-on-insulator microelectronics, micromachining, and chemical sensors. The authors used this expertise to form luminescent PS at a variety of wavelengths and have used analytical techniques such as in situ Raman and X-ray reflectivity to investigate the luminescence mechanism and quantify the properties of the porous silicon layer. Further, their experience with ion implantation in Si lead to an investigation into alternate methods of producing Si nanostructures that visibly luminesce.

  10. Terahertz spectral signatures :measurement and detection LDRD project 86361 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Brener, Igal; Lee, Mark

    2005-11-01

    LDRD Project 86361 provided support to upgrade the chemical and material spectral signature measurement and detection capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories using the terahertz (THz) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes frequencies between 0.1 to 10 THz. Under this project, a THz time-domain spectrometer was completed. This instrument measures sample absorption spectra coherently, obtaining both magnitude and phase of the absorption signal, and has shown an operating signal-to-noise ratio of 10{sub 4}. Additionally, various gas cells and a reflectometer were added to an existing high-resolution THz Fourier transform spectrometer, which greatly extend the functionality of this spectrometer. Finally, preliminary efforts to design an integrated THz transceiver based on a quantum cascade laser were begun.

  11. Bioagent detection using miniaturized NMR and nanoparticle amplification : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Clewett, C. F. M.; Adams, David Price; Fan, Hongyou; Williams, John D.; Sillerud, Laurel O.; Alam, Todd Michael; Aldophi, Natalie L. (New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, NM); McDowell, Andrew F.

    2006-11-01

    This LDRD program was directed towards the development of a portable micro-nuclear magnetic resonance ({micro}-NMR) spectrometer for the detection of bioagents via induced amplification of solvent relaxation based on superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The first component of this research was the fabrication and testing of two different micro-coil ({micro}-coil) platforms: namely a planar spiral NMR {micro}-coil and a cylindrical solenoid NMR {micro}-coil. These fabrication techniques are described along with the testing of the NMR performance for the individual coils. The NMR relaxivity for a series of water soluble FeMn oxide nanoparticles was also determined to explore the influence of the nanoparticle size on the observed NMR relaxation properties. In addition, The use of commercially produced superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for amplification via NMR based relaxation mechanisms was also demonstrated, with the lower detection limit in number of SPIONs per nanoliter (nL) being determined.

  12. Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2007-10-01

    This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

  13. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  14. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Joshua; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Furnish, Michael David

    2013-12-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where heterogeneities lead to localization of deformation and loss of shear strength. Microstructural effects are of broad importance to the scientific community and several institutions within DoD and DOE; however, current models rely on inaccurate assumptions about mechanisms at the sub-continuum or mesoscale. Consequently, there is a critical need for accurate and robust methods for modeling heterogeneous material response at this lower length scale. This report summarizes work performed as part of an LDRD effort (FY11 to FY13; project number 151364) to meet these needs.

  15. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Kirschner Wire Fixation of Adolescent Condyle Fracture.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwei; Li, Qihong; Bai, Shizhu; Zhang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Condyle fractures are common in children and are increasingly treated with open reduction. Three-dimensional printing has developed into an important method of assisting surgical treatment. This report describes the case of a 14-year-old patient treated for a right condyle fracture at the authors' hospital. Preoperatively, the authors designed a surgical guide using 3-dimensional printing and virtual surgery. The 3-dimensional surgical guide allowed accurate alignment of the fracture using Kirschner wire without additional dissection and tissue injury. Kirschner wire fixation augmented by 3-dimensional printing technology produced a good outcome in this adolescent condyle fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for standoff explosives detection : LDRD 138733 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, Lisa Anne; Linker, Kevin Lane

    2009-09-01

    Continued acts of terrorism using explosive materials throughout the world have led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially technologies that have a potential for remote or standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the benefit of the possible use of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff explosives detection equipment. Standoff detection of explosives is currently one of the most difficult problems facing the explosives detection community. Increased domestic and troop security could be achieved through the remote detection of explosives. An effective remote or standoff explosives detection capability would save lives and prevent losses of mission-critical resources by increasing the distance between the explosives and the intended targets and/or security forces. Many sectors of the US government are urgently attempting to obtain useful equipment to deploy to our troops currently serving in hostile environments. This LDRD was undertaken to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in standoff detection systems. This report documents the potential opportunities that Sandia National Laboratories can contribute to the field of QCL development. The following is a list of areas where SNL can contribute: (1) Determine optimal wavelengths for standoff explosives detection utilizing QCLs; (2) Optimize the photon collection and detection efficiency of a detection system for optical spectroscopy; (3) Develop QCLs with broader wavelength tunability (current technology is a 10% change in wavelength) while maintaining high efficiency; (4) Perform system engineering in the design of a complete detection system and not just the laser head; and (5) Perform real-world testing with explosive materials with commercial prototype detection systems.

  17. Main group adducts of carbon dioxide and related chemistry (LDRD 149938).

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Brian M.; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.; Dickie, Diane A.

    2010-11-01

    This late-start LDRD was broadly focused on the synthetic attempts to prepare novel ligands as complexing agents for main group metals for the sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In prior work we have shown that certain main group (p block elements) metals such as tin and zinc, when ligated to phosphinoamido- ligands, can bind CO{sub 2} in a novel fashion. Rather than simple insertion into the metal-nitrogen bonds to form carbamates, we have seen the highly unusual complexation of CO{sub 2} in a mode that is more similar to a chemical 'adduct' rather than complexation schemes that have been observed previously. The overarching goal in this work is to prepare more of these complexes that can (a) sequester (or bind) CO{sub 2} easily in this adduct form, and (b) be stable to chemical or electrochemical reduction designed to convert the CO{sub 2} to useful fuels or fuel precursors. The currently used phosphinoamido- ligands appear at this point to be less-stable than desired under electrochemical reduction conditions. This instability is believed due to the more delicate, reactive nature of the ligand framework system. In order to successfully capture and convert CO{sub 2} to useful organics, this instability must be addressed and solved. Work described in the late-start LDRD was designed to screen a variety of ligand/metal complexes that a priori are believed to be more stable to polar solvents and possible mild hydrolytic conditions than are the phosphinoamido-ligands. Results from ligand syntheses and metal complexation studies are reported.

  18. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  19. Comparison of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Metacarpal Fracture Plating Constructs Under Cyclic Loading.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Eric P; Burns, Geoffrey T; Oak, Nikhil R; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Metacarpal fractures are commonly treated by a variety of means including casting or open reduction internal fixation when unacceptable alignment is present following attempted closed reduction. Dorsal plating with either single-row 2-dimensional or double-row 3-dimensional plates has been proposed. This study's purpose was to determine if there are any differences in fixation construct stability under cyclic loading and subsequent load to failure between the lower profile 3-dimensional and the larger 2-dimensional plates in a metacarpal fracture gap sawbone model. Thirty metacarpal cortico-cancellous synthetic bones were cut with a 1.75-mm gap between the 2 fragments simulating mid-diaphyseal fracture comminution. Half of the metacarpals were plated with 2.0-mm locking 2-dimensional plates and half with 1.5-mm locking 3-dimensional plates. The plated metacarpals were mounted into a materials testing apparatus and cyclically loaded under cantilever bending for 2,000 cycles at 70 N, then 2,000 cycles at 120 N, and finally monotonically loaded to failure. Throughout testing, fracture gap sizes were measured, failure modes were recorded, and construct strength and stiffness values were calculated. All 3-dimensional constructs survived both cyclic loading conditions. Ten (67%) 2-dimensional constructs survived both loading conditions, whereas 5 (33%) failed the 120-N loading at 1377 ± 363 cycles. When loaded to failure, the 3-dimensional constructs failed at 265 N ± 21 N, whereas the 2-dimensional constructs surviving cyclic loading failed at 190 N ± 17 N. The shorter, thinner 3-dimensional metacarpal plates demonstrated increased resistance to failure in a cyclic loading model and increased load to failure compared with the relatively longer, thicker 2-dimensional metacarpal plates. The lower-profile 3-dimensional metacarpal plate fixation demonstrated greater stability for early postoperative resistance than the thicker 2-dimensional fixation, whereas the smaller

  20. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  1. SCEC-VDO: A New 3-Dimensional Visualization and Movie Making Software for Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, K. R.; Sanskriti, F.; Yu, J.; Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers and undergraduate interns at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have created a new 3-dimensional (3D) visualization software tool called SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO). SCEC-VDO is written in Java and uses the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) backend to render 3D content. SCEC-VDO offers advantages over existing 3D visualization software for viewing georeferenced data beneath the Earth's surface. Many popular visualization packages, such as Google Earth, restrict the user to views of the Earth from above, obstructing views of geological features such as faults and earthquake hypocenters at depth. SCEC-VDO allows the user to view data both above and below the Earth's surface at any angle. It includes tools for viewing global earthquakes from the U.S. Geological Survey, faults from the SCEC Community Fault Model, and results from the latest SCEC models of earthquake hazards in California including UCERF3 and RSQSim. Its object-oriented plugin architecture allows for the easy integration of new regional and global datasets, regardless of the science domain. SCEC-VDO also features rich animation capabilities, allowing users to build a timeline with keyframes of camera position and displayed data. The software is built with the concept of statefulness, allowing for reproducibility and collaboration using an xml file. A prior version of SCEC-VDO, which began development in 2005 under the SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology internship, used the now unsupported Java3D library. Replacing Java3D with the widely supported and actively developed VTK libraries not only ensures that SCEC-VDO can continue to function for years to come, but allows for the export of 3D scenes to web viewers and popular software such as Paraview. SCEC-VDO runs on all recent 64-bit Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux systems with Java 8 or later. More information, including downloads, tutorials, and example movies created fully within SCEC-VDO is

  2. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  3. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although there…

  4. Investigation of Measurement Condition for 3-Dimensional Spectroscopy by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohigashi, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Ito, A.; Shinohara, K.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-06-01

    A sample cell for performing computed tomography (CT) was developed. The 3-dimensional (3D) structure of polystyrene spheres was observed and the fluctuation of reconstructed linear absorption coefficients (LAC) was 9.3%. To improve the quality of data in 3D spectro-microscopy, required measurement condition is discussed.

  5. 3-dimensional root phenotyping with a novel imaging and software platform

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of 3-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform’s capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and ...

  6. Relations among early object recognition skills: Objects and letters.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S; Smith, Linda B; Longfield, Erica

    2015-04-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spatial relations is critical in both domains. Seventy-three 2 ½- to 4-year-old children completed a Letter Recognition task, measuring the ability to identify a named letter among 3 letters with similar shapes, and a "Shape Caricature Recognition" task, measuring recognition of familiar objects from sparse, abstract information about their part shapes and the spatial relations among those parts. Children also completed a control "Shape Bias" task, in which success depends on recognition of overall object shape but not of relational structure. Children's success in letter recognition was positively related to their shape caricature recognition scores, but not to their shape bias scores. The results suggest that letter recognition builds upon developing skills in attending to and representing the relational structure of object shape, and that these skills are common to both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional object perception.

  7. Final LDRD Report for Projects # 52797 and # 93362: Rational Understanding and Control of the Magnetic Behavior of Nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. John

    2006-11-01

    This is the final LDRD report for projects # 52797 and # 93362 that funded a five year research program directed by Prof. Z. John Zhang at the Georgia Institute of Technology Chemistry Department. Prof. Zhang was awarded this funding after winning a Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering (PECASE) in 2001 with Sandia as the DOE sponsoring lab. The project PI was Blake Simmons and the PM was Alfredo Morales. The page intentionally left blank

  8. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  9. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  10. Topological entropy and renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Beneventano, C. G.; Cavero-Peláez, I.; D'Ascanio, D.; Santangelo, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalization group (RG) flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit β/a ≪ 1 of a massive field theory in 3-dimensional spherical spaces, M 3, with constant curvature 6 /a 2. For masses lower than , this term can be identified with the free energy of the same theory on M 3 considered as a 3-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The non-extensive part of this free energy, S hol, is generated by the holonomy of the spatial metric connection. We show that for homogeneous spherical spaces the holonomy entropy S hol decreases monotonically when the RG scale flows to the infrared. At the conformal fixed points the values of the holonomy entropy do coincide with the genuine topological entropies recently introduced. The monotonic behavior of the RG flow leads to an inequality between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow, i.e. S {top/ UV } > S {top/ IR }. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotonic behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem. The conjecture is related to recent formulations of the F -theorem. In particular, the holonomy entropy on lens spaces is directly related to the topological Rényi entanglement entropy on disks of 2-dimensional flat spaces.

  11. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  12. Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Paul C; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ≥2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal osteotomies and segmental

  13. Characterization of chemical contaminants generated by a desktop fused deposition modeling 3-dimensional Printer.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; LeBouf, Ryan F; Yi, Jinghai; Ham, Jason; Nurkewicz, Timothy; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Chen, Bean T; Wells, J Raymond; Duling, Matthew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Martin, Stephen B; Johnson, Alyson R; Virji, M Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Printing devices are known to emit chemicals into the indoor atmosphere. Understanding factors that influence release of chemical contaminants from printers is necessary to develop effective exposure assessment and control strategies. In this study, a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-dimensional (3-D) printer using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA) filaments and two monochrome laser printers were evaluated in a 0.5 m(3) chamber. During printing, chamber air was monitored for vapors using a real-time photoionization detector (results expressed as isobutylene equivalents) to measure total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, evacuated canisters to identify specific VOCs by off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and liquid bubblers to identify carbonyl compounds by GC-MS. Airborne particles were collected on filters for off-line analysis using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive x-ray detector to identify elemental constituents. For 3-D printing, TVOC emission rates were influenced by a printer malfunction, filament type, and to a lesser extent, by filament color; however, rates were not influenced by the number of printer nozzles used or the manufacturer's provided cover. TVOC emission rates were significantly lower for the 3-D printer (49-3552 µg h(-1)) compared to the laser printers (5782-7735 µg h(-1)). A total of 14 VOCs were identified during 3-D printing that were not present during laser printing. 3-D printed objects continued to off-gas styrene, indicating potential for continued exposure after the print job is completed. Carbonyl reaction products were likely formed from emissions of the 3-D printer, including 4-oxopentanal. Ultrafine particles generated by the 3-D printer using ABS and a laser printer contained chromium. Consideration of the factors that influenced the release of chemical contaminants (including known and suspected asthmagens such as styrene

  14. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  15. Evaluation of Nitinol Stents Using a 3-Dimensional Printed Superficial Femoral Artery Model: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Seiller, Hélène; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Heim, Frédéric; Chakfe, Nabil

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical tests assessing Nitinol stents used for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are designed without taking into account their deployment environments. The objectives of this study were (1) to create normal and pathologic femoral artery models, (2) to run mechanical tests reproducing the stresses of the SFA, and (3) to study and compare Nitinol stents in those conditions. Femoral artery models with identical mechanical properties to the SFA were created using the 3-dimensional printing technology. Those models were designed with and without an asymmetric focal 50% stenosis. Three mechanical tests (bending-compression, bending-compression-torsion, and multiple bending tests) were created and 1 flexible stent was tested, of 6 and 7-mm diameter. Three samples of the stent, LifeStent (Bard(®)), were deployed and tested in the models. Stents alone were evaluated in the same conditions. The analysis focused on the comparison of rheologic curves, level of kink, and the energy deployed for each stent to kink. In the 3 tests, all stents deployed in the models presented a kink during their evaluation. When tested alone, during the compression-bending and bending-compression-torsion tests, no plicature was observed. During the multiple bending test, the energy deployed to plicature for the stent tested alone was of 1.4 ± 0.10 and 2.84 ± 0.1 J compared with 9.7 ± 0.6 and 8.25 ± 0.6 J when deployed in the model for the Lifestent 6 × 80 and 7 × 80 mm, respectively. For all of these 3 tests, 6-mm diameter stents exhibited a level of kink and energy of kink higher than 7 mm stents. The behavior of the stents changed in the stenosed model whatever diameter is taken into account. Analysis of the rheologic curves showed a decrease in the inflection of the curve related to the plication. In the bending-compression test, the presence of a stenosis lead to an early plication of the model, with less deployed kinking energy whereas in the bending

  16. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  17. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional Endorectal Ultrasound for Staging Early Extraperitoneal Rectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rodrigo Ambar; Corrêa Neto, Isaac José Felippe; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Rizkalah Nahas, Caio Sérgio; Sparapan Marques, Carlos Frederico; Ribeiro Junior, Ulysses; Kawaguti, Fábio Shiguehissa; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Adequate oncologic staging of rectal neoplasia is important for treatment and prognostic evaluation of the disease. Diagnostic methods such as endorectal ultrasound can assess rectal wall invasion and lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to correlate findings of 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis of extraperitoneal rectal tumors with regard to depth of rectal wall invasion, lymph node involvement, percentage of rectal circumference involvement, and tumor extension. Consecutive patients with extraperitoneal rectal tumors were prospectively assessed by 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound blind to other staging methods and pathologic diagnosis. Patients who underwent endorectal ultrasound followed by surgery were included in the study. The study was conducted at a single academic institution. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, area under curve, and κ coefficient between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for tumor extension and percentage of rectal wall involvement. Forty-four patients (27 women; mean age = 63.5 years) were evaluated between September 2010 and June 2014. Most lesions were malignant (72.7%). For depth of submucosal invasion, 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound showed sensitivity of 77.3%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 85.0%, a negative predictive value of 79.2%, and an area under curve of 0.82. The weighted κ coefficient for depth of rectal wall invasion staging was 0.67, and there was no agreement between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis for lymph node involvement (κ = -0.164). Intraclass correlation coefficient for lesion extension and percentage of rectal circumference involvement were 0.45 and 0.66. A better correlation between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis was observed in tumors <5 cm and with <50

  18. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and

  19. Automated Algorithms for Quantum-Level Accuracy in Atomistic Simulations: LDRD Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Crozier, Paul; Moore, Stan Gerald; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Trott, Christian Robert; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Tucker, Garritt J.

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the result of LDRD project 12-0395, titled "Automated Algorithms for Quantum-level Accuracy in Atomistic Simulations." During the course of this LDRD, we have developed an interatomic potential for solids and liquids called Spectral Neighbor Analysis Poten- tial (SNAP). The SNAP potential has a very general form and uses machine-learning techniques to reproduce the energies, forces, and stress tensors of a large set of small configurations of atoms, which are obtained using high-accuracy quantum electronic structure (QM) calculations. The local environment of each atom is characterized by a set of bispectrum components of the local neighbor density projected on to a basis of hyperspherical harmonics in four dimensions. The SNAP coef- ficients are determined using weighted least-squares linear regression against the full QM training set. This allows the SNAP potential to be fit in a robust, automated manner to large QM data sets using many bispectrum components. The calculation of the bispectrum components and the SNAP potential are implemented in the LAMMPS parallel molecular dynamics code. Global optimization methods in the DAKOTA software package are used to seek out good choices of hyperparameters that define the overall structure of the SNAP potential. FitSnap.py, a Python-based software pack- age interfacing to both LAMMPS and DAKOTA is used to formulate the linear regression problem, solve it, and analyze the accuracy of the resultant SNAP potential. We describe a SNAP potential for tantalum that accurately reproduces a variety of solid and liquid properties. Most significantly, in contrast to existing tantalum potentials, SNAP correctly predicts the Peierls barrier for screw dislocation motion. We also present results from SNAP potentials generated for indium phosphide (InP) and silica (SiO 2 ). We describe efficient algorithms for calculating SNAP forces and energies in molecular dynamics simulations using massively parallel computers

  20. Filtered Rayleigh scattering diagnostic for multi-parameter thermal-fluids measurements : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Grasser, Thomas W.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation-based life-cycle-engineering and the ASCI program have resulted in models of unprecedented size and fidelity. The validation of these models requires high-resolution, multi-parameter diagnostics. Within the thermal-fluids disciplines, the need for detailed, high-fidelity measurements exceeds the limits of current engineering sciences capabilities and severely tests the state of the art. The focus of this LDRD is the development and application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for high-resolution, nonintrusive measurement of gas-phase velocity and temperature. With FRS, the flow is laser-illuminated and Rayleigh scattering from naturally occurring sources is detected through a molecular filter. The filtered transmission may be interpreted to yield point or planar measurements of three-component velocities and/or thermodynamic state. Different experimental configurations may be employed to obtain compromises between spatial resolution, time resolution, and the quantity of simultaneously measured flow variables. In this report, we present the results of a three-year LDRD-funded effort to develop FRS combustion thermometry and Aerosciences velocity measurement systems. The working principles and details of our FRS opto-electronic system are presented in detail. For combustion thermometry we present 2-D, spatially correlated FRS results from nonsooting premixed and diffusion flames and from a sooting premixed flame. The FRS-measured temperatures are accurate to within {+-}50 K (3%) in a premixed CH4-air flame and within {+-}100 K for a vortex-strained diluted CH4-air diffusion flame where the FRS technique is severely tested by large variation in scattering cross section. In the diffusion flame work, FRS has been combined with Raman imaging of the CH4 fuel molecule to correct for the local light scattering properties of the combustion gases. To our knowledge, this is the first extension of FRS to nonpremixed combustion and the first use of joint FRS

  1. Final report on LDRD Project: The double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Moon, J.S.; Blount, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project ``Double Electron Layer Tunneling Transistor.`` The main goal of this project was to investigate whether the recently discovered phenomenon of 2D-2D tunneling in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (DQWs), investigated in a previous LDRD, could be harnessed and implemented as the operating principle for a new type of tunneling device the authors proposed, the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT). In parallel with this main thrust of the project, they also continued a modest basic research effort on DQW physics issues, with significant theoretical support. The project was a considerable success, with the main goal of demonstrating a working prototype of the DELTT having been achieved. Additional DELTT advances included demonstrating good electrical characteristics at 77 K, demonstrating both NMOS and CMOS-like bi-stable memories at 77 K using the DELTT, demonstrating digital logic gates at 77 K, and demonstrating voltage-controlled oscillators at 77 K. In order to successfully fabricate the DELTT, the authors had to develop a novel flip-chip processing scheme, the epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) technique. This technique was latter improved so as to be amenable to electron-beam lithography, allowing the fabrication of DELTTs with sub-micron features, which are expected to be extremely high speed. In the basic physics area they also made several advances, including a measurement of the effective mass of electrons in the hour-glass orbit of a DQW subject to in-plane magnetic fields, and both measurements and theoretical calculations of the full Landau level spectra of DQWs in both perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields. This last result included the unambiguous demonstration of magnetic breakdown of the Fermi surface. Finally, they also investigated the concept of a far-infrared photodetector based on photon assisted tunneling in a DQW. Absorption calculations showed a

  2. Feasibility of 3-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrast sequence in the evaluation of patients with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Algin, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and additive value of T2W 3-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrast (3D-SPACE) with variant flip-angle mode in imaging of all types of hydrocephalus. Our secondary objective was to assess the reliability of 3D-SPACE sequence and correspondence of the results with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI)-based data. Forty-one patients with hydrocephalus have undergone 3-T MRI. T2W 3D-SPACE sequence has been obtained in addition to routine hydrocephalus protocol. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation, presence/type/etiology of hydrocephalus, obstruction level scores, and diagnostic levels of confidence were evaluated separately by 2 radiologists. In the first session, routine sequences with PC-MRI were evaluated, and in another session, only 3D-SPACE and 3-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences were evaluated. Results obtained in these sessions were compared with each other and those obtained in consensus session. Agreement values were very good for both 3D-SPACE and PC-MRI sequences (P < 0.001 for all). Also, the correlation of more experienced reader's 3D-SPACE-based scores and consensus-based scores was perfect (κ = 1, P < 0.001).The mean value of PC-MRI-based confidence scores were lower than those obtained in 3D-SPACE and consensus sessions. T2W 3D-SPACE sequence provides morphologic cerebrospinal fluid flow data. It is a noninvasive technique providing extensive multiplanar reformatted images with a lower specific absorption rate. These advantages over PC-MRI make 3D-SPACE sequence a promising tool in management of patients with hydrocephalus.

