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Sample records for 3-dimensional printing modeling

  1. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery. PMID:25197746

  2. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  3. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus

  4. Projection printing of 3-dimensional tissue scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Shaochen

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to create precise, predesigned, spatially patterned biochemical and physical microenvironments inside polymer scaffolds could provide a powerful tool in studying progenitor cell behavior and differentiation under biomimetic, three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. The development of freeform fabrication technology has become a promising tool for the manufacturing of biological scaffolds for tissue regeneration and stem cell engineering. Freeform fabrication is a very promising technology due to the efficient and simple process for creating bona fide 3D microstructures, such as closed channels and cavities. It is also capable of encapsulating biomolecules and even living cells. This chapter describes direct projection printing of 3D tissue engineering scaffolds by using a digital micromirror-array device (DMD) in a layer-by-layer process. This simple and fast microstereolithography system consists of an ultraviolet (UV) light source, a digital micromirror masking device, imaging optics, and controlling devices. Images of UV light are projected onto the photocurable resin by creating the "dynamic photomask" design with graphic software. Multilayered scaffolds are microfabricated through a photopolymerization process. PMID:22692617

  5. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  6. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  7. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  8. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  9. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. PMID:27162278

  10. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures. PMID:27137437

  11. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  12. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  13. Computer-Aided Designed, 3-Dimensionally Printed Porous Tissue Bioscaffolds For Craniofacial Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, David A.; Mitsak, Anna G.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the potential of integrated image-based Computer Aided Design (CAD) and 3D printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Study Design Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Setting Multidisciplinary effort encompassing two academic institutions. Subjects and Methods DICOM CT images are segmented and utilized in image-based computer aided design to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable, polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture are produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months duration. Results Auricular and nasal constructs with several microporous architectures were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histologic analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native appearing cartilaginous growth respecting the boundaries of the scaffold. Conclusions Integrated image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. PMID:25281749

  14. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation. PMID:26860990

  15. Morphological analysis and preoperative simulation of a double-chambered right ventricle using 3-dimensional printing technology.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Koyama, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Yoshitatsu, Masao

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a double-chambered right ventricle in adulthood, in which we tried a detailed morphological assessment and preoperative simulation using 3-dimensional (3D) heart models for improved surgical planning. Polygonal object data for the heart were constructed from computed tomography images of this patient, and transferred to a desktop 3D printer to print out models in actual size. Medical staff completed all of the work processes. Because the 3D heart models were examined by hand, observed from various viewpoints and measured by callipers with ease, we were able to create an image of the complete form of the heart. The anatomical structure of an anomalous bundle was clearly observed, and surgical approaches to the lesion were simulated accurately. During surgery, we used an incision on the pulmonary infundibulum and resected three muscular components of the stenosis. The similarity between the models and the actual heart was excellent. As a result, the operation for this rare defect was performed safely and successfully. We concluded that the custom-made model was useful for morphological analysis and preoperative simulation.

  16. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  17. Simultaneous Bimaxillary Surgery and Mandibular Reconstruction With a 3-Dimensional Printed Titanium Implant Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting: A Preliminary Mechanical Testing of the Printed Mandible.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ui-Lyong; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Woo, Su-Heon; Choi, Young-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A woman presented with a long history of mandibular defects posterior to the left lower first premolar caused by inadequate reconstruction after removal of a tumor on the left side of the mandible. In the frontal view, extreme facial asymmetry was apparent. The dental midline of the mandible was deviated 10 mm to the left compared with the dental midline of the maxilla, and all maxillary teeth were inclined to the left owing to dental compensation. There was an 8-mm maxillary occlusal cant relative to the maxillary first molar. Bimaxillary surgery using computer-assisted designed and computer-assisted manufactured devices without an intermediate occlusal splint was performed to align the maxilla and mandible at the correct position, and reconstructive surgery for the mandible using a 3-dimensional printed titanium mandible was concurrently performed. In particular, during the virtual mandible design, 2 abutments that enabled the prosthetic restoration were included in the mandible using a computer-assisted design program. This report describes the successful functional and esthetic reconstruction of the mandible using electron beam melting technology, an alternative technique for reconstruction of mandibles that did not undergo radiation therapy. PMID:27060494

  18. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  19. 3-dimensional current collection model. [Of Tethered Satellite System 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Kai-Shen; Shiah, A.; Wu, S.T.; Stone, N. Alabama, University, Huntsvilll NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ae )

    1992-07-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent current collection model of a satellite has been developed for the TSS-1 system. The system has been simulated particularly for the Research of Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE) experiment. The Maxwellian distributed particles with the geomagnetic field effects are applied in this numerical simulation. The preliminary results indicate that a ring current is observed surrounding the satellite in the equatorial plane. This ring current is found between the plasma sheath and the satellite surface and is oscillating with a time scale of approximately 1 microsec. This is equivalent to the electron plasma frequency. An hour glass shape of electron distribution was observed when the viewing direction is perpendicular to the equatorial plane. This result is consistent with previous findings from Linson (1969) and Antoniades et al. (1990). Electrons that are absorbed by the satellite are limited from the background ionosphere as indicated by Parker and Murphy (1967). 6 refs.

  20. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  1. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  2. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  3. Finite element modelling of a 3 dimensional dielectrophoretic flow separator device for optimal bioprocessing conditions.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, H O; Hughes, M P

    2004-01-01

    Planar 2-dimensional dielectrophoresis electrode geometries are limited in only being capable of handling fluid volumes ranging from picolitres to hundreds of microliters per hour. A 3-dimensional electrode system has been developed capable of handling significantly larger volumes of fluid. Using finite element modeling the electric field distribution within various bore sizes was realized. From these simulations it is possible to optimize bioprocessing factors influencing the performance of a dielectrophoretic separator. Process calculations have shown that flow-rates of 25ml hr/sup -1/ or more can be attained for the separation of heterogeneous populations of bio-particles based on their dielectric properties.

  4. [Rapid 3-Dimensional Models of Cerebral Aneurysm for Emergency Surgical Clipping].

    PubMed

    Konno, Takehiko; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Oguma, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Naoki; Otani, Keisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-08-01

    We developed a method for manufacturing solid models of cerebral aneurysms, with a shorter printing time than that involved in conventional methods, using a compact 3D printer with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS)resin. We further investigated the application and utility of this printing system in emergency clipping surgery. A total of 16 patients diagnosed with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from cerebral aneurysm rupture were enrolled in the present study. Emergency clipping was performed on the day of hospitalization. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine(DICOM)data obtained from computed tomography angiography(CTA)scans were edited and converted to stereolithography(STL)file formats, followed by the production of 3D models of the cerebral aneurysm by using the 3D printer. The mean time from hospitalization to the commencement of surgery was 242 min, whereas the mean time required for manufacturing the 3D model was 67 min. The average cost of each 3D model was 194 Japanese Yen. The time required for manufacturing the 3D models shortened to approximately 1 hour with increasing experience of producing 3D models. Favorable impressions for the use of the 3D models in clipping were reported by almost all neurosurgeons included in this study. Although 3D printing is often considered to involve huge costs and long manufacturing time, the method used in the present study requires shorter time and lower costs than conventional methods for manufacturing 3D cerebral aneurysm models, thus making it suitable for use in emergency clipping. PMID:27506842

  5. Investigation of Asymmetries in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Reactors Using a 3-Dimensional Hybrid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.; Grapperhaus, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) reactors have the potential for scaling to large area substrates while maintaining azimuthal symmetry or side-to-side uniformity across the wafer. Asymmetric etch properties in these devices have been attributed to transmission line properties of the coil, internal structures (such as wafer clamps) and non-uniform gas injection or pumping. To investigate the origins of asymmetric etch properties, a 3-dimensional hybrid model has been developed. The hybrid model contains electromagnetic, electric circuit, electron energy equation, and fluid modules. Continuity and momentum equations are solved in the fluid module along with Poisson's equation. We will discuss results for ion and radical flux uniformity to the substrate while varying the transmission line characteristics of the coil, symmetry of gas inlets/pumping, and internal structures. Comparisons will be made to expermental measurements of etch rates. ^*Work supported by SRC, NSF, ARPA/AFOSR and LAM Research.

  6. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  7. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  8. A 3-dimensional DTI MRI-based model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Leith; Patel, Vishal; Wen, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most aggressive intra-axial brain tumor, with a notoriously poor prognosis. To improve this prognosis, it is necessary to understand the dynamics of GBM growth, response to treatment and recurrence. The present study presents a mathematical diffusion-proliferation model of GBM growth and response to radiation therapy based on diffusion tensor (DTI) MRI imaging. This represents an important advance because it allows 3-dimensional tumor modeling in the anatomical context of the brain. Specifically, tumor infiltration is guided by the direction of the white matter tracts along which glioma cells infiltrate. This provides the potential to model different tumor growth patterns based on location within the brain, and to simulate the tumor's response to different radiation therapy regimens. Tumor infiltration across the corpus callosum is simulated in biologically accurate time frames. The response to radiation therapy, including changes in cell density gradients and how these compare across different radiation fractionation protocols, can be rendered. Also, the model can estimate the amount of subthreshold tumor which has extended beyond the visible MR imaging margins. When combined with the ability of being able to estimate the biological parameters of invasiveness and proliferation of a particular GBM from serial MRI scans, it is shown that the model has potential to simulate realistic tumor growth, response and recurrence patterns in individual patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a DTI-based GBM growth and radiation therapy treatment model. PMID:27572745

  9. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  10. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  11. An Explicit 3-Dimensional Model for Reactive Transport of Nitrogen in Tile Drained Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Hudson, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Midwest because of its link to surface water eutrophication, especially in the Gulf of Mexico. The vast majority of this nitrate is the product of biologically mediated transformation of fertilizers containing ammonia in the vadose zone of agricultural fields. For this reason, it is imperative that mathematical models, which can serve as useful tools to evaluate both the impact of agricultural fertilizer applications and nutrient-reducing management practices, are able to specifically address transport in the vadose zone. The development of a 3-dimensional explicit numerical model to simulate the movement and transformation of nitrogen species through the subsurface on the scale of an individual farm plot will be presented. At this scale, nitrogen fate and transport is controlled by a complex coupling among hydrologic, agricultural and biogeochemical processes. The nitrogen model is a component of a larger modeling effort that focuses upon conditions typical of those found in agricultural fields in Illinois. These conditions include non-uniform, multi-dimensional, transient flow in both saturated and unsaturated zones, geometrically complex networks of tile drains, coupled surface-subsurface-tile flow, and dynamic levels of dissolved oxygen in the soil profile. The advection-dispersion-reaction equation is solved using an operator-splitting approach, which is a flexible and straightforward strategy. Advection is modeled using a total variation diminishing scheme, dispersion is modeled using an alternating direction explicit method, and reactions are modeled using rate law equations. The model's stability and accuracy will be discussed, and test problems will be presented.

  12. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  13. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  14. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  15. 3-Dimensional modeling of large diameter wire array high intensity K-shell radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Thornhill, Joseph W.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-06-01

    Large diameter nested wire array z-pinches imploded on the Z-generator at Sandia National Laboratories have been used extensively to generate high intensity K-shell radiation. Large initial radii are required to obtain the high implosion velocities needed to efficiently radiate in the K-shell. This necessitates low wire numbers and large inter-wire gaps which introduce large azimuthal non-uniformities. Furthermore, the development of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the implosion are known to generate large axial non-uniformity These effects motivate the complete, full circumference 3-dimensional modeling of these systems. Such high velocity implosions also generate large voltages, which increase current losses in the power feed and limit the current delivery to these loads. Accurate representation of the generator coupling is therefore required to reliably represent the energy delivered to, and the power radiated from these sources. We present 3D-resistive MHD calculations of the implosion and stagnation of a variety of large diameter stainless steel wire arrays (hv {approx} 6.7 keV), imploded on the Z-generator both before and after its refurbishment. Use of a tabulated K-shell emission model allows us to compare total and K-shell radiated powers to available experimental measurements. Further comparison to electrical voltage and current measurements allows us to accurately assess the power delivered to these loads. These data allow us to begin to constrain and validate our 3D MHD calculations, providing insight into ways in which these sources may be further optimized.

  16. Contributions of the Musculus Uvulae to Velopharyngeal Closure Quantified With a 3-Dimensional Multimuscle Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Lin, Kant Y; Perry, Jamie L; Blemker, Silvia S

    2016-02-01

    The convexity of the dorsal surface of the velum is critical for normal velopharyngeal (VP) function and is largely attributed to the levator veli palatini (LVP) and musculus uvulae (MU). Studies have correlated a concave or flat nasal velar surface to symptoms of VP dysfunction including hypernasality and nasal air emission. In the context of surgical repair of cleft palates, the MU has been given relatively little attention in the literature compared with the larger LVP. A greater understanding of the mechanics of the MU will provide insight into understanding the influence of a dysmorphic MU, as seen in cleft palate, as it relates to VP function. The purpose of this study was to quantify the contributions of the MU to VP closure in a computational model. We created a novel 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the VP mechanism from magnetic resonance imaging data collected from an individual with healthy noncleft VP anatomy. The model components included the velum, posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW), LVP, and MU. Simulations were based on the muscle and soft tissue mechanical properties from the literature. We found that, similar to previous hypotheses, the MU acts as (i) a space-occupying structure and (ii) a velar extensor. As a space-occupying structure, the MU helps to nearly triple the midline VP contact length. As a velar extensor, the MU acting alone without the LVP decreases the VP distance 62%. Furthermore, activation of the MU decreases the LVP activation required for closure almost 3-fold, from 20% (without MU) to 8% (with MU). Our study suggests that any possible salvaging and anatomical reconstruction of viable MU tissue in a cleft patient may improve VP closure due to its mechanical function. In the absence or dysfunction of MU tissue, implantation of autologous or engineered tissues at the velar midline, as a possible substitute for the MU, may produce a geometric convexity more favorable to VP closure. In the future, more complex models will

  17. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  18. Virtual model surgery and wafer fabrication using 2-dimensional cephalograms, 3-dimensional virtual dental models, and stereolithographic technology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Jong-Min; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-02-01

    Although several 3-dimensional virtual model surgery (3D-VMS) programs have been introduced to reduce time-consuming manual laboratory steps and potential errors, these programs still require 3D-computed tomography (3D-CT) data and involve complex computerized maneuvers. Because it is difficult to take 3D-CTs for all cases, a new VMS program using 2D lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and 3D virtual dental models (2.5D-VMS program; 3Txer version 2.5, Orapix, Seoul, Korea) has recently been introduced. The purposes of this article were to present the methodology of the 2.5D-VMS program and to verify the accuracy of intermediate surgical wafers fabricated with the stereolithographic technique. Two cases successfully treated using the 2.5D-VMS program are presented. There was no significant difference in the position of upper dentition after surgical movement between 2.5D-VMS and 3D-VMS in 18 samples (less than 0.10 mm, P > .05, Wilcoxon-signed rank test). The 2.5D-VMS can be regarded as an effective alternative for 3D-VMS for cases in which 3D-CT data are not available.

  19. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  20. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H2-N2 mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  1. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models

    DOE PAGES

    Lund, Tina; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans -Thomas; Muller, Ewald; Raffelt, Georg

    2012-11-19

    Here, we study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced activity of the standing accretion shock instability in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.

  2. Visualization of the 3-dimensional flow around a model with the aid of a laser knife

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovoy, V. Y.; Ivanov, V. V.; Orlov, A. A.; Kharchenko, V. N.

    1984-01-01

    A method for visualizing the three-dimensional flow around models of various shapes in a wind tunnel at a Mach number of 5 is described. A laser provides a planar light flux such that any plane through the model can be selectively illuminated. The shape of shock waves and separation regions is then determined by the intensity of light scattered by soot particles in the flow.

  3. High fidelity 3-dimensional models of beam-electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiz Zarrin Ghalam, Ali

    Electron cloud is a low-density electron profile created inside the vacuum chamber of circular machines with positively charged beams. Electron cloud limits the peak current of the beam and degrades the beams' quality through luminosity degradation, emittance growth and head to tail or bunch to bunch instability. The adverse effects of electron cloud on long-term beam dynamics becomes more and more important as the beams go to higher and higher energies. This problem has become a major concern in many future circular machines design like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Due to the importance of the problem several simulation models have been developed to model long-term beam-electron cloud interaction. These models are based on "single kick approximation" where the electron cloud is assumed to be concentrated at one thin slab around the ring. While this model is efficient in terms of computational costs, it does not reflect the real physical situation as the forces from electron cloud to the beam are non-linear contrary to this model's assumption. To address the existing codes limitation, in this thesis a new model is developed to continuously model the beam-electron cloud interaction. The code is derived from a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model (QuickPIC) originally used for plasma wakefield acceleration research. To make the original model fit into circular machines environment, betatron and synchrotron equations of motions have been added to the code, also the effect of chromaticity, lattice structure have been included. QuickPIC is then benchmarked against one of the codes developed based on single kick approximation (HEAD-TAIL) for the transverse spot size of the beam in CERN-LHC. The growth predicted by QuickPIC is less than the one predicted by HEAD-TAIL. The code is then used to investigate the effect of electron cloud image charges on the long-term beam dynamics, particularly on the

  4. Remanent magnetization and 3-dimensional density model of the Kentucky anomaly region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Estes, R. H.; Myers, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Kentucky body was developed to fit surface gravity and long wavelength aeromagnetic data. Magnetization and density parameters for the model are much like those of Mayhew et al (1982). The magnetic anomaly due to the model at satellite altitude is shown to be much too small by itself to account for the anomaly measured by Magsat. It is demonstrated that the source region for the satellite anomaly is considerably more extensive than the Kentucky body sensu stricto. The extended source region is modeled first using prismatic model sources and then using dipole array sources. Magnetization directions for the source region found by inversion of various combinations of scalar and vector data are found to be close to the main field direction, implying the lack of a strong remanent component. It is shown by simulation that in a case (such as this) where the geometry of the source is known, if a strong remanent component is present its direction is readily detectable, but by scalar data as readily as vector data.

  5. 3-dimensional spatially organized PEG-based hydrogels for an aortic valve co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Puperi, Daniel S.; Balaoing, Liezl R.; O’Connell, Ronan W.; West, Jennifer L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically relevant in vitro models are needed to study disease progression and to develop and screen potential therapeutic interventions for disease. Heart valve disease, in particular, has no early intervention or non-invasive treatment because there is a lack of understanding the cellular mechanisms which lead to disease. Here, we establish a novel, customizable synthetic hydrogel platform that can be used to study cell-cell interactions and the factors which contribute to valve disease. Spatially localized cell adhesive ligands bound in the scaffold promote cell growth and organization of valve interstitial cells and valve endothelial cells in 3D co-culture. Both cell types maintained phenotypes, homeostatic functions, and produced zonally localized extracellular matrix. This model extends the capabilities of in vitro research by providing a platform to perform direct contact co-culture with cells in their physiologically relevant spatial arrangement. PMID:26241755

  6. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  7. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  8. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  9. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  10. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments. PMID:26734515

  11. Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Superimposition Techniques on Various Skeletal Structures of the Head Using Surface Models

    PubMed Central

    Pazera, Pawel; Zorkun, Berna; Katsaros, Christos; Ludwig, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the applicability, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of various 3D superimposition techniques for radiographic data, transformed to triangulated surface data. Methods Five superimposition techniques (3P: three-point registration; AC: anterior cranial base; AC + F: anterior cranial base + foramen magnum; BZ: both zygomatic arches; 1Z: one zygomatic arch) were tested using eight pairs of pre-existing CT data (pre- and post-treatment). These were obtained from non-growing orthodontic patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. All datasets were superimposed by three operators independently, who repeated the whole procedure one month later. Accuracy was assessed by the distance (D) between superimposed datasets on three form-stable anatomical areas, located on the anterior cranial base and the foramen magnum. Precision and reproducibility were assessed using the distances between models at four specific landmarks. Non parametric multivariate models and Bland-Altman difference plots were used for analyses. Results There was no difference among operators or between time points on the accuracy of each superimposition technique (p>0.05). The AC + F technique was the most accurate (D<0.17 mm), as expected, followed by AC and BZ superimpositions that presented similar level of accuracy (D<0.5 mm). 3P and 1Z were the least accurate superimpositions (0.790.05), the detected structural changes differed significantly between different techniques (p<0.05). Bland-Altman difference plots showed that BZ superimposition was comparable to AC, though it presented slightly higher random error. Conclusions Superimposition of 3D datasets using surface models created from voxel data can provide accurate, precise, and reproducible results, offering also high efficiency and increased post-processing capabilities. In

  12. Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Carol J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides descriptions of jobs related to the printing industry. Includes information on salaries, labor market outlook, and education/training needed. Describes careers in commercial printing and graphic communications. (JOW)

  13. A 3-dimensional in vitro model of epithelioid granulomas induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common causes of granulomatous inflammation are persistent pathogens and poorly-degradable irritating materials. A characteristic pathological reaction to intratracheal instillation, pharyngeal aspiration, or inhalation of carbon nanotubes is formation of epithelioid granulomas accompanied by interstitial fibrosis in the lungs. In the mesothelium, a similar response is induced by high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including asbestos fibers, following intraperitoneal injection. This asbestos-like behaviour of some engineered nanomaterials is a concern for their potential adverse health effects in the lungs and mesothelium. We hypothesize that high aspect ratio nanomaterials will induce epithelioid granulomas in nonadherent macrophages in 3D cultures. Results Carbon black particles (Printex 90) and crocidolite asbestos fibers were used as well-characterized reference materials and compared with three commercial samples of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Doses were identified in 2D and 3D cultures in order to minimize acute toxicity and to reflect realistic occupational exposures in humans and in previous inhalation studies in rodents. Under serum-free conditions, exposure of nonadherent primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages to 0.5 μg/ml (0.38 μg/cm2) of crocidolite asbestos fibers or MWCNTs, but not carbon black, induced macrophage differentiation into epithelioid cells and formation of stable aggregates with the characteristic morphology of granulomas. Formation of multinucleated giant cells was also induced by asbestos fibers or MWCNTs in this 3D in vitro model. After 7-14 days, macrophages exposed to high aspect ratio nanomaterials co-expressed proinflammatory (M1) as well as profibrotic (M2) phenotypic markers. Conclusions Induction of epithelioid granulomas appears to correlate with high aspect ratio and complex 3D structure of carbon nanotubes, not with their iron content or surface area. This model offers a time- and cost

  14. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  15. Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.