  3. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Navigation in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Ashwin; Drittenbass, Lisca; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Stern, Richard; Assal, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery has developed dramatically during the past 2 decades. This article describes the use of intraoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography and navigation in foot and ankle surgery. Traditional imaging based on serial radiography or C-arm-based fluoroscopy does not provide simultaneous real-time 3-dimensional imaging, and thus leads to suboptimal visualization and guidance. Three-dimensional computed tomography allows for accurate intraoperative visualization of the position of bones and/or navigation implants. Such imaging and navigation helps to further reduce intraoperative complications, leads to improved surgical outcomes, and may become the gold standard in foot and ankle surgery. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e1005-e1010.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Odontoid screw placement using Isocentric 3-dimensional C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Summers, Lori E; Kouri, Joshua G; Yang, Mu; Patrick Jacob, R

    2008-02-01

    We describe the use of isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy to place odontoid screws in 9 patients. We wanted to show the benefits of using isocentric 3-dimensional fluroscopy in odontoid screw placement. Odontoid screw fixation for treatment of type II odontoid fractures has gained popularity since its introduction in the early 1980s. During the last several years, a multitude of new techniques have improved the ease of odontoid screw placement, including biplanar fluoroscopy, cannulated screw systems, and beveled bedside-fixed retractor systems. The use of isocentric C-arm fluoroscopy can improve the ease and facilitate placement of odontoid screws. Nine patients, ranging in ages from 30 to 89 years, presented with type II odontoid fractures. All fractures were either nondisplaced or minimally displaced (<4 mm) and occurred as a result of acute trauma. No patient had evidence of transverse atlantal ligament disruption. Isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy, in conjunction with image-guided navigational software, was used to place 1 or 2 odontoid screws in each patient. Three-dimensional images were acquired intraoperatively, which were then reconstructed and uploaded to the navigational workstation. Screw trajectory was planned and performed with the use of tracked instruments. Successful screw placement, as judged by intraoperative computerized tomography, was attained in all 9 patients. Isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy, in conjunction with an image-guided navigational software system, obviates the need for cumbersome biplanar fluoroscopy, allows for intraoperative image acquisition after surgical exposure, reduces intraoperative registration time, reduces both surgeon and patient radiation exposure, and allows immediate computerized tomographic imaging in the operating room to verify screw position.

  7. Computerized 3-dimensional localization of a video capsule in the abdominal cavity: validation by digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Marya, Neil; Karellas, Andrew; Foley, Anne; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Cave, David

    2014-04-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy allows the noninvasive visualization of the small intestine. Currently, capsules do not provide localization information while traversing the GI tract. To report on the radiological validation of 3-dimensional localization software incorporated in a newly developed capsule. By using radiofrequency transmission, the software measures the strength of the capsule's signal to locate the position of the capsule. This study was performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Mass. Thirty healthy volunteers consented to the experimental procedure. After ingestion of the capsule, subjects had 5 sets of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken every 30 minutes while the software calculated the position of the capsule. By using the radiographs, we calculated the location of the capsule in the abdominal cavity and compared the results with those generated by the software. Average error (and standard deviation) among the 3-dimensional coordinates was X, 2.00 cm (1.64); Y, 2.64 cm (2.39); and Z, 2.51 cm (1.83). The average total spatial error among all measurements was 13.26 cm(3) (22.72). There was a correlation between increased subject body mass index and the 3-dimensional software measurement error. This study was performed in healthy volunteers and needs further validation in patients with small intestinal disorders. The new 3-dimensional software provides localization of the capsule consistent with radiological observations. However, further validation of the software's clinical utility is required with a prospective clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  9. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  10. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  11. Fast Apriori-based Graph Mining Algorithm and application to 3-dimensional Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshio; Washio, Takashi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Motoda, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi

    Apriori-based Graph Mining (AGM) algorithm efficiently extracts all the subgraph patterns which frequently appear in graph structured data. The algorithm can deal with general graph structured data with multiple labels of vartices and edges, and is capable of analyzing the topological structure of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze graph structured data for a 3-dimensional coordinate by AGM. In this method the distance between each vertex of a graph is calculated and added to the edge label so that AGM can handle 3-dimensional graph structured data. One problem in our approach is that the number of edge labels increases, which results in the increase of computational time to extract subgraph patterns. To alleviate this problem, we also propose a faster algorithm of AGM by adding an extra constraint to reduce the number of generated candidates for seeking frequent subgraphs. Chemical compounds with dopamine antagonist in MDDR database were analyzed by AGM to characterize their 3-dimensional chemical structure and correlation with physiological activity.

  12. Novel 3-dimensional analysis to evaluate temporomandibular joint space and shape.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Renie; Oberoi, Snehlata; Wiley, David F; Woodhouse, Christian; Tallman, Melissa; Tun, Wint Wint; McNeill, Charles; Miller, Arthur J; Hatcher, David

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and validate a novel semiautomated method for 3-dimensional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) space and condylar and articular shapes using cone-beam computed tomographic data. The protocol for 3-dimensional analysis with the Checkpoint software (Stratovan, Davis, Calif) was established by analyzing cone-beam computed tomographic images of 14 TMJs representing a range of TMJ shape variations. Upon establishment of the novel method, analysis of 5 TMJs was further repeated by several investigators to assess the reliability of the analysis. Principal components analysis identified 3 key components that characterized how the condylar head shape varied among the 14 TMJs. Principal component analysis allowed determination of the minimum number of landmarks or patch density to define the shape variability in this sample. Average errors of landmark placement ranged from 1.15% to 3.65%, and none of the 121 landmarks showed significant average errors equal to or greater than 5%. Thus, the mean intraobserver difference was small and within the clinically accepted margin of error. Interobserver error was not significantly greater than intraobserver error, indicating that this is a reliable methodology. This novel semiautomatic method is a reliable tool for the 3-dimensional analysis of the TMJ including both the form and the space between the articular eminence and the condylar head. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  14. Association between 3-dimensional mandibular morphology and condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Michiyo; Miyamoto, Jun J; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that 3-dimensional mandibular morphology is correlated with condylar movement in patients with mandibular asymmetry. Subjects were classified into 2 groups (n = 25 each): mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation greater than 4 mm and no mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation less than 4 mm. Linear and volumetric measurements of 3-dimensional mandibular morphology were recorded using computed tomography. Mandibular functional movement was recorded by computerized axiography (CADIAX; Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg, Austria), and condylar path length, sagittal condylar inclination, and transverse condylar inclination on protrusion were measured. We calculated side-to-side asymmetry (shifted side vs nonshifted side) in mandibular morphology and assessed condylar movement by using an asymmetry ratio (nonshifted side/shifted side). Significant differences in mandibular morphology and condylar movement were found between the 2 groups. In the group with menton deviation greater than 4 mm, significant correlations were found between the asymmetry ratio of mandibular morphology and condylar movement: ie, condylar path length and transverse condylar inclination. No significant correlations were found between any of these measurements in the group with menton deviation less than 4 mm. In support of our hypothesis, the results suggested that 3-dimensional mandibular morphologic asymmetry is associated with condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  16. RF/microwave properties of nanotubes and nanowires : LDRD Project 105876 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Lee, Mark; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Highstrete, Clark

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 105876 was a research project whose primary goal was to discover the currently unknown science underlying the basic linear and nonlinear electrodynamic response of nanotubes and nanowires in a manner that will support future efforts aimed at converting forefront nanoscience into innovative new high-frequency nanodevices. The project involved experimental and theoretical efforts to discover and understand high frequency (MHz through tens of GHz) electrodynamic response properties of nanomaterials, emphasizing nanowires of silicon, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes. While there is much research on DC electrical properties of nanowires, electrodynamic characteristics still represent a major new frontier in nanotechnology. We generated world-leading insight into how the low dimensionality of these nanomaterials yields sometimes desirable and sometimes problematic high-frequency properties that are outside standard model electron dynamics. In the cases of silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes, evidence of strong disorder or glass-like charge dynamics was measured, indicating that these materials still suffer from serious inhomogeneities that limit there high frequency performance. Zinc oxide nanowires were found to obey conventional Drude dynamics. In all cases, a significant practical problem involving large impedance mismatch between the high intrinsic impedance of all nanowires and nanotubes and high-frequency test equipment had to be overcome.

  17. Final report for LDRD project 11-0783 : directed robots for increased military manpower effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Wagner, John S.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Morrow, James Dan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this LDRD is to develop technology allowing warfighters to provide high-level commands to their unmanned assets, freeing them to command a group of them or commit the bulk of their attention elsewhere. To this end, a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) was developed, incorporating novel and uniquely capable feature creation and reinforcement learning algorithms. BECCA was demonstrated on both a mobile manipulator platform and on a seven degree of freedom serial link robot arm. Existing military ground robots are almost universally teleoperated and occupy the complete attention of an operator. They may remove a soldier from harm's way, but they do not necessarily reduce manpower requirements. Current research efforts to solve the problem of autonomous operation in an unstructured, dynamic environment fall short of the desired performance. In order to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicle (UV) operators, we proposed to develop robots that can be 'directed' rather than remote-controlled. They are instructed and trained by human operators, rather than driven. The technical approach is modeled closely on psychological and neuroscientific models of human learning. Two Sandia-developed models are utilized in this effort: the Sandia Cognitive Framework (SCF), a cognitive psychology-based model of human processes, and BECCA, a psychophysical-based model of learning, motor control, and conceptualization. Together, these models span the functional space from perceptuo-motor abilities, to high-level motivational and attentional processes.

  18. Quantitative adaptation analytics for assessing dynamic systems of systems: LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K.; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Jr., Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  19. LDRD project final report : hybrid AI/cognitive tactical behavior framework for LVC.

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevich, Donna D.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Brannon, Nathan Gregory; Hart, Brian E.; Hart, Derek H.; Little, Charles Quentin; Oppel, Fred John III; Linebarger, John Michael; Parker, Eric Paul

    2012-01-01

    This Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) sought to develop technology that enhances scenario construction speed, entity behavior robustness, and scalability in Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) simulation. We investigated issues in both simulation architecture and behavior modeling. We developed path-planning technology that improves the ability to express intent in the planning task while still permitting an efficient search algorithm. An LVC simulation demonstrated how this enables 'one-click' layout of squad tactical paths, as well as dynamic re-planning for simulated squads and for real and simulated mobile robots. We identified human response latencies that can be exploited in parallel/distributed architectures. We did an experimental study to determine where parallelization would be productive in Umbra-based force-on-force (FOF) simulations. We developed and implemented a data-driven simulation composition approach that solves entity class hierarchy issues and supports assurance of simulation fairness. Finally, we proposed a flexible framework to enable integration of multiple behavior modeling components that model working memory phenomena with different degrees of sophistication.

  20. High accuracy integrated global positioning system/inertial navigation system LDRD: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.; Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report contains the results of a Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) technologies toward the goal of optimizing the navigational accuracy of the combined GPSANS system. The approach undertaken is to integrate the data from an INS, which has long term drifts, but excellent short term accuracy, with GPS carrier phase signal information, which is accurate to the sub-centimeter level, but requires continuous tracking of the GPS signals. The goal is to maintain a sub-meter accurate navigation solution while the vehicle is in motion by using the GPS measurements to estimate the INS navigation errors and then using the refined INS data to aid the GPS carrier phase cycle slip detection and correction and bridge dropouts in the GPS data. The work was expanded to look at GPS-based attitude determination, using multiple GPS receivers and antennas on a single platform, as a possible navigation aid. Efforts included not only the development of data processing algorithms and software, but also the collection and analysis of GPS and INS flight data aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Finally, the application of improved navigation system accuracy to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target location is examined.

  1. LDRD LW Project Final Report:Resolving the Earthquake Source Scaling Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Felker, S; Gok, R; O'Boyle, J; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S

    2004-02-10

    The scaling behavior of basic earthquake source parameters such as the energy release per unit area of fault slip, quantitatively measured as the apparent stress, is currently in dispute. There are compelling studies that show apparent stress is constant over a wide range of moments (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001, Ide et al. 2003). Other equally compelling studies find the apparent stress increases with moment (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993; Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001; Richardson and Jordan, 2002). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for attenuation, radiation inhomogeneities, bandwidth and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. As one part of our LDRD project we convened a one-day workshop on July 24, 2003 in Livermore to review the current state of knowledge on this topic and discuss possible methods of resolution with many of the world's foremost experts.

  2. LDRD final report: photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M; Deri, B; Haigh, R; Lowry, M; Sargis, P; Stafford, R; Tong, T

    1999-02-18

    We report on an LDRD seed program of novel technology development (started by an FY98 Engineering Tech-base project) that will enable extremely high-fidelity analog-to-digital converters for a variety of national security missions. High speed (l0+ GS/s ), high precision (l0+ bits) ADC technology requires extremely short aperture times ({approx}1ps ) with very low jitter requirements (sub 10fs ). These fundamental requirements, along with other technological barriers, are difficult to realize with electronics: However, we outline here, a way to achieve these timing apertures using a novel multi-wavelength optoelectronic short-pulse optical source. Our approach uses an optoelectronic feedback scheme with high optical Q to produce an optical pulse train with ultra-low jitter ( sub 5fs) and high amplitude stability (<10{sup 10}). This approach requires low power and can be integrated into an optoelectronic integrated circuit to minimize the size. Under this seed program we have demonstrated that the optical feedback mechanism can be used to generate a high Q resonator. This has reduced the technical risk for further development, making it an attractive candidate for outside funding.

  3. Real-time discriminatory sensors for water contamination events :LDRD 52595 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III; Carrejo-Simpkins, Kimberly; Wheeler, David Roger; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Goodin, Andrew M.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Chambers, William Clayton; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Showalter, Steven Kedrick

    2005-10-01

    The gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} developed by Sandia can detect volatile organics and semi-volatiles organics via gas phase sampling . The goal of this three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to adapt the components and concepts used by the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} system towards the analysis of water-borne chemicals of current concern. In essence, interfacing the gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} with water to bring the significant prior investment of Sandia and the advantages of microfabrication and portable analysis to a whole new world of important analytes. These include both chemical weapons agents and their hydrolysis products and disinfection by-products such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). THMs and HAAs are currently regulated by EPA due to health issues, yet water utilities do not have rapid on-site methods of detection that would allow them to adjust their processes quickly; protecting consumers, meeting water quality standards, and obeying regulations more easily and with greater confidence. This report documents the results, unique hardware and devices, and methods designed during the project toward the goal stated above. It also presents and discusses the portable field system to measure THMs developed in the course of this project.

  4. Robust Planning for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots in Unstructured, Dynamic Environments: An LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    EISLER, G. RICHARD

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Robust Planning for Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots In Unstructured, Dynamic Environments (AutoNav)''. The project goal was to develop an algorithmic-driven, multi-spectral approach to point-to-point navigation characterized by: segmented on-board trajectory planning, self-contained operation without human support for mission duration, and the development of appropriate sensors and algorithms to navigate unattended. The project was partially successful in achieving gains in sensing, path planning, navigation, and guidance. One of three experimental platforms, the Minimalist Autonomous Testbed, used a repetitive sense-and-re-plan combination to demonstrate the majority of elements necessary for autonomous navigation. However, a critical goal for overall success in arbitrary terrain, that of developing a sensor that is able to distinguish true obstacles that need to be avoided as a function of vehicle scale, still needs substantial research to bring to fruition.

  5. Soot formation, transport, and radiation in unsteady diffusion flames : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Jensen, Kirk A.; Blevins, Linda Gail; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Schefer, Robert W.

    2004-10-01

    Fires pose the dominant risk to the safety and security of nuclear weapons, nuclear transport containers, and DOE and DoD facilities. The thermal hazard from these fires primarily results from radiant emission from high-temperature flame soot. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the local transport and chemical phenomena that determine the distributions of soot concentration, optical properties, and temperature in order to develop and validate constitutive models for large-scale, high-fidelity fire simulations. This report summarizes the findings of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project devoted to obtaining the critical experimental information needed to develop such constitutive models. A combination of laser diagnostics and extractive measurement techniques have been employed in both steady and pulsed laminar diffusion flames of methane, ethylene, and JP-8 surrogate burning in air. For methane and ethylene, both slot and coannular flame geometries were investigated, as well as normal and inverse diffusion flame geometries. For the JP-8 surrogate, coannular normal diffusion flames were investigated. Soot concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals, hydroxyl radical (OH) LIF, acetylene and water vapor concentrations, soot zone temperatures, and the velocity field were all successfully measured in both steady and unsteady versions of these various flames. In addition, measurements were made of the soot microstructure, soot dimensionless extinction coefficient (&), and the local radiant heat flux. Taken together, these measurements comprise a unique, extensive database for future development and validation of models of soot formation, transport, and radiation.

  6. Diode Laser Diagnostics for Gas Species and Soot in Large Fires: LDRD Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shaddix; Sarah W. Allendorf; Gary L. Hubbard; David K. Ottesen; Louis A. Gritzo

    2001-06-01

    The thermal hazard posed by a fire to a weapon or other engineered system is a consequence of combined radiation and convection from high-temperature soot and gases. The development of advanced, predictive models of this hazard requires detailed knowledge of the transient chemical structure and soot distributions within real-scale fires. At present, there are no measurements, and hence limited understanding, of transient gaseous species generation and transport in large, fully turbulent fires. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop such an experimental capability, near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been identified as the most promising diagnostic technique for making these measurements. In order to develop this capability, significant efforts were applied to choosing optimal species and transitions for detection, to developing an effective multiplexing strategy for several lasers undergoing wavelength modulation spectroscopy with fast laser ramp scans, to developing a methodology for multipassing the TDL beams across a small probe volume, and finally, to designing a water-cooled, fiber-coupled probe for performing these measurements locally within large pool fires. All of these challenges were surmounted during the course of this project, and in the end a preliminary, unique dataset of combined water vapor, acetylene, and soot concentrations was obtained from a 1-m diameter JP-8 pool fire.

  7. LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

  8. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by nearly periodic structures: an LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wilton, Donald R. (University of Houston, Houston, TX); Basilio, Lorena I.; Peters, David William; Capolino, F.

    2006-10-01

    In this LDRD we examine techniques to analyze the electromagnetic scattering from structures that are nearly periodic. Nearly periodic could mean that one of the structure's unit cells is different from all the others--a defect. It could also mean that the structure is truncated, or butted up against another periodic structure to form a seam. Straightforward electromagnetic analysis of these nearly periodic structures requires us to grid the entire structure, which would overwhelm today's computers and the computers in the foreseeable future. In this report we will examine various approximations that allow us to continue to exploit some aspects of the structure's periodicity and thereby reduce the number of unknowns required for analysis. We will use the Green's Function Interpolation with a Fast Fourier Transform (GIFFT) to examine isolated defects both in the form of a source dipole over a meta-material slab and as a rotated dipole in a finite array of dipoles. We will look at the numerically exact solution of a one-dimensional seam. In order to solve a two-dimensional seam, we formulate an efficient way to calculate the Green's function of a 1d array of point sources. We next formulate ways of calculating the far-field due to a seam and due to array truncation based on both array theory and high-frequency asymptotic methods. We compare the high-frequency and GIFFT results. Finally, we use GIFFT to solve a simple, two-dimensional seam problem.

  9. A configuration space toolkit for automated spatial reasoning: Technical results and LDRD project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    A robot`s configuration space (c-space) is the space of its kinematic degrees of freedom, e.g., the joint-space of an arm. Sets in c-space can be defined that characterize a variety of spatial relationships, such as contact between the robot and its environment. C-space techniques have been fundamental to research progress in areas such as motion planning and physically-based reasoning. However, practical progress has been slowed by the difficulty of implementing the c-space abstraction inside each application. For this reason, we proposed a Configuration Space Toolkit of high-performance algorithms and data structures meeting these needs. Our intent was to develop this robotics software to provide enabling technology to emerging applications that apply the c-space abstraction, such as advanced motion planning, teleoperation supervision, mechanism functional analysis, and design tools. This final report presents the research results and technical achievements of this LDRD project. Key results and achievements included (1) a hybrid Common LISP/C prototype that implements the basic C-Space abstraction, (2) a new, generic, algorithm for constructing hierarchical geometric representations, and (3) a C++ implementation of an algorithm for fast distance computation, interference detection, and c-space point-classification. Since the project conclusion, motion planning researchers in Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center have been using the CSTk libcstk.so C++ library. The code continues to be used, supported, and improved by projects in the ISRC.

  10. Final Report for LDRD Project on Rapid Problem Setup for Mesh-Based Simulation (Rapsodi)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L; Henshaw, W; Petersson, N A; Fast, P; Chand, K

    2003-02-07

    Under LLNL Exploratory Research LDRD funding, the Rapsodi project developed rapid setup technology for computational physics and engineering problems that require computational representations of complex geometry. Many simulation projects at LLNL involve the solution of partial differential equations in complex 3-D geometries. A significant bottleneck in carrying out these simulations arises in converting some specification of a geometry, such as a computer-aided design (CAD) drawing to a computationally appropriate 3-D mesh that can be used for simulation and analysis. Even using state-of-the-art mesh generation software, this problem setup step typically has required weeks or months, which is often much longer than required to carry out the computational simulation itself. The Rapsodi project built computational tools and designed algorithms that help to significantly reduce this setup time to less than a day for many realistic problems. The project targeted rapid setup technology for computational physics and engineering problems that use mixed-element unstructured meshes, overset meshes or Cartesian-embedded boundary (EB) meshes to represent complex geometry. It also built tools that aid in constructing computational representations of geometry for problems that do not require a mesh. While completely automatic mesh generation is extremely difficult, the amount of manual labor required can be significantly reduced. By developing novel, automated, component-based mesh construction procedures and automated CAD geometry repair and cleanup tools, Rapsodi has significantly reduced the amount of hand crafting required to generate geometry and meshes for scientific simulation codes.

  11. Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave nanoscience : LDRD project 122359 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mark

    2008-09-01

    LDRD Project 122359 was a nine-month, late-start effort that pursued initial experiments studying the fundamental electrodynamic response properties of various nanomaterials from millimeter-wave (above roughly 30 GHz) up to submillimeter-wave (above roughly 0.1 THz) frequencies. The nine months of this project's duration produced two main empirical findings. First, Fourier transform reflectance spectroscopy on SrTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals from 0.2 to 10 THz frequency showed signatures of two optical phonons that correspond to known optical modes in bulk crystal SrTiO{sub 3}. However, quantitative differences between the nanoparticle and bulk spectra suggest that one or both of these phonons may shift frequency and weaken in nanoparticles relative to bulk crystal. Second, heavily doped n-type GaAs nanowires were synthesized for the purpose of creating high frequency diodes to study non-linear frequency conversion properties of compound semiconductor nanowires. It was found that incorporation of a heavy concentration of dopants interferes with the growth of these nanowires. While DC measurements showed reasonable diode-like current-voltage properties, the current state-of-the-art material properties of these nanowires are still unsuitable for millimeter-wave testing and applications.

  12. Biomimetic air sampling for detection of low concentrations of molecules and bioagents : LDRD 52744 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark

    2003-12-01

    Present methods of air sampling for low concentrations of chemicals like explosives and bioagents involve noisy and power hungry collectors with mechanical parts for moving large volumes of air. However there are biological systems that are capable of detecting very low concentrations of molecules with no mechanical moving parts. An example is the silkworm moth antenna which is a highly branched structure where each of 100 branches contains about 200 sensory 'hairs' which have dimensions of 2 microns wide by 100 microns long. The hairs contain about 3000 pores which is where the gas phase molecules enter the aqueous (lymph) phase for detection. Simulations of diffusion of molecules indicate that this 'forest' of hairs is 'designed' to maximize the extraction of the vapor phase molecules. Since typical molecules lose about 4 decades in diffusion constant upon entering the liquid phase, it is important to allow air diffusion to bring the molecule as close to the 'sensor' as possible. The moth acts on concentrations as low as 1000 molecules per cubic cm. (one part in 1e16). A 3-D collection system of these dimensions could be fabricated by micromachining techniques available at Sandia. This LDRD addresses the issues involved with extracting molecules from air onto micromachined structures and then delivering those molecules to microsensors for detection.

  13. Network discovery, characterization, and prediction : a grand challenge LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    This report is the final summation of Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD project No.119351, 'Network Discovery, Characterization and Prediction' (the 'NGC') which ran from FY08 to FY10. The aim of the NGC, in a nutshell, was to research, develop, and evaluate relevant analysis capabilities that address adversarial networks. Unlike some Grand Challenge efforts, that ambition created cultural subgoals, as well as technical and programmatic ones, as the insistence on 'relevancy' required that the Sandia informatics research communities and the analyst user communities come to appreciate each others needs and capabilities in a very deep and concrete way. The NGC generated a number of technical, programmatic, and cultural advances, detailed in this report. There were new algorithmic insights and research that resulted in fifty-three refereed publications and presentations; this report concludes with an abstract-annotated bibliography pointing to them all. The NGC generated three substantial prototypes that not only achieved their intended goals of testing our algorithmic integration, but which also served as vehicles for customer education and program development. The NGC, as intended, has catalyzed future work in this domain; by the end it had already brought in, in new funding, as much funding as had been invested in it. Finally, the NGC knit together previously disparate research staff and user expertise in a fashion that not only addressed our immediate research goals, but which promises to have created an enduring cultural legacy of mutual understanding, in service of Sandia's national security responsibilities in cybersecurity and counter proliferation.

  14. 3-Dimensional Resin Casting and Imaging of Mouse Portal Vein or Intrahepatic Bile Duct System

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Teagan J.; Sparks, Erin E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

    2012-01-01

    In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure1,2, alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model3, portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice4, developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs5, immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury6. Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network, focusing

  15. How does differential rod contouring contribute to 3-dimensional correction and affect the bone-screw forces in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis instrumentation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Boyer, Laure; Le Naveaux, Franck; Schwend, Richard M; Aubin, Carl-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Differential rod contouring is used to achieve 3-dimensional correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis instrumentations. How vertebral rotation correction is correlated with the amount of differential rod contouring is still unknown; too aggressive differential rod contouring may increase the risk of bone-screw connection failure. The objective was to assess the 3-dimensional correction and bone-screw forces using various configurations of differential rod contouring. Computerized patient-specific biomechanical models of 10 AIS cases were used to simulate AIS instrumentations using various configurations of differential rod contouring. The tested concave/convex rod configurations were 5.5/5.5 and 6.0/5.5mm diameter Cobalt-chrome rods with contouring angles of 35°/15°, 55°/15°, 75°/15°, and 85°/15°, respectively. 3-dimensional corrections and bone-screw forces were computed and analyzed. Increasing the difference between the concave and convex rod contouring angles from 25° to 60°, the apical vertebral rotation correction increased from 35% (SD 17%) to 68% (SD 24%), the coronal plane correction changed from 76% (SD 10%) to 72% (SD 12%), the thoracic kyphosis creation from 27% (SD 60%) to 144% (SD 132%), and screw pullout forces from 94N (SD 68N) to 252N (SD 159N). Increasing the concave rod diameter to 6mm resulted in increased transverse and coronal plane corrections, higher thoracic kyphosis, and screw pullout forces. Increasing the concave rod contouring angle and diameter with respect to the convex rod improved the transverse plane correction but with significant increase of screw pullout forces and thoracic kyphosis. Rod contouring should be planned by also taking into account the 3-dimensional nature and stiffness of the curves and combined with osteotomy procedures, which remains to be studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-invasive current and voltage imaging techniques for integrated circuits using scanning probe microscopy. Final report, LDRD Project FY93 and FY94

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the first practical, non-invasive technique for detecting and imaging currents internal to operating integrated circuits (ICs). This technique is based on magnetic force microscopy and was developed under Sandia National Laboratories` LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) program during FY 93 and FY 94. LDRD funds were also used to explore a related technique, charge force microscopy, for voltage probing of ICs. This report describes the technical work performed under this LDRD as well as the outcomes of the project in terms of publications and awards, intellectual property and licensing, synergistic work, potential future work, hiring of additional permanent staff, and benefits to DOE`s defense programs (DP).

  17. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  18. RF/Microwave properties and applications of directly assembled nanotubes and nanowires: LDRD project 102662 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Theresa (The Pennyslvania State University, University Park, PA 16802); Vallett, Aaron (The Pennyslvania State University, University Park, PA 16802); Lee, Mark; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Jones, Frank E.; Talin, Albert Alec; Highstrete, Clark

    2006-11-01

    LDRD Project 102662 provided support to pursue experiments aimed at measuring the basic electrodynamic response and possible applications of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires at radiofrequency to microwave frequencies, approximately 0.01 to 50 GHz. Under this project, a method was developed to integrate these nanomaterials onto high-frequency compatible co-planar waveguides. The complex reflection and transmission coefficients of the nanomaterials was studied as a function of frequency. From these data, the high-frequency loss characteristics of the nanomaterials were deduced. These data are useful to predict frequency dependence and power dissipation characteristics in new rf/microwave devices incorporating new nanomaterials.

  19. Dental implant customization using numerical optimization design and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lin, Deng-Huei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Lin, Yuan-Min

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes a new methodology for dental implant customization consisting of numerical geometric optimization and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic. In the numerical modeling, exogenous factors for implant shape include the thread pitch, thread depth, maximal diameter of implant neck, and body size. Endogenous factors are bone density, cortical bone thickness, and non-osseointegration. An integration procedure, including uniform design method, Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm, is applied to optimize the geometry of dental implants. The threshold of minimal micromotion for optimization evaluation was 100 μm. The optimized model is imported to the 3-dimensional slurry printer to fabricate the zirconia green body (powder is bonded by polymer weakly) of the implant. The sintered implant is obtained using a 2-stage sintering process. Twelve models are constructed according to uniform design method and simulated the micromotion behavior using finite element modeling. The result of uniform design models yields a set of exogenous factors that can provide the minimal micromotion (30.61 μm), as a suitable model. Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm modified the exogenous factor of the suitable model, resulting in 27.11 μm as an optimization model. Experimental results show that the 3-dimensional slurry printer successfully fabricated the green body of the optimization model, but the accuracy of sintered part still needs to be improved. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy morphology is a stabilized t-phase microstructure, and the average compressive strength of the sintered part is 632.1 MPa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Inguinal Hernia Repair Using 3-dimensional Mesh Without Mesh Fixation.

    PubMed

    Aliyazicioglu, Tolga; Yalti, Tunc; Kabaoglu, Burcak

    2017-08-01

    Approximately one fifth of patients suffer from inguinal pain after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. There is existing literature suggesting that the staples used to fix the mesh can cause postoperative inguinal pain. In this study, we describe our experience with laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia surgery using 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation, in our institution. A total of 300 patients who had undergone laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with 3-dimensional mesh in VKV American Hospital, Istanbul from November 2006 to November 2015 were studied retrospectively. Using the hospital's electronic archive, we studied patients' selected parameters, which are demographic features (age, sex), body mass index, hernia locations and types, duration of operations, preoperative and postoperative complications, duration of hospital stays, cost of surgery, need for analgesics, time elapsed until returning to daily activities and work. A total of 300 patients underwent laparoscopic TEP hernia repair of 437 inguinal hernias from November 2006 to November 2015. Of the 185 patients, 140 were symptomatic. Mean duration of follow-up was 48 months (range, 6 to 104 mo). The mean duration of surgery was 55 minutes for bilateral hernia repair, and 38 minutes for unilateral hernia repair. The mean duration of hospital stay was 0.9 day. There was no conversion to open surgery. In none of the cases the mesh was fixated with either staples or fibrin glue. Six patients (2%) developed seroma that were treated conservatively. One patient had inguinal hernia recurrence. One patient had preperitoneal hematoma. One patient operated due to indirect right-sided hernia developed right-sided hydrocele. One patient had wound dehiscence at the umbilical port entry site. Chronic pain developed postoperatively in 1 patient. Ileus developed in 1 patient. Laparoscopic TEP inguinal repair with 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation can be performed as safe as

  1. LDRD Report FY 03: Structure and Function of Regulatory DNA: A Next Major Challenge in Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, L

    2003-02-18

    With the human genome sequence now available and high quality draft sequences of mouse, rat and many other creatures recently or soon to be released, the field of Genomics has entered an especially exciting phase. The raw materials for locating the {approx}30-40,000 human genes and understanding their basic structure are now online; next, the research community must begin to unravel the mechanisms through which those genes create the complexity of life. Laboratories around the world are already beginning to focus on cataloguing the times, sites and conditions under which each gene is active; others are racing to predict, and then experimentally analyze, the structures of proteins that human genes encode. These activities are extremely important, but they will not reveal the mechanisms through which the correct proteins are activated precisely in the specific cells and at the particular time that is required for normal developmental, health, and in response to the environment. Although we understand well the three-letter code through which genes dictate the production of proteins, the codes through which genes are turned on and off in precise, cell-specific patterns remain a mystery. Unraveling these codes are essential to understanding the functions of genes and the role of human genetic diversity in disease and environmental susceptibility. This problem also represents one of the most exciting challenges in modern biology, drawing in scientists from every discipline to develop the needed biological datasets, measurement technologies and algorithms. The LDRD effort that is the subject of this report was focused on establishing the basic technical and scientific foundations of a well-rounded program in gene regulatory biology at LLNL. The motivation for building these foundations was based on several drivers. First, with the sea-change in genomics, we sought to develop a new, exciting and foreward-thinking research focus for the LLNL genomics team, which could

  2. Integrated superhard and metallic coatings for MEMS : LDRD 57300 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Maboudian, Roya

    2004-12-01

    Two major research areas pertinent to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials and material surfaces were explored and developed in this 5-year PECASE LDRD project carried out by Professor Roya Maboudian and her collaborators at the University of California at Berkeley. In the first research area, polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) was developed as a structural material for MEMS. This material is potentially interesting for MEMS because compared to polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), the structural material in Sandia National Laboratories' SUMMiTV process, it may exhibit high wear resistance, high temperature operation and a high Young's modulus to density ratio. Each of these characteristics may extend the usefulness of MEMS in Sandia National Laboratories' applications. For example, using polycrystalline silicon, wear is an important issue in microengines, temperature degradation is of concern in thermal actuators and the characteristics of resonators can be extended with the same lithography technology. Two methods of depositing poly-SiC from a 1,3-disilabutane source at 650 C to 800 C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were demonstrated. These include a blanket method in which the material is made entirely out of poly-SiC and a method to coat previously released and fabricated polysilicon MEMS. This deposition method is much simpler to use than previous methods such as high temperature LPCVD and atmospheric CVD. Other major processing issues that were surmounted in this LDRD with the poly-SiC film include etching, doping, and residual strain control. SiC is inert and as such is notoriously difficult to etch. Here, an HBr-based chemistry was demonstrated for the first time to make highly selective etching of SiC at high etch rates. Nitrogen was incorporated from an NH3 gas source, resulting in high conductivity films. Residual strain and strain gradient were shown to depend on deposition parameters, and can be made negative or

  3. Embedding compact surfaces into the 3-dimensional Euclidean space with maximum symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, ShiCheng; Zhang, YiMu; Zimmermann, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The symmetries of surfaces which can be embedded into the symmetries of the 3-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^3$ are easier to feel by human's intuition. We give the maximum order of finite group actions on $(\\mathbb{R}^3, \\Sigma)$ among all possible embedded closed/bordered surfaces with given geometric/algebraic genus $>1$ in $\\mathbb{R}^3$. We also identify the topological types of the bordered surfaces realizing the maximum order, and find simple representative embeddings for such surfaces.

  4. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  5. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  7. Introducing a well-ordered volume porosity in 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayela, Cédric; Lalo, Hélène; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present work is the introduction of a combined bottom-up and top-down approach to generate 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers, where the porosity in the volume of the free-standing microstructure is well-controlled. By combining the elaboration of a colloidal crystal, followed by electrodeposition, with a sacrificial layer process, free-standing macroporous gold cantilevers are fabricated collectively. In order to validate the proposed concept, a simple application to humidity sensing is evaluated using the devices as mass sensors. A large sensitivity of -529 ppm/%RH and low discrepancy are obtained experimentally, confirming the promising application potential of this original architecture.

  8. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  9. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  10. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  11. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  12. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-FS-009 Gigapixel Surveillance Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E; Bennett, C L

    2010-04-20

    The threats of terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction add urgency to the development of new techniques for surveillance and intelligence collection. For example, the United States faces a serious and growing threat from adversaries who locate key facilities underground, hide them within other facilities, or otherwise conceal their location and function. Reconnaissance photographs are one of the most important tools for uncovering the capabilities of adversaries. However, current imaging technology provides only infrequent static images of a large area, or occasional video of a small area. We are attempting to add a new dimension to reconnaissance by introducing a capability for large area video surveillance. This capability would enable tracking of all vehicle movements within a very large area. The goal of our project is the development of a gigapixel video surveillance camera for high altitude aircraft or balloon platforms. From very high altitude platforms (20-40 km altitude) it would be possible to track every moving vehicle within an area of roughly 100 km x 100 km, about the size of the San Francisco Bay region, with a gigapixel camera. Reliable tracking of vehicles requires a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.5 to 1 m and a framing rate of approximately two frames per second (fps). For a 100 km x 100 km area the corresponding pixel count is 10 gigapixels for a 1-m GSD and 40 gigapixels for a 0.5-m GSD. This is an order of magnitude beyond the 1 gigapixel camera envisioned in our LDRD proposal. We have determined that an instrument of this capacity is feasible.

  13. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  14. Low-Altitude Airbursts and the Impact Threat - Final LDRD Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Crawford, David A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this nine-week project was to advance the understanding of low-altitude airbursts by developing the means to model them at extremely high resolution in order to span the scales of entry physics as well as blast wave and plume formation. Small asteroid impacts on Earth are a recognized hazard, but the full nature of the threat is still not well understood. We used shock physics codes to discover emergent phenomena associated with low-altitude airbursts such as the Siberian Tunguska event of 1908 and the Egyptian glass-forming event 29 million years ago. The planetary defense community is beginning to recognize the significant threat from such airbursts. Low-altitude airbursts are the only class of impacts that have a significant probability of occurring within a planning time horizon. There is roughly a 10% chance of a megaton-scale low-altitude airburst event in the next decade.The first part of this LDRD final project report is a preprint of our proceedings paper associated with the plenary presentation at the Hypervelocity Impact Society 2007 Symposium in Williamsburg, Virginia (International Journal of Impact Engineering, in press). The paper summarizes discoveries associated with a series of 2D axially-symmetric CTH simulations. The second part of the report contains slides from an invited presentation at the American Geophysical Union Fall 2007 meeting in San Francisco. The presentation summarizes the results of a series of 3D oblique impact simulations of the 1908 Tunguska explosion. Because of the brevity of this late-start project, the 3D results have not yet been written up for a peer-reviewed publication. We anticipate the opportunity to eventually run simulations that include the actual topography at Tunguska, at which time these results will be published.3

  15. Accuracy and mechanical properties of orthodontic models printed 3-dimensionally from calcium sulfate before and after various postprinting treatments.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Austin D; English, Jeryl D; Akyalcin, Sercan; Cozad, Benjamin E; Ontiveros, Joe C; Kasper, F Kurtis

    2016-12-01

    Dental models fabricated with 3-dimensional printing technologies are revolutionizing the practice of orthodontics, but they generally comprise polymeric materials that may not be suitable for certain applications, such as soldering appliances. The objective of this study was to investigate the dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional printed ceramic-based models before and after various treatments intended to improve their mechanical properties. Thirty identical models were printed 3-dimensionally from a calcium sulfate-based substrate and divided into 3 groups for treatment: high heat (250°C for 30 minutes), low heat (150°C for 30 minutes), and Epsom salt treatment. Each model was scanned before and after treatment with a laser scanner, and dimensional stability was analyzed by digital superimpositions using a best-fit algorithm. The models were weighed before and after treatment to evaluate mass changes. Additionally, 3-dimensional printed cylinders treated as described above and an untreated control group were subjected to compressive mechanical testing (n = 11 per group). The Epsom salt treatment group had statistically significant increases in both peak compressive stress and modulus of elasticity when compared with the other treatment groups. All treatment groups had statistically significant changes in mass, with the Epsom salt group gaining mass and the 2 heat-treatment groups losing mass. The low-temperature treatment group had a statistically significantly lower mean average for dimensional deviations (0.026 ± 0.010 mm) than did the other treatment groups (0.069 ± 0.006 and 0.059 ± 0.010 mm for high temperature and Epsom salt, respectively). Dental models printed 3-dimensionally with calcium sulfate and treated with Epsom salt showed significant improvement in compressive mechanical properties and retained clinically acceptable dimensional stability. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists

  16. Clinical application of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg disease) with microfat grafting techniques using 3-dimensional computed tomography and 3-dimensional camera.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyung Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Kim, Hoon; Chung, In Wook; Lee, Kang Woo; Lee, Hyo Bo; Park, Eun Jung; Jung, Jae Seob; Shin, Il Seob; Ra, Jeong Chan; Choi, Jong Woo

    2012-09-01

    Parry-Romberg disease is a rare condition that results in progressive hemifacial atrophy, involving the skin, dermis, subcutaneous fat, muscle, and, finally, cartilage and bone. Patients have been treated with dermofat or fat grafts or by microvascular free flap transfer. We hypothesized that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may improve the results of microfat grafting through enhancing angiogenesis. We evaluated the utility of ASC in microfat grafting of patients with Parry-Romberg disease by measuring the change in the hemifacial volumes after injection of ASCs with microfat grafts or microfat grafts alone. In April 2008, this investigation was approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board of the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) that monitor investigator-initiated trials. Between May 2008 and January 2009, 10 volunteers with Parry-Romberg disease (5 men and 5 women; mean age, 28 y) were recruited; 5 received ASC and microfat grafts and 5 received microfat grafts only. The mean follow-up period was 15 months. Adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from abdominal fat by liposuction and were cultured for 2 weeks. On day 14, patients were injected with fat grafts alone or plus (in the test group) 1 × 10 ASCs. Patients were evaluated postoperatively using a 3-dimensional camera and 3-dimensional CT scans, and grafted fat volumes were objectively calculated. Successful outcomes were evident in all 5 patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs, and the survival of grafted fat was better than in patients receiving microfat grafts alone. Before surgery, the mean difference between ipsilateral and contralateral hemiface volume in patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs was 21.71 mL decreasing to 4.47 mL after surgery. Overall resorption in this ASC group was 20.59%. The mean preoperative difference in hemiface volume in those receiving microfat grafts alone was 8.32 mL decreasing to 3.89 mL after surgery. Overall

  17. Femtosecond laser assisted 3-dimensional freeform fabrication of metal microstructures in fused silica (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Fatmah; Charvet, Raphaël.; Dénéréaz, Cyril; Mortensen, Andreas; Bellouard, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Femtosecond laser exposure of fused silica combined with chemical etching has opened up new opportunities for three-dimensional freeform processing of micro-structures that can form complex micro-devices of silica, integrating optical, mechanical and/or fluidic functionalities. Here, we demontrate an expansion of this process with an additional fabrication step that enables the integration of three-dimensional embedded metallic structures out of useful engineering metals such as silver, gold, copper as well as some of their alloys. This additional step is an adaptation of the pressure infiltration for the insertion of high conductivity, high melting point metals and alloys into topologically complex, femtosecond laser-machined cavities in fused silica. This produces truly 3-dimensional microstructures, including microcoils and needles, within the bulk of glass substrates. Combining this added capability with the existing possibilities of femtosecond laser micromachining (i.e. direct written waveguides, microchannels, resonators, etc.) opens up a host of potential applications for the contactless fabrication of highly integrated monolithic devices that include conductive element of all kind. We present preliminary results from this new fabrication process, including prototype devices that incorporate 3D electrodes with aspect ratios of 1:100 and a feature size resolution down to 2μm. We demonstrate the generation of high electric field gradients (of the order of 1013 Vm-2) in these devices due to the 3-dimensional topology of fabricated microstructures.

  18. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  19. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  20. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery.

    PubMed

    Kockro, Ralf A; Hwang, Peter Y K

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an interactive virtual model of the temporal bone for the training and teaching of cranial base surgery. The virtual model was based on the tomographic data of the Visible Human Project. The male Visible Human's computed tomographic data were volumetrically reconstructed as virtual bone tissue, and the individual photographic slices provided the basis for segmentation of the middle and inner ear structures, cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem. These structures were created by using outlining and tube editing tools, allowing structural modeling either directly on the basis of the photographic data or according to information from textbooks and cadaver dissections. For training and teaching, the virtual model was accessed in the previously described 3-dimensional workspaces of the Dextroscope or Dextrobeam (Volume Interactions Pte, Ltd., Singapore), whose interfaces enable volumetric exploration from any perspective and provide virtual tools for drilling and measuring. We have simulated several cranial base procedures including approaches via the floor of the middle fossa and the lateral petrous bone. The virtual model suitably illustrated the core facts of anatomic spatial relationships while simulating different stages of bone drilling along a variety of surgical corridors. The system was used for teaching during training courses to plan and discuss operative anatomy and strategies. The Virtual Temporal Bone and its surrounding 3-dimensional workspace provide an effective way to study the essential surgical anatomy of this complex region and to teach and train operative strategies, especially when used as an adjunct to cadaver dissections.

  1. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XμCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-μCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XμCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  2. Grain boundary segregation in boron added interstitial free steels studied by 3-dimensional atom probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, K.; Larson, D.J.; Warren, P.J.; Smith, G.D.W.

    1999-04-09

    The development of deep-drawable sheet steels is of particular significance for the automotive industry. Titanium and/or niobium added extra-low carbon interstitial free (IF) steels are key materials. The virtually complete removal of carbon and nitrogen should lead to superior forming properties. However, the lack of solute carbon at grain boundaries significantly decreases the bonding force at the interfaces, which often causes intergranular brittle fracture when deeply drawn steel sheets are subjected to impact deformation at low temperature. This phenomenon is called secondary working embrittlement (SWE), and is a major problem when solute atoms such as phosphorus, manganese or silicon are added to increase the tensile strength of the steels. Small amounts of boron, which does not affect the formability of the steels significantly, are usually added as a remedial measure in such cases. The 3-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) combined with field ion microscopy (FIM) has the ability to produce 3-dimensional images from regions approximately 20nm*20nm*100nm in size, and identify each atomic species and the relative location of each atom with nearly lattice resolution. In this study, a combination of these methods was applied to produce FIM tips of IF steel containing grain boundaries. The authors report here the first observations of the segregation of boron in IF steels using 3DAP.

  3. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  4. A 3-dimensional model for teaching local flaps using porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zahid; Hogg, Fiona; Graham, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The European Working Time Directive and streamlined training has led to reduced training time. Surgery, as an experience-dependent craft specialty is affected more than other medical specialties. Trainees want to maximize all training opportunities in the clinical setting, and having predeveloped basic skills acquired on a simulated model can facilitate this.Here we describe the use of a novel model to design and raise local flaps in the face and scalp regions. The model consists of mannequin heads draped with porcine skin which is skewered with pins at strategic points to give a 3-dimensional model which closely resembles a cadaveric head.The advantages of this model are that it is life size and incorporates all the relevant anatomical features, which can be drawn on if required.This model was used on a recent course, Intermediate Skills in Plastic Surgery: Flaps Around the Face, at the Royal College of Surgeons England. The trainees found that practicing on the porcine skin gave them an opportunity to master the basics of flap design and implementation.In summary, this innovative 3-dimensional training model has received high levels of satisfaction and is currently as close as we can get to cadaveric dissection without the constraints and cost of using human tissue.

  5. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  6. High resolution 3-Dimensional imaging of the human cardiac conduction system from microanatomy to mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Robert S; Atkinson, Andrew; Kottas, Petros; Perde, Filip; Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh; Bateman, Mike; Iaizzo, Paul A; Zhao, Jichao; Zhang, Henggui; Anderson, Robert H; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2017-08-03

    Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances are accompanied by structural remodelling of the specialised cardiomyocytes known collectively as the cardiac conduction system. Here, using contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography, we present, in attitudinally appropriate fashion, the first 3-dimensional representations of the cardiac conduction system within the intact human heart. We show that cardiomyocyte orientation can be extracted from these datasets at spatial resolutions approaching the single cell. These data show that commonly accepted anatomical representations are oversimplified. We have incorporated the high-resolution anatomical data into mathematical simulations of cardiac electrical depolarisation. The data presented should have multidisciplinary impact. Since the rate of depolarisation is dictated by cardiac microstructure, and the precise orientation of the cardiomyocytes, our data should improve the fidelity of mathematical models. By showing the precise 3-dimensional relationships between the cardiac conduction system and surrounding structures, we provide new insights relevant to valvar replacement surgery and ablation therapies. We also offer a practical method for investigation of remodelling in disease, and thus, virtual pathology and archiving. Such data presented as 3D images or 3D printed models, will inform discussions between medical teams and their patients, and aid the education of medical and surgical trainees.

  7. Influence of different setups of the Frankfort horizontal plane on 3-dimensional cephalometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo Mologni Gonçalves Dos; De Martino, José Mario; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2017-08-01

    The Frankfort horizontal (FH) is a plane that intersects both porions and the left orbitale. However, other combinations of points have also been used to define this plane in 3-dimensional cephalometry. These variations are based on the hypothesis that they do not affect the cephalometric analysis. We investigated the validity of this hypothesis. The material included cone-beam computed tomography data sets of 82 adult subjects with Class I molar relationship. A third-party method of cone-beam computed tomography-based 3-dimensional cephalometry was performed using 7 setups of the FH plane. Six lateral cephalometric hard tissue measurements relative to the FH plane were carried out for each setup. Measurement differences were calculated for each pair of setups of the FH plane. The number of occurrences of differences greater than the limits of agreement was counted for each of the 6 measurements. Only 3 of 21 pairs of setups had no occurrences for the 6 measurements. No measurement had no occurrences for the 21 pairs of setups. Setups based on left or right porion and both orbitales had the greatest number of occurrences for the 6 measurements. This investigation showed that significant and undesirable measurement differences can be produced by varying the definition of the FH plane. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2006-09-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can organize into a prevascular network in vitro. When cultured in a spheroid coculture model with human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) form a 3-dimensional prevascular network within 10 days of in vitro culture. The formation of the prevascular network was promoted by seeding 2% or fewer HUVECs. Moreover, the addition of endothelial cells resulted in a 4-fold upregulation of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. The addition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not result in stabilization of the prevascular network. Upon implantation, the prevascular network developed further and structures including lumen could be seen regularly. However, anastomosis with the host vasculature was limited. We conclude that endothelial cells are able to form a 3-dimensional (3D) prevascular network in vitro in a bone tissue engineering setting. This finding is a strong indication that in vitro prevascularization is a promising strategy to improve implant vascularization in bone tissue engineering.

  9. A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pashazadeh, Saeid; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatio-temporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods. PMID:22423198

  10. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  12. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field.