  16. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  17. Effect of Heat-Inactivated Clostridium sporogenes and Its Conditioned Media on 3-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Madhura Satish; Hassanbhai, Ammar Mansoor; Anand, Padmaja; Luo, Kathy Qian; Teoh, Swee Hin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy continue to have limited efficacy due to tumor hypoxia. While bacterial cancer therapy has the potential to overcome this problem, it comes with the risk of toxicity and infection. To circumvent these issues, this paper investigates the anti-tumor effects of non-viable bacterial derivatives of Clostridium sporogenes. These non-viable derivatives are heat-inactivated C. sporogenes bacteria (IB) and the secreted bacterial proteins in culture media, known as conditioned media (CM). In this project, the effects of IB and CM on CT26 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were examined on a 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) platform. IB significantly inhibited cell proliferation of CT26 to 6.3% of the control in 72 hours for the 2D monolayer culture. In the 3D spheroid culture, cell proliferation of HCT116 spheroids notably dropped to 26.2%. Similarly the CM also remarkably reduced the cell-proliferation of the CT26 cells to 2.4% and 20% in the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Interestingly the effect of boiled conditioned media (BCM) on the cells in the 3D model was less inhibitory than that of CM. Thus, the inhibitive effect of inactivated C. sporogenes and its conditioned media on colorectal cancer cells is established. PMID:26507312

  18. 3-dimensional Modeling of Electromagnetic and Physical Sources of Aziumuthal Nonuniformities in Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqing; Keiter, Eric R.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1998-10-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICPs) are being used for a variety of deposition processes for microelectronics fabrication. Of particular concern in scaling these devices to large areas is maintaining azimuthal symmetry of the reactant fluxes. Sources of nonuniformity may be physical (e.g., gas injection and side pumping) or electromagnetic (e.g., transmission line effects in the antennas). In this paper, a 3-dimensional plasma equipment model, HPEM-3D,(M. J. Kushner, J. Appl. Phys. v.82, 5312 (1997).) is used to investigate physical and electromagentic sources of azimuthal nonuniformities in deposition tools. An ionized metal physical vapor deposition (IMPVD) system will be investigated where transmission line effects in the coils produce an asymmetric plasma density. Long mean free path transport for sputtered neutrals and tensor conducitivities have been added to HPEM-3D to address this system. Since the coil generated ion flux drifts back to the target to sputter low ionization potential metal atoms, the asymmetry is reinforced by rapid ionization of the metal atoms.

  19. Molecular profiling of the invasive tumor microenvironment in a 3-dimensional model of colorectal cancer cells and ex vivo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Marc D; Mellone, Max; Pickard, Karen M; Sayan, Abdulkadir Emre; Mitter, Richard; Primrose, John N; Packham, Graham K; Thomas, Gareth; Mirnezami, Alexander H

    2014-01-01

    Invading colorectal cancer (CRC) cells have acquired the capacity to break free from their sister cells, infiltrate the stroma, and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). Characterizing the biology of this phenotypically distinct group of cells could substantially improve our understanding of early events during the metastatic cascade. Tumor invasion is a dynamic process facilitated by bidirectional interactions between malignant epithelium and the cancer associated stroma. In order to examine cell-specific responses at the tumor stroma-interface we have combined organotypic co-culture and laser micro-dissection techniques. Organotypic models, in which key stromal constituents such as fibroblasts are 3-dimensionally co-cultured with cancer epithelial cells, are highly manipulatable experimental tools which enable invasion and cancer-stroma interactions to be studied in near-physiological conditions. Laser microdissection (LMD) is a technique which entails the surgical dissection and extraction of the various strata within tumor tissue, with micron level precision. By combining these techniques with genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling we aim to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular characteristics of invading tumor cells and surrounding stromal tissue, and in doing so potentially reveal novel biomarkers and opportunities for drug development in CRC. PMID:24836208

  20. Development of a high-throughput screening assay based on the 3-dimensional pannus model for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ibold, Yvonne; Frauenschuh, Simone; Kaps, Christian; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen; Goetz, Peter M

    2007-10-01

    The 3-dimensional (3-D) pannus model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on the interactive co-culture of cartilage and synovial fibroblasts (SFs). Besides the investigation of the pathogenesis of RA, it can be used to analyze the active profiles of antirheumatic pharmaceuticals and other bioactive substances under in vitro conditions. For a potential application in the industrial drug-screening process as a transitional step between 2-dimensional (2-D) cell-based assays and in vivo animal studies, the pannus model was developed into an in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assay. Using the CyBitrade mark-Disk workstation for parallel liquid handling, the main cell culture steps of cell seeding and cultivation were automated. Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage and seeded directly into 96-well microplates in high-density pellets to ensure formation of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell seeding was performed automatically and manually to compare both processes regarding accuracy, reproducibility, consistency, and handling time. For automated cultivation of the chondrocyte pellet cultures, a sequential program was developed using the CyBio Control software to minimize shear forces and handling time. After 14 days of cultivation, the pannus model was completed by coating the cartilage pellets with a layer of human SFs. The effects due to automation in comparison to manual handling were analyzed by optical analysis of the pellets, histological and immunohistochemical staining, and real-time PCR. Automation of this in vitro model was successfully achieved and resulted in an improved quality of the generated pannus cultures by enhancing the formation of cartilage-specific ECM. In addition, automated cell seeding and media exchange increased the efficiency due to a reduction of labor intensity and handling time.

  1. A Geometric Modelling Approach to Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 3-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pashazadeh, Saeid; Sharifi, Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    Existing 3-dimensional acoustic target tracking methods that use wired/wireless networked sensor nodes to track targets based on four sensing coverage do not always compute the feasible spatio-temporal information of target objects. To investigate this discrepancy in a formal setting, we propose a geometric model of the target tracking problem alongside its equivalent geometric dual model that is easier to solve. We then study and prove some properties of dual model by exploiting its relationship with algebra. Based on these properties, we propose a four coverage axis line method based on four sensing coverage and prove that four sensing coverage always yields two dual correct answers; usually one of them is infeasible. By showing that the feasible answer can be only sometimes identified by using a simple time test method such as the one proposed by ourselves, we prove that four sensing coverage fails to always yield the feasible spatio-temporal information of a target object. We further prove that five sensing coverage always gives the feasible position of a target object under certain conditions that are discussed in this paper. We propose three extensions to four coverage axis line method, namely, five coverage extent point method, five coverage extended axis lines method, and five coverage redundant axis lines method. Computation and time complexities of all four proposed methods are equal in the worst cases as well as on average being equal to Θ(1) each. Proposed methods and proved facts about capabilities of sensing coverage degree in this paper can be used in all other methods of acoustic target tracking like Bayesian filtering methods. PMID:22423198

  2. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C.; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  3. Markov source model for printed music decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, Gary E.; Chou, Philip A.; Maltz, David A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a Markov source model for a simple subset of printed music notation. The model is based on the Adobe Sonata music symbol set and a message language of our own design. Chord imaging is the most complex part of the model. Much of the complexity follows from a rule of music typography that requires the noteheads for adjacent pitches to be placed on opposite sides of the chord stem. This rule leads to a proliferation of cases for other typographic details such as dot placement. We describe the language of message strings accepted by the model and discuss some of the imaging issues associated with various aspects of the message language. We also point out some aspects of music notation that appear problematic for a finite-state representation. Development of the model was greatly facilitated by the duality between image synthesis and image decoding. Although our ultimate objective was a music image model for use in decoding, most of the development proceeded by using the evolving model for image synthesis, since it is computationally far less costly to image a message than to decode an image.

  4. Three-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry: Application of Radiobiologic Modeling to Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Imaging–Based Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Andrew R.; Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F.; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2010-01-01

    Phantom-based and patient-specific imaging-based dosimetry methodologies have traditionally yielded mean organ-absorbed doses or spatial dose distributions over tumors and normal organs. In this work, radiobiologic modeling is introduced to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose into biologically effective dose and equivalent uniform dose parameters. The methodology is illustrated using data from a thyroid cancer patient treated with radioiodine. Methods Three registered SPECT/CT scans were used to generate 3-dimensional images of radionuclide kinetics (clearance rate) and cumulated activity. The cumulated activity image and corresponding CT scan were provided as input into an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo calculation: The cumulated activity image was used to define the distribution of decays, and an attenuation image derived from CT was used to define the corresponding spatial tissue density and composition distribution. The rate images were used to convert the spatial absorbed dose distribution to a biologically effective dose distribution, which was then used to estimate a single equivalent uniform dose for segmented volumes of interest. Equivalent uniform dose was also calculated from the absorbed dose distribution directly. Results We validate the method using simple models; compare the dose-volume histogram with a previously analyzed clinical case; and give the mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for an illustrative case of a pediatric thyroid cancer patient with diffuse lung metastases. The mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for the tumor were 57.7, 58.5, and 25.0 Gy, respectively. Corresponding values for normal lung tissue were 9.5, 9.8, and 8.3 Gy, respectively. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates the impact of radiobiologic modeling on response prediction. The 57% reduction in the equivalent dose value for the tumor reflects a high level of dose

  5. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  6. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  7. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Ciusa, V; Colombo, A

    2000-04-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13-14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  8. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 3: Verification of 3-dimensional rigid-lid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Nwadike, E. V.; Sinha, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth (e.g., natural or man-made inland lakes) because surface elevation has been removed as a parameter. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions. The free-surface model also provides surface height variations with time.

  9. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 2: User's manual for 3-dimensional free-surface model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three-dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one-dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth. These models allow computation of time-dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions.

  10. 3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Megan Ashley

    In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.

  11. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  12. Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Metal/Polymer Composite Filaments and Printing Parameter Study for Fused Deposition Modeling in the 3D Printing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon; Reyes, Edgar I.; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Rumpf, Raymond C.; Kim, Nam Soo

    2015-03-01

    New metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processes were developed in order to observe the thermo-mechanical properties of the new filaments. The acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic was mixed with copper and iron particles. The percent loading of the metal powder was varied to confirm the effects of metal particles on the thermo-mechanical properties of the filament, such as tensile strength and thermal conductivity. The printing parameters such as temperature and fill density were also varied to see the effects of the parameters on the tensile strength of the final product which was made with the FDM process. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the tensile strength of the composites is decreased by increasing the loading of metal particles. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of the metal/polymer composite filament was improved by increasing the metal content. It is believed that the metal/polymer filament could be used to print metal and large-scale 3-dimensional (3D) structures without any distortion by the thermal expansion of thermoplastics. The material could also be used in 3D printed circuits and electromagnetic structures for shielding and other applications.

  13. Extending the Clapper-Yule model to rough printing supports.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Mathieu; Hersch, Roger David

    2005-09-01

    The Clapper-Yule model is the only classical spectral reflection model for halftone prints that takes explicitly into account both the multiple internal reflections between the print-air interface and the paper substrate and the lateral propagation of light within the paper bulk. However, the Clapper-Yule model assumes a planar interface and does not take into account the roughness of the print surface. In order to extend the Clapper-Yule model to rough printing supports (e.g., matte coated papers or calendered papers), we model the print surface as a set of randomly oriented microfacets. The influence of the shadowing effect is evaluated and incorporated into the model. By integrating over all incident angles and facet orientations, we are able to express the internal reflectance of the rough interface as a function of the rms facet slope. By considering also the rough interface transmittances both for the incident light and for the emerging light, we obtain a generalization of the Clapper-Yule model for rough interfaces. The comparison between the classical Clapper-Yule model and the model extended to rough surfaces shows that the influence of the surface roughness on the predicted reflectance factor is small. For high-quality papers such as coated and calendered papers, as well as for low-quality papers such as newsprint or copy papers, the influence of surface roughness is negligible, and the classical Clapper-Yule model can be used to predict the halftone-print reflectance factors. The influence of roughness becomes significant only for very rough and thick nondiffusing coatings.

  14. Study of materials and machines for 3D printed large-scale, flexible electronic structures using fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seyeon

    The 3 dimensional printing (3DP), called to additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), is emerged to revolutionize manufacturing and completely transform how products are designed and fabricated. A great deal of research activities have been carried out to apply this new technology to a variety of fields. In spite of many endeavors, much more research is still required to perfect the processes of the 3D printing techniques especially in the area of the large-scale additive manufacturing and flexible printed electronics. The principles of various 3D printing processes are briefly outlined in the Introduction Section. New types of thermoplastic polymer composites aiming to specified functional applications are also introduced in this section. Chapter 2 shows studies about the metal/polymer composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Various metal particles, copper and iron particles, are added into thermoplastics polymer matrices as the reinforcement filler. The thermo-mechanical properties, such as thermal conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and fracture mechanism, of composites are tested to figure out the effects of metal fillers on 3D printed composite structures for the large-scale printing process. In Chapter 3, carbon/polymer composite filaments are developed by a simple mechanical blending process with an aim of fabricating the flexible 3D printed electronics as a single structure. Various types of carbon particles consisting of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), and graphite are used as the conductive fillers to provide the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with improved electrical conductivity. The mechanical behavior and conduction mechanisms of the developed composite materials are observed in terms of the loading amount of carbon fillers in this section. Finally, the prototype flexible electronics are modeled and manufactured by the FDM process using Carbon/TPU composite filaments and

  15. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able...

  16. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  17. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  18. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.; Kwicklis, E.

    1995-12-31

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model o the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them; the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Submodels are used to investigate specific hypotheses and their importance before incorporation into the three-dimensional site-scale model. The primary objectives of the three-dimensional site-scale model are to: (1) quantify moisture, gas and heat flows in the ambient conditions at Yucca Mountain, (2) help in guiding the site-characterization effort (primarily by USGS) in terms of additional data needs and to identify regions of the mountain where sufficient data have been collected, and (3) provide a reliable model of Yucca Mountain that is validated by repeated predictions of conditions in new boreboles and the ESF and has therefore the confidence of the public and scientific community. The computer code TOUGH2 developed by K. Pruess at LBL was used along with the three-dimensional site-scale model to generate these results. In this paper, we also describe the three-dimensional site-scale model emphasizing the numerical grid development, and then show some results in terms of moisture, gas and heat flow.

  19. Analytical modeling of printed metasurface cavities for computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F. Imani, Mohammadreza; Sleasman, Timothy; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2016-10-01

    We derive simple analytical expressions to model the electromagnetic response of an electrically large printed cavity. The analytical model is then used to develop printed cavities for microwave imaging purposes. The proposed cavity is excited by a cylindrical source and has boundaries formed by subwavelength metallic cylinders (vias) placed at subwavelength distances apart. Given their small size, the electric currents induced on the vias are assumed to have no angular dependence. Applying this approximation simplifies the electromagnetic problem to a matrix equation which can be solved to directly compute the electric current induced on each via. Once the induced currents are known, the electromagnetic field inside the cavity can be computed for every location. We verify the analytical model by comparing its prediction to full-wave simulations. To utilize this cavity in imaging settings, we perforate one side of the printed cavity with radiative slots such that they act as the physical layer of a computational imaging system. An analytical approximation for the slots is also developed, enabling us to obtain estimates of the cavity performance in imaging scenarios. This ability allows us to make informed decisions on the design of the printed metasurface cavity. The utility of the proposed model is further highlighted by demonstrating high-quality experimental imaging; performance metrics, which are consistent between theory and experiment, are also estimated.

  20. Direct measurement of the 3-dimensional DNA lesion distribution induced by energetic charged particles in a mouse model tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mirsch, Johanna; Tommasino, Francesco; Frohns, Antonia; Conrad, Sandro; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas; Löbrich, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Charged particles are increasingly used in cancer radiotherapy and contribute significantly to the natural radiation risk. The difference in the biological effects of high-energy charged particles compared with X-rays or γ-rays is determined largely by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition events. Part of the energy is deposited in a densely ionizing manner in the inner part of the track, with the remainder spread out more sparsely over the outer track region. Our knowledge about the dose distribution is derived solely from modeling approaches and physical measurements in inorganic material. Here we exploited the exceptional sensitivity of γH2AX foci technology and quantified the spatial distribution of DNA lesions induced by charged particles in a mouse model tissue. We observed that charged particles damage tissue nonhomogenously, with single cells receiving high doses and many other cells exposed to isolated damage resulting from high-energy secondary electrons. Using calibration experiments, we transformed the 3D lesion distribution into a dose distribution and compared it with predictions from modeling approaches. We obtained a radial dose distribution with sub-micrometer resolution that decreased with increasing distance to the particle path following a 1/r2 dependency. The analysis further revealed the existence of a background dose at larger distances from the particle path arising from overlapping dose deposition events from independent particles. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantification of the spatial dose distribution of charged particles in biologically relevant material, and will serve as a benchmark for biophysical models that predict the biological effects of these particles. PMID:26392532

  1. Direct measurement of the 3-dimensional DNA lesion distribution induced by energetic charged particles in a mouse model tissue.

    PubMed

    Mirsch, Johanna; Tommasino, Francesco; Frohns, Antonia; Conrad, Sandro; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas; Löbrich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Charged particles are increasingly used in cancer radiotherapy and contribute significantly to the natural radiation risk. The difference in the biological effects of high-energy charged particles compared with X-rays or γ-rays is determined largely by the spatial distribution of their energy deposition events. Part of the energy is deposited in a densely ionizing manner in the inner part of the track, with the remainder spread out more sparsely over the outer track region. Our knowledge about the dose distribution is derived solely from modeling approaches and physical measurements in inorganic material. Here we exploited the exceptional sensitivity of γH2AX foci technology and quantified the spatial distribution of DNA lesions induced by charged particles in a mouse model tissue. We observed that charged particles damage tissue nonhomogenously, with single cells receiving high doses and many other cells exposed to isolated damage resulting from high-energy secondary electrons. Using calibration experiments, we transformed the 3D lesion distribution into a dose distribution and compared it with predictions from modeling approaches. We obtained a radial dose distribution with sub-micrometer resolution that decreased with increasing distance to the particle path following a 1/r2 dependency. The analysis further revealed the existence of a background dose at larger distances from the particle path arising from overlapping dose deposition events from independent particles. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantification of the spatial dose distribution of charged particles in biologically relevant material, and will serve as a benchmark for biophysical models that predict the biological effects of these particles. PMID:26392532

  2. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  3. Accuracy of open-source software segmentation and paper-based printed three-dimensional models.

    PubMed

    Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    .43 ± 19.39; however, deviation in some of the generated points could not be calculated, and those points were excluded from further calculations. From 94% to 99% of the measured absolute deviations were <1 mm. The mean absolute deviation between the skull and virtual model was 0.15 ± 0.11 mm, between the virtual and printed models was 0.15 ± 0.12 mm, and between the skull and printed models was 0.24 ± 0.21 mm. Using the optical scanner and specialized inspection software for measurements of accuracy of the created parts is recommended, as it allows one not only to measure 2-dimensional distances between anatomical points but also to perform more clinically suitable comparisons of whole surfaces. However, it requires specialized software and a very accurate scanner in order to be useful. Threshold-based, manually corrected segmentation of orbital walls performed with 3D Slicer software is accurate enough to be used for creating a virtual model of the orbit. The accuracy of the paper-based Mcor Matrix 300 3D printer is comparable to those of other commonly used 3-dimensional printers and allows one to create precise anatomical models for clinical use. The method of dividing the model into smaller parts and sticking them together seems to be quite accurate, although we recommend it only for creating small, solid models with as few parts as possible to minimize shift associated with gluing.

  4. Noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of liver regeneration in a mouse model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 using the sodium iodide symporter gene.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Amiot, Bruce; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Miller, Amber; Nace, Rebecca; Glorioso, Jaime; O'Connor, Michael K; Peng, Kah Whye; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2015-04-01

    Cell transplantation is a potential treatment for the many liver disorders that are currently only curable by organ transplantation. However, one of the major limitations of hepatocyte (HC) transplantation is an inability to monitor cells longitudinally after injection. We hypothesized that the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used to visualize transplanted HCs in a rodent model of inherited liver disease: hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Wild-type C57Bl/6J mouse HCs were transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector containing the mouse Slc5a5 (NIS) gene controlled by the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. NIS-transduced cells could robustly concentrate radiolabeled iodine in vitro, with lentiviral transduction efficiencies greater than 80% achieved in the presence of dexamethasone. Next, NIS-transduced HCs were transplanted into congenic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase knockout mice, and this resulted in the prevention of liver failure. NIS-transduced HCs were readily imaged in vivo by single-photon emission computed tomography, and this demonstrated for the first time noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of regenerating tissue in individual animals over time. We also tested the efficacy of primary HC spheroids engrafted in the liver. With the NIS reporter, robust spheroid engraftment and survival could be detected longitudinally after direct parenchymal injection, and this thereby demonstrated a novel strategy for HC transplantation. This work is the first to demonstrate the efficacy of NIS imaging in the field of HC transplantation. We anticipate that NIS labeling will allow noninvasive and longitudinal identification of HCs and stem cells in future studies related to liver regeneration in small and large preclinical animal models.

  5. Testing Mercury Porosimetry with 3D Printed Porosity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiuk, F.; Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry is one of the most widely used techniques to study the porous nature of a geological and man-made materials. In the geosciences, it is commonly used to describe petroleum reservoir and seal rocks as well as to grade aggregates for the design of asphalt and portland cement concretes. It's wide utility stems from its ability to characterize a wide range of pore throat sizes (from nanometers to around a millimeter). The fundamental physical model underlying mercury intrusion porosimetry, the Washburn Equation, is based on the assumption that rock porosity can be described as a bundle of cylindrical tubes. 3D printing technology, also known as rapid prototyping, allows the construction of intricate and accurate models, exactly what is required to build models of rock porosity. We evaluate the applicability of the Washburn Equation by comparing properties (like porosity, pore and pore throat size distribution, and surface area) computed on digital porosity models (built from CT data, CAD designs, or periodic geometries) to properties measured via mercury intrusion porosimetry on 3D printed versions of the same digital porosity models.

  6. A thermodynamic and mechanical model for formation of the Solar System via 3-dimensional collapse of the dusty pre-solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    The fundamental and shared rotational characteristics of the Solar System (nearly circular, co-planar orbits and mostly upright axial spins of the planets) record conditions of origin, yet are not explained by prevailing 2-dimensional disk models. Current planetary spin and orbital rotational energies (R.E.) each nearly equal and linearly depend on gravitational self-potential of formation (Ug), revealing mechanical energy conservation. We derive -ΔUg≅Δ.R.E. and stability criteria from thermodynamic principles, and parlay these relationships into a detailed model of simultaneous accretion of the protoSun and planets from the dust-bearing 3-d pre-solar nebula (PSN). Gravitational heating is insignificant because Ug is negative, the 2nd law of thermodynamics must be fulfilled, and ideal gas conditions pertain to the rarified PSN until the objects were nearly fully formed. Combined conservation of angular momentum and mechanical energy during 3-dimensional collapse of spheroidal dust shells in a contracting nebula provides ΔR.E.≅R.E. for the central body, whereas for formation of orbiting bodies, ΔR.E.≅R.E.f(1-If/Ii), where I is the moment of inertia. Orbital data for the inner planets follow 0.04×R.E.f≅-Ug which confirms conservation of angular momentum. Significant loss of spin, attributed to viscous dissipation during differential rotation, masks the initial spin of the un-ignited protoSun predicted by R.E.=-Ug. Heat production occurs after nearly final sizes are reached via mechanisms such as shear during differential rotation and radioactivity. We focus on the dilute stage, showing that the PSN was compositionally graded due to light molecules diffusing preferentially, providing the observed planetary chemistry, and set limits on PSN mass, density, and temperature. From measured planetary masses and orbital characteristics, accounting for dissipation of spin, we deduce mechanisms and the sequence of converting a 3-d dusty cloud to the present 2-d

  7. Three-dimensional printing of Hela cells for cervical tumor model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Yao, Rui; Ouyang, Liliang; Ding, Hongxu; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Kaitai; Cheng, Shujun; Sun, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing have enabled the direct assembly of cells and extracellular matrix materials to form in vitro cellular models for 3D biology, the study of disease pathogenesis and new drug discovery. In this study, we report a method of 3D printing for Hela cells and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogels to construct in vitro cervical tumor models. Cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein expression and chemoresistance were measured in the printed 3D cervical tumor models and compared with conventional 2D planar culture models. Over 90% cell viability was observed using the defined printing process. Comparisons of 3D and 2D results revealed that Hela cells showed a higher proliferation rate in the printed 3D environment and tended to form cellular spheroids, but formed monolayer cell sheets in 2D culture. Hela cells in 3D printed models also showed higher MMP protein expression and higher chemoresistance than those in 2D culture. These new biological characteristics from the printed 3D tumor models in vitro as well as the novel 3D cell printing technology may help the evolution of 3D cancer study.

  8. 3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…

  9. Virtual and Printed 3D Models for Teaching Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Lluís; Estop, Euge`nia

    2015-01-01

    Both, virtual and printed 3D crystal models can help students and teachers deal with chemical education topics such as symmetry and point groups. In the present paper, two freely downloadable tools (interactive PDF files and a mobile app) are presented as examples of the application of 3D design to study point-symmetry. The use of 3D printing to…

  10. Using 3D printed models for planning and guidance during endovascular intervention: a technical advance

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing applications in medicine have been limited due to high cost and technical difficulty of creating 3D printed objects. It is not known whether patient-specific, hollow, small-caliber vascular models can be manufactured with 3D printing, and used for small vessel endoluminal testing of devices. Manufacture of anatomically accurate, patient-specific, small-caliber arterial models was attempted using data from a patient’s CT scan, free open-source software, and low-cost Internet 3D printing services. Prior to endovascular treatment of a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms, a 3D printed model was used preoperatively to test catheter equipment and practice the procedure. A second model was used intraoperatively as a reference. Full-scale plastic models were successfully produced. Testing determined the optimal puncture site for catheter positioning. A guide catheter, base catheter, and microcatheter combination selected during testing was used intraoperatively with success, and the need for repeat angiograms to optimize image orientation was minimized. A difficult and unconventional procedure was successful in treating the aneurysms while preserving splenic function. We conclude that creation of small-caliber vascular models with 3D printing is possible. Free software and low-cost printing services make creation of these models affordable and practical. Models are useful in preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance. PMID:26027767

  11. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  12. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education

    PubMed Central

    Lioufas, Peter A.; Quayle, Michelle R.; Leong, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. Background: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging data of 2 children (8 and 14 months) were segmented, colored, and anonymized, and stereolothographic files were prepared for 3D printing on either multicolor plastic or powder 3D printers and multimaterial 3D printers. Results: Two models were deemed of sufficient quality and anatomical accuracy to print unamended. One data set was further manipulated digitally to artificially extend the length of the cleft. Thus, 3 models were printed: 1 incomplete soft-palate deformity, 1 incomplete anterior palate deformity, and 1 complete cleft palate. All had cleft lip deformity. The single-material 3D prints are of sufficient quality to accurately identify the nature and extent of the deformities. Multimaterial prints were subsequently created, which could be valuable in surgical training. Conclusion: Improvements in the quality and resolution of radiographic imaging combined with the advent of multicolor multiproperty printer technology will make it feasible in the near future to print 3D replicas in materials that mimic the mechanical properties and color of live human tissue making them potentially suitable for surgical training. PMID:27757345

  13. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  14. On AGV's navigation in 3-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, Jürgen

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with position estimation and path control for Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGV). To enable a vehicle or a mobile robot in following a continuous “virtual” path without human control, these techniques play an important role. The relationship between the vehicle's motion in 3-dimensional space and the shape of a curved surface is described. In particular, the introduction of a digital terrain model in dead reckoning is considered. Moreover, a possible nonlinear control is developed based on curvilinear path coordinates, and the proof for global stability is given. To achieve general validity, these topics are treated here independently of the cart's special mechanization (the configuration of steered wheels and driven wheels). Simulation studies are presented to illustrate the investigations.

  15. Workflow modeling in the graphic arts and printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2003-12-01

    The last few years, a lot of effort has been spent on the standardization of the workflow in the graphic arts and printing industry. The main reasons for this standardization are two-fold: first of all, the need to represent all aspects of products, processes and resources in a uniform, digital framework and, secondly, the need to have different systems communicate with each other without having to implement dedicated drivers or protocols. Since many years, a number of organizations in the IT sector have been quite busy developing models and languages on the topic of workflow modeling. In addition to the more formal methods (such as, e.g., extended finite state machines, Petri Nets, Markov Chains etc.) introduced a number of decades ago, more pragmatic methods have been proposed quite recently. We hereby think in particular of the activities of the Workflow Management Coalition that resulted in an XML based Process Definition Language. Although one might be tempted to use the already established standards in the graphic environment, one should be well aware of the complexity and uniqueness of the graphic arts workflow. In this paper, we will show that it is quite hard though not impossible to model the graphic arts workflow using the already established workflow systems. After a brief summary of the graphic arts workflow requirements, we will show why the traditional models are less suitable to use. It will turn out that one of the main reasons for the incompatibility is that the graphic arts workflow is primarily resource driven; this means that the activation of processes depends on the status of different incoming resources. The fact that processes can start running with a partial availability of the input resources is a further complication that asks for additional knowledge on process level. In the second part of this paper, we will discuss in more detail the different software components that are available in any graphic enterprise. In the last part, we will

  16. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  17. Two-flux transfer matrix model for predicting the reflectance and transmittance of duplex halftone prints.

    PubMed

    Mazauric, Serge; Hébert, Mathieu; Simonot, Lionel; Fournel, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a model allowing convenient calculation of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of duplex prints. It is based on flux transfer matrices and enables retrieving classical Kubelka-Munk formulas, as well as extended formulas for nonsymmetric layers. By making different assumptions on the flux transfers, we obtain two predictive models for the duplex halftone prints: the "duplex Clapper-Yule model," which is an extension of the classical Clapper-Yule model, and the "duplex primary reflectance-transmittance model." The two models can be calibrated from either reflectance or transmittance measurements; only the second model can be calibrated from both measurements, thus giving optimal accuracy for both reflectance and transmittance predictions. The conceptual differences between the two models are deeply analyzed, as well as their advantages and drawbacks in terms of calibration. According to the test carried out in this study with paper printed in inkjet, their predictive performances are good provided appropriate calibration options are selected.

  18. Application of 3-D printing (rapid prototyping) for creating physical models of pediatric orthopedic disorders.

    PubMed

    Starosolski, Zbigniew A; Kan, J Herman; Rosenfeld, Scott D; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Annapragada, Ananth

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing called rapid prototyping, a technology that is used to create physical models based on a 3-D computer representation, is now commercially available and can be created from CT or MRI datasets. This technical innovation paper reviews the specific requirements and steps necessary to apply biomedical 3-D printing of pediatric musculoskeletal disorders. We discuss its role for the radiologist, orthopedist and patient. PMID:24202430

  19. The Accuracy of a Method for Printing Three-Dimensional Spinal Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Shun; Yang, Xin-Dong; Weng, Wan-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long; Lin, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    Background To study the morphology of the human spine and new spinal fixation methods, scientists require cadaveric specimens, which are dependent on donation. However, in most countries, the number of people willing to donate their body is low. A 3D printed model could be an alternative method for morphology research, but the accuracy of the morphology of a 3D printed model has not been determined. Methods Forty-five computed tomography (CT) scans of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spines were obtained, and 44 parameters of the cervical spine, 120 parameters of the thoracic spine, and 50 parameters of the lumbar spine were measured. The CT scan data in DICOM format were imported into Mimics software v10.01 for 3D reconstruction, and the data were saved in .STL format and imported to Cura software. After a 3D digital model was formed, it was saved in Gcode format and exported to a 3D printer for printing. After the 3D printed models were obtained, the above-referenced parameters were measured again. Results Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance, set to P<0.05, of all parameter data from the radiographic images and 3D printed models. Furthermore, 88.6% of all parameters of the cervical spine, 90% of all parameters of the thoracic spine, and 94% of all parameters of the lumbar spine had Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values >0.800. The other ICC values were <0.800 and >0.600; none were <0.600. Conclusion In this study, we provide a protocol for printing accurate 3D spinal models for surgeons and researchers. The resulting 3D printed model is inexpensive and easily obtained for spinal fixation research. PMID:25915641

  20. 3DHYDROGEOCHEM: A 3-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF DENSITY-DEPENDENT SUBSURFACE FLOW AND THERMAL MULTISPECIES-MULTICOMPONENT HYDROGEOCHEMICAL TRANSPORT (EPA/600/SR-98/159)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a three-dimensional finite-element numerical model designed to simulate chemical transport in subsurface systems with temperature effect taken into account. The three-dimensional model is developed to provide (1) a tool of application, with which one is able ...

  1. Phase diagram of quark-antiquark and diquark condensates in the 3-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with the 4-component spinor representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2008-07-01

    We construct the phase diagram of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates at finite temperature and density in the 2+1 dimensional (3D) two flavor massless Gross-Neveu (GN) model with the 4-component quarks. In contrast to the case of the 2-component quarks, there appears the coexisting phase of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates. This is the crucial difference between the 2-component and 4-component quark cases in the 3D GN model. The coexisting phase is also seen in the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. Then we see that the 3D GN model with the 4-component quarks bears closer resemblance to the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model.

  2. [Posterior glass fiber-reinforced composite resin-bonded fixed partial dentures: A 3-dimensional modeling and finite element numerical analysis].

    PubMed

    Han, Jingyun; Fei, Renyuan; Li, Yansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2006-08-01

    The method of modeling and mesh generation about 3-unit tooth/restoration complex were established. The three-dimensional finite element models were subjected to four types of occlusal load applied to pontic element to evaluate 3 fiber framework designs and 3 cavities preparation configurations. By comparing the difference of stress distribution, following conclusions were obtained: the principal stress under buccal-lingual cusp load in traditional fiber framework pontic increased by 6.22% compared to that in pure composite resin pontic; optimized fiber framework obviously reduced stress level under any load; modified cavities exhibited better stress transfer and decreased share stress at adhesive interface than traditional cavities. PMID:17002101

  3. A 3-dimensional micro- and nanoparticle transport and filtration model (MNM3D) applied to the migration of carbon-based nanomaterials in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Carlo; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2016-10-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment can act both as contaminants, when they are unintentionally released, and as remediation agents when injected on purpose at contaminated sites. In this work two carbon-based NPs are considered, namely CARBO-IRON®, a new material developed for contaminated site remediation, and single layer graphene oxide (SLGO), a potential contaminant of the next future. Understanding and modeling the transport and deposition of such NPs in aquifer systems is a key aspect in both cases, and numerical models capable to simulate NP transport in groundwater in complex 3D scenarios are necessary. To this aim, this work proposes a modeling approach based on modified advection-dispersion-deposition equations accounting for the coupled influence of flow velocity and ionic strength on particle transport. A new modeling tool (MNM3D - Micro and Nanoparticle transport Model in 3D geometries) is presented for the simulation of NPs injection and transport in 3D scenarios. MNM3D is the result of the integration of the numerical code MNMs (Micro and Nanoparticle transport, filtration and clogging Model - Suite) in the well-known transport model RT3D (Clement et al., 1998). The injection in field-like conditions of CARBO-IRON® (20 g/l) amended by CMC (4 g/l) in a 2D vertical tank (0.7 × 1.0 × 0.12 m) was simulated using MNM3D, and compared to experimental results under the same conditions. Column transport tests of SLGO at a concentration (10 mg/l) representative of a possible spill of SLGO-containing waste water were performed at different values of ionic strength (0.1 to 35 mM), evidencing a strong dependence of SLGO transport on IS, and a reversible blocking deposition. The experimental data were fitted using the numerical code MNMs and the ionic strength-dependent transport was up-scaled for a full scale 3D simulation of SLGO release and long-term transport in a heterogeneous aquifer. MNM3D showed to potentially represent a valid tool for

  4. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future.

  5. The 3-Dimensional Structure of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program CLASH (PI Postman) has provided the community with the most detailed views ever of the central regions of massive galaxy clusters. These galaxy clusters have also been observed with NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, with the ground-based Subaru telescope, and with other ground- and space-based facilities, resulting in unprecedented multi-wavelength data sets of the most massive bound structures in the universe. Fitting 3-Dimensional mass models is crucial to understanding how mass is distributed in individual clusters, investigating the properties of dark matter, and testing our cosmological model. With the exquisite data available, the time is now ideal to undertake this analysis. We propose to use algorithms that we have developed and obtain mass models for the clusters from the CLASH sample. The project would use archival gravitational lensing data, X-ray data of the cluster's hot gas and additional constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) data. Specifically, we would model the 23 clusters for which both HST and Subaru data (or in one case WFI data) are publicly available, since the exquisite imaging of HST in the clusters' central regions is beautifully augmented by the wide field coverage of Subaru imaging. If the true 3-D shapes of clusters are not properly accounted for when analysing data, this can lead to inaccuracies in the mass density profiles of individual clusters - up to 50% bias in mass for the most highly triaxial systems. Our proposed project represents an independent analysis of the CLASH sample, complementary to that of the CLASH team, probing the triaxial shapes and orientations of the cluster dark matter halos and hot gas. Our findings will be relevant to the analysis of data from future missions such as JWST and Euclid, and also to ground-based surveys to be made with telescopes such as LSST.

  6. The Spatiotemporal Stability of Dominant Frequency Sites in In-Silico Modeling of 3-Dimensional Left Atrial Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported that stable rotors were observed in in-silico human atrial fibrillation (AF) models, and were well represented by dominant frequency (DF). We explored the spatiotemporal stability of DF sites in 3D-AF models imported from patient CT images of the left atrium (LA). Methods We integrated 3-D CT images of the LA obtained from ten patients with persistent AF (male 80%, 61.8 ± 13.5 years old) into an in-silico AF model. After induction, we obtained 6 seconds of AF simulation data for DF analyses in 30 second intervals (T1–T9). The LA was divided into ten sections. Spatiotemporal changes and variations in the temporal consistency of DF were evaluated at each section of the LA. The high DF area was defined as the area with the highest 10% DF. Results 1. There was no spatial consistency in the high DF distribution at each LA section during T1–T9 except in one patient (p = 0.027). 2. Coefficients of variation for the high DF area were highly different among the ten LA sections (p < 0.001), and they were significantly higher in the four pulmonary vein (PV) areas, the LA appendage, and the peri-mitral area than in the other LA sections (p < 0.001). 3. When we conducted virtual ablation of 10%, 15%, and 20% of the highest DF areas (n = 270 cases), AF was changed to atrial tachycardia (AT) or terminated at a rate of 40%, 57%, and 76%, respectively. Conclusions Spatiotemporal consistency of the DF area was observed in 10% of AF patients, and high DF areas were temporally variable. Virtual ablation of DF is moderately effective in AF termination and AF changing into AT. PMID:27459377

  7. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  8. Use of a Three Dimensional Printed Cardiac Model to Assess Suitability for Biventricular Repair.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Gonzalez-Lengua, Carlos; Shenoy, Rajesh; Sanz, Javier; Nguyen, Khanh

    2016-05-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is rapidly gaining interest in the medical field for use in presurgical planning. We present the case of a seven-year-old boy with double outlet right ventricle who underwent a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. We used a 3D cardiac model to assess his suitability for a biventricular repair. He underwent a left ventricle-to-aorta baffle with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement. He did well postoperatively and was discharged home with no evidence of baffle obstruction and good biventricular function. A 3D printed model can provide invaluable intracardiac spatial information in these complex patients.

  9. Use of a Three Dimensional Printed Cardiac Model to Assess Suitability for Biventricular Repair.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Gonzalez-Lengua, Carlos; Shenoy, Rajesh; Sanz, Javier; Nguyen, Khanh

    2016-05-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is rapidly gaining interest in the medical field for use in presurgical planning. We present the case of a seven-year-old boy with double outlet right ventricle who underwent a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. We used a 3D cardiac model to assess his suitability for a biventricular repair. He underwent a left ventricle-to-aorta baffle with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement. He did well postoperatively and was discharged home with no evidence of baffle obstruction and good biventricular function. A 3D printed model can provide invaluable intracardiac spatial information in these complex patients. PMID:27009890

  10. Wear Particles Derived from Metal Hip Implants Induce the Generation of Multinucleated Giant Cells in a 3-Dimensional Peripheral Tissue-Equivalent Model

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debargh K.; Potnis, Pushya A.; Rhodes, Kelly; Wood, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) are formed by the fusion of 5 to 15 monocytes or macrophages. MGCs can be generated by hip implants at the site where the metal surface of the device is in close contact with tissue. MGCs play a critical role in the inflammatory processes associated with adverse events such as aseptic loosening of the prosthetic joints and bone degeneration process called osteolysis. Upon interaction with metal wear particles, endothelial cells upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that enhance a localized immune response. However, the role of endothelial cells in the generation of MGCs has not been completely investigated. We developed a three-dimensional peripheral tissue-equivalent model (PTE) consisting of collagen gel, supporting a monolayer of endothelial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on top, which mimics peripheral tissue under normal physiological conditions. The cultures were incubated for 14 days with Cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr ASTM F75, 1–5 micron) wear particles. PBMC were allowed to transit the endothelium and harvested cells were analyzed for MGC generation via flow cytometry. An increase in forward scatter (cell size) and in the propidium iodide (PI) uptake (DNA intercalating dye) was used to identify MGCs. Our results show that endothelial cells induce the generation of MGCs to a level 4 fold higher in 3-dimentional PTE system as compared to traditional 2-dimensional culture plates. Further characterization of MGCs showed upregulated expression of tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) and dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein, (DC-STAMP), which are markers of bone degrading cells called osteoclasts. In sum, we have established a robust and relevant model to examine MGC and osteoclast formation in a tissue like environment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. With endothelial cells help, we observed a consistent generation of metal wear particle- induced MGCs, which

  11. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed.

  13. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  14. Possibilities of Preoperative Medical Models Made by 3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most of the 3D printing applications of preoperative models have been focused on dental and craniomaxillofacial area. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities in other application areas and give examples of the current possibilities. The approach was to communicate with the surgeons with different fields about their needs related preoperative models and try to produce preoperative models that satisfy those needs. Ten different kinds of examples of possibilities were selected to be shown in this paper and aspects related imaging, 3D model reconstruction, 3D modeling, and 3D printing were presented. Examples were heart, ankle, backbone, knee, and pelvis with different processes and materials. Software types required were Osirix, 3Data Expert, and Rhinoceros. Different 3D printing processes were binder jetting and material extrusion. This paper presents a wide range of possibilities related to 3D printing of preoperative models. Surgeons should be aware of the new possibilities and in most cases help from mechanical engineering side is needed. PMID:27433470

  15. Printing Cancer Cells into Intact Microvascular Networks: A Model for Investigating Cancer Cell Dynamics during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Phamduy, Theresa B.; Sweat, Richard S.; Azimi, Mohammad S.; Burow, Matthew E.; Murfee, Walter L.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    While cancer cell invasion and metastasis is dependent on cancer cell-stroma, cancer cell-blood vessel, and cancer cell-lymphatic vessel interactions, our understanding of these interactions remain largely unknown. A need exists for physiologically-relevant models that more closely mimic the complexity of cancer cell dynamics in a real tissue environment. The objective of this study was to combine laser-based cell printing and tissue culture methods to create a novel ex vivo model in which cancer cell dynamics can be tracked during angiogenesis in an intact microvascular network. Laser direct-write (LDW) was utilized to reproducibly deposit breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and fibroblasts into spatially-defined patterns on cultured rat mesenteric tissues. In addition, heterogeneous patterns containing co-printed MDA-MB-231/fibroblasts or MDA-MB-231/MCF-7 cells were generated for fibroblast-directed and collective cell invasion models. Printed cells remained viable and the cells retained the ability to proliferate in serum-rich media conditions. Over a culture period of five days, time-lapse imaging confirmed fibroblast and MDA-MB-231 cell migration within the microvascular networks. Confocal microscopy indicated that printed MDA-MB-231 cells infiltrated the tissue thickness and were capable of interacting with endothelial cells. Angiogenic network growth in tissue areas containing printed cancer cells was characterized by significantly increased capillary sprouting compared to control tissue areas containing no printed cells. Our results establish an innovative ex vivo experimental platform that enables time-lapse evaluation of cancer cell dynamics during angiogenesis within a real microvascular network scenario. PMID:26190039

  16. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  17. 3D Printing of Protein Models in an Undergraduate Laboratory: Leucine Zippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    An upper-division undergraduate laboratory experiment is described that explores the structure/function relationship of protein domains, namely leucine zippers, through a molecular graphics computer program and physical models fabricated by 3D printing. By generating solvent accessible surfaces and color-coding hydrophobic, basic, and acidic amino…

  18. Developing and evaluating printed education materials: a prescriptive model for quality.

    PubMed

    Bernier, M J

    1993-01-01

    Nurses are frequently called upon to develop and evaluate printed education materials (PEMs) in their role as patient educators. This article describes the use of the Evaluating Printed Education Materials (EPEM) model as a prescriptive guide and quality standard for developing new PEMs or critiquing existing ones. Outlined in the five phases of the model are a series of nursing, learning, and instructional design principles that are intended to increase the relevance, readability, and comprehensibility of PEMs for the patients and families who use them. The patient-centered focus of the model makes it applicable across nursing specialty areas and care settings. Examples of how the model can be used in the care of orthopaedic patients are presented.

  19. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  20. Biochemical Applications Of 3-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Marc J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the 3-dimensional fluorescence of complex mixtures of bioloquids such as human serum, serum ultrafiltrate, human urine, and human plasma low density lipoproteins. The total fluorescence of human serum can be divided into a few peaks. When comparing fluorescence topograms of sera, from normal and cancerous subjects, we found significant differences in tryptophan fluorescence. Although the total fluorescence of human urine can be resolved into 3-5 distinct peaks, some of them. do not result from single fluorescent urinary metabolites, but rather from. several species having similar spectral properties. Human plasma, low density lipoproteins possess a native fluorescence that changes when submitted to in-vitro autoxidation. The 3-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated the presence of 7 fluorophores in the lipid domain, and 6 fluorophores in the protein. dovain- The above results demonstrated that 3-dimensional fluorescence can resolve the spectral properties of complex ,lxtures much better than other methods. Moreover, other parameters than excitation and emission wavelength and intensity (for instance fluorescence lifetime, polarization, or quenchability) may be exploited to give a multidl,ensio,a1 matrix, that is unique for each sample. Consequently, 3-dimensio:Hhal fluorescence as such, or in combination with separation techniques is therefore considered to have the potential of becoming a useful new H.ethod in clinical chemistry and analytical biochemistry.