  13. The Effect of 3-Dimensional Simulation on Neurosurgical Skill Acquisition and Surgical Performance: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anna D; Barone, Damiano G; Candy, Nicholas; Guilfoyle, Mathew; Budohoski, Karol; Hofmann, Riikka; Santarius, Thomas; Kirollos, Ramez; Trivedi, Rikin A

    In recent years, 3-dimensional (3D) simulation of neurosurgical procedures has become increasingly popular as an addition to training programmes. However, there remains little objective evidence of its effectiveness in improving live surgical skill. This review analysed the current literature in 3D neurosurgical simulation, highlighting remaining gaps in the evidence base for improvement in surgical performance and suggests useful future research directions. An electronic search of the databases was conducted to identify studies investigating 3D virtual reality (VR) simulation for various types of neurosurgery. Eligible studies were those that used a combination of metrics to measure neurosurgical skill acquisition on a simulation trainer. Studies were excluded if they did not measure skill acquisition against a set of metrics or if they assessed skills that were not used in neurosurgical practice. This was not a systematic review however, the data extracted was tabulated to allow comparison between studies RESULTS: This study revealed that the average overall quality of the included studies was moderate. Only one study assessed outcomes in live surgery, while most other studies assessed outcomes on a simulator using a variety of metrics. It is concluded that in its current state, the evidence for 3D simulation suggests it as a useful supplement to training programmes but more evidence is needed of improvement in surgical performance to warrant large-scale investment in this technology. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vapor-liquid phase behavior of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process : LDRD final report for FY03.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Larson, Richard S.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year LDRD project that was undertaken to better understand the equilibrium behavior of the iodine-water-hydriodic acid system at elevated temperature and pressure. We attempted to extend the phase equilibrium database for this system in order to facilitate development of the iodine-sulfur water-splitting process to produce hydrogen to a commercial scale. The iodine-sulfur cycle for thermochemical splitting of water is recognized as the most efficient such process and is particularly well suited to coupling to a high-temperature source of process heat. This study intended to combine experimental measurements of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and equation-of-state modeling of equilibrium solutions using Sandia's Chernkin software. Vapor-liquid equilibrium experiments were conducted to a limited extent. The Liquid Chernkin software that was developed as part of an earlier LDRD project was enhanced and applied to model the non-ideal behavior of the liquid phases.

  15. Final report on LDRD project 105967 : exploring the increase in GaAs photodiode responsivity with increased neutron fluence.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Cich, Michael Joseph; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Fleming, Robert M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Wrobel, Diana L.

    2008-01-01

    A previous LDRD studying radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications led to the result that increased neutron irradiation from a fast-burst reactor caused increased responsivity in GaAs photodiodes up to a total fluence of 4.4 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (1 MeV Eq., Si). The silicon photodiodes experienced significant degradation. Scientific literature shows that neutrons can both cause defects as well as potentially remove defects in an annealing-like process in GaAs. Though there has been some modeling that suggests how fabrication and radiation-induced defects can migrate to surfaces and interfaces in GaAs and lead to an ordering effect, it is important to consider how these processes affect the performance of devices, such as the basic GaAs p-i-n photodiode. In this LDRD, we manufactured GaAs photodiodes at the MESA facility, irradiated them with electrons and neutrons at the White Sands Missile Range Linac and Fast Burst Reactor, and performed measurements to show the effect of irradiation on dark current, responsivity and high-speed bandwidth.

  16. Development of a cryogenic EOS capability for the Z Pulsed Radiation Source: Goals and accomplishments of FY97 LDRD project

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.L.; Johnston, R.R.; Asay, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    Experimental cryogenic capabilities are essential for the study of ICF high-gain target and weapons effects issues involving dynamic materials response at low temperatures. This report describes progress during the period 2/97-11/97 on the FY97 LDRD project ``Cryogenic EOS Capabilities on Pulsed Radiation Sources (Z Pinch)``. The goal of this project is the development of a general purpose cryogenic target system for precision EOS and shock physics measurements at liquid helium temperatures on the Z accelerator Z-pinch pulsed radiation source. Activity during the FY97 LDRD phase of this project has focused on development of a conceptual design for the cryogenic target system based on consideration of physics, operational, and safety issues, design and fabrication of principal system components, construction and instrumentation of a cryogenic test facility for off-line thermal and optical testing at liquid helium temperatures, initial thermal testing of a cryogenic target assembly, and the design of a cryogenic system interface to the Z pulsed radiation source facility. The authors discuss these accomplishments as well as elements of the project that require further work.

  17. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Methods Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant

  18. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cole A; Miller, Steven F; da Fontoura, Clarissa S G; Wehby, George L; Amendt, Brad A; Holton, Nathan E; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes DUSP6,ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1AJUBA, SNAI3SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant after the Bonferroni

  19. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm.

  20. Scrape-Off-Layer Flow Studies in Tokamaks: Final Report of LDRD Project 09-ERD-025

    SciTech Connect

    Rognlien, T D; Allen, S L; Ellis, R M; Porter, G D; Nam, S K; Weber, T R; Umansky, M V; Howard, J

    2011-11-21

    A summary is given of the work carried out under the LDRD project 09-ERD-025 entitled Scrape-Off-Layer Flow Studies in Tokamaks. This project has lead to implementation of the new prototype Fourier Transform Spectrometer edge plasma flow diagnostic on the DIII-D National Fusion Facility at General Atomics, acquisition of carbon impurity concentration and flow data, and demonstration that the resulting data compare reasonably well with LLNL's edge plasma transport code UEDGE. Details of the work are contained in attached published papers, while the most recent results that are being written-up for publication are summarized in the report. Boundary plasma flows in tokamak fusion devices are key in determining the distribution of fuel and impurity ions, with tritium build-up in the walls an especially critical operational issue. The intrusion of impurity ions to the hot plasma core region can result in serious energy-loss owing to line radiation. However, flow diagnostic capability has been severely limited in fusion-relevant hot edge plasmas where Langmuir-type probes cannot withstand the high heat flux and traditional Doppler spectroscopy has limited resolution and signal strength. Thus, new edge plasma flow diagnostic capabilities need to be developed that can be used in existing and future devices such as ITER. The understanding of such flows requires simulation with 2-dimensional transport codes owing to the geometrical complexity of the edge region in contact with material surfaces and the large number of interaction physical processes including plasma flow along and across the magnetic field, and coupling between impurity and neutral species. The characteristics of edge plasma flows are substantially affected by cross-magnetic-field drifts (ExB/B{sup 2} and BxVB/B{sup 2}), which are known to introduce substantial convergence difficulty for some cases. It is important that these difficulties be overcome so that drifts can be included in transport models, both

  1. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-01-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  3. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  4. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  5. Experimental determination of thermal profiles during laser spike annealing with quantitative comparison to 3-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Krishna; Jung, Byungki; Willemann, Michael; Clancy, Paulette; Thompson, Michael O.

    2012-05-01

    Thin film platinum resistors were used to directly measure temperature profiles during laser spike annealing (LSA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Observed resistance changes were calibrated to absolute temperatures using the melting points of the substrate silicon and thin gold films. Both the time-dependent temperature experienced by the sample during passage of the focussed laser beam and profiles across the spatially dependent laser intensity were obtained with sub-millisecond time resolution and 50 µm spatial resolution. Full 3-dimensional simulations incorporating both optical and thermal variations of material parameters were compared with these results. Accounting properly for the specific material parameters, good agreement between experiments and simulations was achieved. Future temperature measurements in complex environments will permit critical evaluation of LSA simulations methodologies.

  6. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

  7. Simple computer program to model 3-dimensional underground heat flow with realistic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, P. D.

    A FORTRAN computer program called GROCS (GRound Coupled Systems) has been developed to study 3-dimensional underground heat flow. Features include the use of up to 30 finite elements or blocks of Earth which interact via finite difference heat flow equations and a subprogram which sets realistic time and depth dependent boundary conditions. No explicit consideration of mositure movement or freezing is given. GROCS has been used to model the thermal behavior of buried solar heat storage tanks (with and without insulation) and serpentine pipe fields for solar heat pump space conditioning systems. The program is available independently or in a form compatible with specially written TRNSYS component TYPE subroutines. The approach taken in the design of GROCS, the mathematics contained and the program architecture, are described. Then, the operation of the stand-alone version is explained. Finally, the validity of GROCS is discussed.

  8. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  9. Design of a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Qian, Guomin; Wang, Ye; Yi, Zige; Ru, Xiaolei; Ye, Wei

    2017-03-01

    To determine which graphic and color combination for a 3-dimensional visual illusion speed reduction marking scheme presents the best visual stimulus, five parameters were designed. According to the Balanced Incomplete Blocks-Law of Comparative Judgment, three schemes, which produce strong stereoscopic impressions, were screened from the 25 initial design schemes of different combinations of graphics and colors. Three-dimensional experimental simulation scenes of the three screened schemes were created to evaluate four different effects according to a semantic analysis. The following conclusions were drawn: schemes with a red color are more effective than those without; the combination of red, yellow and blue produces the best visual stimulus; a larger area from the top surface and the front surface should be colored red; and a triangular prism should be painted as the graphic of the marking according to the stereoscopic impression and the coordination of graphics with the road.

  10. Surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta from Dawn FC using a 3 dimensional spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangjam, G.; Nathues, A.; Mengel, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Mann, P.; Cloutis, E. A.; Behrens, H.; Platz, T.; Schäfer, T.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The historic journey of the Dawn spacecraft in 2011- 2012 was a turning point in understanding asteroid (4) Vesta. The surface composition and lithology were analysed and mapped in earlier studies using Dawn imageries [1], [2]. We introduce here a 3 dimensional spectral approach to analyze and map the surface composition using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Various laboratory spectra of available HEDs and their mixtures, including new spectra measured in this work, were used. Band parameters were reviewed and modified wherever necessary to make the best use of the data. We particularly focused on carbonaceous-chondrite-bearing and olivine-bearing lithologies. An attempt has been made to distinguish glass/impact-melt lithologies.

  11. 3-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Bearing of Nielsen Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shinji; Heya, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koji; Yoshikawa, Osamu

    In 1995, the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake caused a large amount of destruction and structural failures. One example, whose mechanism is not fully clear, is the fracture of a bridge bearing of a Nielsen type bridge that does not occur under the ordinary static or dynamic loading conditions. The fracture probably resulted from very high stress due to an unexpected dynamic mechanism. In this paper, the 3-dimensional dynamic behavior of a Nielsen type bridge was analyzed by assuming a collision between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing, which might have occurred in the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. The numerical results show that an impact due to a relative velocity of 5˜6m/s between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing generates a stress sufficient to cause a fracture in the upper bearing. The observed features of the actual fracture surface was also simulated fairly closely.

  12. Experimental determination of thermal profiles during laser spike annealing with quantitative comparison to 3-dimensional simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Krishna; Jung, Byungki; Willemann, Michael; Thompson, Michael O.; Clancy, Paulette

    2012-05-21

    Thin film platinum resistors were used to directly measure temperature profiles during laser spike annealing (LSA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Observed resistance changes were calibrated to absolute temperatures using the melting points of the substrate silicon and thin gold films. Both the time-dependent temperature experienced by the sample during passage of the focussed laser beam and profiles across the spatially dependent laser intensity were obtained with sub-millisecond time resolution and 50 {mu}m spatial resolution. Full 3-dimensional simulations incorporating both optical and thermal variations of material parameters were compared with these results. Accounting properly for the specific material parameters, good agreement between experiments and simulations was achieved. Future temperature measurements in complex environments will permit critical evaluation of LSA simulations methodologies.

  13. Investigation of 3-dimensional structural morphology for enhancing light trapping with control of surface haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongsik; Shin, Myunghun; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Sunbo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kang, Junyoung; Kim, Yongjun; Pham, Duy Phong; Jung, Junhee; Yi, Junsin

    2017-04-01

    A comparative study of 3-dimensional textured glass morphologies with variable haze value and chemical texturing of the glass substrates was conducted to enhance light trapping in silicon (Si) thin film solar cells (TFSCs). The light trapping characteristics of periodic honeycomb structures show enhanced transmittance and haze ratio in numerical and experimental approaches. The periodic honeycomb structure of notched textures is better than a random or periodic carved structure. It has high transmittance of ∼95%, and haze ratio of ∼52.8%, and the haze property of the angular distribution function of transmittance shows wide scattering angles in the long wavelength region because of the wide spacing and aspect ratio of the texture. The numerical and experimental approaches of the 3-D texture structures in this work will be useful in developing high-performance Si TFSCs with light trapping.

  14. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  15. The 3-dimensional numerical simulation of artificially altitude-triggered negative lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Bin; Shi, Lihua; Chen, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    A 3-dimensional numerical model for artificially altitude-triggered negative lightning is developed based on an analytic thunderstorm model and the Dielectric Breakdown Model (DBM). Two major parameters are concerned, they are the thundercloud electric field and the length of the nylon wire which isolates the triggering wire from the ground. A few groups of contrast numerical experiments are done to study their effects on the success rates of altitude-triggered lightning. It is found that the success rates of altitude-triggered lightning increase when the thundercloud electric field enhances or the length of the nylon wire increases. Another interesting phenomenon is that the upward positive leader is always initiated earlier than the downward negative leader in either case.

  16. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  17. The Mechanical Functionality of the EXO-L Ankle Brace: Assessment With a 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Natenstedt, Jerry J; Streekstra, Geert J; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Gerards, Rogier M; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M

    2016-01-01

    A new type of ankle brace (EXO-L) has recently been introduced. It is designed to limit the motion of most sprains without limiting other motions and to overcome problems such as skin irritation associated with taping or poor fit in the sports shoe. To evaluate the claimed functionality of the new ankle brace in limiting only the motion of combined inversion and plantar flexion. Controlled laboratory study. In 12 patients who received and used the new ankle brace, the mobility of the joints was measured with a highly accurate and objective in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) stress test. Primary outcomes were the ranges of motion as expressed by helical axis rotations without and with the ankle brace between the following extreme positions: dorsiflexion to plantar flexion, and combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion. Rotations were acquired for both talocrural and subtalar joints. A paired Student t test was performed to test the significance of the differences between the 2 conditions (P ≤ .05). The use of the ankle brace significantly restricted the rotation of motion from combined eversion and dorsiflexion to combined inversion and plantar flexion in both the talocrural (P = .004) and subtalar joints (P < .001). No significant differences were found in both joints for the motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. The 3D CT stress test confirmed that under static and passive testing conditions, the new ankle brace limits the inversion-plantar flexion motion that is responsible for most ankle sprains without limiting plantar flexion or dorsiflexion. This test demonstrated its use in the objective evaluation of braces. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  19. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  20. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  2. Sonographic Parameters for Prediction of Miscarriage: Role of 3-Dimensional Volume Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Choe, Suyearn; Kim, Sa Jin; Shin, Jong Chul; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the value of volume measurement using 3-dimensional sonography for prediction of miscarriage. We prospectively enrolled 188 singleton pregnant women at 5 to 9 weeks' gestation. The 3-dimensional sonographic gestational sac volume and yolk sac volume were measured together with the fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, and yolk sac diameter. For each sonographic parameter, nomograms were created; z scores were calculated for each measurement, and the values were compared between miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy groups. Sonographic parameters for prediction of miscarriage were evaluated by multivariate analysis, and the screening performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic curve. Among the 188 pregnancies, 30 (16.0%) had miscarriage. Multivariate analysis showed that fetal heart rate below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 6.43), gestational sac diameter below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 4.87), gestational sac volume below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 5.25), and yolk sac diameter below the 2.5th or above the 97.5th percentile (odds ratio, 15.86) were significant predictors of miscarriage (P = .018; P = .018; P = .033; and P < .001, respectively). At a false-positive rate of 30%, the detection rate for miscarriage in screening by a combination of fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, gestational sac volume, and yolk sac diameter was 77.8%. A small-for-gestational-age gestational sac volume is a significant sonographic predictor of miscarriage, as are fetal bradycardia, a small gestational sac diameter, and a small or large yolk sac diameter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Correlation Between Transperineal 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Measurements of Levator Hiatus and Female Sexual Function.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Serdar; Bakar, Rabia Zehra; Arioğlu Aydin, Çağri; Ateş, Seda

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sexual functions with levator hiatus biometry measurements and levator ani muscle defect. In 62 heterosexual, sexually active premenopausal women without pelvic floor disorders or urinary incontinence, 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound imaging was used. Two 3-dimensional volumes were recorded, one at rest and one on Valsalva maneuver. Levator biometry measurements and levator defect were evaluated in an axial plane. Sexual function was assessed by a validated questionnaire, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The primary outcome measure was correlation of sexual functions with the levator hiatus area, transverse and anteroposterior diameters, levator ani muscle thickness, vaginal length, and changes in measurements with Valsalva and levator defect. Forty-two women (67.7%) had low total FSFI scores (<26.55). Levator defect rates were similar in female sexual dysfunction (7/42, 16.7%) and women without female sexual dysfunction (5/20, 25%). The FSFI was negatively and weakly correlated with Δhiatal anteroposterior diameter (r = -0.33, P < 0.009) in the study population. There was a weak and inverse correlation between Δhiatal anteroposterior diameter and arousal (r = -0.35, P < 0.002), desire (r = -0.38, P < 0.001), and orgasm (r = -0.33, P < 0.007). Pain and lubrication did not correlate with any measurement. Hiatal area and diameters at rest are not related to sexual functions. Changes in anteroposterior diameter of the levator hiatus during Valsalva, which may be a sign of pelvic floor laxity or levator muscle weakness, are weakly associated with sexual functions, particularly desire, arousal, and orgasm domains.

  4. Effect of dental technician disparities on the 3-dimensional accuracy of definitive casts.

    PubMed

    Emir, Faruk; Piskin, Bulent; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-03-01

    Studies that evaluated the effect of dental technician disparities on the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts fabricated by different dental technicians by using a 3-dimensional computer-aided measurement method. An arch-shaped metal master model consisting of 5 abutments resembling prepared mandibular incisors, canines, and first molars and with a 6-degree total angle of convergence was designed and fabricated by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. Complete arch impressions were made (N=110) from the master model, using polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and delivered to 11 dental technicians. Each technician fabricated 10 definitive casts with dental stone, and the obtained casts were numbered. All casts were sectioned, and removable dies were obtained. The master model and the presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were digitized with an extraoral scanner, and the virtual master model and virtual presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts were obtained. All definitive casts were compared with the master model by using computer-aided measurements, and the 3-dimensional accuracy of the definitive casts was determined with best fit alignment and represented in color-coded maps. Differences were analyzed using univariate analyses of variance, and the Tukey honest significant differences post hoc tests were used for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts was significantly affected by dental technician disparities (P<.001). The largest dimensional changes were detected in the anterior abutments of both of the definitive casts. The changes mostly occurred in the mesiodistal dimension (P<.001). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of presectioned and postsectioned definitive casts is susceptible

  5. The effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics model for medical education.

    PubMed

    Battulga, Bayanmunkh; Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-07-09

    Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures.

  6. FY07 LDRD Final Report A Fracture Mechanics and Tribology Approach to Understanding Subsurface Damage on Fused Silica during Grinding and Polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Menapace, J A; Wong, L L; Steele, R A; Feit, M D; Davis, P J; Walmer, C D

    2008-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop a solid scientific understanding of the creation and characteristics of surface fractures formed during the grinding and polishing of brittle materials, specifically glass. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the morphology, number density, and depth distribution of various surface cracks as a function of various grinding and polishing processes (blanchard, fixed abrasive grinding, loose abrasive, pitch polishing and pad polishing). Also, the effects of load, abrasive particle (size, distribution, foreign particles, geometry, velocity), and lap material (pitch, pad) were examined. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of indentation fracture mechanics and tribological interactions (science of interacting surfaces) leading to several models to explain crack distribution behavior of ground surfaces and to explain the characteristics of scratches formed during polishing. This project has greatly advanced the scientific knowledge of microscopic mechanical damage occurring during grinding and polishing and has been of general interest. This knowledge-base has also enabled the design and optimization of surface finishing processes to create optical surfaces with far superior laser damage resistance. There are five major areas of scientific progress as a result of this LDRD. They are listed in Figure 1 and described briefly in this summary below. The details of this work are summarized through a number of published manuscripts which are included this LDRD Final Report. In the first area of grinding, we developed a technique to quantitatively and statistically measure the depth distribution of surface fractures (i.e., subsurface damage) in fused silica as function of various grinding processes using mixtures of various abrasive particles size distributions. The observed crack distributions were explained using a model that extended known, single brittle indentation models to an ensemble of loaded, sliding

  7. Impact of cavity and infiltration on pulmonary function and health-related quality of life in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A 3-dimensional computed tomographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takanori; Yamada, Yoshitake; Namkoong, Ho; Suzuki, Shoji; Niijima, Yuki; Kamata, Hirofumi; Funatsu, Yohei; Yagi, Kazuma; Okamori, Satoshi; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ishii, Makoto; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis using CT was performed in 67 pMAC patients. The relationship between new quantitative parameters for evaluating lung involvement using 3-dimensional CT and PFTs or St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was evaluated. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume showed significant correlation with the PFT results, especially the percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC; ρ = -0.52), residual volume (ρ = -0.51), and total lung capacity (ρ = -0.59). The cavity volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.78) in the cavity group, while the ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was strongly correlated with the %FVC (ρ = -0.53) in the non-cavity group. The ratio of infiltration to total lung volume was significantly correlated with all SGRQ parameters (ρ = 0.41-0.52) in the non-cavity group. Infiltration was an important parameter for the PFTs and SGRQ in pMAC patients according to the 3-dimensional CT analysis. Moreover, cavity volume was an important parameter of the PFTs in the cavity group. Therefore, infiltration and cavity volume are key features for the management of pMAC disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hardness Assurance for Low-Energy Proton-Induced Single-Event Effects: Final report for LDRD Project 173134

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson

    2015-08-01

    This report briefly summarizes three publications that resulted from a two-year LDRD. The three publications address a recently emerging reliability issue: namely, that low-energy protons (LEPs) can cause single-event effects (SEEs) in highly scaled microelectronics. These publications span from low to high technology readiness levels. In the first, novel experiments were used to prove that proton direct ionization is the dominant mechanism for LEP-induced SEEs. In the second, a simple method was developed to calculate expected on-orbit error rates for LEP effects. This simplification was enabled by creating (and characterizing) an accelerated space-like LEP environment in the laboratory. In the third publication, this new method was applied to many memory circuits from the 20-90 nm technology nodes to study the general importance of LEP effects, in terms of their contribution to the total on-orbit SEE rate.

  9. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  10. Simulations of the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with dense Z-pinch plasmas : final report LDRD 39670.

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Dale Robert; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Campbell, Robert B.

    2004-11-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using the 3D fully electromagnetic implicit hybrid particle code LSP (Large Scale Plasma) to study laser plasma interactions with dense, compressed plasmas like those created with Z, and which might be created with the planned ZR. We have determined that with the proper additional physics and numerical algorithms developed during the LDRD period, LSP was transformed into a unique platform for studying such interactions. Its uniqueness stems from its ability to consider realistic compressed densities and low initial target temperatures (if required), an ability that conventional PIC codes do not possess. Through several test cases, validations, and applications to next generation machines described in this report, we have established the suitability of the code to look at fast ignition issues for ZR, as well as other high-density laser plasma interaction problems relevant to the HEDP program at Sandia (e.g. backlighting).