  1. A beating heart model 3D printed from specific patient data.

    PubMed

    Markert, Mathias; Weber, Stefan; Lueth, Tim C

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a method for manufacturing of heart models is presented. These models are created from CT or MRI data and are patient specific. They are applied to surgical planning in cardiac surgery to obtain more information of the anatomical structure. The models were produced using a 3d printing technology based on starch, allowing highlighting different sections of the model by colors and creation of flexible models, which can be handled easily. In addition, the motion of the heart was coarsely simulated with such a model.

  2. Unit: Model for Matter, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    Mental and physical models are treated in the Australian Science Education Project trial unit prepared for students in a transitional stage between concrete and abstract reasoning. Students are introduced to the particle model of matter through a series of core activities, including a combination game using nuts and bolts, culminating in a "test"…

  3. [3-dimensional documentation of wound-healing].

    PubMed

    Körber, A; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2006-04-01

    The objective evaluation of the course of wound-healing represents a substantial parameter for the quality assurance of a modern wound management in chronic wounds. Established procedures exclusively based on a two-dimensional measurement of the wound surface with planimetry or digital photo documentation in combination with a metric statement of size. Thus so far an objective method is missing for the evaluation of the volumes of chronic wounds. By the linkage of digital photography, optical grid by means of digital scanner and an image processing software in co-operation with the company RSI we were able to do an accurate 3-dimensional documentation of chronic wounds (DigiSkin). The generated scatter-plots allow a visual, computer-assisted 3-dimensional measurement and documentation of chronic wounds. In comparison with available systems it is now possible for the first time to objectify the volume changes of a chronic wound. On the basis of a case report of a female patient with an venous leg ulcer, which has been treated with a vacuum closure therapy before and after performing a mesh-graft transplantation, we would like to describe the advantages and the resulting scientific use of this new, objective wound documentation system in the clinical employment. PMID:16575675

  4. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F.; Fradkin, Jamie; Eoh, Joon; Trivero, Jacqueline; Davenport, Matthew; Ginn, Brian; Mao, Hai-Quan; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Despite current advances in engineering blood vessels over 1 mm in diameter and the existing wealth of knowledge regarding capillary bed formation, studies for the development of microvasculature, the connecting bridge between them, have been extremely limited so far. Here, we evaluate the use of 3-dimensional (3D) microfibers fabricated by hydrogel electrospinning as templates for microvascular structure formation. We hypothesize that 3D microfibers improve extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition from vascular cells, enabling the formation of freestanding luminal multicellular microvasculature. Compared to 2-dimensional cultures, we demonstrate with confocal microscopy and RT-PCR that fibrin microfibers induce an increased ECM protein deposition by vascular cells, specifically endothelial colony-forming cells, pericytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. These ECM proteins comprise different layers of the vascular wall including collagen types I, III, and IV, as well as elastin, fibronectin, and laminin. We further demonstrate the achievement of multicellular microvascular structures with an organized endothelium and a robust multicellular perivascular tunica media. This, along with the increased ECM deposition, allowed for the creation of self-supporting multilayered microvasculature with a distinct circular lumen following fibrin microfiber core removal. This approach presents an advancement toward the development of human microvasculature for basic and translational studies.—Barreto-Ortiz, S. F., Fradkin, J., Eoh, J., Trivero, J., Davenport, M., Ginn, B., Mao, H.-Q., Gerecht, S. Fabrication of 3-dimensional multicellular microvascular structures. PMID:25900808

  5. Modeling rock specimens through 3D printing: Tentative experiments and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Quan; Feng, Xiating; Song, Lvbo; Gong, Yahua; Zheng, Hong; Cui, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Current developments in 3D printing (3DP) technology provide the opportunity to produce rock-like specimens and geotechnical models through additive manufacturing, that is, from a file viewed with a computer to a real object. This study investigated the serviceability of 3DP products as substitutes for rock specimens and rock-type materials in experimental analysis of deformation and failure in the laboratory. These experiments were performed on two types of materials as follows: (1) compressive experiments on printed sand-powder specimens in different shapes and structures, including intact cylinders, cylinders with small holes, and cuboids with pre-existing cracks, and (2) compressive and shearing experiments on printed polylactic acid cylinders and molded shearing blocks. These tentative tests for 3DP technology have exposed its advantages in producing complicated specimens with special external forms and internal structures, the mechanical similarity of its product to rock-type material in terms of deformation and failure, and its precision in mapping shapes from the original body to the trial sample (such as a natural rock joint). These experiments and analyses also successfully demonstrate the potential and prospects of 3DP technology to assist in the deformation and failure analysis of rock-type materials, as well as in the simulation of similar material modeling experiments.

  6. Leaf Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    Using many different media, students can turn leaves into images which can be used for study, bulletin boards, collections, and identification. The simple techniques described include pastel printing, smoke prints, ink or tempura printing, bleach printing on t-shirts, ditto machine printing using carbon paper, and making cutouts. (DH)

  7. Three dimensional printing as an effective method of producing anatomically accurate models for studies in thermal ecology.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles M; Francis, Gamal R

    2015-07-01

    Hollow copper models painted to match the reflectance of the animal subject are standard in thermal ecology research. While the copper electroplating process results in accurate models, it is relatively time consuming, uses caustic chemicals, and the models are often anatomically imprecise. Although the decreasing cost of 3D printing can potentially allow the reproduction of highly accurate models, the thermal performance of 3D printed models has not been evaluated. We compared the cost, accuracy, and performance of both copper and 3D printed lizard models and found that the performance of the models were statistically identical in both open and closed habitats. We also find that 3D models are more standard, lighter, durable, and inexpensive, than the copper electroformed models. PMID:25965016

  8. Implementation of virtual models from sheet metal forming simulation into physical 3D colour models using 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, S.

    2016-08-01

    Today the methods of numerical simulation of sheet metal forming offer a great diversity of possibilities for optimization in product development and in process design. However, the results from simulation are only available as virtual models. Because there are any forming tools available during the early stages of product development, physical models that could serve to represent the virtual results are therefore lacking. Physical 3D-models can be created using 3D-printing and serve as an illustration and present a better understanding of the simulation results. In this way, the results from the simulation can be made more “comprehensible” within a development team. This paper presents the possibilities of 3D-colour printing with particular consideration of the requirements regarding the implementation of sheet metal forming simulation. Using concrete examples of sheet metal forming, the manufacturing of 3D colour models will be expounded upon on the basis of simulation results.

  9. Three-dimensional print of a liver for preoperative planning in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zein, Nizar N; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Bishop, Paul D; Samaan, Maggie; Eghtesad, Bijan; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Yerian, Lisa; Klatte, Ryan

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for liver transplantation and the concomitant scarcity of cadaveric livers have increased the need for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Ensuring the safety of donors and recipients is critical. The preoperative identification of the vascular and biliary tract anatomy with 3-dimensional (3D) printing may allow better preoperative surgical planning, avert unnecessary surgery in patients with potentially unsuitable anatomy, and thereby decrease the complications of liver transplant surgery. We developed a protocol and successfully 3D-printed synthetic livers (along with their complex networks of vascular and biliary structures) replicating the native livers of 6 patients: 3 living donors and 3 respective recipients who underwent LDLT. To our knowledge, these are the first complete 3D-printed livers. Using standardized preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative assessments, we demonstrated identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks in the 3D-printed models and native livers.

  10. Modeling coverage-dependent ink thickness in ink-jet printing.

    PubMed

    Coppel, Ludovic G; Slavuj, Radovan; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2016-02-10

    We propose a simple extension of the Murray-Davis halftone reflectance model that accounts for the change of ink dot reflectance due to ink spreading. Significant improvement of the prediction accuracy is obtained for a range of paper substrates and printer combinations compared to the classical Yule-Nielsen and Clapper-Yule models. The results show that ink dot thickness dependency is the main factor limiting the validity of the Murray-Davis model and that optical dot gain can be neglected when the model is calibrated for one specific printer, ink, and substrate combination. The proposed model provides a better understanding of the reflectance from halftone prints that contributes to the development of physical models for simpler and faster printer calibration to different substrates.

  11. A novel approach for planning orthognathic surgery: the integration of dental casts into three-dimensional printed mandibular models.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, A F; Rehab, M; O'Neil, M; Khambay, B; Ju, X; Barbenel, J; Naudi, K

    2014-04-01

    A method of producing a composite model consisting of a three-dimensional printed mandible bearing plaster teeth is presented. Printed models were obtained from cone beam computed tomograms (CBCT) of dry human mandibles. The plaster casts of the teeth were obtained from impressions of the teeth of the dry mandibles. The distorted teeth of the printed models were removed and replaced by the plaster casts of the teeth using a simple transfer jig. The accuracy of the composite models obtained from six mandibles was assessed from laser scans. The scans of the dry mandibles and the composite models were superimposed and the magnitude of the discrepancies at six points on the dentition and six on the mandible were obtained. It was concluded that the errors of the method were small enough to be clinically significant. The use of the composite models is illustrated in two clinical cases.

  12. Collagen-based brain microvasculature model in vitro using three-dimensional printed template

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hong Nam; Im, Sun-Kyoung; Chung, Seok

    2015-01-01

    We present an engineered three-dimensional (3D) in vitro brain microvasculature system embedded within the bulk of a collagen matrix. To create a hydrogel template for the functional brain microvascular structure, we fabricated an array of microchannels made of collagen I using microneedles and a 3D printed frame. By culturing mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) on the luminal surface of cylindrical collagen microchannels, we reconstructed an array of brain microvasculature in vitro with circular cross-sections. We characterized the barrier function of our brain microvasculature by measuring transendothelial permeability of 40 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (Stoke's radius of ∼4.5 nm), based on an analytical model. The transendothelial permeability decreased significantly over 3 weeks of culture. We also present the disruption of the barrier function with a hyperosmotic mannitol as well as a subsequent recovery over 4 days. Our brain microvasculature model in vitro, consisting of system-in-hydrogel combined with the widely emerging 3D printing technique, can serve as a useful tool not only for fundamental studies associated with blood-brain barrier in physiological and pathological settings but also for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25945141

  13. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  14. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation.

  15. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed

  16. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p < 0.05), regardless of the acquisition technique. There were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 3. The ratings for Raters 1 and 2 had good correlation for overall quality (ICC = 0.63) and excellent correlation for the total number of vessels visualized (ICC = 0.77). The intra-rater reliability was good for Rater A (ICC = 0.65). Three models were successfully printed

  17. 3D printing of textile-based structures by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) with different polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, R.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing, i.e. creating objects by sequential layering, for pre-production or production. After creating a 3D model with a CAD program, a printable file is used to create a layer design which is printed afterwards. While often more expensive than traditional techniques like injection moulding, 3D printing can significantly enhance production times of small parts produced in small numbers, additionally allowing for large flexibility and the possibility to create parts that would be impossible to produce with conventional techniques. The Fused Deposition Modelling technique uses a plastic filament which is pushed through a heated extrusion nozzle melting the material. Depending on the material, different challenges occur in the production process, and the produced part shows different mechanical properties. The article describes some standard and novel materials and their influence on the resulting parts.

  18. A theoretical model of reversible adhesion in shape memory surface relief structures and its application in transfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yeguang; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Kim, Seok; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-04-01

    Transfer printing is an important and versatile tool for deterministic assembly and integration of micro/nanomaterials on unusual substrates, with promising applications in fabrication of stretchable and flexible electronics. The shape memory polymers (SMP) with triangular surface relief structures are introduced to achieve large, reversible adhesion, thereby with potential applications in temperature-controlled transfer printing. An analytic model is established, and it identifies two mechanisms to increase the adhesion: (1) transition of contact mode from the triangular to trapezoidal configurations, and (2) explicit enhancement in the contact area. The surface relief structures are optimized to achieve reversible adhesion and transfer printing. The theoretical model and results presented can be exploited as design guidelines for future applications of SMP in reversible adhesion and stretchable electronics.

  19. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takagi, Katsunori; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Tomo; Shimoda, Kozue; Matsuo, Ayano; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care. PMID:27403103

  20. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takagi, Katsunori; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Tomo; Shimoda, Kozue; Matsuo, Ayano; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients' ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care. PMID:27403103

  1. Biomimetic staggered composites with highly enhanced energy dissipation: Modeling, 3D printing, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pu; Heyne, Mary A.; To, Albert C.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the damping enhancement in a class of biomimetic staggered composites via a combination of design, modeling, and experiment. In total, three kinds of staggered composites are designed by mimicking the structure of bone and nacre. These composite designs are realized by 3D printing a rigid plastic and a viscous elastomer simultaneously. Greatly-enhanced energy dissipation in the designed composites is observed from both the experimental results and theoretical prediction. The designed polymer composites have loss modulus up to ~500 MPa, higher than most of the existing polymers. In addition, their specific loss modulus (up to 0.43 km2/s2) is among the highest of damping materials. The damping enhancement is attributed to the large shear deformation of the viscous soft matrix and the large strengthening effect from the rigid inclusion phase.

  2. Parent and Child Attitudinal Factors in a Model of Children's Print-Concept Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of attitudinal variables, such as children's literacy interest and parents' reading beliefs, in conjunction with home literacy activities (HLA), in predicting children's print-concept knowledge. The objective of the study is to test a theoretical model describing the relationship among these…

  3. A Two-Step Model for Assessing Relative Interest in E-Books Compared to Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often wish to know whether readers in a particular discipline favor e-books or print books. Because print circulation and e-book usage statistics are not directly comparable, it can be hard to determine the relative interest of readers in the two types of books. This study demonstrates a two-step method by which librarians can assess…

  4. A Model for Managing 3D Printing Services in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Sahib, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of 3D printers in university libraries opens many opportunities for advancing outreach, teaching, and research programs. The University of Alabama (UA) Libraries recently adopted 3D printing technology and maintains an open access 3D Printing Studio. The Studio consists of a 3D printer, multiple 3D design workstations, and other…

  5. Developing Print Repositories: Models for Shared Preservation and Access. Managing Economic Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Bernard F., Jr.

    This study is an outgrowth of recommendations made in a report issued by the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) in 2001 (Nichols and Smith 2001). The report made three broad recommendations for addressing print preservation: (1) Establish regional repositories to house and provide proper treatment of low-use print matter drawn…

  6. Experimental model of developing and analysis of lip prints in atypical surface: A metallic straw (bombilla)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Gabriel M.; Bonfigli, Esteban; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: The interaction between the offender and the victim produces visible or latent prints on objects and utensils. The study of lip prints has reportedly stayed away from the basic cinematic concept of the lip-to-surface relationship. Materials and Methods: Three regular powders were used to reveal the latent lip prints on a typical metallic straw called bombilla, and the revealed prints were photographed, preserved, and analyzed. Results: Better definition was observed in the lower lip print, and nine anatomical patterns were identified, but a higher definition of wrinkles was observed with indestructible white powder. Conclusion: Knowledge of labial dynamics, the real value of the processed surfaces, and the need for testing in field conditions are discussed. PMID:25125921

  7. Improving Perceptual Skills with 3-Dimensional Animations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Janet Faye; Brander, Julianne Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) models for every component in a representative mechanical system; the CAD models made it easy to generate 3-D animations that are ideal for teaching perceptual skills in multimedia computer-based technical training. Fifteen illustrations are provided. (AEF)

  8. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  9. 3-Dimensional simulation of the grain formation in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M. ); Tintillier, R. . Dept. Materiaux et Procedes-Direction Technique)

    1994-03-01

    A 3-dimensional (3-D) probabilistic model which has been developed previously for the prediction of grain structure formation during solidification is applied to thin superalloy plates produced using the investment-casting process. This model considers the random nucleation and orientation of nuclei formed at the mold surface and in the bulk of the liquid, the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips, and the preferential growth directions of the dendrite trunks and arms. In the present study, the grains are assumed to nucleate at the surface of the mold only. The computed grain structures, as observed in 2-dimensional (2-D) sections made parallel to the mold surface, are compared with experimental micrographs. The grain densities are then deduced as a function of the distance from the mold surface for both the experiment and the simulation. It is shown that these values are in good agreement, thus, providing validation of the grain formation mechanisms built into the 3-D probabilistic model. Finally, this model is further extended to more complex geometries and the 3-D computed grain structure of an equiaxed turbine-blade airfoil is compared with the experimental transverse section micrograph.

  10. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards…

  11. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  12. Creating and Using Interactive, 3D-Printed Models to Improve Student Comprehension of the Bohr Model of the Atom, Bond Polarity, and Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiar, Karen; Mendez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular model kits have been used in chemistry classrooms for decades but have seen very little recent innovation. Using 3D printing, three sets of physical models were created for a first semester, introductory chemistry course. Students manipulated these interactive models during class activities as a supplement to existing teaching tools for…

  13. 3D printing of high-resolution PLA-based structures by hybrid electrohydrodynamic and fused deposition modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Seong, Baekhoon; Nguyen, VuDat; Byun, Doyoung

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has received much attention for shape forming and manufacturing. The fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer is one of the various 3D printers available and has become widely used due to its simplicity, low-cost, and easy operation. However, the FDM technique has a limitation whereby its patterning resolution is too low at around 200 μm. In this paper, we first present a hybrid mechanism of electrohydrodynamic jet printing with the FDM technique, which we name E-FDM. We then develop a novel high-resolution 3D printer based on the E-FDM process. To determine the optimal condition for structuring, we also investigated the effect of several printing parameters, such as temperature, applied voltage, working height, printing speed, flow-rate, and acceleration on the patterning results. This method was capable of fabricating both high resolution 2D and 3D structures with the use of polylactic acid (PLA). PLA has been used to fabricate scaffold structures for tissue engineering, which has different hierarchical structure sizes. The fabrication speed was up to 40 mm/s and the pattern resolution could be improved to 10 μm.

  14. Masking mediated print defect visibility predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaochen; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Banding is a well-known artifact produced by printing systems. It usually appears as lines perpendicular to the process direction of the print. Therefore, banding is an important print quality issue which has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers. However, little literature has focused on the study of the masking effect of content for this kind of print quality issue. Compared with other image and print quality research, our work is focused on the print quality of typical documents printed on a digital commercial printing press. In this paper, we propose a Masking Mediated Print Defect Visibility Predictor (MMPDVP) to predict the visibility of defects in the presence of customer content. The parameters of the algorithm are trained from ground-truth images that have been marked by subjects. The MMPDVP could help the press operator decide whether the print quality is acceptable for specific customer requirements. Ultimately, this model can be used to optimize the print-shop workflow.

  15. A Seafloor Benchmark for 3-dimensional Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Webb, S. C.; Nooner, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an inexpensive, permanent seafloor benchmark to increase the longevity of seafloor geodetic measurements. The benchmark provides a physical tie to the sea floor lasting for decades (perhaps longer) on which geodetic sensors can be repeatedly placed and removed with millimeter resolution. Global coordinates estimated with seafloor geodetic techniques will remain attached to the benchmark allowing for the interchange of sensors as they fail or become obsolete, or for the sensors to be removed and used elsewhere, all the while maintaining a coherent series of positions referenced to the benchmark. The benchmark has been designed to free fall from the sea surface with transponders attached. The transponder can be recalled via an acoustic command sent from the surface to release from the benchmark and freely float to the sea surface for recovery. The duration of the sensor attachment to the benchmark will last from a few days to a few years depending on the specific needs of the experiment. The recovered sensors are then available to be reused at other locations, or again at the same site in the future. Three pins on the sensor frame mate precisely and unambiguously with three grooves on the benchmark. To reoccupy a benchmark a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) uses its manipulator arm to place the sensor pins into the benchmark grooves. In June 2014 we deployed four benchmarks offshore central Oregon. We used the ROV Jason to successfully demonstrate the removal and replacement of packages onto the benchmark. We will show the benchmark design and its operational capabilities. Presently models of megathrust slip within the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) are mostly constrained by the sub-aerial GPS vectors from the Plate Boundary Observatory, a part of Earthscope. More long-lived seafloor geodetic measures are needed to better understand the earthquake and tsunami risk associated with a large rupture of the thrust fault within the Cascadia subduction zone

  16. 3D-printed haptic "reverse" models for preoperative planning in soft tissue reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Lin, Frank; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2015-02-01

    In reconstructive surgery, preoperative planning is essential for optimal functional and aesthetic outcome. Creating a three-dimensional (3D) model from two-dimensional (2D) imaging data by rapid prototyping has been used in industrial design for decades but has only recently been introduced for medical application. 3D printing is one such technique that is fast, convenient, and relatively affordable. In this report, we present a case in which a reproducible method for producing a 3D-printed "reverse model" representing a skin wound defect was used for flap design and harvesting. This comprised a 82-year-old man with an exposed ankle prosthesis after serial soft tissue debridements for wound infection. Soft tissue coverage and dead-space filling were planned with a composite radial forearm free flap (RFFF). Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the donor site (left forearm), recipient site (right ankle), and the left ankle was performed. 2D data from the CTA was 3D-reconstructed using computer software, with a 3D image of the left ankle used as a "control." A 3D model was created by superimposing the left and right ankle images, to create a "reverse image" of the defect, and printed using a 3D printer. The RFFF was thus planned and executed effectively, without complication. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mechanism of calculating a soft tissue wound defect and producing a 3D model that may be useful for surgical planning. 3D printing and particularly "reverse" modeling may be versatile options in reconstructive planning, and have the potential for broad application.

  17. Digital printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Werner K.

    1997-02-01

    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  18. Printed electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel A. (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  19. Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel A. (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  20. Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  1. Prediction of the spectral reflectance of laser-generated color prints by combination of an optical model and learning methods.

    PubMed

    Nébouy, David; Hébert, Mathieu; Fournel, Thierry; Larina, Nina; Lesur, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Recent color printing technologies based on the principle of revealing colors on pre-functionalized achromatic supports by laser irradiation offer advanced functionalities, especially for security applications. However, for such technologies, the color prediction is challenging, compared to classic ink-transfer printing systems. The spectral properties of the coloring materials modified by the lasers are not precisely known and may strongly vary, depending on the laser settings, in a nonlinear manner. We show in this study, through the example of the color laser marking (CLM) technology, based on laser bleaching of a mixture of pigments, that the combination of an adapted optical reflectance model and learning methods to get the model's parameters enables prediction of the spectral reflectance of any printable color with rather good accuracy. Even though the pigment mixture is formulated from three colored pigments, an analysis of the dimensionality of the spectral space generated by CLM printing, thanks to a principal component analysis decomposition, shows that at least four spectral primaries are needed for accurate spectral reflectance predictions. A polynomial interpolation is then used to relate RGB laser intensities with virtual coordinates of new basis vectors. By studying the influence of the number of calibration patches on the prediction accuracy, we can conclude that a reasonable number of 130 patches are enough to achieve good accuracy in this application. PMID:26367434

  2. Prediction of the spectral reflectance of laser-generated color prints by combination of an optical model and learning methods.