  11. Modeling Biofilm-Induced Hydraulic Changes In 3-Dimensional Prefractal Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Choi, H.; Perfect, E.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilm-induced clogging is the significant phenomenon in subsurface hydrology that may affect aquifer recharge and solute transport. Modeling biofilm impact on flow and transport at pore scale should include characterization of the heterogeneity of both biofilm and medium. In this study, a numerical model of biofilm- induced hydraulic changes in porous media was developed based on the individual-based model (IbM) for the biofilm growth according to the Monod equation, and the Lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) for the water flow. The LBM was modified to consider biofilm growth in each grid cell, and IbM was synchronized with the LBM. The model behavior was first investigated for simple geometry of the prismatic void space with constant flow and concentration boundary conditions at the inflow boundary, no-gradient condition on the outflow side, and periodic boundary condition on the other sides. The mass conservation was tested by varying Peclet number and computing the solute breakthrough. The breakthrough was retarded when a solid sphere was placed in the prism, and the retardation was increasing as flow velocity was increasing. Increase in the biofilm volume surrounding solid sphere increased pressure at the windward side of sphere, and the flow velocity in the narrow passage between biofilms was increased. The biofilm grew more vigorously on the windward side compared with the leeward side of the sphere because the biofilm growth interrupted the supply of the dissolved substrate to the leeward side. Darcy relation was better to estimate hydraulic conductivity than Kozeny-Carman relation which assumes that biofilms are uniformly distributed on the surface. Finally, 3- dimensional mass and pore-solid prefractal lattices as models of heterogeneous porous media were generated by iterated function system and used as the simulation domain. The flow in these domains reached the steady state at threshold porosities (hydrostatic threshold) that were estimated to be about 0

  12. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  13. Comparison of 3-dimensional spinal reconstruction accuracy: biplanar radiographs with EOS versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana A; Doan, Josh; Newton, Peter O

    2012-07-15

    Experimental study for systematic evaluation of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from low-dose digital stereoradiography. To assess the accuracy of EOS (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions compared with 3D computed tomography (CT) and the effect spine positioning within the EOS unit has on reconstruction accuracy. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity, but 3D morphological analyses are still rare. A new low-dose radiation digital stereoradiography system (EOS) was previously evaluated for intra/interobserver variability, but data are limited for 3D reconstruction accuracy. Three synthetic scoliotic phantoms (T1-pelvis) were scanned in upright position at 0°, ±5°, and ±10° of axial rotation within EOS and in supine position using CT. Three-dimensional EOS reconstructions were superimposed on corresponding 3D computed tomographic reconstructions. Shape, position, and orientation accuracy were assessed for each vertebra and the entire spine. Additional routine planer clinical deformity measurements were compared: Cobb angle, kyphosis, lordosis, and pelvic incidence. Mean EOS vertebral body shape accuracy was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (maximum 4.7 mm), with 95% confidence interval of 1.7 mm. Different anatomical vertebral regions were modeled well with root-mean-square (RMS) values from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. Position and orientation accuracy of each vertebra were high: RMS offset was 1.2 mm (maximum 3.7 mm) and RMS axial rotation was 1.9° (maximum 5.8°). There was no significant difference in each of the analyzed parameters (P > 0.05) associated with varying the rotational position of the phantoms in EOS machine. Planer measurements accuracy was less than 1° mean difference for pelvic incidence, Cobb angle (mean 1.6°/maximum 3.9°), and sagittal kyphosis (mean less than 1°, maximum 4.9°). The EOS image acquisition and reconstruction software provides accurate 3D spinal representations of scoliotic spinal deformities. The results of this study provide spinal

  14. Kinematic comparison and description of the 3-dimensional shoulder kinematics of 2 shoulder rotation tests.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Morais, Nuno

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder external rotation range of motion (ROM) during the hand-behind-neck (HBN) test and a standard shoulder external rotation test and to describe the 3-dimensional scapular motion during the HBN test. An electromagnetic tracking device was used to assess the dominant shoulder of 14 healthy participants while performing active full ROM in a standard shoulder external rotation test in an elevated position (EREP) and in the HBN test. The humeral and scapular 3-dimensional positions at the end of EREP and HBN were compared using a paired-sample t test. A correlation analysis was performed between humeral and scapular angles to assess the contribution of scapular motion to the full shoulder ROM during the HBN test. No significant differences were found between the HBN test and the EREP at the end-range of the glenohumeral external rotation (HBN: 15.6° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 23.4° ± 4.7°; P = .08) and on scapular internal-external rotation (HBN test: 21.2° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 15.6° ± 1.8°; P = .23). Significant differences were found in scapular upward rotation (HBN: 21.2° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 15.6° ± 1.8°; P < .01) and scapular spinal tilt (HBN: -0.4° ± 2.3° vs EREP: 8.1° ± 2.1°; P < .01). There was a positive correlation between the humeral angles and scapular internal and posterior spinal tilt angles with the HBN test. The results of the present study showed that, in young asymptomatic participants with no known shoulder pathology, the end-range of shoulder rotation was similar in the HBN test and in a standard shoulder rotation test. During the HBN test, the scapula assumed a more internal and anterior spinal tilted position at the end-range of active shoulder external rotation. These results suggest that the HBN test may be used to assess the end-range of glenohumeral external rotation. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Our experiences with the use of 3-dimensional meshes to prevent and to repair parastomal hernias].

    PubMed

    Jánó, Zoltán; Mohos, Elemér; Réti, György; Kovács, Tamás; Mohay, József; Berki, Csaba; Horváth, Sándor; Bene, Krisztina; Horzov, Myroslav; Bognár, Gábor; Sándor, Gábor; Szenkovits, Péter; Mohos, Petra; Tornai, Gábor; Nagy, Attila

    2016-12-01

    Albeit there is decreasing tendency nowadays for stoma construction, if it still happens, parastomal herniation might occur in up to 50% of cases afterwards. One third of the cases requires surgical correction, not rarely as an emergency. The different methods of repair can be quite demanding and the complication rates are high. From 2003 we have started to use specially designed 3-dimensional meshes for the prevention and repair of parastomal hernias. From 1st of January 2012 to 1st of June 2016 we have used these devices within the framework of a prospective, controlled, randomized study enrolling the patients in preventive and repair arms. Until now mesh was implanted for prevention at the time of the index operation in 38 cases, (control group: 46 cases), and for repair in 14 cases (control group: 18 cases). Recruitment of the patients will end in 2017. The operations were performed by laparoscopic approach in 22 cases and by open approach in 62 cases in the preventive arm, and 6/26 cases in the repair arm respectively. Mean follow up period is 19.2 months in the mesh group and 22.6 months in the non mesh group in the preventive arm, and 25.9/20.4 months in the repair arm respectively. No statistical analysis was used to interpret these interim results in this paper, we intend to analyze our results at the end of the study. At this stage apparently there is no difference between the group of patients in terms of complications in both arms. Parastomal herniation was found in 18 cases (39.1%) in the non mesh group and in 3 cases (7.8%) in the mesh group in the preventive arm. Recurrency was noted in 8 cases (44%) in the non mesh group, and in 1 case (7.1%) in the mesh group in the repair arm. Our results correlate with other studies where mesh insertion was used to prevent and/or repair parastomal hernias. We attribute these results mainly to the special, 3-dimensional design of the meshes used by us. This construction was developed based on understanding the

  16. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  17. Final LDRD report : design and fabrication of advanced device structures for ultra high efficiency solid state lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Shul, Randy John; Wendt, Joel Robert; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this one year LDRD was to improve the overall efficiency of InGaN LEDs by improving the extraction of light from the semiconductor chip. InGaN LEDs are currently the most promising technology for producing high efficiency blue and green semiconductor light emitters. Improving the efficiency of InGaN LEDs will enable a more rapid adoption of semiconductor based lighting. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop photonic structures to improve light extraction from nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). While many advanced device geometries were considered for this work, we focused on the use of a photonic crystal for improved light extraction. Although resonant cavity LEDs and other advanced structures certainly have the potential to improve light extraction, the photonic crystal approach showed the most promise in the early stages of this short program. The photonic crystal (PX)-LED developed here incorporates a two dimensional photonic crystal, or photonic lattice, into a nitride-based LED. The dimensions of the photonic crystal are selected such that there are very few or no optical modes in the plane of the LED ('lateral' modes). This will reduce or eliminate any radiation in the lateral direction so that the majority of the LED radiation will be in vertical modes that escape the semiconductor, which will improve the light-extraction efficiency. PX-LEDs were fabricated using a range of hole diameters and lattice constants and compared to control LEDs without a photonic crystal. The far field patterns from the PX-LEDs were dramatically modified by the presence of the photonic crystal. An increase in LED brightness of 1.75X was observed for light measured into a 40 degree emission cone with a total increase in power of 1.5X for an unencapsulated LED.

  18. FY04 LDRD Final Report Stroke Sensor Development Using Microdot Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J C; Wilson, T S; Alvis, R M; Paulson, C N; Setlur, U S; McBride, M T; Brown, S B; Bearinger, J P; Colston, B W

    2005-11-15

    major thrust area for the Medical Technology Program (M-division). Through MTP, LLNL has a sizable investment and recognizable expertise in stroke treatment research. The proposed microdot array sensor for stroke will complement this existing program in which mechanical devices are being designed for removing the thrombus. The following list of stroke projects and their relative status shows that MTP has a proven track record of taking ideas to industry: The goal of this LDRD funded project was to develop and demonstrate a minimally invasive optical fiber-based sensor for rapid and in-vivo measurements of multiple stroke biomarkers (e.g. pH and enzyme). The development of this sensor also required the development of a new fabrication technology for attaching indicator chemistries to optical fibers. A benefit of this work is to provide clinicians with a tool to assess vascular integrity of the region beyond the thrombus to determine whether or not it is safe to proceed with the removal of the clot. Such an assessment could extend the use of thrombolytic drug treatment to acute stroke victims outside the current rigid temporal limitation of 3 hours. Furthermore, this sensor would also provide a tool for use with emerging treatments involving the use of mechanical devices for removing the thrombus. The sensor effectively assesses the risk for reperfusion injury.

  19. Duplication of complete dentures using general-purpose handheld optical scanner and 3-dimensional printer: Introduction and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Kosuke; Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Ishida, Yuichi; Ito, Teruaki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a new clinical procedure for fabricating duplicates of complete dentures by bite pressure impression using digital technology, and to discuss its clinical significance. The denture is placed on a rotary table and the 3-dimensional form of the denture is digitized using a general-purpose handheld optical scanner. The duplicate denture is made of polylactic acid by a 3-dimensional printer using the 3-dimensional data. This procedure has the advantages of wasting less material, employing less human power, decreasing treatment time at the chair side, lowering the rates of contamination, and being readily fabricated at the time of the treatment visit. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Establishment of 3-dimensional finite element model of human knee joint and its biomechanics].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ping; Wang, Wanchun

    2010-01-01

    To establish a 3-dimensional (3-D) finite element knee model in healthy Chinese males, to verify the validity of the model, and to analyze the biomechanics of this model under axial load, flexion moment, varus/valgus torque, and internal/external axial torque. A set of consecutive transectional computerized tomography images of normal male knee joints in upright weight-bearing position was selected. With image processing and inversion technology, the 3-D finite element model of the normal knee joint was established through the software ABAQOUS/STANDARD Version-6.5.Biomechanical analysis of this model was processed under axial load, flexion moment, varus/valgus torque, and internal/external axial torque. A 3-D finite element model of healthy Chinese males was successfully established. The ranges of motion of varus and valgus were both small and the difference between them has no statistical significance (P>0.05). The motion of internal and external rotation of the knee took place only in flexion situation.The range of motion of external rotation was larger than that of internal rotation in the same knee (P<0.05). The 3-D geometrical model of the knee resembles the actual knee segments. It can imitate the knee response to different loads. This model could be used for further study on knee biomechanics.

  1. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering for fabricating 3-dimensional heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In addition to stem cell biology, tissue engineering is an essential research field for regenerative medicine. In contrast to cell injection, bioengineered tissue transplantation minimizes cell loss and has the potential to repair tissue defects. A popular approach is scaffold-based tissue engineering, which utilizes a biodegradable polymer scaffold for seeding cells; however, new techniques of cell sheet-based tissue engineering have been developed. Cell sheets are harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes by simply lowering the temperature. Monolayer or stacked cell sheets are transplantable directly onto damaged tissues and cell sheet transplantation has already been clinically applied. Cardiac cell sheet stacking produces pulsatile heart tissue; however, lack of vasculature limits the viable tissue thickness to 3 layers. Multistep transplantation of triple-layer cardiac cell sheets cocultured with endothelial cells has been used to form thick vascularized cardiac tissue in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro functional blood vessel formation within 3-dimensional (3D) tissues has been realized by successfully imitating in vivo conditions. Triple-layer cardiac cell sheets containing endothelial cells were layered on vascular beds and the constructs were media-perfused using novel bioreactor systems. Interestingly, cocultured endothelial cells migrate into the vascular beds and form perfusable blood vessels. An in vitro multistep procedure has also enabled the fabrication of thick, vascularized heart tissues. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering has revealed great potential to fabricate 3D cardiac tissues and should contribute to future treatment of severe heart diseases and human tissue model production.

  2. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  3. The Effect of Intensity on 3-Dimensional Kinematics and Coordination in Front-Crawl Swimming.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Kelly; Sanders, Ross; de Jesus, Karla; Ribeiro, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    Coaches are often challenged to optimize swimmers' technique at different training and competition intensities, but 3-dimensional (3D) analysis has not been conducted for a wide range of training zones. To analyze front-crawl 3D kinematics and interlimb coordination from low to severe swimming intensities. Ten male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at 7 incrementally increasing paces until exhaustion (0.05-m/s increments and 30-s intervals), with images from 2 cycles in each step (at the 25- and 175-m laps) being recorded by 2 surface and 4 underwater video cameras. Metabolic anaerobic threshold (AnT) was also assessed using the lactate-concentration-velocity curve-modeling method. Stroke frequency increased, stroke length decreased, hand and foot speed increased, and the index of interlimb coordination increased (within a catch-up mode) from low to severe intensities (P ≤ .05) and within the 200-m steps performed above the AnT (at or closer to the 4th step; P ≤ .05). Concurrently, intracyclic velocity variations and propelling efficiency remained similar between and within swimming intensities (P > .05). Swimming intensity has a significant impact on swimmers' segmental kinematics and interlimb coordination, with modifications being more evident after the point when AnT is reached. As competitive swimming events are conducted at high intensities (in which anaerobic metabolism becomes more prevalent), coaches should implement specific training series that lead swimmers to adapt their technique to the task constraints that exist in nonhomeostatic race conditions.

  4. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  5. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG) is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn's disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE) and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE) in Crohn's disease patients in a state of remission. Thirteen Crohn's patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn's disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn's disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn's disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn's disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.

  6. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Fibroblasts under Both Monolayer and 3-Dimensional Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinlong; Zhong, Rui; Sun, Liguang; Jia, Jie; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    To observe the adaptive response (AR) induced by ionizing radiation in human fibroblasts under monolayer and 3-dimensional (3-D) condition. Three kinds of fibroblasts were cultured under both monolayer and 3-D condition. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the γ-H2AX foci and the morphological texture. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell death. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of γ-H2AX, p53 and CDKN1A/p21 (p21). We found that DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after high doses of radiation. When cells were pretreated with a priming low dose of radiation followed by high dose radiation, DNA damage was attenuated under both monolayer and 3-D condition, and the adaptive response (AR) was induced. Additionally, the morphology of cells under monolayer and 3-D conditions were different, and radiation also induced AR according to morphological texture analysis. Priming low dose radiation induced AR both under monolayer and 3-D condition. Interestingly, 3-D microenvironment made cells more sensitive to radiation. The expression of p53 and p21 was changed and indicated that they might participate in the regulation of AR. PMID:25807079

  7. The distribution of particles in the plane dispersed by a simple 3-dimensional diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, Anders

    2002-11-01

    Populations of particles dispersed in the 2-dimensional plane from a single point-source may be grouped as focus expansion patterns, with an exponentially decreasing density, and more diffuse patterns with thicker tails. Exponentially decreasing distributions are often modelled as the result of 2-dimensional diffusion processes acting to disperse the particles, while thick-tailed distributions tend to be modelled by purely descriptive distributions. Models based on the Cauchy distribution have been suggested, but these have not been related to diffusion modelling. However, the distribution of particles dispersed from a point source by a 3-dimensional Brownian motion that incorporates a constant drift, under the condition that the particle starts at a given height and is stopped when it reaches the xy plane (zero height) may be shown to result in both slim-tailed exponentially decreasing densities, and thick-tailed polynomially decreasing densities with infinite mean travel distance from the source, depending on parameter values. The drift in the third coordinate represents gravitation, while the drift in the first and second represents a (constant) wind. Conditions for the density having exponentially decreasing tails is derived in terms of gravitation and wind, with a special emphasis on applications to light-weighted particles such as fungal spores.

  8. Current Status of 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: A Review from Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ishizu, Tomko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac function analysis is the main focus of echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been the clinical standard, however, LVEF is not enough to investigate myocardial function. For the last decade, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been the novel clinical tool for regional and global myocardial function analysis. However, 2-dimensional imaging methods have limitations in assessing 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac motion. In contrast, 3D echocardiography also has been widely used, in particular, to measure LV volume measurements and assess valvular diseases. Joining the technology bandwagon, 3D-STE was introduced in 2008. Experimental studies and clinical investigations revealed the reliability and feasibility of 3D-STE-derived data. In addition, 3D-STE provides a novel deformation parameter, area change ratio, which have the potential for more accurate assessment of overall and regional myocardial function. In this review, we introduced the features of the methodology, validation, and clinical application of 3D-STE based on our experiences for 7 years. PMID:25031794

  9. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  10. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  11. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  12. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Kong, Shi-Bei

    2017-08-01

    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional connection dynamics of {s}{o}(1,2), spanned by {L-+, L-2, L+2 } instead of {L01, L02, L12 }, is first conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system. The symmetry of the system is clearly presented. A null coframe with 3 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables. All constraints and their consistency conditions, the solutions of Lagrange multipliers as well as the equations of motion are presented. There is no physical degree of freedom in the system. The Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime is discussed as an example to check the analysis. Unlike the ADM formalism, where only non-degenerate geometries on slices are dealt with and the Ashtekar formalism, where non-degenerate geometries on slices are mainly concerned though the degenerate geometries may be studied as well, in the present formalism the geometries on the slices are always degenerate though the geometries for the spacetime are not degenerate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275207 and 11690022

  13. Comparison of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional conformal treatment plans in gastric cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adas, Yasemin Guzle; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Atakul, Tugba; Dirican, Bahar; Aktas, Caner; Yilmaz, Sercan; Akyurek, Serap; Gokce, Saban Cakir; Ergocen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is accepted as standard treatment for stage IB-IV, M0 gastric cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) planning of gastric cancer is important because of the low radiation tolerance of surrounding critical organs. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric aspects of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans, with the twin aims of evaluating the adequacy of 2D planning fields on coverage of planning target volume (PTV) and 3D conformal plans for both covering PTV and reducing the normal tissue doses. Thirty-six patients with stage II-IV gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using 3DRT. For each patient, a second 2D treatment plan was generated. The two techniques were compared for target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. 3DRT provides more adequate coverage of the target volume. Comparative DVHs for the left kidney and spinal cord demonstrate lower radiation doses with the 3D technique. 3DRT produced better dose distributions and reduced radiation doses to left kidney and spinal cord compared to the 2D technique. For this reason it can be predicted that 3DRT will result in better tumor control and less normal tissue complications.

  14. MAPAG: a computer program to construct 2- and 3-dimensional antigenic maps.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, R C; Retegui, L A; Roguin, L P

    1994-01-01

    The contact area between an antibody (Ab) and the antigen (Ag) is called antigenic determinant or epitope. The first step in the characterization of an Ag by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is to map the relative distribution of the corresponding epitopes on the Ag surface. The computer program MAPAG has been devised to automatically construct antigenic maps. MAPAG is fed with a binary matrix of experimental data indicating the ability of paired MAb to bind or not simultaneously to the Ag. The program is interactive menu-driven and allows the user an easy data handling. MAPAG utilizes iterative processes to construct and to adjust the final map, which is graphically shown as a 2- or a 3-dimensional model. Additionally, the antigenic map obtained can be optionally modified by the user or readjusted by the program. The suitability of MAPAG was illustrated by running experimental data from literature and comparing antigenic maps constructed by the program with those elaborated by the investigators without the assistance of a computer. Furthermore, since some MAb could present negative allosteric effects leading to misinterpretation of data, MAPAG has been provided with an approximate reasoning module to solve such anomalous situations. Results indicated that the program can be successfully employed as a simple, fast and reliable antigenic model-builder.

  15. 3-dimensional structures to enhance cell therapy and engineer contractile tissue.

    PubMed

    Schussler, Olivier; Chachques, Juan C; Mesana, Thierry G; Suuronen, Erik J; Lecarpentier, Yves; Ruel, Marc

    2010-02-01

    Experimental studies in animals and recent human clinical trials have revealed the current limitations of cellular transplantation, which include poor cell survival, lack of cell engraftment, and poor differentiation. Evidence in animals suggests that use of a 3-dimensional scaffold may enhance cell therapy and engineer myocardial tissue by improving initial cell retention, survival, differentiation, and integration. Several scaffolds of synthetic or natural origin are under development. Until now, contractility has been demonstrated in vitro only in biological scaffolds prepared from decellularized organs or tissue, or in collagenic porous scaffold obtained by crosslinking collagen fibers. While contractility of a cellularized collagen construct is poor, it can be greatly enhanced by tumor basement membrane extract. Recent advances in biochemistry have shown improved cell-matrix interactions by coupling adhesion molecules to achieve an efficient and safe bioartificial myocardium with no tumoral component. Fixation of adhesion molecules may also be a way to enhance cell homing and/or differentiation to increase local angiogenesis. Whatever the clinically successful combination ultimately proves to be, it is likely that cell therapy will require providing a supportive biochemical, physical, and spatial environment that will allow the cells to optimally differentiate and integrate within the target myocardial tissue.

  16. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reprogramming retinal neurons and standardized quantification of their differentiation in 3-dimensional retinal cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hiler, Daniel J.; Barabas, Marie E.; Griffiths, Lyra M.; Dyer, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Postmitotic differentiated neurons are among the most difficult cells to reprogram into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) because they have poor viability when cultured as dissociated cells. Other protocols to reprogram postmitotic neurons have required the inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We describe a method that does not require p53 inactivation and induces reprogramming in cells purified from the retinae of reprogrammable mice in aggregates with wild-type retinal cells. After the first 10 days of reprogramming, the aggregates are then dispersed and plated on irradiated feeder cells to propagate and isolate individual iPSC clones. The reprogramming efficiency of different neuronal populations at any stage of development can be quantitated using this protocol. Reprogramming retinal neurons with this protocol will take 56 days, and these retina-derived iPSCs can undergo retinal differentiation to produce retinae in 34 days. In addition, we describe a quantitative assessment of retinal differentiation from these neuron-derived iPSCs called STEM-RET. The procedure quantitates eye field specification, optic cup formation, and retinal differentiation in 3-dimensional cultures using molecular, cellular and morphological criteria. An advanced level of cell culture experience is required to carry out this protocol. PMID:27658012

  18. Craniofacial landmarks in young children: how reliable are measurements based on 3-dimensional imaging?

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; Bruegger, Lea S; Kruse Gujer, Astrid L; Matthews, Felix; Zemann, Wolfgang; Graetz, Klaus W; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo

    2012-11-01

    Different approaches for 3-dimensional (3D) data acquisition of the facial surface are common nowadays. Meticulous evaluation has proven their level of precision and accuracy. However, the question remains as to which level of craniofacial landmarks, especially in young children, are reliable if identified in 3D images. Potential sources of error, aside from the systems technology itself, need to be identified and addressed. Reliable and unreliable landmarks have to be identified. The 3dMDface System was used in a clinical setting to evaluate the intraobserver repeatability of 27 craniofacial landmarks in 7 young children between 6 and 18 months of age with a total of 1134 measurements. The handling of the system was mostly unproblematic. The mean 3D repeatability error was 0.82 mm, with a range of 0.26 mm to 2.40 mm, depending on the landmark. Single landmarks that have been shown to be relatively imprecise in 3D analysis could still provide highly accurate data if only 1 of the 3 spatial planes was relevant. There were no statistical differences from 1 patient to another. Reliability in craniofacial measurements can be achieved by such 3D soft-tissue imaging techniques as the 3dMDface System, but one must always be aware that the degree of precision is strictly dependent on the landmark and axis in question.For further clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for each landmark evaluated must be addressed and taken into account.

  19. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  1. The Effect of Asymmetric flow on the 3-Dimensional Symmetric Bogus Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J.; Cheong, H.; Hwang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of asymmetric flow on the 3-dimensional symmetric bogus vortex called as Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV) is investigated for 9 tropical cyclones (TCs) observed in Northwest Pacific. NCEP global reanalysis data were used as initial condition, and the high order spectral filter (HSF) were employed to separate asymmetric flow from disturbance flow as following: The first step is that the global field is decomposed into environment and disturbance field. And secondly, the disturbance field is transformed into cylindrical coordinates, and the Fourier transform is applied to the transformed data along the azimuth. Lastly, the inverse Fourier transform is carried out except for wavenumber (WN) 0 component, and it is added to SABV. To investigate the effect of asymmetric flow on the SABV, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) V3.2.1 was employed, which was set to have a single domain with 12 km resolution and YSU, WSM 6 and Kain-Fritsch schemes are used. With these methods, it was found that the track error at 48 h and 72 h was improved by about 13% and 16%, respectively, implying the asymmetric flow should be added to SABV for better performance.