    PubMed

    Nébouy, David; Hébert, Mathieu; Fournel, Thierry; Larina, Nina; Lesur, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Recent color printing technologies based on the principle of revealing colors on pre-functionalized achromatic supports by laser irradiation offer advanced functionalities, especially for security applications. However, for such technologies, the color prediction is challenging, compared to classic ink-transfer printing systems. The spectral properties of the coloring materials modified by the lasers are not precisely known and may strongly vary, depending on the laser settings, in a nonlinear manner. We show in this study, through the example of the color laser marking (CLM) technology, based on laser bleaching of a mixture of pigments, that the combination of an adapted optical reflectance model and learning methods to get the model's parameters enables prediction of the spectral reflectance of any printable color with rather good accuracy. Even though the pigment mixture is formulated from three colored pigments, an analysis of the dimensionality of the spectral space generated by CLM printing, thanks to a principal component analysis decomposition, shows that at least four spectral primaries are needed for accurate spectral reflectance predictions. A polynomial interpolation is then used to relate RGB laser intensities with virtual coordinates of new basis vectors. By studying the influence of the number of calibration patches on the prediction accuracy, we can conclude that a reasonable number of 130 patches are enough to achieve good accuracy in this application.

  3. A model for computing the trajectories of the conducting particles from waste printed circuit boards in corona electrostatic separators.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-02-28

    A model for computing the trajectory of conducting particle from waste printed circuit board (PCB) scraps in corona electrostatic separator is established. Using analytical expression for computing non-uniformity of the electric field in the active zone of the separator and the differential method were used for computing the trajectories of conducting particles in the air, after detachment. The result shows that the trajectory of conducting particle can be computed under various initial parameters (R, r, L, alpha, U, n; rho, r0) by the computing model and the computing results have a good agreement with the actual separating process. This model offers a possible for designing the new corona electrostatic separator.

  4. Fabrication and assessment of 3D printed anatomical models of the lower limb for anatomical teaching and femoral vessel access training in medicine.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michael K; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P; Feeney, Robin N M; Jones, James F X

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial cadavers are manufactured through three-dimensional (3D) printing of patient specific radiological data sets. In this article, a simple powder based printer is made more versatile to manufacture hard bones, silicone muscles and perfusable blood vessels. The approach involves blending modern approaches (3D printing) with more ancient ones (casting and lost-wax techniques). These anatomically accurate models can augment the approach to anatomy teaching from dissection to synthesis of 3D-printed parts held together with embedded rare earth magnets. Vascular simulation is possible through application of pumps and artificial blood. The resulting arteries and veins can be cannulated and imaged with Doppler ultrasound. In some respects, 3D-printed anatomy is superior to older teaching methods because the parts are cheap, scalable, they can cover the entire age span, they can be both dissected and reassembled and the data files can be printed anywhere in the world and mass produced. Anatomical diversity can be collated as a digital repository and reprinted rather than waiting for the rare variant to appear in the dissection room. It is predicted that 3D printing will revolutionize anatomy when poly-material printing is perfected in the early 21st century.

  5. The Application of Three-Dimensional Printing in Animal Model of Augmentation Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Suk; Shin, Yoo Seob; Park, Do Yang; Choi, Jae Won; Park, Joo Kyung; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Chul Ho; Park, Su A

    2015-09-01

    The role of three-dimensional (3D) printing has expanded in diverse areas in medicine. As plastic surgery needs to fulfill the different demands from diverse individuals, the applications of tailored 3D printing will become indispensable. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold seeded with fibrin/chondrocytes as a new dorsal augmentation material for rhinoplasty. The construct was surgically implanted on the nasal dorsum in the subperiosteal plane of six rabbits. The implants were harvested 4 and 12 weeks after implantation and evaluated by gross morphological assessment, radiographic imaging, and histologic examination. The initial shape of the implant was unchanged in all cases, and no definite post-operative complications were seen over the 3-month period. Radiologic evaluation confirmed that implants remained in the initial location without migration or extrusion. Histologic evaluations showed that the scaffold architectures were maintained with minimal inflammatory reactions; however, expected neo-chondrogenesis was not definite in the constructs. A new PCL scaffold designed by 3D printing method seeded with fibrin/chondrocytes can be a biocompatible augmentation material in rhinoplasty in the future.

  6. Hot-melt extruded filaments based on pharmaceutical grade polymers for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling.

    PubMed

    Melocchi, Alice; Parietti, Federico; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2016-07-25

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique based on the deposition of successive layers of thermoplastic materials following their softening/melting. Such a technique holds huge potential for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and is currently under extensive investigation. Challenges in this field are mainly related to the paucity of adequate filaments composed of pharmaceutical grade materials, which are needed for feeding the FDM equipment. Accordingly, a number of polymers of common use in pharmaceutical formulation were evaluated as starting materials for fabrication via hot melt extrusion of filaments suitable for FDM processes. By using a twin-screw extruder, filaments based on insoluble (ethylcellulose, Eudragit(®) RL), promptly soluble (polyethylene oxide, Kollicoat(®) IR), enteric soluble (Eudragit(®) L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate) and swellable/erodible (hydrophilic cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, Soluplus(®)) polymers were successfully produced, and the possibility of employing them for printing 600μm thick disks was demonstrated. The behavior of disks as barriers when in contact with aqueous fluids was shown consistent with the functional application of the relevant polymeric components. The produced filaments were thus considered potentially suitable for printing capsules and coating layers for immediate or modified release, and, when loaded with active ingredients, any type of dosage forms.

  7. Hot-melt extruded filaments based on pharmaceutical grade polymers for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling.

    PubMed

    Melocchi, Alice; Parietti, Federico; Maroni, Alessandra; Foppoli, Anastasia; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2016-07-25

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a 3D printing technique based on the deposition of successive layers of thermoplastic materials following their softening/melting. Such a technique holds huge potential for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products and is currently under extensive investigation. Challenges in this field are mainly related to the paucity of adequate filaments composed of pharmaceutical grade materials, which are needed for feeding the FDM equipment. Accordingly, a number of polymers of common use in pharmaceutical formulation were evaluated as starting materials for fabrication via hot melt extrusion of filaments suitable for FDM processes. By using a twin-screw extruder, filaments based on insoluble (ethylcellulose, Eudragit(®) RL), promptly soluble (polyethylene oxide, Kollicoat(®) IR), enteric soluble (Eudragit(®) L, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate) and swellable/erodible (hydrophilic cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, Soluplus(®)) polymers were successfully produced, and the possibility of employing them for printing 600μm thick disks was demonstrated. The behavior of disks as barriers when in contact with aqueous fluids was shown consistent with the functional application of the relevant polymeric components. The produced filaments were thus considered potentially suitable for printing capsules and coating layers for immediate or modified release, and, when loaded with active ingredients, any type of dosage forms. PMID:27215535

  8. Fabrication of extended-release patient-tailored prednisolone tablets via fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Skowyra, Justyna; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2015-02-20

    Rapid and reliable tailoring of the dose of controlled release tablets to suit an individual patient is a major challenge for personalized medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) based 3D printer to fabricate extended release tablet using prednisolone loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) filaments and to control its dose. Prednisolone was loaded into a PVA-based (1.75 mm) filament at approximately 1.9% w/w via incubation in a saturated methanolic solution of prednisolone. The physical form of the drug was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Dose accuracy and in vitro drug release patterns were assessed using HPLC and pH change flow-through dissolution test. Prednisolone loaded PVA filament demonstrated an ability to be fabricated into regular ellipse-shaped solid tablets using the FDM-based 3D printer. It was possible to control the mass of printed tablet through manipulating the volume of the design (R(2) = 0.9983). On printing tablets with target drug contents of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10mg, a good correlation between target and achieved dose was obtained (R(2) = 0.9904) with a dose accuracy range of 88.7-107%. Thermal analysis and XRPD indicated that the majority of prednisolone existed in amorphous form within the tablets. In vitro drug release from 3D printed tablets was extended up to 24h. FDM based 3D printing is a promising method to produce and control the dose of extended release tablets, providing a highly adjustable, affordable, minimally sized, digitally controlled platform for producing patient-tailored medicines. PMID:25460545

  9. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  10. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  11. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  12. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  13. Printed photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems.

  14. Native American Resources Annotated Bibliography of Print and Non-Print Materials. A Model Program in Multi-Ethnic Heritage Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankato State Univ., Minn.

    This is an annotated bibliography of print and nonprint materials for programs in Native American Studies. It is divided into elementary level materials and secondary level materials. Each section is arranged alphabetically by subject. Most subject headings in this resource begin with a name of a tribe, nation, or a geographical area. General…

  15. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, A.; Bochud, F.; Moeckli, R.

    2014-08-01

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  16. A critical evaluation of secondary cancer risk models applied to Monte Carlo dose distributions of 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional conformal and hybrid intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Joosten, A; Bochud, F; Moeckli, R

    2014-08-21

    The comparison of radiotherapy techniques regarding secondary cancer risk has yielded contradictory results possibly stemming from the many different approaches used to estimate risk. The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different available risk models applied to detailed whole-body dose distributions computed by Monte Carlo for various breast radiotherapy techniques including conventional open tangents, 3D conformal wedged tangents and hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). First, organ-specific linear risk models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII committee were applied to mean doses for remote organs only and all solid organs. Then, different general non-linear risk models were applied to the whole body dose distribution. Finally, organ-specific non-linear risk models for the lung and breast were used to assess the secondary cancer risk for these two specific organs. A total of 32 different calculated absolute risks resulted in a broad range of values (between 0.1% and 48.5%) underlying the large uncertainties in absolute risk calculation. The ratio of risk between two techniques has often been proposed as a more robust assessment of risk than the absolute risk. We found that the ratio of risk between two techniques could also vary substantially considering the different approaches to risk estimation. Sometimes the ratio of risk between two techniques would range between values smaller and larger than one, which then translates into inconsistent results on the potential higher risk of one technique compared to another. We found however that the hybrid IMRT technique resulted in a systematic reduction of risk compared to the other techniques investigated even though the magnitude of this reduction varied substantially with the different approaches investigated. Based on the epidemiological data available, a reasonable

  17. A 3-dimensional Analysis of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isensee, Karl

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the nearby supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). Easily resolvable supernova remnants such as Cas A provide a unique opportunity to test supernova explosion models. Additionally, we can observe key processes in the interstellar medium as the ejecta from the initial explosion encounter Cas A's powerful shocks. In order to accomplish these science goals, we used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to create a high resolution spectral map of select regions of Cas A, allowing us to make a Doppler reconstruction of its 3-dimensional structure structure. In the center of the remnant, we find relatively pristine ejecta that have not yet reached Cas A's reverse shock or interacted with the circumstellar environment. We observe O, Si, and S emission. These ejecta can form both sheet-like structures as well as filaments. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers of the star, are observed to be coincident in some regions, and separated by >500 km s -1 in others. Observed ejecta traveling toward us are, on average, ˜800 km s -1 slower than the material traveling away from us. We compare our observations to recent supernova explosion models and find that no single model can simultaneously reproduce all the observed features. However, models of different supernova explosions can collectively produce the observed geometries and structures of the emission interior to Cas A's reverse shock. We use the results from the models to address the conditions during the supernova explosion, concentrating on asymmetries in the shock structure. We also predict that the back surface of Cassiopeia A will begin brightening in ∼30 years, and the front surface in ˜100 years. We then used similar observations from 3 regions on Cas A's reverse shock in order to create more 3-dimensional maps. In these regions, we observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the

  18. A Molecular Perspective of Inter-filament Bonding in Fused Deposition Modeling 3-D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward; Spradlin, Brandon; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Fused deposition 3D printing is an important tool for low-cost and rapid prototyping of objects with complex geometries. 3D printed materials are composed of many filaments deposited on a heated substrate, requiring the bonding of neighboring filaments during the deposition process. Filament deposition often creates voids between filaments, which requires necking between them to create a robust sample. Therefore the amount of interfacial contact and interdiffusion between filaments become important parameters that control the macroscopic physical properties of the printed prototype. Our research focuses on quantifying the interfacial adhesion between ABS filaments and its impact on structural properties. The time evolution of the temperature profile near the heated substrate demonstrates that the deposited filaments are repeatedly heated above the Tg of ABS allowing interpenetration of the polymer chains between adjacent filaments. Results of DMA experiments on samples of different geometries have been correlated to microphotography that monitors the degree of necking between filaments and the thermal history. Results indicate that interfacial contact area between filaments and increased thermal energy are crucial to their mechanical properties.

  19. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  20. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the transnational project GeoMol geophysical and geological information on the entire Molasse Basin and on the Po Basin are gathered to build consistent cross-border 3D geological models based on borehole evidence and seismic data. Benefiting from important progress in seismic processing, these new models will provide some answers to various questions regarding the usage of subsurface resources, as there are geothermal energy, CO2 and gas storage, oil and gas production, and support decisions-making to national and local administrations as well as to industries. More than 28 000 km of 2D seismic lines are compiled reprocessed and harmonized. This work faces various problems like the vertical drop of more than 700 meters between West and East of the Molasse Basin and to al lesser extent in the Po Plain, the heterogeneities of the substratum, the large disparities between the period and parameters of seismic acquisition, and depending of their availability, the use of two types of seismic data, raw and processed seismic data. The main challenge is to harmonize all lines at the same reference level, amplitude and step of signal processing from France to Austria, spanning more than 1000 km, to avoid misfits at crossing points between seismic lines and artifacts at the country borders, facilitating the interpretation of the various geological layers in the Molasse Basin and Po Basin. A generalized stratigraphic column for the two basins is set up, representing all geological layers relevant to subsurface usage. This stratigraphy constitutes the harmonized framework for seismic reprocessing. In general, processed seismic data is available on paper at stack stage and the mandatory information to take these seismic lines to the final stage of processing, the migration step, are datum plane and replacement velocity. However several datum planes and replacement velocities were used during previous processing projects. Our processing sequence is to

  1. Molecular signatures in the prevention of radiation damage by the synergistic effect of N-acetyl cysteine and qingre liyan decoction, a traditional chinese medicine, using a 3-dimensional cell culture model of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Lambros, Maria P; Kondapalli, Lavanya; Parsa, Cyrus; Mulamalla, Hari Chandana; Orlando, Robert; Pon, Doreen; Huang, Ying; Chow, Moses S S

    2015-01-01

    Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD) at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1), protective genes (EGFR and PPARD), and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors.

  2. Model-based deduction of CMYK surface coverages from visible and infrared spectral measurements of halftone prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnon, Thomas; Brichon, Mathieu; Hersch, Roger David

    2007-01-01

    The Yule-Nielsen modified Spectral Neugebauer reflection prediction model enhanced with an ink spreading model provides high accuracy when predicting reflectance spectra from ink surface coverages. In the present contribution, we try to inverse the model, i.e. to deduce the surface coverages of a printed color halftone patch from its measured reflectance spectrum. This process yields good results for cyan, magenta, and yellow inks, but unstable results when simultaneously fitting cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks due to redundancy between these four inks: black can be obtained by printing either the black ink or similar amounts of the cyan, magenta, and yellow inks. To overcome this problem, we use the fact that the black pigmented ink absorbs light in the infrared domain, whereas cyan, magenta, and yellow inks do not. Therefore, with reflection spectra measurements spanning both the visible and infrared domain, it is possible to accurately deduce the black ink coverage. Since there is no redundancy anymore, the cyan, magenta, yellow, and pigmented black ink coverages can be recovered with high accuracy.

  3. Noncommutative 3 Dimensional Soliton from Multi-instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, D. H.; Forgacs, P.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.; Silva, G. A.

    2004-07-01

    We extend the relation between instanton and monopole solutions of the selfduality equations in SU(2) gauge theory to noncommutative space-times. Using this approach and starting from a noncommutative multi-instanton solution we construct a U(2) monopole configuration which lives in 3 dimensional ordinary space. This configuration resembles the Wu-Yang monopole and satisfies the selfduality (Bogomol'nyi) equations for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system.

  4. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  5. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Hatton, Grace B; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of fused-deposition 3-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) to produce modified-release drug loaded tablets. Two aminosalicylate isomers used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), were selected as model drugs. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were loaded with the drugs in an ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.06% w/w and 0.25% w/w was achieved for the 5-ASA and 4-ASA strands, respectively. 10.5mm diameter tablets of both PVA/4-ASA and PVA/5-ASA were subsequently printed using an FDM 3D printer, and varying the weight and densities of the printed tablets was achieved by selecting the infill percentage in the printer software. The tablets were mechanically strong, and the FDM 3D printing was shown to be an effective process for the manufacture of the drug, 5-ASA. Significant thermal degradation of the active 4-ASA (50%) occurred during printing, however, indicating that the method may not be appropriate for drugs when printing at high temperatures exceeding those of the degradation point. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the formulated blends confirmed these findings while highlighting the potential of thermal analytical techniques to anticipate drug degradation issues in the 3D printing process. The results of the dissolution tests conducted in modified Hank's bicarbonate buffer showed that release profiles for both drugs were dependent on both the drug itself and on the infill percentage of the tablet. Our work here demonstrates the potential role of FDM 3DP as an efficient and low-cost alternative method of manufacturing individually tailored oral drug dosage, and also for production of modified-release formulations.

  6. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Hatton, Grace B; Gaisford, Simon; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of fused-deposition 3-dimensional printing (FDM 3DP) to produce modified-release drug loaded tablets. Two aminosalicylate isomers used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA), were selected as model drugs. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filaments were loaded with the drugs in an ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.06% w/w and 0.25% w/w was achieved for the 5-ASA and 4-ASA strands, respectively. 10.5mm diameter tablets of both PVA/4-ASA and PVA/5-ASA were subsequently printed using an FDM 3D printer, and varying the weight and densities of the printed tablets was achieved by selecting the infill percentage in the printer software. The tablets were mechanically strong, and the FDM 3D printing was shown to be an effective process for the manufacture of the drug, 5-ASA. Significant thermal degradation of the active 4-ASA (50%) occurred during printing, however, indicating that the method may not be appropriate for drugs when printing at high temperatures exceeding those of the degradation point. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the formulated blends confirmed these findings while highlighting the potential of thermal analytical techniques to anticipate drug degradation issues in the 3D printing process. The results of the dissolution tests conducted in modified Hank's bicarbonate buffer showed that release profiles for both drugs were dependent on both the drug itself and on the infill percentage of the tablet. Our work here demonstrates the potential role of FDM 3DP as an efficient and low-cost alternative method of manufacturing individually tailored oral drug dosage, and also for production of modified-release formulations. PMID:25497178

  7. 3-Dimensional modeling of protein structures distinguishes closely related phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas (formerly mycoplasmalike organisms, MLOs) are cell wall-less bacteria that inhabit phloem tissue of plants and are transmitted from plant-to-plant by phloem-feeding insects. Numerous diseases affecting hundreds of plant species in many botanical families are attributed to infections by...

  8. Quadratic nonlinear models for optimizing electrostatic separation of crushed waste printed circuit boards using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yufei; Wu, Jiang; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-08-15

    The electrostatic separation has proved to be an effective and environment-friendly treatment for the recovery of crushed waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In this paper a more sophisticated response surface methodology was applied to build quadratic models and optimize the three main factors on a roll-type electrostatic separator. The sample of granular mixture got from crushed PCB wastes (size 0.3-0.45 mm, containing 25% metal and 75% nonmetal). According to the analysis of the experiment data, some quadratic effects were found, and two quadratic models for conductor production (C) and middling production (M) were established. The results indicated that the high voltage level and roll speed are the most important factors for the process. Because of the existence of the quadratic effect, the highest efficiency can also be achieved at a lower voltage level (27-29 kV) compared with a maximum voltage level.

  9. Theoretic model and computer simulation of separating mixture metal particles from waste printed circuit board by electrostatic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-05-30

    Traditionally, the mixture metals from waste printed circuit board (PCB) were sent to the smelt factory to refine pure copper. Some valuable metals (aluminum, zinc and tin) with low content in PCB were lost during smelt. A new method which used roll-type electrostatic separator (RES) to recovery low content metals in waste PCB was presented in this study. The theoretic model which was established from computing electric field and the analysis of forces on the particles was used to write a program by MATLAB language. The program was design to simulate the process of separating mixture metal particles. Electrical, material and mechanical factors were analyzed to optimize the operating parameters of separator. The experiment results of separating copper and aluminum particles by RES had a good agreement with computer simulation results. The model could be used to simulate separating other metal (tin, zinc, etc.) particles during the process of recycling waste PCBs by RES.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly with ethmocephaly via 3-dimensional sonography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gui-Se-Ra; Hur, Soo Young; Shin, Jong-Chul; Kim, Soo-Pyung; Kim, Sa Jin

    2006-01-01

    We present the prenatal 3-dimensional (3D) sonographic findings in a case of holoprosencephaly with ethmocephaly at 32 weeks' gestation. The sonographic diagnosis was based on the intracranial findings of a single ventricle and bulb-shaped appearance of the thalami and facial abnormalities, including hypotelorism with proboscis. Chromosome study of the fetus revealed a normal female karyotype (46,XX). Postmortem examination confirmed the 3D sonographic findings. This case demonstrates that the use of 3D sonography improves the imaging and the understanding of the condition of the intracranial abnormalities and the facial anomalies. PMID:16788963

  11. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27222318

  13. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene. PMID:21811148

  14. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  15. Critical rotational speed model of the rotating roll electrode in corona electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-06-15

    Waste printed circuit board (PCB) is increasing worldwide. The corona electrostatic separation (CES) was an effective and environmental protection way to recycle resource from waste PCBs. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main factor (rotational speed) that affects the efficiency of CES from the point of view of electrostatics and mechanics. A quantitative method for analyzing the affection of rotational speed was studied and the model for separating flat nonmetal particles in waste PCBs was established. The conception of "charging critical rotational speed" and "detaching critical rotational speed" were presented. Experiments with the waste PCBs verified the theoretical model, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical model. The results indicated that the purity and recycle percentage of materials got a good level when the rotational speed was about 70 rpm and the critical rotational speed of small particles was higher than big particles. The model can guide the definition of operator parameter and the design of CES, which are needed for the development of any new application of the electrostatic separation method.