  2. Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model

    PubMed Central

    Tezera, Liku B; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Chancellor, Andrew; Reichmann, Michaela T; Shammari, Basim Al; Brace, Patience; Batty, Alex; Tocheva, Annie; Jogai, Sanjay; Marshall, Ben G; Tebruegge, Marc; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Mansour, Salah; Elkington, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen–alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction. Infection in 3-D led to greater cellular survival and permitted longitudinal analysis over 21 days. Key features of human tuberculosis develop, and extracellular matrix integrity favours the host over the pathogen. We optimised multiparameter readouts to study emerging therapeutic interventions: cytokine supplementation, host-directed therapy and immunoaugmentation. Each intervention modulates the host-pathogen interaction, but has both beneficial and harmful effects. This methodology has wide applicability to investigate infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and develop novel drug regimes and vaccination approaches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21283.001 PMID:28063256

  3. Inter-surface interactions in a 3-dimensional topological insulator : Bi2Se3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hosub; Song, Jung-Hwan; Freeman, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    Recently much attention has focused on 3-dimensional strong topological insulators as a new quantum state of matter, such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. One of their intriguing features is a topologically protected surface state whose quasiparticle dispersion shows a Dirac cone. Due to lack of backscattering and robustness against disorder and interaction, surface states have the potential to be perfect conducting channels which carry not only charge but also spin currents. Here, we present a theoretical study of electronic structures and surfaces of thin film Bi2Se3 using the highly precise FLAPW methodfootnotetext Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24, 864 (1981). Our calculated results focus on the interaction between surface states on opposing sides of the slab. The gap opening from the inter-surface interaction can be easily explained by simple symmetry arguments considering both time-reversal and spatial inversion. For a 6 quintuple layer slab (˜6 nm), a 1.06 meV gap at the γ point survives due to the inter-surface interactions, and we discuss how to preserve the massless excitations despite this inter-surface interaction.

  4. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC.

  5. Tunneling currents between carbon nanotubes inside the 3-dimensional potential of a dielectric matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagarakis, M. S.; Xanthakis, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    We have examined the tunneling currents between CNTs dispersed in a dielectric matrix as is normally the case in a tensile stress or toxic gas sensors. Due to the randomness of the immersion process the CNTs are at random angles and configurations between them, thus producing a 3-dimensional potential (3-D). We have produced a method that solves the Laplace equation for this type of problem and uses the WKB formulation to calculate the transmission coefficient between CNTs. We have then shown that the tunneling currents between a pair of CNTs depend critically on their relative angle and configuration. In particular we have shown that the tunneling currents do not occur only along a CNT tip to CNT tip configuration but other more efficient paths exist which give a current higher by two orders of magnitude from what a simple 1D theory would give. On the other hand the tunneling current between non-coplanar CNTs is negligible. We conclude that such phenomena cannot be analyzed by a simple 1-dimensional WKB theory and the percolation threshold necessary for conduction may be lower than the one such a theory would predict.

  6. A customized bolus produced using a 3-dimensional printer for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Wook; Shin, Hun-Joo; Kay, Chul Seung; Son, Seok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Boluses are used in high-energy radiotherapy in order to overcome the skin sparing effect. In practice though, commonly used flat boluses fail to make a perfect contact with the irregular surface of the patient's skin, resulting in air gaps. Hence, we fabricated a customized bolus using a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and evaluated its feasibility for radiotherapy. We designed two kinds of bolus for production on a 3D printer, one of which was the 3D printed flat bolus for the Blue water phantom and the other was a 3D printed customized bolus for the RANDO phantom. The 3D printed flat bolus was fabricated to verify its physical quality. The resulting 3D printed flat bolus was evaluated by assessing dosimetric parameters such as D1.5 cm, D5 cm, and D10 cm. The 3D printed customized bolus was then fabricated, and its quality and clinical feasibility were evaluated by visual inspection and by assessing dosimetric parameters such as Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D90%, and V90%. The dosimetric parameters of the resulting 3D printed flat bolus showed that it was a useful dose escalating material, equivalent to a commercially available flat bolus. Analysis of the dosimetric parameters of the 3D printed customized bolus demonstrated that it is provided good dose escalation and good contact with the irregular surface of the RANDO phantom. A customized bolus produced using a 3D printer could potentially replace commercially available flat boluses.

  7. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O'Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2016-12-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity.

  8. Polarization-independent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by using 3-dimensional plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Ren, Xingang; Xin, Jianzhuo; Lin, Peng; Leung, Dennis C. W.

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic back reflectors have recently become a promising strategy for realizing efficient organic solar cell (OSCs). Since plasmonic effects are strongly sensitive to light polarization, it is highly desirable to simultaneously achieve polarization-independent response and enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) by designing the nanostructured geometry of plasmonic reflector electrode. Here, through a strategic analysis of 2-dimensional grating (2D) and 3-dimensional patterns (3D), with similar periodicity as a plasmonic back reflector, we find that the OSCs with 3D pattern achieve the best PCE enhancement by 24.6%, while the OSCs with 2D pattern can offer 17.5% PCE enhancement compared to the optimized control OSCs. Importantly, compared with the 2D pattern, the 3D pattern shows a polarization independent plasmonic response, which will greatly extend its uses in photovoltaic applications. This work shows the significances of carefully selecting and designing geometry of plasmonic nanostructures in achieving high-efficient, polarization-independent plasmonic OSCs.

  9. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor.

  10. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  11. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  12. Scaling Relations and Self-Similarity of 3-Dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent

    2017-07-25

    Scaling conditions to achieve self-similar solutions of 3-Dimensional (3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations, as an initial and boundary value problem, are obtained by utilizing Lie Group of Point Scaling Transformations. By means of an open-source Navier-Stokes solver and the derived self-similarity conditions, we demonstrated self-similarity within the time variation of flow dynamics for a rigid-lid cavity problem under both up-scaled and down-scaled domains. The strength of the proposed approach lies in its ability to consider the underlying flow dynamics through not only from the governing equations under consideration but also from the initial and boundary conditions, hence allowing to obtain perfect self-similarity in different time and space scales. The proposed methodology can be a valuable tool in obtaining self-similar flow dynamics under preferred level of detail, which can be represented by initial and boundary value problems under specific assumptions.

  13. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  14. Computer aided-designed, 3-dimensionally printed porous tissue bioscaffolds for craniofacial soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zopf, David A; Mitsak, Anna G; Flanagan, Colleen L; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential of an integrated, image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3-dimensional (3D) printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Multidisciplinary effort encompassing 2 academic institutions. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) computed tomography scans were segmented and utilized in image-based CAD to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture were produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months' duration. Auricular and nasal constructs with several types of microporous architecture were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in an excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histological analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native-appearing cartilaginous growth that respected the boundaries of the scaffold. Integrated, image-based CAD and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  15. Ionizing radiation-induced adaptive response in fibroblasts under both monolayer and 3-dimensional conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinlong; Zhong, Rui; Sun, Liguang; Jia, Jie; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    To observe the adaptive response (AR) induced by ionizing radiation in human fibroblasts under monolayer and 3-dimensional (3-D) condition. Three kinds of fibroblasts were cultured under both monolayer and 3-D condition. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the γ-H2AX foci and the morphological texture. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell death. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of γ-H2AX, p53 and CDKN1A/p21 (p21). We found that DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after high doses of radiation. When cells were pretreated with a priming low dose of radiation followed by high dose radiation, DNA damage was attenuated under both monolayer and 3-D condition, and the adaptive response (AR) was induced. Additionally, the morphology of cells under monolayer and 3-D conditions were different, and radiation also induced AR according to morphological texture analysis. Priming low dose radiation induced AR both under monolayer and 3-D condition. Interestingly, 3-D microenvironment made cells more sensitive to radiation. The expression of p53 and p21 was changed and indicated that they might participate in the regulation of AR.

  16. A 3-dimensional DTI MRI-based model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Patel, Vishal; Wen, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most aggressive intra-axial brain tumor, with a notoriously poor prognosis. To improve this prognosis, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of GBM growth, response to treatment and recurrence. The present study presents a mathematical diffusion-proliferation model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy based on diffusion tensor (DTI) MRI imaging. This represents an important advance because it allows 3-dimensional tumor modeling in the anatomical context of the brain. Specifically, tumor infiltration is guided by the direction of the white matter tracts along which glioma cells infiltrate. This provides the potential to model different tumor growth patterns based on location within the brain, and to simulate the tumor's response to different radiation therapy regimens. Tumor infiltration across the corpus callosum is simulated in biologically accurate time frames. The response to radiation therapy, including changes in cell density gradients and how these compare across different radiation fractionation protocols, can be rendered. Also, the model can estimate the amount of subthreshold tumor which has extended beyond the visible MR imaging margins. When combined with the ability of being able to estimate the biological parameters of invasiveness and proliferation of a particular GBM from serial MRI scans, it is shown that the model has potential to simulate realistic tumor growth, response and recurrence patterns in individual patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a DTI-based GBM growth and radiation therapy treatment model.

  17. EEG Control of a Virtual Helicopter in 3-Dimensional Space Using Intelligent Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Audrey S.; Doud, Alexander J.; Rose, Minn L.

    2011-01-01

    Films like Firefox, Surrogates, and Avatar have explored the possibilities of using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to control machines and replacement bodies with only thought. Real world BCIs have made great progress toward that end. Invasive BCIs have enabled monkeys to fully explore 3-dimensional (3D) space using neuroprosthetics. However, non-invasive BCIs have not been able to demonstrate such mastery of 3D space. Here, we report our work, which demonstrates that human subjects can use a non-invasive BCI to fly a virtual helicopter to any point in a 3D world. Through use of intelligent control strategies, we have facilitated the realization of controlled flight in 3D space. We accomplished this through a reductionist approach that assigns subject-specific control signals to the crucial components of 3D flight. Subject control of the helicopter was comparable when using either the BCI or a keyboard. By using intelligent control strategies, the strengths of both the user and the BCI system were leveraged and accentuated. Intelligent control strategies in BCI systems such as those presented here may prove to be the foundation for complex BCIs capable of doing more than we ever imagined. PMID:20876032

  18. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  19. Diagnosis of dental abnormalities in children using 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Proff, Peter C; Rottner, Kurt; Düring, Markus; Jakob, Peter M; Richter, Ernst-Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of dental abnormalities in children. The study included 16 patients (mean age, 10.8 yr) prospectively selected from 1,500 orthodontic patients. The selected patients included 3 with a mesiodens, 9 with supernumerary teeth other than a mesiodens, 1 with gemination, 1 with dilacerations, 1 with transmigration, and 1 with transposition. Three-dimensional (3D) images were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI scanner using a 3D turbo spin echo pulse sequence with a voxel size of 0.8 × 0.8 × 1 mm. The measurement time was 4 to 5 minutes. Using natural MRI contrast, the teeth, dental pulp, mandibular canal, and cortical bone could be clearly delineated. The position and shape of malformed teeth could be assessed in all 3 spatial dimensions. MRI was found to be a well-tolerated imaging modality for the diagnosis of dental abnormalities in children and for orthodontic treatment and surgical planning. Compared with conventional radiography, dental MRI provides the advantage of 3-dimensionality and complete elimination of ionizing radiation, which is particularly relevant for repeated examinations in children. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of 3-dimensional video-assisted thoracic surgery (3D-VATS) for pulmonary resection.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, Chris; Li, Wilson W; Symersky, Petr; Hartemink, Koen J

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional video-assisted thoracic surgery (2D-VATS) has gained its position in daily practise. Although very useful, its two-dimensional view has its drawbacks when performing pulmonary resections. We report our first experience with 3-dimensional video-assisted surgery (3D-VATS). Advantages and differences with 2D-VATS and robotic surgery (RS) are discussed. To evaluate feasibility, we scheduled patients for surgery by 3D-VATS who would normally be treated with 2D-VATS. The main difference of the equipment in 3D-VATS compared with former VATS equipment, is the flexible camera-tip (100-degrees) and the necessary 3D-glasses. Four patients were successfully operated for anatomic pulmonary resections. On-the-structure dissection was easily performed and with the flexible camera-tip, a perfect view can be obtained, with clear visualisation of important (hilar) structures. These features highly facilitate the surgeon in tissue preparation and recognition of the dissection planes. In our opinion, 3D-VATS is superior to 2D-VATS for performing anatomic pulmonary resection and we expect an improvement in terms of operation time and learning curve. Furthermore, it is a valuable alternative for RS at lower costs.

  1. Relation between qualitative and quantitative 3-dimensional ultrasound and ki-67 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Bing; He, Yan; Ning, Bing; Nong, Mei-Fen; Wei, Hai-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between quantitative blood flow parameters on 3-dimensional (3D) color histogram, 3D ultrasound characteristics and Ki-67 expression in breast cancer. Three-dimensional ultrasound characteristics and histological classifications of 76 breast tumors in 75 confirmed cases were analyzed. Relations of tumor volume (V), vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI) on 3D color histogram to Ki-67 expression were studied by statistical methods. VI and VFI measurements of tumors in positive Ki-67 expression group were obviously increased compared with the negative expression group (P<0.05). V and FI measurements of positive expression group were higher than those of the negative expression group, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Cases showing positive expression of Ki-67 were more likely to have lymph node metastases (P<0.05), and Ki-67 expression positively correlated with histological classification (P<0.05). However, the two groups did not show significant differences in the findings of "sun-like symptom" (P>0.05). Qualitative and quantitative 3D ultrasound characteristics correlated with positive expression of Ki-67 in breast cancer. Quantitative analysis with 3D color histogram more accurately evaluates blood supply of breast tumors, providing references for predicting biological behaviors and prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf , Muhammad N.

    2016-01-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity. PMID:28008983

  3. Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth: A Novel Method Using Virtually Planned 3-dimensional Templates.

    PubMed

    Strbac, Georg D; Schnappauf, Albrecht; Giannis, Katharina; Bertl, Michael H; Moritz, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative method for autotransplantation of teeth using 3-dimensional (3D) surgical templates for guided osteotomy preparation and donor tooth placement. This report describes autotransplantation of immature premolars as treatment of an 11-year-old boy having suffered severe trauma with avulsion of permanent maxillary incisors. This approach uses modified methods from guided implant surgery by superimposition of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and 3D data sets of the jaws in order to predesign 3D printed templates with the aid of a fully digital workflow. The intervention in this complex case could successfully be accomplished by performing preplanned virtual transplantations with guided osteotomies to prevent bone loss and ensure accurate donor teeth placement in new recipient sites. Functional and esthetic restoration could be achieved by modifying methods used in guided implant surgery and prosthodontic rehabilitation. The 1-year follow-up showed vital natural teeth with physiological clinical and radiologic parameters. This innovative approach uses the latest diagnostic methods and techniques of guided implant surgery, enabling the planning and production of 3D printed surgical templates. These accurate virtually predesigned surgical templates could facilitate autotransplantation in the future by full implementation of recommended guidelines, ensuring an atraumatic surgical protocol. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A method for obtaining 3-dimensional facial expressions and its standardization for use in neurocognitive studies.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ruben C; Sara, Radim; Hagendoorn, Michiel; Marom, Oren; Hughett, Paul; Macy, Larry; Turner, Travis; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Posner, Aaron; Gur, Raquel E

    2002-04-15

    Facial expressions of emotion are increasingly being used in neuroscience as probes for functional imaging and as stimuli for studying hemispheric specialization for face and emotion processing. Available facial stimuli are 2-dimensional and therefore, their orientation is fixed and poorly suited for examining asymmetries, they are often obtained under poorly specified conditions, usually posed, lack ethnic diversity, and are of restricted age range. We describe a method for accurately acquiring and reconstructing the geometry of the human face and for display of this reconstruction in a 3-dimensional format. We applied the method in a sample of 70 actors and 69 actresses expressing happiness, sadness, anger, fear and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. Each emotion was expressed under three levels of intensity and under both posed and evoked conditions. Resulting images are of high technical quality and are accurately identified by raters. The stimuli can be downloaded in digital form as 'movies' where angle and orientation can be manipulated for inclusion in functional imaging probes or in tests that can be administered as measures of individual differences in facial emotion processing. The database of emotional expressions can also be used as a standard for comparison with clinical populations.

  5. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications.

  6. Planning of anatomical liver segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy with 3-dimensional simulation software.

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ogata, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuto; Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Akiyuki; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3-dimensional (3D) simulation software is applicable to and useful for anatomic liver segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy. A prospective study of 83 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic segmentectomy or subsegmentectomy using the puncture method was performed. All patients underwent 3D simulation analysis (SA) preoperatively for planning operative procedures. The clinical information acquired by 3D SA and the consistency of virtual and real hepatectomy were evaluated. The time needed for completing 3D SA was 18.3 ± .7 minutes. Three-dimensional SA proposed resection of multiple segments or subsegments in 29 patients (35%). It also helped complement the resection line in 26 patients (31%) who lacked a bold staining area on the liver surface. The volume of segment or subsegment calculated by 3D SA was correlated with the actual resected specimen (R(2) = .9942, P < .01). The bordering hepatic veins were clearly exposed in 71 patients (86%), in accordance with completed drawings by 3D SA. Three-dimensional SA showed accurate completed drawings and assisted liver surgeons in planning and executing anatomic segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 3-dimensionally integrated photo-detector for neutrino physics and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retiere, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are a promising solution for the detection of scintillation light of liquid Xenon and Argon in applications requiring minimum radioactivity content such as neutrinoless double beta decay. The nEXO experiment in particular is planning to use SiPM planes covering 5 m2 for the detection of the light emitted within 5tons of liquid Xenon. The 3-dimensionally digital integrated SiPMs (3DdSiPMs) is an emerging technology that if successful would challenge the analog SiPM technology. Indeed, by combining separate photo-detector and electronics chips within a single package, 3DdSiPM achieve excellent performances for photon counting and time stamping, while dissipating minimum power. Being mostly based on high purity silicon chips, 3DdSiPMs are also expected to achieve excellent radiopurity.The development of 3DdSiPMs for applications in liquid Xenon is expected to progress rapidly by altering the design of the first successful chip assembly developed for medical imaging, focusing on minimizing power dissipation and large area (> cm2) scaling. In this talk we will describe the 3DdSiPM concept a solution for ``light to bit conversion'' within a single package and show how it may revolutionize light detection in noble-gas liquids and beyond.

  8. Differentiating between septate and bicornuate uterus: bi-dimensional and 3-dimensional power Doppler findings.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Giovanni; Locci, Mariavittoria; Marilena, Miranda; Salzano, Emilia; Palmieri, Teresa; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    To assess if any difference could be found in uterine vascularization between septate and bicornuate uterus. Pilot study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University hospital infertility clinic. One hundred nine women with complete duplication of the uterine cavity. All had already received the final diagnosis of the type of uterine malformation, either septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, via diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Another group of 10 patients with uterine anomalies and affected by ovarian mass were also evaluated via intravenous contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound examination. Patients were evaluated using 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional power Doppler imaging of the uterus. Seventy-three patients with septate uterus, with or without cervical and vaginal duplication, and 36 patients with bicornuate uterus were selected for inclusion in the study. Irregular vascular networks were detected between the 2 hemicavities in the patients with septate uterus. All bicornuate uteri showed a peculiar vascular network between the 2 hemicavities: the main recognizable vessels formed a network depicting the Greek letter γ at the level of the uterine midline. Detection of the γ sign can be used to differentiate septate from bicornuate uterus. This finding was also confirmed in patients who underwent intravenous contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound examination. power Doppler provides a new and uninvasive tool for differentiation of septate from bicornuate uterus. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  10. The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J; Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K; Levack, Melissa M; Shang, Eric K; Pouch, Alison M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; Yushkevich, Paul A; Hung, Judy; Mariani, Massimo A; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Gleason, Thomas G; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A; Woo, Y Joseph; Cheung, Albert T; Gillespie, Matthew J; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Two-dimensional echocardiography annular diameter and tethering parameters were measured in the apical 2- and 4-chamber views. A customized protocol was used to assess 3-dimensional annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. Recurrence (grade ≥2) was assessed with 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional annular geometry were similar in all patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional leaflet tethering were significantly higher in patients with recurrence (n = 13) when compared with patients without recurrence (n = 37). Multivariate logistic regression revealed preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 32.0° (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P = .002) and preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00; P < .001). The predictive value of the 3-dimensional geometric multivariate model can be augmented by adding basal aneurysm/dyskinesis (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00; P < .001). Preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle is a stronger predictor of ischemic mitral regurgitation recurrence after annuloplasty than preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior

  11. A fully automatic multiscale 3-dimensional Hessian-based algorithm for vessel detection in breast DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Vignati, Anna; Giannini, Valentina; Bert, Alberto; Borrelli, Pasquale; De Luca, Massimo; Martincich, Laura; Sardanelli, Francesco; Regge, Daniele

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a fully automatic method for detecting blood vessels in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast on the basis of a multiscale 3-dimensional Hessian-based algorithm and to evaluate the improvement in reducing the number of vessel voxels incorrectly classified as parenchymal lesions by a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The algorithm has been conceived to work on images obtained with different sequences, different acquisition parameters, such as the use of fat-saturation, and different contrast agents. The analysis was performed on 28 dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examinations, with 39 malignant (28 principal and 11 satellite) and 8 benign lesions, acquired at 2 centers using 2 different 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanners, radiofrequency coils, and contrast agents (14 studies from group A and 14 studies from group B). The method consists of 2 main steps: (a) the detection of linear structures on 3-dimensional images, with a multiscale analysis based on the second-order image derivatives and (b) the exclusion of non-vessel enhancements based on their morphological properties through the evaluation of the covariance matrix eigenvalues. To evaluate the algorithm performances, the identified vessels were converted into a 2-dimensional vasculature skeleton and then compared with manual tracking performed by an expert radiologist. When assessing the outcome of the algorithm performances in identifying vascular structures, the following terms must be considered: the correct-detection rate refers to pixels identified by both the algorithm and the radiologist, the missed-detection rate refers to pixels detected only by the radiologist, and the incorrect-detection rate refers to pixels detected only by the algorithm. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess differences between the performances of the 2 subgroups of images obtained from the different scanners. For the testing

  12. Live animal assessments of rump fat and muscle score in Angus cows and steers using 3-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    McPhee, M J; Walmsley, B J; Skinner, B; Littler, B; Siddell, J P; Cafe, L M; Wilkins, J F; Oddy, V H; Alempijevic, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a proof of concept for using off-the-shelf Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) Microsoft Kinect cameras to objectively assess P8 rump fat (P8 fat; mm) and muscle score (MS) traits in Angus cows and steers. Data from low and high muscled cattle (156 cows and 79 steers) were collected at multiple locations and time points. The following steps were required for the 3-dimensional (3D) image data and subsequent machine learning techniques to learn the traits: 1) reduce the high dimensionality of the point cloud data by extracting features from the input signals to produce a compact and representative feature vector, 2) perform global optimization of the signatures using machine learning algorithms and a parallel genetic algorithm, and 3) train a sensor model using regression-supervised learning techniques on the ultrasound P8 fat and the classified learning techniques for the assessed MS for each animal in the data set. The correlation of estimating hip height (cm) between visually measured and assessed 3D data from RGB-D cameras on cows and steers was 0.75 and 0.90, respectively. The supervised machine learning and global optimization approach correctly classified MS (mean [SD]) 80 (4.7) and 83% [6.6%] for cows and steers, respectively. Kappa tests of MS were 0.74 and 0.79 in cows and steers, respectively, indicating substantial agreement between visual assessment and the learning approaches of RGB-D camera images. A stratified 10-fold cross-validation for P8 fat did not find any differences in the mean bias ( = 0.62 and = 0.42 for cows and steers, respectively). The root mean square error of P8 fat was 1.54 and 1.00 mm for cows and steers, respectively. Additional data is required to strengthen the capacity of machine learning to estimate measured P8 fat and assessed MS. Data sets for and continental cattle are also required to broaden the use of 3D cameras to assess cattle. The results demonstrate the importance of capturing

  13. Development of an Immersive Environment to Aid in Automatic Mesh Generation LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlakos, Constantine J.