  16. Critical rotational speed model of the rotating roll electrode in corona electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Lu, Hongzhou; Xu, Zhenming; Zhou, Yaohe

    2008-06-15

    Waste printed circuit board (PCB) is increasing worldwide. The corona electrostatic separation (CES) was an effective and environmental protection way to recycle resource from waste PCBs. The aim of this paper is to analyze the main factor (rotational speed) that affects the efficiency of CES from the point of view of electrostatics and mechanics. A quantitative method for analyzing the affection of rotational speed was studied and the model for separating flat nonmetal particles in waste PCBs was established. The conception of "charging critical rotational speed" and "detaching critical rotational speed" were presented. Experiments with the waste PCBs verified the theoretical model, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical model. The results indicated that the purity and recycle percentage of materials got a good level when the rotational speed was about 70 rpm and the critical rotational speed of small particles was higher than big particles. The model can guide the definition of operator parameter and the design of CES, which are needed for the development of any new application of the electrostatic separation method. PMID:18037234

  17. Three-dimensional printing models improve understanding of spinal fracture--A randomized controlled study in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhu; Li, Zefu; Xu, Ruiyu; Li, Meng; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Yongliang; Sui, Dehua; Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Zheng

    2015-06-23

    Three-dimensional printing (3 Dp) is being increasingly used in medical education. Although the use of such lifelike models is beneficial, well-powered, randomized studies supporting this statement are scarce. Two spinal fracture simulation models were generated by 3 Dp. Altogether, 120 medical students (54.2% females) were randomized into three teaching module groups [two-dimensional computed tomography images (CT), 3D, or 3 Dp] and asked to answer 10 key anatomical and 4 evaluative questions. Students in the 3 Dp or 3D group performed significantly better than those in the CT group, although males in the 3D group scored higher than females. Students in the 3 Dp group were the first to answer all questions, and there were no sex-related differences. Pleasure, assistance, effect, and confidence were more predominant in students in the 3 Dp group than in those in the 3D and CT groups. This randomized study revealed that the 3 Dp model markedly improved the identification of complex spinal fracture anatomy by medical students and was equally appreciated and comprehended by both sexes. Therefore, the lifelike fracture model made by 3 Dp technology should be used as a means of premedical education.

  18. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  19. Development of an anthropomorphic shoulder phantom model that simulates bony anatomy for sonographic measurement of the acromiohumeral distance.

    PubMed

    Adusumilli, Pratik; McCreesh, Karen; Evans, Tony

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a sonographic phantom model of the shoulder that was accurate in bone configuration. Its main purpose was for operator training to measure the acromiohumeral distance. A computerized 3-dimensional model of the superior half of the humerus and scapula was rendered and 3-dimensionally printed. The bone model was embedded in a gelatin compound and set in a shoulder-shaped mold. The materials used had speeds of sound that were well matched to soft tissue and epiphyseal bone. The model was specifically effective in simulating the acromiohumeral distance because of its accurate bone geometry. PMID:25336490

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  1. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  2. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  3. Evaluation of the use of laser scanning to create key models for 3D printing separate from and augmenting visible light sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The illicit creation of 3D printed keys is problematic as it can allow intruders nearly undetectable access to secure facilities. Prior work has discussed how keys can be created using visible light sensing. This paper builds on this work by evaluating the utility of keys produced with laser scanning. The quality of the model produced using a structured laser scanning approach is compared to the quality of a model produced using a similarly robust visible light sensing approach.

  4. Modeling a Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger with RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The main purpose of this report is to design a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and carry out Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) simulation using RELAP5-3D. Helium was chosen as the coolant in the primary and secondary sides of the heat exchanger. The design of PCHE is critical for the LOCA simulations. For purposes of simplicity, a straight channel configuration was assumed. A parallel intermediate heat exchanger configuration was assumed for the RELAP5 model design. The RELAP5 modeling also required the semicircular channels in the heat exchanger to be mapped to rectangular channels. The initial RELAP5 run outputs steady state conditions which were then compared to the heat exchanger performance theory to ensure accurate design is being simulated. An exponential loss of pressure transient was simulated. This LOCA describes a loss of coolant pressure in the primary side over a 20 second time period. The results for the simulation indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the loss of pressure occurs, heat transfers from the secondary loop to the primary loop.

  5. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  6. A Novel 3-Dimensional Approach for Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Munarin, F.; Coulombe, K.L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases, such as coronary artery disease and microvascular disease, are cardiovascular pathologies that cause reduced blood supply to the heart muscle. Acute and chronic ischemia cause cardiomyocytes to die, and these cells are not naturally replaced as part of the wound healing process in the heart. To promote neovascularization in the wound bed and in implanted engineered tissues, we have developed a collagen–alginate microspheres scaffold intended for local release of drugs and growth factors in order to recruit host endothelial cells to the area and provide them with geometrical cues to form new vessels. Optimization of alginate microspheres included modulation of nitrogen pressure, alginate and CaCl2 concentrations, nozzle size, and velocity of extrusion to achieve monodisperse populations of 100 μm diameter microspheres with protein release over 3 days. In vitro incorporation of fibroblasts in the bulk collagen demonstrated cellular compatibility with embedded alginate microspheres. An in vitro vessel formation assay, performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) immobilized in the collagen phase of the collagen–alginate microspheres scaffolds, showed that HUVECs formed networks following the 3-dimensional pattern of the microspheres even in the absence of growth factor. Implantation of acellular collagen–alginate microspheres scaffolds onto healthy rat hearts confirmed the invasion of host cells at one week. Together, these results suggest that the collagen–alginate microspheres scaffold is a viable, tunable therapeutic approach for directing neovascularization in engineered tissues and in the heart after ischemic events. PMID:26736614

  7. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  8. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  9. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  10. Advances in 3D-Printed Pediatric Prostheses for Upper Extremity Differences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kara S; Lightdale-Miric, Nina

    2016-08-01

    ➤The prohibitive cost of cutting-edge prostheses prevents many children with a limb difference from obtaining them; however, new developments in 3-dimensional (3D) printing have the potential to increase the accessibility, customization, and procurement of such devices.➤Children with upper limb differences are ideal candidates for currently available 3D-printed devices because they quickly damage and outgrow prostheses, and the low cost of 3D printing makes repairs and upgrades substantially more affordable.➤Physicians and medical practitioners should become familiar with the possibilities of 3D-printed devices in order to determine the benefits and utility for their patients. PMID:27489324

  11. Advances in 3D-Printed Pediatric Prostheses for Upper Extremity Differences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kara S; Lightdale-Miric, Nina

    2016-08-01

    ➤The prohibitive cost of cutting-edge prostheses prevents many children with a limb difference from obtaining them; however, new developments in 3-dimensional (3D) printing have the potential to increase the accessibility, customization, and procurement of such devices.➤Children with upper limb differences are ideal candidates for currently available 3D-printed devices because they quickly damage and outgrow prostheses, and the low cost of 3D printing makes repairs and upgrades substantially more affordable.➤Physicians and medical practitioners should become familiar with the possibilities of 3D-printed devices in order to determine the benefits and utility for their patients.

  12. Manipulating 3D-Printed and Paper Models Enhances Student Understanding of Viral Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Lisa; Johannes, Kristen; Powers, Jackie; Silberglitt, Matt; Davenport, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding key concepts in molecular biology requires reasoning about molecular processes that are not directly observable and, as such, presents a challenge to students and teachers. We ask whether novel interactive physical models and activities can help students understand key processes in viral replication. Our 3D tangible models are…

  13. Simplified three-dimensional model provides anatomical insights in lizards' caudal autotomy as printed illustration.

    PubMed

    De Amorim, Joana D C G; Travnik, Isadora; De Sousa, Bernadete M

    2015-03-01

    Lizards' caudal autotomy is a complex and vastly employed antipredator mechanism, with thorough anatomic adaptations involved. Due to its diminished size and intricate structures, vertebral anatomy is hard to be clearly conveyed to students and researchers of other areas. Three-dimensional models are prodigious tools in unveiling anatomical nuances. Some of the techniques used to create them can produce irregular and complicated forms, which despite being very accurate, lack didactical uniformity and simplicity. Since both are considered fundamental characteristics for comprehension, a simplified model could be the key to improve learning. The model here presented depicts the caudal osteology of Tropidurus itambere, and was designed to be concise, in order to be easily assimilated, yet complete, not to compromise the informative aspect. The creation process requires only basic skills in manipulating polygons in 3D modeling softwares, in addition to the appropriate knowledge of the structure to be modeled. As reference for the modeling, we used microscopic observation and a photograph database of the caudal structures. This way, no advanced laboratory equipment was needed and all biological materials were preserved for future research. Therefore, we propose a wider usage of simplified 3D models both in the classroom and as illustrations for scientific publications.

  14. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  15. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  16. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications.

  17. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications. PMID:18154465

  18. Initial stage sintering model of 316L stainless steel with application to three dimensionally printed (3DP(TM)) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott R.

    The design phase of manufacturing has become increasingly dependent upon computers for geometric and functional analysis of design concepts [1]. The ability to manufacture final components directly from computer images has been made possible by recent developments in rapid prototyping technologies and improvements in material processing, namely rapid manufacturing. Three Dimensional Printing (3DP(TM)) is a powder metallurgical rapid pro-totyping technique that incorporates initial stage sintering within the rapid manufacturing process. Initial stage sintering is characterized by neck growth between powder particles resulting in a light cohesive strengthening bond while preserving dimensionality. This study involved a detailed look into the theoretical mechanisms that produce material transport via diffusion methods to produce a quantitative dimensional sintering strain model. Here, we modify the accepted isothermal theoretical model describing initial stage sintering presented by German [2] and Ashby [3] to support a non-isothermal load history. Isothermal theoretical models have defined sintering in terms of surface and bulk mechanisms, where literature assumes that surface mechanisms do not produce interparticle approach for the ideal two-particle geometry. An expansion of the two-particle neck geometry from isothermal sintering theory to non-isothermal is performed by defining both the neck geometry and sintering mechanisms in terms of three geometric parameters. A quantitative sintering model is developed by introducing a volume constraint on the geometry and enforcing the assumption that surface sintering mechanisms do not produce inter-particle approach (no sintering strain). The sintering model produces quantitative strain results which are accurate to within 20% experimentally obtained final sintering strains. A qualitative strength model based on empirical data is also developed based on the amount of the final sintering strain. Modeling efforts were

  19. 3D-printed phantom for the characterization of non-uniform rotational distortion (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohert, Geoffrey; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Lee, Anthony; Lane, Pierre M.

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic catheter-based imaging systems that employ a 2-dimensional rotary or 3-dimensional rotary-pullback scanning mechanism require constant angular velocity at the distal tip to ensure correct angular registration of the collected signal. Non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) - often present due to a variety of mechanical issues - can result in inconsistent position and velocity profiles at the tip, limiting the accuracy of any measurements. Since artifacts like NURD are difficult to identify and characterize during tissue imaging, phantoms with well-defined patterns have been used to quantify position and/or velocity error. In this work we present a fast, versatile, and cost-effective method for making fused deposition modeling 3D printed phantoms for identifying and quantifying NURD errors along an arbitrary user-defined pullback path. Eight evenly-spaced features are present at the same orientation at all points on the path such that deviations from expected geometry can be quantified for the imaging catheter. The features are printed vertically and then folded together around the path to avoid issues with printer head resolution. This method can be adapted for probes of various diameters and for complex imaging paths with multiple bends. We demonstrate imaging using the 3D printed phantoms with a 1mm diameter rotary-pullback OCT catheter and system as a means of objectively evaluating the mechanical performance of similarly constructed probes.

  20. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    PubMed

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate

  1. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    PubMed

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate

  2. The method of geometrical comparison of 3-dimensional objects created from DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Gaweł, Dominik; Danielewicz, Kamil; Nowak, Michał

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method of geometrical comparison of 3-dimensional objects created from DICOM images. The reconstruction of biological objects is realized with use of Simpleware commercial software. Then the 3D geometries are registered and the recognized shape differences are visualized using color map, indicating the change of the 3D geometry. Than the last, but most important step of the presented technology is performed. The model including the information about changes in compared geometries is translated into the PDF format. Such approach allows to present the final result on every desktop computer equipped with Adobe Reader. This PDF browser is free to use and gives the possibility to freely rotate, move and zoom the model. PMID:22744507

  3. Precision printing and optical modeling of ultrathin SWCNT/C60 heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Sarah L.; Mistry, Kevin S.; Avery, Azure D.; Richard, Jonah; Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Ndione, Paul F.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Reese, Matthew O.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2015-04-01

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) are promising candidates as the active layer in photovoltaics (PV), particularly for niche applications where high infrared absorbance and/or semi-transparent solar cells are desirable. Most current fabrication strategies for SWCNT PV devices suffer from relatively high surface roughness and lack nanometer-scale deposition precision, both of which may hamper the reproducible production of ultrathin devices. Additionally, detailed optical models of SWCNT PV devices are lacking, due in part to a lack of well-defined optical constants for high-purity s-SWCNT thin films. Here, we present an optical model that accurately reconstructs the shape and magnitude of spectrally resolved external quantum efficiencies for ultrathin (7,5) s-SWCNT/C60 solar cells that are deposited by ultrasonic spraying. The ultrasonic spraying technique enables thickness tuning of the s-SWCNT layer with nanometer-scale precision, and consistently produces devices with low s-SWCNT film average surface roughness (Rq of <5 nm). Our optical model, based entirely on measured optical constants of each layer within the device stack, enables quantitative predictions of thickness-dependent relative photocurrent contributions of SWCNTs and C60 and enables estimates of the exciton diffusion lengths within each layer. These results establish routes towards rational performance improvements and scalable fabrication processes for ultra-thin SWCNT-based solar cells.Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) are promising candidates as the active layer in photovoltaics (PV), particularly for niche applications where high infrared absorbance and/or semi-transparent solar cells are desirable. Most current fabrication strategies for SWCNT PV devices suffer from relatively high surface roughness and lack nanometer-scale deposition precision, both of which may hamper the reproducible production of ultrathin devices. Additionally, detailed optical

  4. Short time spreading and wetting of offset printing liquids on model calcium carbonate coating structures.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Hanna; Toivakka, Martti; Gane, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Spreading of oils and water on porous and pre-saturated model carbonate coating structures was studied with high speed video imaging. The short-time data were complemented with long time absorption and wicking experiments. The results indicate a strong dependence between surface structural features of the pigment tablets and water spreading at short times, both in non-saturated and water pre-saturated cases, while the oil spreading is mainly dependent on the liquid properties. Sodium polyacrylate dispersant on pigment surfaces is shown to contribute to water spreading and absorption. On pre-saturated structures the liquid-liquid interactions are dominant and the majority of results support spreading according to the molecular kinetic model. The evidence supports the hypothesis of S. Rousu, P. Gane, and D. Eklund, ["Influence of coating pigment chemistry and morphology on the chromatographic separation of offset ink constituents," in The Science of Papermaking Transactions of the 12th Fundamental Research Symposium, FRC The Pulp & Paper Fundamental Research Society, Oxford, UK, 2001, p. 1115] that at long times the oils absorb into the porous structure at a rate proportional to the ratio of viscosity and surface tension, provided there is no sorptive action with the binder. A combination of nanosized pores and large surface area is useful for providing sufficient absorption capability for carbonate based coatings. PMID:22196346

  5. Short time spreading and wetting of offset printing liquids on model calcium carbonate coating structures.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Hanna; Toivakka, Martti; Gane, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Spreading of oils and water on porous and pre-saturated model carbonate coating structures was studied with high speed video imaging. The short-time data were complemented with long time absorption and wicking experiments. The results indicate a strong dependence between surface structural features of the pigment tablets and water spreading at short times, both in non-saturated and water pre-saturated cases, while the oil spreading is mainly dependent on the liquid properties. Sodium polyacrylate dispersant on pigment surfaces is shown to contribute to water spreading and absorption. On pre-saturated structures the liquid-liquid interactions are dominant and the majority of results support spreading according to the molecular kinetic model. The evidence supports the hypothesis of S. Rousu, P. Gane, and D. Eklund, ["Influence of coating pigment chemistry and morphology on the chromatographic separation of offset ink constituents," in The Science of Papermaking Transactions of the 12th Fundamental Research Symposium, FRC The Pulp & Paper Fundamental Research Society, Oxford, UK, 2001, p. 1115] that at long times the oils absorb into the porous structure at a rate proportional to the ratio of viscosity and surface tension, provided there is no sorptive action with the binder. A combination of nanosized pores and large surface area is useful for providing sufficient absorption capability for carbonate based coatings.

  6. Palm print image processing with PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xianhong

    2010-08-01

    Pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is based on Eckhorn's model of cat visual cortex, and imitate mammals visual processing, and palm print has been found as a personal biological feature for a long history. This inspired us with the combination of them: a novel method for palm print processing is proposed, which includes pre-processing and feature extraction of palm print image using PCNN; then the feature of palm print image is used for identifying. Our experiment shows that a verification rate of 87.5% can be achieved at ideal condition. We also find that the verification rate decreases duo to rotate or shift of palm.

  7. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  8. Active origami by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Dunn, Conner K.; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand.

  9. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  10. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  11. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  12. Modelling of organic field effect transistors with inkjet printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) electrodes: study of the annealing effects.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Immacolata Angelica; Del Mauro, Anna de Girolamo; Loffredo, Fausta; Morvillo, Pasquale; Villani, Fulvia

    2013-07-01

    In the present work, the transport mechanism of organic transistors with bottom-gate/top-contact structure, manufactured by employing traditional and inkjet printing techniques, was studied. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer was used for realizing printed source, drain and gate electrodes. The influence of the printing parameters (substrate temperature, drop overlapping degree, drop emission frequency) on the uniformity and morphology of the PEDOT:PSS layer was investigated. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as organic dielectric and pentacene, deposited by thermal evaporation, was employed as p-type semiconductor. Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated and electrically characterized before and after the thermal annealing process at 120 degrees C for 1 h in nitrogen ambient. The effect of the annealing on the performances of the OFETs was investigated by modelling the measured electrical characteristics and analyzing them in terms of mobility, characteristic temperature and energy distribution of the density of localized states (DOS). In addition, the OFET working under electrical stress in ambient conditions was observed and discussed. PMID:23901549

  13. Commercial printing and electronic color printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Joseph W.

    1995-04-01

    Technologies such as Xeikon, Indigo, and the Heidelberg/Presstek GTO-DI can change both the way print buyers may purchase printed material and the way printers and trade services respond to changing demands. Our recent study surveys the graphic arts industry for their current views of these new products and provides forecasts of installations and usage with breakdowns by market segment and size of firm. The acceptance of desktop publishing and electronic prepress have not only paved the way for a totally electronic printing process, but it has broadened the base of people who develop color originals for reproduction. Electronic printing adds the ability to customize jobs on the fly. How print providers will respond to the impact of electronic color printing depends on how each firm perceives the 'threat.' Most printing companies are run by entrepreneurial individuals who have, as their highest priority, their own economic survival. Service bureaus are already looking at electronic color printing as yet another way to differentiate their businesses. The study was based on a mail survey with 682 responses from graphic arts firms, interviews with printers, suppliers, associations and industry executives, and detailed secondary research. Results of a new survey in progress in January 1995 is also presented.

  14. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  15. Implantation of 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Aneurysm Models into Cadaveric Specimens: A New Training Paradigm to Allow for Improvements in Cerebrovascular Surgery and Research

    PubMed Central

    Benet, Arnau; Plata-Bello, Julio; Abla, Adib A.; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Saloner, David; Lawton, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the feasibility of implanting 3D-printed brain aneurysm model in human cadavers and to assess their utility in neurosurgical research, complex case management/planning, and operative training. Methods. Two 3D-printed aneurysm models, basilar apex and middle cerebral artery, were generated and implanted in four cadaveric specimens. The aneurysms were implanted at the same anatomical region as the modeled patient. Pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches were done on each specimen. The aneurysm implant, manipulation capabilities, and surgical clipping were evaluated. Results. The 3D aneurysm models were successfully implanted to the cadaveric specimens' arterial circulation in all cases. The features of the neck in terms of flexibility and its relationship with other arterial branches allowed for the practice of surgical maneuvering characteristic to aneurysm clipping. Furthermore, the relationship of the aneurysm dome with the surrounding structures allowed for better understanding of the aneurysmal local mass effect. Noticeably, all of these observations were done in a realistic environment provided by our customized embalming model for neurosurgical simulation. Conclusion. 3D aneurysms models implanted in cadaveric specimens may represent an untapped training method for replicating clip technique; for practicing certain approaches to aneurysms specific to a particular patient; and for improving neurosurgical research. PMID:26539542

  16. Large Print Bibliography, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    This bibliography lists materials that are available in large print format from the South Dakota State Library. The annotated entries are printed in large print and include the title of the material and its author, call number, publication date, and type of story or subject area covered. Some recorded items are included in the list. The entries…

  17. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  18. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie

    2015-01-09

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  19. Unification of color postprocessing techniques for 3-dimensional computational mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Bruce Charles

    1985-01-01

    To facilitate the understanding of complex three-dimensional numerical models, advanced interactive color postprocessing techniques are introduced. These techniques are sufficiently flexible so that postprocessing difficulties arising from model size, geometric complexity, response variation, and analysis type can be adequately overcome. Finite element, finite difference, and boundary element models may be evaluated with the prototype postprocessor. Elements may be removed from parent models to be studied as independent subobjects. Discontinuous responses may be contoured including responses which become singular, and nonlinear color scales may be input by the user for the enhancement of the contouring operation. Hit testing can be performed to extract precise geometric, response, mesh, or material information from the database. In addition, stress intensity factors may be contoured along the crack front of a fracture model. Stepwise analyses can be studied, and the user can recontour responses repeatedly, as if he were paging through the response sets. As a system, these tools allow effective interpretation of complex analysis results.

  20. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  1. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  2. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; McGraw, Gregory

    2016-02-02

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  3. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  4. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  5. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2004-12-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  6. A 3-dimensional theory of free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.D.; Wang, G.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    In this paper, we present an analytical three-dimensional theory of free electron lasers. Under several assumptions, we arrive at an integral equation similar to earlier work carried out by Ching, Kim and Xie, but using a formulation better suited for the initial value problem of Coherent Electron Cooling. We use this model in later papers to obtain analytical results for gain guiding, as well as to develop a complete model of Coherent Electron Cooling.

  7. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  8. 3-dimensional wells and tunnels for finite element grids

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, T.A.; Gable, C.W.; Trease, H.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling fluid, vapor, and air injection and extraction from wells poses a number of problems. The length scale of well bores is centimeters, the region of high pressure gradient may be tens of meters and the reservoir may be tens of kilometers. Furthermore, accurate representation of the path of a deviated well can be difficult. Incorporating the physics of injection and extraction can be made easier and more accurate with automated grid generation tools that incorporate wells as part of a background mesh that represents the reservoir. GEOMESH is a modeling tool developed for automating finite element grid generation. This tool maintains the geometric integrity of the geologic framework and produces optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grids. GEOMESH creates a 3D well as hexagonal segments formed along the path of the well. This well structure is tetrahedralized into a Delaunay mesh and then embedded into a background mesh. The well structure can be radially or vertically refined and each well layer is assigned a material property or can take on the material properties of the surrounding stratigraphy. The resulting embedded well can then be used by unstructured finite element models for gas and fluid flow in the vicinity of wells or tunnels. This 3D well representation allows the study of the free-surface of the well and surrounding stratigraphy. It reduces possible grid orientation effects, and allows better correlation between well sample data and the geologic model. The well grids also allow improved visualization for well and tunnel model analysis. 3D observation of the grids helps qualitative interpretation and can reveal features not apparent in fewer dimensions.

  9. 3-dimensional wells and tunnels for finite element grids

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, T.A.; Gable, C.W.; Trease, H.