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of immersive technologies, such as those used in synthetic environments (commordy referred to as virtual realily, or VR), in enhancing the mesh- generation process for 3-dimensional (3D) engineering models. This work was motivated by the fact that automatic mesh generation systems are still imperfect - meshing algorithms, particularly in 3D, are sometimes unable to construct a mesh to completion, or they may produce anomalies or undesirable complexities in the resulting mesh. It is important that analysts and meshing code developers be able to study their meshes effectively in order to understand the topology and qualily of their meshes. We have implemented prototype capabilities that enable such exploration of meshes in a highly visual and intuitive manner. Since many applications are making use of increasingly large meshes, we have also investigated approaches to handle large meshes while maintaining interactive response. Ideally, it would also be possible to interact with the meshing process, allowing interactive feedback which corrects problems and/or somehow enables proper completion of the meshing process. We have implemented some functionality towards this end -- in doing so, we have explored software architectures that support such an interactive meshing process. This work has incorporated existing technologies developed at SandiaNational Laboratories, including the CUBIT mesh generation system, and the EIGEN/VR (previously known as MUSE) and FLIGHT systems, which allow applications to make use of immersive technologies and advanced human computer interfaces. 1

  14. Assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Collins, M; Hsieh, A; Ohazama, C J; Ota, T; Stetten, G; Donovan, C L; Kisslo, J; Ryan, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate characterization of regional wall motion abnormalities requires a thorough evaluation of the entire left ventricle (LV). Although 2-dimensional echocardiography is frequently used for this purpose, the inability of tomographic techniques to record the complete endocardial surface is a limitation. Three-dimensional echocardiography, with real-time volumetric imaging, has the potential to overcome this limitation by capturing the entire volume of the LV and displaying it in a cineloop mode. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography to detect regional wall motion abnormalities in patients with abnormal LV function and to develop a scheme for the systematic evaluation of wall motion by using the 3-dimensional data set. Twenty-six patients with high-quality 2-dimensional echo images and at least 1 regional wall motion abnormality were examined with RT3D echocardiography. For 2-dimensional echocardiography, wall motion was analyzed with a 16-segment model and graded on a 4-point scale from normal (1) to dyskinetic (4), from which a wall motion score index was calculated. Individual segments were then grouped into regions (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and apical) and the number of regional wall motion abnormalities was determined. The RT3D echocardiogram was recorded as a volumetric, pyramid-shaped data set that contained the entire LV. Digital images, consisting of a single cardiac cycle cineloop, were analyzed off-line with a computerized display of the apical projection. Two intersecting orthogonal apical projections were simultaneously displayed in cineloop mode, each independently tilted to optimize orientation and endocardial definition. The 2 planes were then slowly rotated about the major axis to visualize the entire LV endocardium. Wall motion was then graded in 6 equally spaced views, separated by 30 degrees, yielding 36 segments per patient. A higher percentage of segments

  15. Improving Range Estimation of a 3-Dimensional Flash Ladar via Blind Deconvolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    gathering, target recognition , mapping, imaging, object classification , navigation, and pre- cision strike capabilities. The trend towards computer...the target range could be then extracted from the object by peak detection methods. This statement presents the ideal sit- uation that Chapter V... object retrieval, data reg- istration, edge detection , feature extraction, planar feature detection , multi-sensor assisted navigation and target

  16. An integrated 3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine for data-driven simulation of spatial genome organization

    PubMed Central

    Szałaj, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Michalski, Paul; Pietal, Michal J.; Luo, Oscar J.; Sadowski, Michał; Li, Xingwang; Radew, Kamen; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding. This multilevel nature of ChIA-PET data offers an opportunity to use multiscale 3D models to study structural-functional relationships at multiple length scales, but doing so requires a structural modeling platform. Here, we report the development of 3D-GNOME (3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine), a complete computational pipeline for 3D simulation using ChIA-PET data. 3D-GNOME consists of three integrated components: a graph-distance-based heat map normalization tool, a 3D modeling platform, and an interactive 3D visualization tool. Using ChIA-PET and Hi-C data derived from human B-lymphocytes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-GNOME in building 3D genome models at multiple levels, including the entire genome, individual chromosomes, and specific segments at megabase (Mb) and kilobase (kb) resolutions of single average and ensemble structures. Further incorporation of CTCF-motif orientation and high-resolution looping patterns in 3D simulation provided additional reliability of potential biologically plausible topological structures. PMID:27789526

  17. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  18. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  19. 3-Dimensional Examination of the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone Reveals Lineage-Specific Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Kasum; Fiorelli, Roberto; Zweifel, Stefan; Hurtado-Chong, Anahi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Slomianka, Lutz; Raineteau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling “stem” cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to accurately assess

  20. Fenofibrate inhibits tumour intravasation by several independent mechanisms in a 3-dimensional co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chi Huu; Huttary, Nicole; Atanasov, Atanas G; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; Fristiohady, Adryan; Hong, Junli; Stadler, Serena; Holzner, Silvio; Milovanovic, Daniela; Dirsch, Verena M; Kopp, Brigitte; Saiko, Philipp; Krenn, Liselotte; Jäger, Walter; Krupitza, Georg

    2017-05-01

    Lymph node metastasis of breast cancer is a clinical marker of poor prognosis. Yet, there exist no therapies targeting mechanisms of intravasation into lymphatics. Herein we report on an effect of the antidyslipidemic drug fenofibrate with vasoprotective activity, which attenuates breast cancer intravasation in vitro, and describe the potential mechanisms. To measure intravasation in a 3-dimensional co-culture model MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids were placed on immortalised lymphendothelial cell (LEC) monolayers. This provokes the formation of circular chemorepellent induced defects (CCIDs) in the LEC barrier resembling entry ports for the intravasating tumour. Furthermore, the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, CD31 and FAK was investigated in LECs by western blotting as well as cell-cell adhesion and NF-κB activity by respective assays. In MDA-MB231 cells the activity of CYP1A1 was measured by EROD assay. Fenofibrate inhibited CCID formation in the MDA-MB231/LEC- and MCF-7/LEC models and the activity of NF-κB, which in turn downregulated ICAM-1 in LECs and the adhesion of cancer cells to LECs. Furthermore, CD31 and the activity of FAK were inhibited. In MDA-MB231 cells, fenofibrate attenuated CYP1A1 activity. Combinations with other FDA-approved drugs, which reportedly inhibit different ion channels, attenuated CCID formation additively or synergistically. In summary, fenofibrate inhibited NF-κB and ICAM-1, and inactivated FAK, thereby attenuating tumour intravasation in vitro. A combination with other FDA-approved drugs further improved this effect. Our new concept may lead to a novel therapy for cancer patients.

  1. Diagnostic ability of 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in identifying vertebral basilar artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ting-yu; Chen, Wen-huo; Zhang, Mei-fang; Chen, Yue-hong; Cai, Ruo-wei; Wu, Zong-zhong; Wu, Yan-min; Shi, Yan-chuan; Chen, Bai-ling; Guo, Ting-hui; Wu, Chao-xin; Yang, Miao-xiong; Chen, Xue-jiao

    2016-04-15

    Vertebral-basilar artery stenosis is associated with posterior circulation infarction. So correct detection of vertebral basilar artery stenosis is very important. Studies concerning the sensitivity and specificity of 3-dimensional contrast enhanced MR angiography (3D-CE-MRA) in detecting vertebral basilar artery stenosis is generally lacking. Retrospectively reviewed the imagines of consecutive one hundred and forty-nine Chinese patients with ischemic stroke or vertigo/dizziness who underwent 3D-CE-MRA and DSA. DSA and CE-MRA images were studied separately and to determine the presence of mild, moderate, or severe stenosis of the vertebral-basilar arteries. Analysis combined with vascular origin image was applied when evaluating the vertebral artery origin stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the accuracy of 3D-CE-MRA in detecting and grading of vertebral-basilar artery stenosis were calculated. Compared with DSA, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 3D-CE-MRA in detecting of vertebral artery origin ≥70% stenosis or occlusion was 97.1%, 77.4% and 81.9%, but diagnostic consistency was poor (K=0.59); Analysis combined with vascular origin images, the specificity (97.8%), accuracy (92.9%) and consistency (K=0.826) was significantly improved. 3D-CE-MRA is a sensitive and noninvasive technique for the detection of vertebral artery origin stenosis. Furthermore, analysis combined with vascular origin image would improve the diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A 3-dimensional anthropometric evaluation of facial morphology among Chinese and Greek population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zacharopoulos, Georgios Vasileiou

    2013-07-01

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) facial imaging has taken greater importance as orthodontists use the soft tissue paradigm in the evaluation of skeletal disproportion. Studies have shown that faces defer in populations. To date, no anthropometric evaluations have been made of Chinese and Greek faces. The aim of this study was to compare facial morphologies of Greeks and Chinese using 3D facial anthropometric landmarks. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired via a commercially available stereophotogrammetric camera capture system. The 3dMD face system captured 245 subjects from 2 population groups (Chinese [n = 72] and Greek [n = 173]), and each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the group were between 18 and 30 years old and had no apparent facial anomalies. Twenty-five anthropometric landmarks were identified on the 3D faces of each subject. Soft tissue nasion was set as the "zeroed" reference landmark. Twenty landmark distances were constructed and evaluated within 3 dimensions of space. Six angles, 4 proportions, and 1 construct were also calculated. Student t test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were noted between the subgroups evaluated. When comparing differences of sexes in 2 populations (eg, male Greeks and male Chinese), significant differences were noted in more than 80% of the landmark distances calculated. One hundred percent of the angular were significant, and the Chinese were broader in width to height facial proportions. In evaluating the lips to the esthetic line, the Chinese population had more protrusive lips. There are differences in the facial morphologies of subjects obtained from a Chinese population versus that of a Greek population.

  3. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  4. 3-Dimensional cell culture for on-chip differentiation of stem cells in embryoid body.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong; Lee, Kang Sun; Bang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Eyn; Kim, Min-Cheol; Oh, Kwang Wook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2011-03-07

    This paper proposes a microfluidic device for the on-chip differentiation of an embryoid body (EB) formed in a microwell via 3-dimensional cultures of mouse embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. The device adjusted the size of the EB by fluid volume, differentiated the EB by chemical treatment, and evaluated its effects in EC cells by on-chip immunostaining. A microfluidic resistance network was designed to control the size of the embryoid body. The duration time and flow rate into each microwell regulated the initial number of trapped cells in order to adjust the size of the EB. The docked cells were aggregated and formed a spherical EB on the non-adherent surface of the culture chip for 3 days. The EC cells in the EB were then differentiated into diverse cell lineages without attachment for an additional 4 days; meanwhile, retinoic acid (RA) was applied without serum to direct the cells into early neuronal lineage. On-chip immunostaining of the EB in the microwell with a neuronal marker was conducted to assess the differentiation-inducing ability of RA. The effect of RA on neuronal differentiation was analyzed with confocal microscopic images of the TuJ1 marker. The RA-treated cells expressed more neuronal markers and appeared as mature neuronal cells with long neurites. The fluorescence intensity of the TuJ1 in the RA-treated EB was twice that observed in the non-treated EB on day 5. It was demonstrated that the pre-screening of inducing chemicals on the early neuronal differentiation of EC cells in a single microfluidic chip was indeed feasible. This chip is expected to constitute a useful tool for assessing the early differentiation of ES cells without attachment, and is also expected to prove useful as an anti-cancer drug test platform for the cytotoxicity assay with cellular spheroids.

  5. Design of biphasic polymeric 3-dimensional fiber deposited scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Moroni, L; Hendriks, J A A; Schotel, R; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    2007-02-01

    This report describes a novel system to create rapid prototyped 3-dimensional (3D) fibrous scaffolds with a shell-core fiber architecture in which the core polymer supplies the mechanical properties and the shell polymer acts as a coating providing the desired physicochemical surface properties. Poly[(ethylene oxide) terephthalate-co-poly(butylene) terephthalate] (PEOT/PBT) 3D fiber deposited (3DF) scaffolds were fabricated and examined for articular cartilage tissue regeneration. The shell polymer contained a higher molecular weight of the initial poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments used in the copolymerization and a higher weight percentage of the PEOT domains compared with the core polymer. The 3DF scaffolds entirely produced with the shell or with the core polymers were also considered. After 3 weeks of culture, scaffolds were homogeneously filled with cartilage tissue, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Although comparable amounts of entrapped chondrocytes and of extracellular matrix formation were found for all analyzed scaffolds, chondrocytes maintained their rounded shape and aggregated during the culture period on shell-core 3DF scaffolds, suggesting a proper cell differentiation into articular cartilage. This finding was also observed in the 3DF scaffolds fabricated with the shell composition only. In contrast, cells spread and attached on scaffolds made simply with the core polymer, implying a lower degree of differentiation into articular cartilaginous tissue. Furthermore, the shell-core scaffolds displayed an improved dynamic stiffness as a result of a "prestress" action of the shell polymer on the core one. In addition, the dynamic stiffness of the constructs increased compared with the stiffness of the bare scaffolds before culture. These findings suggest that shell-core 3DF PEOT/PBT scaffolds with desired mechanical and surface properties are a promising solution for improved cartilage tissue engineering.

  6. Effect of watching 3-dimensional television on refractive error in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children.

  7. Influence of standardization on the precision (reproducibility) of dental cast analysis with virtual 3-dimensional models.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Chung, Onejune; Park, Seojung; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Sachdeva, Rohit C L; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-03-01

    Virtual 3-dimensional (3D) models obtained by scanning of physical casts have become an alternative to conventional dental cast analysis in orthodontic treatment. If the precision (reproducibility) of virtual 3D model analysis can be further improved, digital orthodontics could be even more widely accepted. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of "standardization" of the target points for dental cast analysis using virtual 3D models. Physical plaster models were also measured to obtain additional information. Five sets of dental casts were used. The dental casts were scanned with R700 (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) and REXCAN DS2 3D (Solutionix, Seoul, Korea) scanners. In this study, 3 system and software packages were used: SureSmile (OraMetrix, Richardson, Tex), Rapidform (Inus, Seoul, Korea), and I-DEAS (SDRC, Milford, Conn). Without standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and the Rapidform software (0.39 mm ± 0.07). With standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and measurements with a digital caliper (0.099 mm ± 0.01), and this difference was significantly greater (P <0.05) than the 2 other mean difference values. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that the mean differences "WITH" standardization were significantly lower than those "WITHOUT" standardization for all systems, software packages, or methods. The results showed that elimination of the influence of usability or habituation is important for improving the reproducibility of dental cast analysis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  9. A 3-dimensional mathematic cylinder phantom for the evaluation of the fundamental performance of SPECT.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideo; Motomura, Nobutoku; Takahashi, Masaaki; Yanagisawa, Masamichi; Ogawa, Koichi

    2010-03-01

    Degradation of SPECT images results from various physical factors. The primary aim of this study was the development of a digital phantom for use in the characterization of factors that contribute to image degradation in clinical SPECT studies. A 3-dimensional mathematic cylinder (3D-MAC) phantom was devised and developed. The phantom (200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long) comprised 3 imbedded stacks of five 30-mm-long cylinders (diameters, 4, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mm). In simulations, the 3 stacks and the background were assigned radioisotope concentrations and attenuation coefficients. SPECT projection datasets that included Compton scattering effects, photoelectric effects, and gamma-camera models were generated using the electron gamma-shower Monte Carlo simulation program. Collimator parameters, detector resolution, total photons acquired, number of projections acquired, and radius of rotation were varied in simulations. The projection data were formatted in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and imported to and reconstructed using commercial reconstruction software on clinical SPECT workstations. Using the 3D-MAC phantom, we validated that contrast depended on size of region of interest (ROI) and was overestimated when the ROI was small. The low-energy general-purpose collimator caused a greater partial-volume effect than did the low-energy high-resolution collimator, and contrast in the cold region was higher using the filtered backprojection algorithm than using the ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm in the SPECT images. We used imported DICOM projection data and reconstructed these data using vendor software; in addition, we validated reconstructed images. The devised and developed 3D-MAC SPECT phantom is useful for the characterization of various physical factors, contrasts, partial-volume effects, reconstruction algorithms, and such, that contribute to image degradation in clinical SPECT studies.

  10. Evaluation of Facial Volume Changes after Rejuvenation Surgery Using a 3-Dimensional Camera.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Brian; Baker, Jennifer L; Hosseini, Ava; Collins, Jessica; Suliman, Ahmed; Wallace, Anne M; Cohen, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Surgical rejuvenation alters facial volume distribution to achieve more youthful aesthetic contours. These changes are routinely compared subjectively. The introduction of 3-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry provides a novel method for measuring and comparing surgical results. We sought to quantify how specific facial areas are changed after rejuvenation surgery using the 3D camera. Patients undergoing facial rejuvenation were imaged preoperatively and postoperatively with 3D stereophotogrammetry. Images were registered using facial surface landmarks unaltered by surgery. Colorimetric 3D analysis depicting postoperative volume changes was performed utilizing the 3D imaging software and quantitative volume measurements were constructed. Nine patients who underwent combined facelift procedures and fat grafting were evaluated. Median time for postoperative imaging was 4.8 months. Positive changes in facial volume occurred in the forehead, temples, and cheeks (median changes, 0.9 mL ± 4.3 SD; 0.8 mL ± 0.47 SD; and 1.4 mL ± 1.6 SD, respectively). Negative changes in volume occurred in the nasolabial folds, marionette basins, and neck/submental regions (median changes, -1.0 mL ± 0.37 SD; -0.4 mL ± 0.9 SD; and -2.0 mL ± 4.3 SD, respectively). The technique of 3D stereophotogrammetry provides a tool for quantifying facial volume distribution after rejuvenation procedures. Areas of consistent volume increase include the forehead, temples, and cheeks; areas of negative volume change occur in the nasolabial folds, marionette basins, and submental/chin regions. This technology may be utilized to better understand the dynamic changes that occur with facial rejuvenation and quantify longevity of various rejuvenation techniques. 4 Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An integrated 3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine for data-driven simulation of spatial genome organization.

    PubMed

    Szałaj, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Michalski, Paul; Pietal, Michal J; Luo, Oscar J; Sadowski, Michał; Li, Xingwang; Radew, Kamen; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding. This multilevel nature of ChIA-PET data offers an opportunity to use multiscale 3D models to study structural-functional relationships at multiple length scales, but doing so requires a structural modeling platform. Here, we report the development of 3D-GNOME (3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine), a complete computational pipeline for 3D simulation using ChIA-PET data. 3D-GNOME consists of three integrated components: a graph-distance-based heat map normalization tool, a 3D modeling platform, and an interactive 3D visualization tool. Using ChIA-PET and Hi-C data derived from human B-lymphocytes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-GNOME in building 3D genome models at multiple levels, including the entire genome, individual chromosomes, and specific segments at megabase (Mb) and kilobase (kb) resolutions of single average and ensemble structures. Further incorporation of CTCF-motif orientation and high-resolution looping patterns in 3D simulation provided additional reliability of potential biologically plausible topological structures.

  12. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Michael G; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L S

    2014-10-28

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity. Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-20mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30mol% DOTAP and ≤10mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposome size increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomes suggests concentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135nm diameter, -49 to +44mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoral subcompartments within spheroids.

  13. Quantitative 3-dimensional corneal imaging in vivo using a modified HRT-RCM confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Petroll, W Matthew; Weaver, Matthew; Vaidya, Saurabh; McCulley, James P; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test hardware and software modifications to allow quantitative full-thickness corneal imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) Rostock Corneal Module. A personal computer-controlled motor drive with positional feedback was integrated into the system to allow automated focusing through the entire cornea. The left eyes of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were scanned from endothelium to epithelium. Image sequences were read into a custom-developed program for depth calculation and measurement of sublayer thicknesses. Three-dimensional visualizations were also generated using Imaris. In 6 rabbits, stack images were registered, and depth-dependent counts of keratocyte nuclei were made using Metamorph. The mean epithelial and corneal thickness measured in the rabbit were 47 ± 5 μm and 373 ± 25 μm, respectively (n = 10 corneas); coefficients of variation for repeated scans were 8.2% and 2.1%. Corneal thickness measured using ultrasonic pachymetry was 374 + 17 μm. The mean overall keratocyte density measured in the rabbit was 43,246 ± 5603 cells per cubic millimeter in vivo (n = 6 corneas). There was a gradual decrease in keratocyte density from the anterior to posterior cornea (R = 0.99), consistent with previous data generated in vitro. This modified system allows high-resolution 3-dimensional image stacks to be collected from the full-thickness rabbit cornea in vivo. These data sets can be used for interactive visualization of corneal cell layers, measurement of sublayer thickness, and depth-dependent keratocyte density measurements. Overall, the modifications significantly expand the potential quantitative research applications of the HRT Rostock Cornea Module microscope.

  14. The Location and Distribution of Transurethral Bulking Agent: 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Yune, Junchan Joshua; Quiroz, Lieschen; Nihira, Mikio A; Siddighi, Sam; O'Leary, Dena E; Santiago, A; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    2016-01-01

    To use 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound to describe the location and distribution of bulking agent after an uncomplicated transurethral injection. Endovaginal ultrasound was performed in 24 treatment-naive patients immediately after bulking agent was injected. The distance between the center of the hyperechoic density of bulking agent and the urethrovesical junction (UVJ) was measured in the sagittal and axial views. This was calculated in percentile length of urethra. Also, the pattern of tracking of bulking agent was assessed if it is presented. After the 2 subjects were excluded because of the poor quality of images, 22 patients were included in this study. Eighteen (82%) subjects showed 2 sites of bulking agents, and mostly, they were located around 3- and 9-o'clock positions. The average distance of bulking agent from left UVJ was at 16.9% of the length of the urethra (6.2 mm; range, 0.5-17 mm) and at 25.5% of the length of the urethra (8.9 mm; range, 0-24.8 mm) in the right side. The average length of urethra was 36.7 mm. Eleven of the 22 subjects (50%) had both sides within upper one third of urethra. The difference in distance between the 2 sides was less than 10 mm in 12 of 22 patients (54%). Nine of the 22 patients (41%) had a significant spread of bulking agent mostly either into the bladder neck or toward the distal urethra. Although the bulking agent is most often found at 3- and 9-o'clock positions as intended, the distance from the UVJ is highly variable after an uncomplicated office-based transurethral injection. The bulking material does not form the characteristic spheres in 41% of cases and tracks toward the bladder neck or the distal urethra.

  15. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery.

  16. The effect of stereoscopic anaglyphic 3-dimensional video didactics on learning neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Amir; EdM, Sara Monti; Lee, Darrin; Girgis, Fady

    2017-07-29

    The teaching of neuroanatomy in medical education has historically been based on didactic instruction, cadaveric dissections, and intra-operative experience for students. Multiple novel 3-Dimensional (3D) modalities have recently emerged. Among these, stereoscopic anaglyphic video is easily accessible and affordable, however, its effects have not yet formally been investigated. This study aimed to investigate if 3D stereoscopic anaglyphic video instruction in neuroanatomy could improve learning for content-naive students, as compared to 2D video instruction. A single-site controlled prospective case control study was conducted at the School of Education. Content knowledge was assessed at baseline, followed by the presentation of an instructional neuroanatomy video. Participants viewed the video in either 2D or 3D format, then completed a written test of skull base neuroanatomy. Pre-test and post-test performances were analyzed with independent t-tests and ANCOVA. 249 subjects completed the study. At baseline, the 2D (n=124, F=97) and 3D groups (n=125, F=96) were similar, although the 3D group was older by 1.7 years (p=.0355) and the curricula of participating classes differed (p<.0001). Average scores for the 3D group were higher for both pretest (2D, M=19.9%, SD=12.5% vs. 3D, M=23.9%, SD=14.9%, p=.0234) and posttest (2D, M=68.5%, SD=18.6% vs. 3D, M=77.3%, SD=18.8%, p=.003), but the magnitude of improvement across groups did not reach statistical significance (2D, M=48.7%, SD=21.3%, vs. 3D, M=53.5%, SD=22.7%, p=.0855). Incorporation of 3D video instruction into curricula without careful integration is insufficient to promote learning over 2D video. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics. PMID:28105122

  18. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  19. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yong, J H E; McGowan, T; Redmond-Misner, R; Beca, J; Warde, P; Gutierrez, E; Hoch, J S

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption.

  20. Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Zachary; Susarla, Srinivas; Troulis, Maria; Kaban, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish normative data for airway size and shape and to evaluate differences associated with age and sex using 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging. Patients being evaluated by computed tomography (CT) for pathologic conditions not related to the airway were included. Using 3-D Slicer (Harvard Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA), a software program, digital 3-D CT reconstructions were made and parameters of airway size analyzed: volume (VOL), surface area (SA), length (L), mean cross-sectional area (mean CSA), minimum retropalatal (RP), minimum retroglossal (RG), minimum cross-sectional area (min CSA), and lateral (LAT) and anteroposterior (AP) retroglossal airway dimensions. Evaluation of airway shape included LAT/AP and RP/RG ratios, uniformity (U), and sphericity, a measure of compactness (Psi). Children were stratified by stage of dentition: primary, 0 to 5 years; mixed, 6 to 11 years; permanent, 12 to 16 years; and adults, older than 16 years. Differences in airway parameters by age and sex were analyzed. Forty-six CT scans (31 males) were evaluated. Adults had larger (VOL, SA, L, mean CSA, and LAT), more elliptical (increased LAT/AP, P = 0.01), less uniform (U, P = 0.02), and less compact (decreased Psi, P = 0.001) airways than children. Among children, those in the permanent dentition demonstrated greater VOL (P < 0.01), SA (P < 0.01), L (P < 0.01), and mean CSA (P < 0.01) than those in the primary dentition. There were no gender differences in airway parameters. Understanding differences in 3-D airway size and morphology by age may serve as a basis for evaluation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and may help to predict and to evaluate outcomes of treatment.

  1. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  2. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  3. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  4. An Innovative 3-dimensional Model of the Epitympanum for Teaching of Middle Ear Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chew Lip; Liu, Xuandao; Chee, Shuo Chian Jeremy; Ngo, Raymond Yeow Seng

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate teaching of the anatomy of the epitympanum, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional (3D) computer model that can be viewed from all angles. Questionnaire-based prospective randomized controlled trial. Undergraduate medical education program. The model was created using Google Sketchup, a 3D modeling software. We recruited 72 graduating medical students and randomized them into 2 groups. One group was given the 3D model and reading materials on the epitympanic anatomy (3D group), while the other group relied on reading material and pictures (2-dimensional [2D] group). A questionnaire and anatomy quiz assessed the utility of the 3D model in learning the anatomy of the epitympanum. The mean age of the participants was 22 years. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics and previous experience with 3D models. The 3D group was significantly more confident in its ability to identify structures of the epitympanum on pictures and computed tomography scans when compared to the 2D group. Most participants were in favor of the model as a useful learning tool and preferred to use it with an instructor. In the anatomy quiz, the 3D group fared significantly better, achieving a mean score of 65.1% compared to 32.4% in the 2D group (P < .001). The 3D teaching model of the epitympanum is efficacious in short-term recall. By allowing the learner to visualize relations of the epitympanum from all directions, the model aids in appreciation of anatomy and identifications of structures of this region. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency.