    1996-04-01

    Modeling fluid, vapor, and air injection and extraction from wells poses a number of problems. The length scale of well bores is centimeters, the region of high pressure gradient may be tens of meters and the reservoir may be tens of kilometers. Furthermore, accurate representation of the path of a deviated well can be difficult. Incorporating the physics of injection and extraction can be made easier and more accurate with automated grid generation tools that incorporate wells as part of a background mesh that represents the reservoir. GEOMESH is a modeling tool developed for automating finite element grid generation. This tool maintains the geometric integrity of the geologic framework and produces optimal (Delaunay) tetrahedral grids. GEOMESH creates a 3D well as hexagonal segments formed along the path of the well. This well structure is tetrahedralized into a Delaunay mesh and then embedded into a background mesh. The well structure can be radially or vertically refined and each well layer is assigned a material property or can take on the material properties of the surrounding stratigraphy. The resulting embedded well can then be used by unstructured finite element models for gas and fluid flow in the vicinity of wells or tunnels. This 3D well representation allows the study of the free- surface of the well and surrounding stratigraphy. It reduces possible grid orientation effects, and allows better correlation between well sample data and the geologic model. The well grids also allow improved visualization for well and tunnel model analysis. 3D observation of the grids helps qualitative interpretation and can reveal features not apparent in fewer dimensions.

  10. 3-dimensional simulation of the tangential YORP effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J.; Krugly, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    YORP effect is a torque created by recoil forces of the light reflected or re-emitted by the surface of an asteroid. This torque has been demonstrated to be a major factor of evolution of kilometer-sized asteroids, largely responsible for their distribution over rotation rates and obliquities. YORP used to be considered predominantly in the model of locally flat surface. It resulted in the recoil force normal to the surface, and the overall torque being non-zero only due to slight non-symmetries of the asteroid's shape. But recently it has been shown that presence of decimeter-sized stones on the surface of an asteroid can substantially change this picture (Golubov & Krugly 2012, ApJL 752: L11). Under certain conditions, the western sides of stones appear to be on average slightly warmer than their eastern sides, thus experiencing a stronger recoil force and dragging the surface of the asteroid eastward. This force parallel to the overall surface of the asteroid is called the tangential YORP, or TYORP. It operates in concert with the normal YORP force, or NYORP, which acts normally to the overall surface. Even though the TYORP force is much smaller than the NYORP force, it has a bigger lever arm with respect to the rotation axis of the asteroid, and its torques tend to add up for opposite points on the asteroid's surface rather than to subtract, therefore the effects of TYORP and NYORP on the rotation rate of the asteroid can be comparable, and the standard treatment of the effect considering NYORP only is insufficient. In the talk we are going to review the results from Golubov & Krugly (2012), which give a rough estimate of the effect in a 1-dimensional model, approximating the stones by high long walls. Then we shall go beyond this model and present simulations of the effect for a surface covered with spherical stones. Our model incorporates 3-dimentional heat conductivity in stones and ray tracing of incoming and emitted light. We shall present the strength of

  11. 3-Dimensional simulations of storm dynamics on Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2000-10-01

    The formation and evolution of convective clouds in the atmosphere of Saturn is investigated using an anelastic three-dimensional time-dependent model with parameterized microphysics. The model is designed to study the development of moist convection on any of the four giant planets and has been previously used to investigate the formation of water convective storms in the jovian atmosphere. The role of water and ammonia in moist convection is investigated with varying deep concentrations. Results imply that most of the convective activity observed at Saturn may occur at the ammonia cloud deck while the formation of water moist convection may happen only when very strong constraints on the lower troposphere are met. Ammonia storms can ascend to the 300 mb level with vertical velocities around 30 ms-1. The seasonal effect on the thermal profile at the upper troposphere may have important effects on the development of ammonia storms. In the cases where water storms can develop they span many scale heights with peak vertical velocities around 160 ms-1 and cloud particles can be transported up to the 150 mb level. These predicted characteristics are similar to the Great White Spots observed in Saturn which, therefore, could be originated at the water cloud base level. This work has been supported by Gobierno Vasco PI 1997-34. R. Hueso acknowledges a PhD fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  12. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model.

  13. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2012-09-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model. PMID:23106040

  14. Regulation and 3 dimensional culture of tertiary follicle growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It has been revealed that multiple cohorts of tertiary follicles develop during some animal estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle. To reach developmental competence, oocytes need the support of somatic cells. During embryogenesis, the primordial germ cells appear, travel to the gonadal rudiments, and form follicles. The female germ cells develop within the somatic cells of the ovary, granulosa cells, and theca cells. How the oocyte and follicle cells support each other has been seriously studied. The latest technologies in genes and proteins and genetic engineering have allowed us to collect a great deal of information about folliculogenesis. For example, a few web pages (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu) provide access to databases of genomes, sequences of transcriptomes, and various tools for analyzing and discovering genes important in ovarian development. Formation of the antrum (tertiary follicle) is the final phase of folliculogenesis and the transition from intraovarian to extraovian regulation. This final step coordinates with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. On the other hand, currently, follicle physiology is under intense investigation, as little is known about how to overcome women's ovarian problems or how to develop competent oocytes from in vitro follicle culture or transplantation. In this review, some of the known roles of hormones and some of the genes involved in tertiary follicle growth and the general characteristics of tertiary follicles are summarized. In addition, in vitro culture of tertiary follicles is also discussed as a study model and an assisted reproductive technology model. PMID:23106040

  15. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  16. Patient-specific geometrical modeling of orthopedic structures with high efficiency and accuracy for finite element modeling and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huajun; Xiang, Chunling; Zeng, Canjun; Ouyang, Hanbin; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    We improved the geometrical modeling procedure for fast and accurate reconstruction of orthopedic structures. This procedure consists of medical image segmentation, three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction, and assignment of material properties. The patient-specific orthopedic structures reconstructed by this improved procedure can be used in the virtual surgical planning, 3D printing of real orthopedic structures and finite element analysis. A conventional modeling consists of: image segmentation, geometrical reconstruction, mesh generation, and assignment of material properties. The present study modified the conventional method to enhance software operating procedures. Patient's CT images of different bones were acquired and subsequently reconstructed to give models. The reconstruction procedures were three-dimensional image segmentation, modification of the edge length and quantity of meshes, and the assignment of material properties according to the intensity of gravy value. We compared the performance of our procedures to the conventional procedures modeling in terms of software operating time, success rate and mesh quality. Our proposed framework has the following improvements in the geometrical modeling: (1) processing time: (femur: 87.16 ± 5.90 %; pelvis: 80.16 ± 7.67 %; thoracic vertebra: 17.81 ± 4.36 %; P < 0.05); (2) least volume reduction (femur: 0.26 ± 0.06 %; pelvis: 0.70 ± 0.47, thoracic vertebra: 3.70 ± 1.75 %; P < 0.01) and (3) mesh quality in terms of aspect ratio (femur: 8.00 ± 7.38 %; pelvis: 17.70 ± 9.82 %; thoracic vertebra: 13.93 ± 9.79 %; P < 0.05) and maximum angle (femur: 4.90 ± 5.28 %; pelvis: 17.20 ± 19.29 %; thoracic vertebra: 3.86 ± 3.82 %; P < 0.05). Our proposed patient-specific geometrical modeling requires less operating time and workload, but the orthopedic structures were generated at a higher rate of success as compared with the conventional method. It is expected to benefit the surgical planning of orthopedic

  17. Engraving Print Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelck, Daniel; Barbe, Joaquim

    2008-04-15

    A print is a mark, or drawing, made in or upon a plate, stone, woodblock or other material which is cover with ink and then is press usually into a paper reproducing the image on the paper. Engraving prints usually are image composed of a group of binary lines, specially those are made with relief and intaglio techniques. Varying the number and the orientation of lines, the drawing of the engraving print is conformed. For this reason we propose an application based on image processing methods to classify engraving prints.

  18. Printed circuit board industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The printed circuit board is the platform upon which microelectronic components such as semiconductor chips and capacitors are mounted. It provides the electrical interconnections between components and is found in virtually all electronics products. Once considered low technology, the printed circuit board is evolving into a high-technology product. Printed circuit board manufacturing is highly complicated, requiring large equipment investments and over 50 process steps. Many of the high-speed, miniaturized printed circuit boards are now manufactured in cleanrooms with the same health and safety problems posed by other microelectronics manufacturing. Asia produces three-fourths of the world's printed circuit boards. In Asian countries, glycol ethers are the major solvents used in the printed circuit board industry. Large quantities of hazardous chemicals such as formaldehyde, dimethylformamide, and lead are used by the printed circuit board industry. For decades, chemically intensive and often sloppy manufacturing processes exposed tens of thousands of workers to a large number of chemicals that are now known to be reproductive toxicants and carcinogens. The printed circuit board industry has exposed workers to high doses of toxic metals, solvents, acids, and photolithographic chemicals. Only recently has there been any serious effort to diminish the quantity of lead distributed worldwide by the printed circuit board industry. Billions of electronics products have been discarded in every region of the world. This paper summarizes recent regulatory and enforcement efforts. PMID:16580876

  19. Design of 3D-Printed Titanium Compliant Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 3D-printed titanium compliant mechanisms for aerospace applications. It is meant as a primer to help engineers design compliant, multi-axis, printed parts that exhibit high performance. Topics covered include brief introductions to both compliant mechanism design and 3D printing in titanium, material and geometry considerations for 3D printing, modeling techniques, and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful part geometries. Key findings include recommended flexure geometries, minimum thicknesses, and general design guidelines for compliant printed parts that may not be obvious to the first time designer.

  20. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  1. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  2. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  3. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering for fabricating 3-dimensional heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In addition to stem cell biology, tissue engineering is an essential research field for regenerative medicine. In contrast to cell injection, bioengineered tissue transplantation minimizes cell loss and has the potential to repair tissue defects. A popular approach is scaffold-based tissue engineering, which utilizes a biodegradable polymer scaffold for seeding cells; however, new techniques of cell sheet-based tissue engineering have been developed. Cell sheets are harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes by simply lowering the temperature. Monolayer or stacked cell sheets are transplantable directly onto damaged tissues and cell sheet transplantation has already been clinically applied. Cardiac cell sheet stacking produces pulsatile heart tissue; however, lack of vasculature limits the viable tissue thickness to 3 layers. Multistep transplantation of triple-layer cardiac cell sheets cocultured with endothelial cells has been used to form thick vascularized cardiac tissue in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro functional blood vessel formation within 3-dimensional (3D) tissues has been realized by successfully imitating in vivo conditions. Triple-layer cardiac cell sheets containing endothelial cells were layered on vascular beds and the constructs were media-perfused using novel bioreactor systems. Interestingly, cocultured endothelial cells migrate into the vascular beds and form perfusable blood vessels. An in vitro multistep procedure has also enabled the fabrication of thick, vascularized heart tissues. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering has revealed great potential to fabricate 3D cardiac tissues and should contribute to future treatment of severe heart diseases and human tissue model production.

  4. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  5. Arizona in . . . 16mm Films, 8mm Films, Filmloops, Filmstrips, Slides, Transparencies, Cassettes, Records, Photos, Prints, Posters, Charts, Study Prints, Maps, Flags, Book Returns, Bookmarks, Foods, Microfilm, Place Mats, Relief Model Kits, Stereo Picture Reels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choncoff, Mary, Comp.

    The product of a year's search through numerous selection aids, catalogs, conference exhibits, book stores, shops at Arizona historical sites, etc., this compilation presents both instructional and promotional non-print materials relative to Arizona. Procedures for procuring materials, annotations, and bibliographic information (source, date of…

  6. Image ghosting reduction in lenticular relief prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baar, Teun; Shahpaski, Marjan; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2014-02-01

    Commonly known lenticular prints use a lens-like system superimposed on a standard 2D print to control the light sent into each direction. Thanks to our 2.5D or relief printing system, we are capable of creating a lenticular effect embedded directly on the prints that does not require the use of a system of lenses. On a zigzag-shaped surface composed of continuous small triangles two source images are interlaced and printed on the sides of the triangular structures, each side corresponding to one of the two intended views. The effect of crosstalk or ghosting is often encountered in lenticular prints. Ghosting occurs when some parts of one source image remain visible for the illumination or viewing direction corresponding to the other source image. In this work, we use an image-content-driven technique that identifies the regions in the source images that are prone to cause ghosting for a given set of viewing angles. For the purpose of eliminating this artefact, a model of the ghosting effect appearance is implemented and used for compensation. We have observed improvements in the quality of the lenticular effect, however the impact on the quality of the prints still needs to be evaluated.

  7. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions.

  9. Mesoporous bioactive glass doped-poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite scaffolds with 3-dimensionally hierarchical pore networks for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengbing; Wang, Jing; Tang, Liangji; Ao, Haiyong; Tan, Honglue; Tang, Tingting; Liu, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Composite scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic compounds have demonstrated superior properties in bone defect repair. In this study, highly bioactive, resorbable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)-based scaffolds were prepared using combinational 3-dimensional (3D) printing and surface-doping protocol. Structural and morphological characterization of the composite scaffolds demonstrated the homogenous surface-coating of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) throughout their porous framework. These hierarchical scaffolds showed bioactivity superior to that of scaffolds made of pure PHBHHx. MBG coating appeared to provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) attachment, activity, and osteogenic differentiation. Our study indicates that MBG-coated PHBHHx (PHBM) scaffolds may be excellent candidates for use in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Mesoporous bioactive glass doped-poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) composite scaffolds with 3-dimensionally hierarchical pore networks for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengbing; Wang, Jing; Tang, Liangji; Ao, Haiyong; Tan, Honglue; Tang, Tingting; Liu, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    Scaffolds play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Composite scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic compounds have demonstrated superior properties in bone defect repair. In this study, highly bioactive, resorbable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)-based scaffolds were prepared using combinational 3-dimensional (3D) printing and surface-doping protocol. Structural and morphological characterization of the composite scaffolds demonstrated the homogenous surface-coating of mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) throughout their porous framework. These hierarchical scaffolds showed bioactivity superior to that of scaffolds made of pure PHBHHx. MBG coating appeared to provide a better environment for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) attachment, activity, and osteogenic differentiation. Our study indicates that MBG-coated PHBHHx (PHBM) scaffolds may be excellent candidates for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24441182

  11. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  12. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  13. 3-Dimensional Multiwaveguide Probe Array for Light Delivery to Distributed Brain Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Zorzos, Anthony N.; Scholvin, Jorg; Boyden, Edward S.; Fonstad, Clifton G.

    2013-01-01

    To deliver light to the brain for neuroscientific and neuroengineering applications like optogenetics, in which light is used to activate or silence neurons expressing specific photosensitive proteins, optical fibers are commonly used. However, an optical fiber is limited to delivering light to a single target within the three-dimensional structure of the brain. We here describe the design and fabrication of an array of thin microwaveguides which terminate at a 3-dimensionally distributed set of points, appropriate for delivering light to targets distributed in a 3-dimensional pattern throughout the brain. PMID:23202064

  14. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  15. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  16. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia.

  17. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  18. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  19. Stop, Look, Listen, Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Pauline E.

    1972-01-01

    Article describes the use of audiovisual aids in teaching third-graders how to make brayer, string, Styrofoam and gadget prints. Author advises close cooperation between art and classroom teachers. Printmaking as a means of communication is touched upon. (PD)

  20. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  1. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although…

  2. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. PMID:26826637

  3. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  4. Water uptake by a maize root system - An explicit numerical 3-dimensional simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Daniel; Schnepf, Andrea; Klepsch, Sabine; Roose, Tiina

    2010-05-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for plant growth and function. An accurate modelling of the unsaturated flow is not only substantial to predict water uptake but also important to describe nutrient movement regarding water saturation and transport. In this work we present a model for water uptake. The model includes the simultaneous flow of water inside the soil and inside the root network. Water saturation in the soil volume is described by the Richards equation. Water flow inside the roots' xylem is calculated using the Poiseuille law for water flow in a cylindrical tube. The water saturation in the soil as well as water uptake of the root system is calculated numerically in three dimensions. We study water uptake of a maize plant in a confined pot under different supply scenarios. The main improvement of our approach is that the root surfaces act as spatial boundaries of the soil volume. Therefore water influx into the root is described by a surface flux instead of a volume flux, which is commonly given by an effective sink term. For the numerical computation we use the following software: The 3-dimensional maize root architecture is created by a root growth model based on L-Systems (Leitner et al 2009). A mesh of the surrounding soil volume is created using the meshing software DistMesh (Persson & Strang 2004). Using this mesh the partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method using Comsol Multiphysics 3.5a. Modelling results are related to accepted water uptake models from literature (Clausnitzer & Hopmans 1994, Roose & Fowler 2004, Javaux et al 2007). This new approach has several advantages. By considering the individual roots it is possible to analyse the influence of overlapping depletion zones due to inter root competition. Furthermore, such simulations can be used to estimate the influence of simplifying assumptions that are made in the development of effective models. The model can be easily combined with a nutrient

  5. A Preliminary Study of 3D Printing on Rock Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Gao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    3D printing is an innovative manufacturing technology that enables the printing of objects through the accumulation of successive layers. This study explores the potential application of this 3D printing technology for rock mechanics. Polylactic acid (PLA) was used as the printing material, and the specimens were constructed with a "3D Touch" printer that employs fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests and direct tensile strength (DTS) tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus ( E) and Poisson's ratio ( υ) for these specimens. The experimental results revealed that the PLA specimens exhibited elastic to brittle behaviour in the DTS tests and exhibited elastic to plastic behaviour in the UCS tests. The influence of structural changes in the mechanical response of the printed specimen was investigated; the results indicated that the mechanical response is highly influenced by the input structures, e.g., granular structure, and lattice structure. Unfortunately, our study has demonstrated that the FDM 3D printing with PLA is unsuitable for the direct simulation of rock. However, the ability for 3D printing on manufactured rock remains appealing for researchers of rock mechanics. Additional studies should focus on the development of an appropriate substitution for the printing material (brittle and stiff) and modification of the printing technology (to print 3D grains with arbitrary shapes).

  6. Bi-directional homogenization equivalent modeling for the prediction of thermo-mechanical properties of a multi-layered printed circuit board (PCB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Jun; Park, Buhm; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kwak, Dong-Ok; Park, Junhong; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-04-01

    Warpage of multi-layered printed circuit boards (PCB) during the reflow process is a serious problem which affects the reliability of solder ball connections between the PCB and the mounted semi-conductor packages in electronic devices. It is essential to predict the warpage of the PCB accurately; however, the complicated copper patterns in multi-layered PCBs render a full modeling analysis impossible due to the excessive computing time required. To overcome this problem, we have developed analytical equations of three Cu patterns (line, square, and grid) for the application of thermo-mechanical properties simply by equivalent modeling of Cu patterns. In the proposed equations, the effect of thermo-viscoelastic properties as well as the influence of surrounding layers such as woven glass fabric/BT (bismaleimide triazine), composite laminate (BT core), and photoimageable solder resist (PSR) were considered. To verify the developed equations, vibration tests based on the wave propagation approach were performed at various temperatures. Good agreement was observed between the equivalent model and the experimental results.

  7. Progress Toward an Integration of Process-Structure-Property-Performance Models for "Three-Dimensional (3-D) Printing" of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Haden, C. V.; Ghamarian, I.; Hayes, B. J.; Ales, T.; Penso, G.; Dixit, V.; Harlow, G.

    2014-07-01

    Electron beam direct manufacturing, synonymously known as electron beam additive manufacturing, along with other additive "3-D printing" manufacturing processes, are receiving widespread attention as a means of producing net-shape (or near-net-shape) components, owing to potential manufacturing benefits. Yet, materials scientists know that differences in manufacturing processes often significantly influence the microstructure of even widely accepted materials and, thus, impact the properties and performance of a material in service. It is important to accelerate the understanding of the processing-structure-property relationship of materials being produced via these novel approaches in a framework that considers the performance in a statistically rigorous way. This article describes the development of a process model, the assessment of key microstructural features to be incorporated into a microstructure simulation model, a novel approach to extract a constitutive equation to predict tensile properties in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), and a probabilistic approach to measure the fidelity of the property model against real data. This integrated approach will provide designers a tool to vary process parameters and understand the influence on performance, enabling design and optimization for these highly visible manufacturing approaches.

  8. Computer simulation of printed colors on textile materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kansei; Marcu, Gabriel G.

    1994-05-01

    The printing process of textile materials uses an ink set dependent of the image to be printed and referred as the primary color palette. The colors of the printed textile material depend on the printing sequence of the ink masks and are referred as the secondary color palette. A single primary color palette may conduct to different secondary color palettes, as a function of printing sequence. This paper provides an analysis of the mechanism of color appearance on the printed textile materials. The analysis conducts to a model to simulate on the computer display the appearance of the textile printed colors as a function of a number of parameters. The simulation includes a generalized Neugebauer model. A hierarchical structure is introduced for the colors of the secondary palette in order to provide the coefficients of the Neugebauer model. For a certain textile material, the color hierarchy is dependent on the ink set and the printing sequence. The color hierarchy is established as result of color calibration process. Printed samples are used for calibration procedure.

  9. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine. PMID:23394423

  10. 3D printing: making things at the library.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.

  11. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  12. BOK-Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  13. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  14. Equations for a 3 dimensional transient flow of a multicomponent gas mixutre with chemical reactions. Publication No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report gives a general description of the basic equations for the 3-dimensional transient flow of a multicomponent gas mixture with chemical reactions. The number of assumption made is small. Next to the equation of momentum, the equation of angular momentum is introduced. It could in the future be advantageous to use the latter equation instead of the first because the flow may possess vortices which introduce an angular momentum. In the first chapter of this report, the conservation equations are introduced. In the next chapters, the processes which occur on microscale are described. In the last chapter, the conservation equations are modelled for turbulence. This is done with Reynolds' decomposition and time-averaging of the subsequent equations.