  6. A 3-dimensional rigid cluster thorax model for kinematic measurements during gait.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2014-04-11

    The trunk has been shown to work as an active segment rather than a passenger unit during gait and it is felt that trunk kinematics should be given more consideration during gait assessment. While 3-dimensional assessment of the thorax with respect to the pelvis and laboratory can provide a comprehensive description of trunk movement, the majority of existing 3-D thorax models demonstrate shortcomings such as the need for multiple skin marker configurations, difficult landmark identification and practical issues for assessment on female subjects. A small number of studies have used rigid cluster models to quantify thorax movement, however the models and points of attachment are not well described and validation rarely considered. The aim of this study was to propose an alternative rigid cluster 3-D thorax model to quantify movement during gait and provide validation of this model. A rigid mount utilising active markers was developed and applied over the 3rd thoracic vertebra, previously reported as an area of least skin movement artefact on the trunk. The model was compared to two reference thorax models through simultaneous recording during gait on 15 healthy subjects. Excellent waveform similarity was demonstrated between the proposed model and the two reference models (CMC range 0.962-0.997). Agreement of discrete parameters was very-good to excellent. In addition, ensemble average graphs demonstrated almost identical curve displacement between models. The results suggest that the proposed model can be confidently used as an alternative to other thorax models in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, T; Yuda, T; Miyamoto, K; Yamashita, M; Ueda, J

    2001-01-01

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells. c 2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Reliable Method for Evaluating Gallbladder Dynamics: The 3-Dimensional Sonographic Examination.

    PubMed

    Serra, Carla; Pallotti, Francesca; Bortolotti, Mauro; Caputo, Carla; Felicani, Cristina; De Giorgio, Roberto; Barbara, Giovanni; Nardi, Elena; Labate, Antonio Maria Morselli

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode sonography with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for assessing gallbladder volume and contractility. Gallbladder volume and contractility were evaluated in 32 healthy volunteers after fasting and abstinence from smoking for 8 hours and after a standardized balanced liquid meal. The gallbladder was evaluated with 2D sonography (with the use of the ellipsoid method) and with 3D sonography using a volumetric matrix probe. Both measurements were made by an operator who was skilled in sonography and an unskilled operator. The group of volunteers was subdivided into 2 subgroups including 16 participants, which represented the "2 moments" of acquisition by the techniques, particularly for the unskilled operator. The postprandial volumes obtained with 3D sonography were significantly lower in comparison to the volumes obtained with 2D sonography (P= .013), and there was a significant difference between the measurements made by the skilled and unskilled operators only for 2D sonography (P< .001), whereas between the 2 moments of acquisition by the 3D technique, there was no significant difference. The reproducibility of the technique for evaluation of gallbladder volumes was higher for 3D sonography than 2D sonography, particularly for the postprandial evaluation. The new 3D sonographic method using a volumetric matrix probe is a simple, reliable, and more reproducible technique than conventional 2D sonography, even if performed by an unskilled operator, and it allows a reliable stimulation test for a gallbladder dynamic study. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics.

  10. Sensitivity of 3-Dimensional Sonography in Preoperative Evaluation of Parathyroid Glands in Patients With Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Frank, Susan J; Goldman-Yassen, Adam E; Koenigsberg, Tova; Libutti, Steven K; Koenigsberg, Mordecai

    2017-09-01

    Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism facilitates targeted surgery. We assessed the sensitivity of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism at a single site at our institution. We compared preoperative 2-dimensional (2D) sonography, 3D sonography, and sestamibi scans with final gland localization at surgery. Two readers reviewed the sonograms to assess inter-reader variability. From January 2010 through April 2015, 52 patients underwent parathyroidectomy after preoperative 2D sonography, 3D sonography, and sestamibi scans. Three-dimensional sonography had sensitivity of 88-92% compared with 69-71% for 2D sonography for gland localization. In patients in whom sonography and sestamibi scans localized abnormalities to the same side, the sensitivities were 100% (43 of 43) for 3D sonography and 96% (48 of 50) for 2D sonography. Three-dimensional sonography had significantly higher sensitivity for localization of glands smaller than 500 mg compared with 2D sonography (88% versus 58%; P = .012). There was better inter-reader agreement between the radiologists when using 3D sonography (κ = 0.65) compared with 2D sonography (κ = 0.41). We found a significantly higher sensitivity and better inter-reader agreement for 3D sonography compared with 2D sonography for preoperative identification of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially among smaller glands. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. A new platform for serological analysis based on porous 3-dimensional polyethylene sinter bodies.

    PubMed

    Alasel, Mohammed; Keusgen, Michael

    2017-10-25

    A new sensitive and selective platform, three-dimensional immunosensor, has been developed for a rapid serological diagnosis; detection of a Borrelia infection was considered as a model assay. The immunosensor is based on a 3-dimensional (3D) porous solid surface (sinter body) with dimensions of 2×2.5mm where a recombinant variable lipoprotein surface-exposed protein (VlsE; Borrelia-antigen) is immobilized by different techniques. The sinter body served as a robust and inexpensive carrier, which facilitated a successful hydrophobic adsorption as well as covalent immobilization of the antigen with sufficient amounts of on the surface. Because of sinter body's porosity, the detection could be performed in an immune affinity flow system based on a little disposable plastic column. The flow of reagents through the column is advantageous in terms of reducing the non-specific interaction and shortening the test time. Furthermore, three labels were tested for a colorimetric detection: i) a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled secondary antibody, ii) nanoparticles based on Sudan IV, and iii) gold nanoparticles modified with protein A. HRP secondary labeled antibody provides the most sensitive test, 1000 fold dilution of serum sample can be clearly detected in only 20min. Gold nanoparticles modified with protein A were used as a direct label or as a catalyst for reduction of silver ions. Direct detection with gold nanoparticles provides short time of analysis (5min) while detection of metallic silver required longer time (12min) but with improved sensitivity. Nanoparticles based on Sudan IV showed high background and were less favorable. The assay is distinctive because of the rapid analysis time with all used labels, longest 20min. Compared to classical serological methods for Borrelia diagnosis, the developed method offers a simple, rapid and reliable tool of analysis with minimal cost and can be easily transferred to other infectious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  12. Validation of a Novel 3-Dimensional Sonographic Method for Assessing Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Wijnand J; van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, Maud Y A; Mauritz, Femke A; El Ouamari, Mourad; Hausken, Trygve; Olafsdottir, Edda J; van der Zee, David C; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-07-01

    A novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) sonographic method has been developed for measuring gastric volumes. This study aimed to validate and assess the reliability of this novel 3D sonographic method compared to the reference standard in 3D gastric sonography: freehand magneto-based 3D sonography. A prospective study with 8 balloons (in vitro) and 16 stomachs of healthy volunteers (in vivo) was performed. After a 500-mL liquid meal, 1 preprandial and 3 postprandial volume scans of the stomachs were performed by the novel 3D sonographic method and the current reference-standard 3D sonographic method. The in vitro study showed a mean volume difference between the novel method and the true balloon volume of -1.3 mL; limits of agreement (LoA) were small (-39.3 to12.3 mL), with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.998. The in vivo study showed a mean gastric volume of 321 mL between the novel method and the freehand magneto-based method, with a mean volume difference of -4.4 mL; LoA were -40.1 to 31.2 mL, and the ICC was 0.991. The intraobserver and interobserver variability rates were low, at 0.8 mL (LoA, -24.0 to 25.6 mL), with an ICC of 0.995, and 0.5 mL (LoA, of -26.8 to 27.8 mL), with an ICC of 0.999, respectively. The novel 3D sonographic method with automated acquisition showed good agreement with the current reference-standard gastric 3D sonographic method, with low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This novel 3D sonographic method is a valid and reliable technique for determining gastric accommodation.

  13. Usefulness of 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection FDG PET images for the diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Song, Minchul; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Choi, Kang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the 2 methods. 3D-SSP showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values to discriminate different types of dementia compared with the visual method alone, except for AD/MCI specificity and FTD sensitivity. Correction of misdiagnosis after adding 3D-SSP images was greatest for AD/MCI (56%), followed by DLB (13%) and FTD (11%). Diagnostic confidence also increased in DLB (visual: 3.2; 3D-SSP: 4.1; P < 0.001), followed by AD/MCI (visual: 3.1; 3D-SSP: 3.8; P = 0.002) and FTD (visual: 3.5; 3D-SSP: 4.2; P = 0.022). Overall, 154/360 (43%) cases had a corrected misdiagnosis or improved diagnostic confidence for the correct diagnosis. The addition of 3D-SSP images to visual analysis helped to discriminate different types of dementia in FDG PET scans, by correcting misdiagnoses and enhancing diagnostic confidence in the correct diagnosis. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy and confidence by 3D-SSP images might help to determine the cause of dementia and appropriate treatment. PMID:27930593

  14. In Vivo 3-Dimensional Kinematics of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint During Thumb Opposition.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Yohei; Oka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kiyoshi; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2017-09-07

    This study primarily aimed to demonstrate the screw-home rotation of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and the function of surrounding ligaments during thumb oppositional motion. A 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the thumb CMC joint was conducted using data derived from computed tomography of 9 healthy volunteers. Scans were obtained in the neutral forearm and wrist position and the thumb in maximum radial abduction, maximum palmar abduction, and maximum opposition. The movements of the first metacarpal and the palmar and dorsal bases on the trapezium during thumb oppositional motion from radial abduction through palmar abduction were quantified using a coordinate system originating on the trapezium. In addition to the kinematic analyses, the length of virtual ligaments, including the anterior oblique, ulnar collateral, dorsal radial, dorsal central (DCL), and posterior oblique ligament (POL), were calculated at each thumb position. From radial abduction to opposition of the thumb through palmar abduction, the first metacarpal was abducted, internally rotated, and flexed on the trapezium. The palmar base of the first metacarpal moved in the palmar-ulnar direction, and the dorsal base moved in the palmar-distal direction along the concave surface of the trapezium. Although the DCL and POL lengthened, the lengths of other ligaments did not change significantly. During thumb oppositional motion, internal rotation of the first metacarpal occurred, with the palmar base rotating primarily with respect to the dorsal base. The DCL and POL may be strained in thumb functional positions. Kinematic variables indicated a screw-home rotation of the thumb CMC joint and the contribution of the dorsal ligaments to the stability of the rotation on the pivot point. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technique for comprehensive head and neck irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Walter, Alexander S.; Hoene, Ted A.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the technical and logistical complexities of matching photon and proton treatment modalities, we developed and implemented a technique of comprehensive head and neck radiation using 3-dimensional (3D) conformal proton therapy. A monoisocentric technique was used with a 30-cm snout. Cervical lymphatics were treated with 3 fields: a posterior-anterior field with a midline block and a right and a left posterior oblique field. The matchline of the 3 cervical nodal fields with the primary tumor site fields was staggered by 0.5 cm. Comparative intensity-modulated photon plans were later developed for 12 previously treated patients to provide equivalent target coverage, while matching or improving on the proton plans' sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Dosimetry to OARs was evaluated and compared by treatment modality. Comprehensive head and neck irradiation using proton therapy yielded treatment plans with significant dose avoidance of the oral cavity and midline neck structures. When compared with the generated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, the proton treatment plans yielded statistically significant reductions in the mean and integral radiation dose to the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and the maximally spared parotid gland. There was no significant difference in mean dose to the lesser-spared parotid gland by treatment modality or in mean or integral dose to the spared submandibular glands. A technique for cervical nodal irradiation using 3D conformal proton therapy with uniform scanning was developed and clinically implemented. Use of proton therapy for cervical nodal irradiation resulted in large volume of dose avoidance to the oral cavity and low dose exposure to midline structures of the larynx and the esophagus, with lower mean and integral dose to assessed OARs when compared with competing IMRT plans.

  16. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  17. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  18. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole A; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 22 subjects during active knee flexion and extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps muscle were identified and tracked through each time frame by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The moment arm (MA) and relative moment (RM, defined as the cross product of the tendon line-of-action and a line connecting the line-of-action with the patellar center of mass) were calculated for each quadriceps component. The tendencies of the VM and VL to produce patellar tilt were evenly balanced. Interestingly, the magnitude of RM-P(Spin) for the VM and VL is approximately four times greater than the magnitude of RM-P(Tilt) for the same muscles suggesting that patellar spin may play a more important role in patellofemoral kinematics than previously thought. Thus, a force imbalance that leads to excessive lateral tilt, such as VM weakness in patellofemoral pain syndrome, would produce excessive negative spin (positive spin: superior patellar pole rotates laterally) and to a much greater degree. This would explain the increased negative spin found in recent studies of patellar maltracking. Assessing the contribution of each quadriceps component in three dimensions provides a more complete understanding of muscle functionality.

  19. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  20. Biomechanical Properties of 3-Dimensional Printed Volar Locking Distal Radius Plate: Comparison With Conventional Volar Locking Plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Young-Hoon; Choi, Wan-Sun; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Bong-Gun; Kim, Joo-Hak; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy. Each specimen was first preloaded 10 N and then was loaded to 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N in phases at a rate of 2 N/s. Each construct was then dynamically loaded for 2,000 cycles of fatigue loading in each phase for a total 10,000 cycles. Finally, the constructs were loaded to a failure at a rate of 5 mm/min. All 3 plates showed increasing stiffness at higher loads. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate showed significantly higher stiffness at all dynamic loading tests compared with the 2 conventional volar locking plates. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate had the highest yield strength, which was significantly higher than those of 2 conventional volar locking plates. A 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate has similar stiffness to conventional plates in an experimental model of a severely comminuted distal radius fracture in which the anterior and posterior metaphyseal cortex are involved. These results support the potential clinical utility of 3-dimensional printed volar locking plates in which design can be modified according the fracture configuration and the anatomy of the radius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FY07 LDRD Final Report Neutron Capture Cross-Section Measurements at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Wilk, P; Becker, J; Wang, T

    2008-02-08

    We have measured neutron capture cross sections intended to address defense science problems including mix and the Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU), and provide details about statistical decay of excited nuclei. A major part of this project included developing the ability to produce radioactive targets. The cross-section measurements were made using the white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, the detector array called DANCE (The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments) and targets important for astrophysics and stockpile stewardship. DANCE is at the leading edge of neutron capture physics and represents a major leap forward in capability. The detector array was recently built with LDRD money. Our measurements are a significant part of the early results from the new experimental DANCE facility. Neutron capture reactions are important for basic nuclear science, including astrophysics and the statistics of the {gamma}-ray cascades, and for applied science, including stockpile science and technology. We were most interested in neutron capture with neutron energies in the range between 1 eV and a few hundred keV, with targets important to basic science, and the s-process in particular. Of particular interest were neutron capture cross-section measurements of rare isotopes, especially radioactive isotopes. A strong collaboration between universities and Los Alamos due to the Academic Alliance was in place at the start of our project. Our project gave Livermore leverage in focusing on Livermore interests. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory did not have a resident expert in cross-section measurements; this project allowed us to develop this expertise. For many radionuclides, the cross sections for destruction, especially (n,{gamma}), are not well known, and there is no adequate model that describes neutron capture. The modeling problem is significant because, at low energies where capture reactions are important, the neutron

  2. Relationship between proximal femoral and acetabular alignment in normal hip joints using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Buller, Leonard T; Rosneck, James; Monaco, Feno M; Butler, Robert; Smith, Travis; Barsoum, Wael K

    2012-02-01

    The bony architecture of the hip depends upon functional adaptation to mechanical usage via the dynamic interaction between the acetabulum and femoral head. Acetabular retroversion is thought to be a contributing factor of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Studies of pathological hip joints suggest proximal femoral anatomy compensates for acetabular retroversion. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a predictable relationship exists between proximal femoral and acetabular angles, age, and gender in normal hip joints. We hypothesized that, through functional adaptation to mechanical loading, a complementary developmental relationship exists between the acetabulum and proximal femur. Descriptive laboratory study. The femoral neck version, femoral neck shaft angle, acetabular version, acetabular inclination, and center edge angle were measured in 230 normal hip joints in 115 adults using 3-dimensional reconstruction software. Correlations between the angles, age, and gender were examined using the methods of stepwise regression and backward elimination. Regarding side-to-side comparison and variability, there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides in the average value of each angle measurement. The correlations specifically between angles, age, and gender were similar on the left and right sides for all pairs except femoral version and acetabular inclination. Regarding significant findings of the study, a positive correlation (P < .05) was found between femoral version and acetabular version (0.38° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and acetabular version (0.21° to 1°). A negative correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and age (-0.17° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between acetabular version and female gender (2.6° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between center edge angle and female gender (2.8° to 1°). A

  3. Integration of GPS and InSAR Data for Optimal 3-Dimensional Crustal Deformation Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    GPS and InSAR are complementary to each other for crustal deformation monitoring, We develop an algorithm to integrate the two data sets for the production of 3-dimensional crustal motion map. In the algorithm point-based discrete GPS measurements are first interpolated to produce continuous 3-D vector map at chosen grids covered by the InSAR data. The interpolation is based on an algorithm of Shen et al. [2015], which takes into account of GPS station distance, network density and configuration for data weighting. A Gaussian distance weighting function and a Voronoi cell spatial weighting function are used in the interpolation. The amount of weighting and degree of smoothing can be spatially variable and optimally determined based on in situ data strength. This approach can effectively smooth out the incoherencies in discretized GPS velocity data. At the locations where both InSAR and interpolated GPS data are available, optimal 3-D components are solved for using a weighted least square method. The InSAR data are weighted by their LOS uncertainties. The GPS interpolated data are weighted by their re-estimated uncertainties assuming a uniform smoothing instead of variable smoothing used for data interpolation as mentioned above, to ensure that the uncertainty estimates reflect the in situ data strength consistently and not biased by uneven degree of smoothing. Including InSAR data from both ascending and descending viewing geometry, if available, provides improved constraint on the 3-D deformation when integrating with GPS data. We apply this algorithm to a test region in southern California covering most of the active faults in the region such as the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Garlock. We use LOS rate data derived from 18 years of ERS-Envisat InSAR data, and a combination of continuous and campaign GPS data of more than two decades of time span. Our preliminary result shows that the GPS and InSAR data are generally consistent for the horizontal velocities at

  4. Relationship Between the Lateral Center-Edge Angle and 3-Dimensional Acetabular Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Kapron, Ashley L; Peters, Christopher L; Aoki, Stephen K; Maak, Travis G

    2017-04-01

    The lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) is an important measurement in understanding acetabular morphology and has had multiple interpretations. Misunderstanding of the LCEA and its relationship with acetabular 3-dimensional (3D) morphology may result in misdiagnosis and poor outcomes. To determine the discrepancy between bone-edge and sourcil-edge LCEA measurements on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs and to determine the 3D anatomic location of the sourcil-edge and bone-edge LCEA measurements. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. The LCEA was measured on radiographs to both the sourcil-edge and bone-edge on AP images of 60 symptomatic hips. On computed tomography (CT), coronal slices producing an LCEA matching the magnitude of each AP LCEA were identified. These coronal slices were mapped to a sagittal image of the acetabulum, which was divided into a standard clockface (3 = anterior, 12 = superior). We identified clockface locations corresponding to the AP sourcil-edge and bone-edge LCEA measurements. Paired t tests identified differences in magnitude and location of the bone and sourcil LCEAs. Limits of agreement were calculated for the differences between measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed inter- and intraobserver repeatability. On the AP radiographs, the bone-edge LCEA was a mean 4.7° (95% CI, -4.0° to 13.3°) greater than the sourcil-edge LCEA (P < .001). On CT, the sagittal clockface location of the sourcil-edge LCEA was more anterior compared with the sagittal clockface location of the maximum bone-edge LCEA (1:03 ± 0:42 vs 12:06 ± 0:30, respectively; P < .001). In hips with a difference >5° between sourcil-edge and bone-edge measurements, the coronal CT slice corresponding to the sourcil-edge LCEA was significantly more anterior (1:26 ± 0:35) than the CT slice corresponding to the bone-edge LCEA (11:46 ± 0:29; P < .001). This significant difference was similar in location but less pronounced in hips with a

  5. Common 3-dimensional coordinate system for assessment of directional changes.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Tonello, Cristiano; Gomes, Liliane Rosas; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Macron, Lucie; Lopinto, Julia; Goncalves, Joao Roberto; Garib Carreira, Daniela Gamba; Alonso, Nivaldo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate how head orientation interferes with the amounts of directional change in 3-dimensional (3D) space and to propose a method to obtain a common coordinate system using 3D surface models. Three-dimensional volumetric label maps were built for pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) from cone-beam computed tomography images of 30 growing subjects. Seven landmarks were labeled in all T1 and T2 volumetric label maps. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the cranial base were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. All T1 surface models were moved by orienting the Frankfort horizontal, midsagittal, and transporionic planes to match the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively, at a common coordinate system in the Slicer software (open-source, version 4.3.1; http://www.slicer.org). The matrix generated for each T1 model was applied to each corresponding registered T2 surface model, obtaining a common head orientation. The 3D differences between the T1 and registered T2 models, and the amounts of directional change in each plane of the 3D space, were quantified for before and after head orientation. Two assessments were performed: (1) at 1 time point (mandibular width and length), and (2) for longitudinal changes (maxillary and mandibular differences). The differences between measurements before and after head orientation were quantified. Statistical analysis was performed by evaluating the means and standard deviations with paired t tests (mandibular width and length) and Wilcoxon tests (longitudinal changes). For 16 subjects, 2 observers working independently performed the head orientations twice with a 1-week interval between them. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method tested intraobserver and interobserver agreements of the x, y, and z coordinates for 7 landmarks. The 3D differences were not affected by the head orientation. The amounts of directional change in each plane of 3

  6. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  7. [Constructing 3-dimensional colorized digital dental model assisted by digital photography].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong-qiang; Liu, Yu-shu; Liu, Yun-song; Ning, Jing; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Zhou, Yong-sheng

    2016-02-18

    To explore a method of constructing universal 3-dimensional (3D) colorized digital dental model which can be displayed and edited in common 3D software (such as Geomagic series), in order to improve the visual effect of digital dental model in 3D software. The morphological data of teeth and gingivae were obtained by intra-oral scanning system (3Shape TRIOS), constructing 3D digital dental models. The 3D digital dental models were exported as STL files. Meanwhile, referring to the accredited photography guide of American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD), five selected digital photographs of patients'teeth and gingivae were taken by digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) with the same exposure parameters (except occlusal views) to capture the color data. In Geomagic Studio 2013, after STL file of 3D digital dental model being imported, digital photographs were projected on 3D digital dental model with corresponding position and angle. The junctions of different photos were carefully trimmed to get continuous and natural color transitions. Then the 3D colorized digital dental model was constructed, which was exported as OBJ file or WRP file which was a special file for software of Geomagic series. For the purpose of evaluating the visual effect of the 3D colorized digital model, a rating scale on color simulation effect in views of patients'evaluation was used. Sixteen patients were recruited and their scores on colored and non-colored digital dental models were recorded. The data were analyzed using McNemar-Bowker test in SPSS 20. Universal 3D colorized digital dental model with better color simulation was constructed based on intra-oral scanning and digital photography. For clinical application, the 3D colorized digital dental models, combined with 3D face images, were introduced into 3D smile design of aesthetic rehabilitation, which could improve the patients' cognition for the esthetic digital design and virtual prosthetic effect. Universal 3D colorized

  8. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  9. Compressed-Sensing Accelerated 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography: Application in Suspected Pancreatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Wu, Xi; Sun, Zhaoyong; Jin, Zhengyu; Weiland, Elisabeth; Raithel, Esther; Qian, Tianyi; Xue, Huadan

    2017-09-26

    The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate image quality, duct visibility, and diagnostic performance in duct-related pathologies of compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prototype protocols and compare these with those of conventional 3D MRCP protocol in patients with suspected pancreatic diseases. The institutional review board approved this prospective study and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 80 patients (47 men and 33 women; median age, 57 years; age range, 24-87 years) underwent 3D MRCP at 3.0 T. Three protocols were performed in each patient in random order: CS breath-hold (BH) protocol, CS navigator-triggered (NT) protocol, and conventional NT protocol. The acquisition time of each protocol was recorded. Image quality and duct visibility were independently rated in random order on a 5-point scale by 2 radiologists, who were blinded to the protocols. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated, and area under the curve (Az value) was used to compare the diagnostic performance of each protocol in duct-related pathologies. Acquisition time was 17 seconds for the CS-BH and 134.1 ± 33.5 seconds for the CS-NT protocol, both