  15. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  16. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  18. The Neural Representation of 3-Dimensional Objects in Rodent Memory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  19. The neural representation of 3-dimensional objects in rodent memory circuits.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  20. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  1. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  2. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  3. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  4. Using Environmental Print to Enhance Emergent Literacy and Print Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the ubiquitous and salient nature of environmental print, it has the potential to scaffold emergent literacy in young children. This randomised control study evaluated the effects of using environmental print compared to standard print (the same labels in manuscript form) in an 8-week intervention (30 min per week) to foster 3- to…

  5. For the Classroom: Print Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents an activity for students (ages 5-6 and 7-14) to identify external characteristics of marine life and plants through printing (using homemade stamp pads). Includes procedures and list of materials, and printing ideas. (JN)

  6. Modeling and fabrication of lithium polymer ion batteries designed for wireless sensor network applications and printed directly on device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingart, Daniel Artemis

    CVD produce excellent thin film microstructures, but face considerable problems with regard to stress build up as thickness grows beyond 10 mum. When total battery area is constrained to 1 cm2 a single electrode thickness of 10 mum is simply insufficient to create a useful battery. The second major issue is processing temperature. The processes that are used to deposit most thin film battery materials require temperatures greater than 300°C [3], which is greater than the temperature most CMOS devices can withstand. While electrical engineers may get around this by (1) using a separate chip for the battery or (2) use the battery as the substrate to build the device both cases would require more packaging to protect the batteries, to some degree defeating the purpose of reducing the packaging. To overcome this obstacle, a new method to place the materials necessary to make a battery on a chip has been developed. This process was done at room temperature, at packaging to protect the batteries, to some degree defeating the purpose of reducing the packaging. To overcome this obstacle, a new method to place the materials necessary to make a battery on a chip has been developed. This process is done at room temperature, at atmospheric pressure, and with thicknesses great enough to provide significantly more capacity than thin film solutions. The method uses tools used to apply adhesives, traditionally, including screen-printing and pneumatic extrusion. These methods produce structures that in theory should provide the energy and power density available in large-scale batteries (a feat heretofore not replicated by thin film fabrication methods) and with improvements in solid polymer electrolytes, may provide the necessary power density. These tools can be used to produce capacitors as well, which can help in load leveling the battery, thereby increasing both discharge time and cycle life. Finally, in the course of this research conventional battery test equipment was either

  7. Printing and the Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in offering printing for online library catalogs and weighs advantages and disadvantages of screen printing versus remote printing--speed, quality, privacy, convenience, noise, control, costs, accessibility and service. Additional technical issues discussed are buffered versus unbuffered asynchronous printer ports,…

  8. A laser printing based approach for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Hu, M.; Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Lau, W.; Yang, J.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report a study of printing of electronics using an office use laser printer. The proposed method eliminates those critical disadvantages of solvent-based printing techniques by taking the advantages of electroless deposition and laser printing. The synthesized toner acts as a catalyst for the electroless copper deposition as well as an adhesion-promoting buffer layer between the substrate and deposited copper. The easy metallization of printed patterns and strong metal-substrate adhesion make it an especially effective method for massive production of flexible printed circuits. The proposed process is a high throughput, low cost, efficient, and environmentally benign method for flexible electronics manufacturing.

  9. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  10. Just press print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Patients requiring an organ transplant may one day no longer have to wait for a matching donor. As Stephen Ornes explains, researchers are making progress towards creating human organs with techniques such as 3D printing, using the patient's own cells for ink.

  11. Serendipitous Stencil Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Printing, stamping, and rubbings are enjoyed by all ages, and the image-making capabilities of this media are endless and very spontaneous. In printmaking, images can be repeated, overlapped, inked in various colors, cut up, reassembled, and manipulated. Students find these methods to be engaging and serendipitous. This lesson, designed for eighth…

  12. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  13. Bloomin' Color Celery Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Describes a second and third grade art activity in which students used celery cores to create pictures in the style of Georgia O'Keefe. Explains that the students learned about O'Keefe's artwork and describes how the students created their prints. (CMK)

  14. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  15. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  16. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. PMID:26558661

  17. From Aspiration to Action: A Learning Intentions Model to Promote Critical Engagement with Science in the Print-Based Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2011-11-01

    Science programmes which prepare students to read critically and respond thoughtfully to science-based reports in the media could play an important role in promoting informed participation in the public debate about issues relating to science, technology and society. Evidence based guidance about the practice and pattern of use of science-based media in the classroom is limited. This study sought to identify learning intentions that teachers believe ought to underpin the development of programmes of study designed to achieve this end-result. Teachers' views of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to engage critically with science-based news served as a basis for this study. Teachers developed a pedagogical model by selecting appropriate statements of learning intentions, grouping these into coherent and manageable themes and coding them according to perceived level of difficulty. The model is largely compatible with current curricular provision in the UK, highlights opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and illustrates the developmental nature of the topic.

  18. Drug-printing by flexographic printing technology--a new manufacturing process for orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva Maria; Schliephacke, Ralf; Breitenbach, Armin; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-01-30

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are intended to disintegrate within seconds when placed onto the tongue. The common way of manufacturing is the solvent casting method. Flexographic printing on drug-free ODFs is introduced as a highly flexible and cost-effective alternative manufacturing method in this study. Rasagiline mesylate and tadalafil were used as model drugs. Printing of rasagiline solutions and tadalafil suspensions was feasible. Up to four printing cycles were performed. The possibility to employ several printing cycles enables a continuous, highly flexible manufacturing process, for example for individualised medicine. The obtained ODFs were characterised regarding their mechanical properties, their disintegration time, API crystallinity and homogeneity. Rasagiline mesylate did not recrystallise after the printing process. Relevant film properties were not affected by printing. Results were comparable to the results of ODFs manufactured with the common solvent casting technique, but the APIs are less stressed through mixing, solvent evaporation and heat. Further, loss of material due to cutting jumbo and daughter rolls can be reduced. Therefore, a versatile new manufacturing technology particularly for processing high-potent low-dose or heat sensitive drugs is introduced in this study.

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. 3-Dimensional Scene Perception during Active Electrolocation in a Weakly Electric Pulse Fish

    PubMed Central

    von der Emde, Gerhard; Behr, Katharina; Bouton, Béatrice; Engelmann, Jacob; Fetz, Steffen; Folde, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation for object detection and orientation in their environment even in complete darkness. The African mormyrid Gnathonemus petersii can detect object parameters, such as material, size, shape, and distance. Here, we tested whether individuals of this species can learn to identify 3-dimensional objects independently of the training conditions and independently of the object's position in space (rotation-invariance; size-constancy). Individual G. petersii were trained in a two-alternative forced-choice procedure to electrically discriminate between a 3-dimensional object (S+) and several alternative objects (S−). Fish were then tested whether they could identify the S+ among novel objects and whether single components of S+ were sufficient for recognition. Size-constancy was investigated by presenting the S+ together with a larger version at different distances. Rotation-invariance was tested by rotating S+ and/or S− in 3D. Our results show that electrolocating G. petersii could (1) recognize an object independently of the S− used during training. When only single components of a complex S+ were offered, recognition of S+ was more or less affected depending on which part was used. (2) Object-size was detected independently of object distance, i.e. fish showed size-constancy. (3) The majority of the fishes tested recognized their S+ even if it was rotated in space, i.e. these fishes showed rotation-invariance. (4) Object recognition was restricted to the near field around the fish and failed when objects were moved more than about 4 cm away from the animals. Our results indicate that even in complete darkness our G. petersii were capable of complex 3-dimensional scene perception using active electrolocation. PMID:20577635

  1. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  2. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  3. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use.

  4. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  5. Diagnostic model of saliva peptide finger print analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients using weak cation exchange magnetic beads

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Peng; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Li-Xin; Peng, Xin; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Saliva diagnostics utilizing nanotechnology and molecular technologies to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has become an attractive field of study. However, no specific methods have been established. To refine the diagnostic power of saliva peptide fingerprints for the early detection of OSCC, we screened the expression spectrum of salivary peptides in 40 T1 stage OSCC patients (and healthy controls) using MALDI-TOF-MS combined with magnetic beads. Fifty proteins showed significantly different expression levels in the OSCC samples (P<0.05). Potential biomarkers were also predicted. The novel diagnostic proteomic model with m/z peaks of 1285.6 Da and 1432.2 Da are of certain value for early diagnosis of OSCC. PMID:26182373

  6. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Sydney S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3–4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14–17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4–6 hr; printing = 9–11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1–5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  7. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  8. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    PubMed

    Naftulin, Jason S; Kimchi, Eyal Y; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) collect three-dimensional data (3D) that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D) screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to stereolithography (STL) files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min). Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes. PMID:26295459

  9. SrO- and MgO-doped microwave sintered 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: mechanical properties and in vivo osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores allows guided tissue regeneration in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, highly porous scaffolds suffer from having poor mechanical strength. Previously, we showed that microwave sintering could successfully be used to improve mechanical strength of macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. This study reports the presence of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP scaffolds improves mechanical and in vivo biological performance. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication. These 3DP scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, that is, 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. A significant increase in mechanical strength, between 37 and 41%, was achieved due to SrO and MgO doping in TCP as compared with pure TCP. Maximum compressive strengths of 9.38 ± 1.86 MPa and 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa were achieved by conventional and microwave sintering, respectively, for SrO-MgO-doped 3DP scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores. Histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher osteoid, bone and haversian canal formation induced by the presence of SrO and MgO dopants in 3DP TCP as compared with pure TCP scaffolds when tested in rabbit femoral condyle defect model. Increased osteon and thus enhanced network of blood vessel formation, and osteocalcin expression were observed in the doped TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3DP SrO-MgO-doped TCP scaffolds have the potential for early wound healing through accelerated osteogenesis and vasculogenesis. PMID:25045131

  10. SrO- and MgO-doped microwave sintered 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: mechanical properties and in vivo osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores allows guided tissue regeneration in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, highly porous scaffolds suffer from having poor mechanical strength. Previously, we showed that microwave sintering could successfully be used to improve mechanical strength of macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. This study reports the presence of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP scaffolds improves mechanical and in vivo biological performance. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication. These 3DP scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, that is, 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. A significant increase in mechanical strength, between 37 and 41%, was achieved due to SrO and MgO doping in TCP as compared with pure TCP. Maximum compressive strengths of 9.38 ± 1.86 MPa and 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa were achieved by conventional and microwave sintering, respectively, for SrO-MgO-doped 3DP scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores. Histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher osteoid, bone and haversian canal formation induced by the presence of SrO and MgO dopants in 3DP TCP as compared with pure TCP scaffolds when tested in rabbit femoral condyle defect model. Increased osteon and thus enhanced network of blood vessel formation, and osteocalcin expression were observed in the doped TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3DP SrO-MgO-doped TCP scaffolds have the potential for early wound healing through accelerated osteogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  11. Biomimetic 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydney Gladman, A.; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mahadevan, L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  12. Biomimetic 4D printing.

    PubMed

    Gladman, A Sydney; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Mahadevan, L; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  13. Biomimetic 4D printing.

    PubMed

    Gladman, A Sydney; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Mahadevan, L; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies. PMID:26808461

  14. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  15. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  16. Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor); Poon, Hak Fei (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An stable electrohydrodynamic filament is obtained by causing a straight electrohydrodynamic filament formed from a liquid to emerge from a Taylor cone, the filament having a diameter of from 10 nm to 100.mu.m. Such filaments are useful in electrohydrodynamic printing and manufacturing techniques and their application in liquid drop/particle and fiber production, colloidal deployment and assembly, and composite materials processing.

  17. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement.

  18. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in urological practice.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ramy F; Spradling, Kyle; Yoon, Renai; Dolan, Benjamin; Chamberlin, Joshua; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Clayman, Ralph; Landman, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion in the medical applications of three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology has been seen in recent years. This technology is capable of manufacturing low-cost and customisable surgical devices, 3D models for use in preoperative planning and surgical education, and fabricated biomaterials. While several studies have suggested 3D printers may be a useful and cost-effective tool in urological practice, few studies are available that clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, 3D-printing technology continues to advance rapidly and promises to play an increasingly larger role in the field of urology. Herein, we review the current urological applications of 3D printing and discuss the potential impact of 3D-printing technology on the future of urological practice.

  19. A Review of Three-Dimensional Printing in Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sears, Nick A; Seshadri, Dhruv R; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have led to a rapid expansion of applications from the creation of anatomical training models for complex surgical procedures to the printing of tissue engineering constructs. In addition to achieving the macroscale geometry of organs and tissues, a print layer thickness as small as 20 μm allows for reproduction of the microarchitectures of bone and other tissues. Techniques with even higher precision are currently being investigated to enable reproduction of smaller tissue features such as hepatic lobules. Current research in tissue engineering focuses on the development of compatible methods (printers) and materials (bioinks) that are capable of producing biomimetic scaffolds. In this review, an overview of current 3D printing techniques used in tissue engineering is provided with an emphasis on the printing mechanism and the resultant scaffold characteristics. Current practical challenges and technical limitations are emphasized and future trends of bioprinting are discussed.

  20. Plasmonic colour laser printing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel. PMID:26657786

  1. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  2. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  3. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  4. The power of print: children's trust in unexpected printed suggestions.

    PubMed

    Eyden, Julie; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Einav, Shiri; Jaswal, Vikram K

    2013-11-01

    How do children evaluate the veracity of printed text? We examined children's handling of unexpected suggestions conveyed via print versus orally. In Experiment 1 (N=131), 3- to 6-year-olds witnessed a speaker either read aloud an unexpected but not completely implausible printed label (e.g., fish for a bird-like animal with some fish features) or speak the label without accompanying text. Pre-readers accepted labels in both conditions. Early readers often rejected spoken labels yet accepted them in the print condition, and in Experiment 2 (N=55) 3- to 6-year-olds continued to apply them even after the print was obscured. Early readers accept printed testimony that they reject if only spoken, and the influence of text endures even when it is no longer visible. PMID:23981273

  5. Studies on Rheology of E-printing Inks by μ-PIV in Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Young-Sik; Song, Simon

    2009-11-01

    Using printing technologies for electronic circuits, such as antennas for radio frequency identification (RFID) chips, has been paid attention to recently in order to reduce production costs. In general, E-printing inks used for printed electronics have non-Newtonian properties because they contain metallic particles. Thus, it is important to investigate rheological behaviors of E-printing inks and suggest proper rheological models for developing printing devices for printed electronics. Also, the rheological models are necessary to accurately predict ink behaviors using CFD. However, classic methods to study rheological models are somewhat irrelevant since they require the mass consumption of expensive E-printing inks. Thus, to study rheological models suitable for commercial E-printing inks, we use microfluidic chips that only requires nascent E-printing inks. We measured flow velocities using μPIV and pressure drops along the microchannel to determine a relationship between stress and strain rate of ink flows. We found that the E-printing inks exhibit shear-thinning behaviors. In the presentation, we will propose rheology models suitable for the E-printing inks.

  6. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  7. 3-D Printed Asteroids for Outreach Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, April

    2015-11-01

    3-D printed asteroids provide new opportunities for outreach astronomy education due to their low cost, interactive potential, and high interest value. Telescopes are expensive, bulky, fragile, and cannot be used effectively during the day. 3-D printing of asteroids combines exciting new technology with astronomy, appealing to a broader audience. The printed models are scientifically accurate, as their shapes have been modeled using light-curve inversion techniques using and occultation data to provide a jumping off point for discussions of these advanced and exciting topics.

  8. No-infill 3D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yu-He; Geng, Guo-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examined how printing the hollow objects without infill via fused deposition modeling, one of the most widely used 3D-printing technologies, by partitioning the objects to shell parts. More specifically, we linked the partition to the exact cover problem. Given an input watertight mesh shape S, we developed region growing schemes to derive a set of surfaces that had inside surfaces that were printable without support on the mesh for the candidate parts. We then employed Monte Carlo tree search over the candidate parts to obtain the optimal set cover. All possible candidate subsets of exact cover from the optimal set cover were then obtained and the bounded tree was used to search the optimal exact cover. We oriented each shell part to the optimal position to guarantee the inside surface was printed without support, while the outside surface was printed with minimum support. Our solution can be applied to a variety of models, closed-hollowed or semi-closed, with or without holes, as evidenced by experiments and performance evaluation on our proposed algorithm.

  9. Recent trends in print portals and Web2Print applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For quite some time now, the printing business has been under heavy pressure because of overcapacity, dropping prices and the delocalization of the production to low income countries. To survive in this competitive world, printers have to invest in tools that, on one hand, reduce the production costs and, on the other hand, create additional value for their customers (print buyers). The creation of customer portals on top of prepress production systems allowing print buyers to upload their content, approve the uploaded pages based on soft proofs (rendered by the underlying production system) and further follow-up the generation of the printed material, has been illustrative in this respect. These developments resulted in both automation for the printer and added value for the print buyer. Many traditional customer portals assume that the printed products have been identified before they are presented to the print buyer in the portal environment. The products are, in this case, typically entered by the printing organization in a so-called MISi system after the official purchase order has been received from the print buyer. Afterwards, the MIS system then submits the product to the customer portal. Some portals, however, also support the initiation of printed products by the print buyer directly. This workflow creates additional flexibility but also makes things much more complex. We here have to distinguish between special products that are defined ad-hoc by the print buyer and standardized products that are typically selected out of catalogs. Special products are most of the time defined once and the level of detail required in terms of production parameters is quite high. Systems that support such products typically have a built-in estimation module, or, at least, a direct connection to an MIS system that calculates the prices and adds a specific mark-up to calculate a quote. Often, the markup is added by an account manager on a customer by customer basis; in this

  10. Electrohydrodynamic printing of organic polymeric resistors on flat and uneven surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maktabi, Sepehr; Chiarot, Paul R.

    2016-08-01

    In materials printing applications, the ability to generate fine droplets is critical for achieving high-resolution features. Other desirable characteristics are high print speeds, large stand-off distances, and minimal instrumentation requirements. In this work, a tunable electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing technique capable of generating micron-sized droplets is reported. This method was used to print organic resistors on flat and uneven substrates. These ubiquitous electronic components were built using the commercial polymer-based conductive ink poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which has been widely used in the manufacturing of organic electronic devices. Resistors with widths from 50 to 500 μm and resistances from 1 to 70 Ω/μm were created. An array of emission modes for EHD printing was identified. Among these, the most promising is the microdripping mode, where droplets 10 times smaller than the nozzle's inner diameter were created at frequencies in excess of 5 kHz. It was found that the ink flow rate, applied voltage, and stand-off distance all significantly influence the droplet generation frequency. In particular, the experimental results reveal that the frequency increases nonlinearly with the applied voltage. The non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior of PEDOT:PSS strongly influenced the droplet frequency. Finally, the topology of a 3-dimensional target substrate had a significant effect on the structure and function of a printed resistor.

  11. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost. PMID:26983961

  12. Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.

    1983-08-01

    As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions.

  13. Improved Surgery Planning Using 3-D Printing: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A J; Shetty, V; Bhagavan, K R; Ragothaman, Ananthan; Shetty, V; Koneru, Ganesh; Agarwala, M

    2016-04-01

    The role of 3-D printing is presented for improved patient-specific surgery planning. Key benefits are time saved and surgery outcome. Two hard-tissue surgery models were 3-D printed, for orthopedic, pelvic surgery, and craniofacial surgery. We discuss software data conversion in computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) medical image for 3-D printing. 3-D printed models save time in surgery planning and help visualize complex pre-operative anatomy. Time saved in surgery planning can be as much as two thirds. In addition to improved surgery accuracy, 3-D printing presents opportunity in materials research. Other hard-tissue and soft-tissue cases in maxillofacial, abdominal, thoracic, cardiac, orthodontics, and neurosurgery are considered. We recommend using 3-D printing as standard protocol for surgery planning and for teaching surgery practices. A quick turnaround time of a 3-D printed surgery model, in improved accuracy in surgery planning, is helpful for the surgery team. It is recommended that these costs be within 20 % of the total surgery budget. PMID:27303117

  14. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  15. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  16. [Conditional discrimination using 3-dimensional objects by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): tests for derived stimulus relations].

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Fushimi, Takao

    2002-06-01

    A female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained on the conditional-discrimination task using 3-dimensional objects under a face-to-face experimental setting. In Experiment 1, the subject was required to pick up the correct comparison object, take it to the sample object, and construct a new paired-object with a specific action. After acquisition of the task, derived stimulus relations (associative symmetry) were tested. The subject showed a significant emergence of symmetry only when the spatial arrangements of stimuli were changed between the baseline and test trials. In Experiment 2, the subject was tested under the condition where the action to constructed paired-object was common to all stimuli. The subject showed significant above-chance performance in the transitivity test, but not in the symmetry tests. The present results are generally consistent with previous studies in chimpanzees that show weak evidence for the emergence of symmetry.

  17. S2PLOT: a Straightforward Library for Advanced 3-dimensional Scientific Visualisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    S2PLOT is a user-oriented programming library for generating and exploring 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific plots and diagrams. It provides a lightweight interface---inspired by the simple yet widely-used PGPLOT---to produce hardware-accelerated visualisations of point, line, image and volumetric data. S2PLOT provides C and FORTRAN interfaces, and supports monoscopic, stereoscopic and curved (eg. dome) display devices. PGPLOT-savvy astronomers can usually write their first S2PLOT program in less than ten minutes. In this paper, we introduce the latest S2PLOT version and highlight major new additions to the library, including volume rendering and isosurfacing of astronomical data. We describe a simple extension that enables the embedding of large-area FITS images directly into S2PLOT programs using standard World Coordinate Systems, and we introduce the Python interface to S2PLOT.

  18. Lateral characteristic analysis of PMLSM considering overhang effect by 3 dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit network method

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J.; Jung, I.S.; Hyun, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    PMLSM is used for propulsion device of high speed ground transportation or contactless carrier in factory automation and office automation. This paper represents lateral characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor (PMLSM) according to change of overhang length. In order to analyze overhang effect of PMLSM with large airgap and finite width considering lateral displacement, new 3 dimensional equivalent magnetic circuit network method (3-D EMCN) taking into account movement of the secondary in lateral direction is introduced, which supplements magnetic equivalent circuit by using numerical technique. 3-D EMCN can consider secondary movement without remesh the element because it uses the initial mesh continuously. The authors analyzed characteristics for overhang three type case which must be problems in 3-D. The results are compared with experimental data and shown a reasonable agreement.

  19. Theory of relativistic Brownian motion: the (1+3) -dimensional case.

    PubMed

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter

    2005-09-01

    A theory for (1+3) -dimensional relativistic Brownian motion under the influence of external force fields is put forward. Starting out from a set of relativistically covariant, but multiplicative Langevin equations we describe the relativistic stochastic dynamics of a forced Brownian particle. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equations are studied in the laboratory frame coordinates. In particular, the stochastic integration prescription--i.e., the discretization rule dilemma--is elucidated (prepoint discretization rule versus midpoint discretization rule versus postpoint discretization rule). Remarkably, within our relativistic scheme we find that the postpoint rule (or the transport form) yields the only Fokker-Planck dynamics from which the relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is recovered as the stationary solution. The relativistic velocity effects become distinctly more pronounced by going from one to three spatial dimensions. Moreover, we present numerical results for the asymptotic mean-square displacement of a free relativistic Brownian particle moving in 1+3 dimensions.

  20. PROMALS3D: multiple protein sequence alignment enhanced with evolutionary and 3-dimensional structural information

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is an essential tool with many applications in bioinformatics and computational biology. Accurate MSA construction for divergent proteins remains a difficult computational task. The constantly increasing protein sequences and structures in public databases could be used to improve alignment quality. PROMALS3D is a tool for protein MSA construction enhanced with additional evolutionary and structural information from database searches. PROMALS3D automatically identifies homologs from sequence and structure databases for input proteins, derives structure-based constraints from alignments of 3-dimensional structures, and combines them with sequence-based constraints of profile-profile alignments in a consistency-based framework to construct high-quality multiple sequence alignments. PROMALS3D output is a consensus alignment enriched with sequence and structural information about input proteins and their homologs. PROMALS3D web server and package are available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/PROMALS3D. PMID:24170408

  1. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  2. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  3. Complex light in 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Christophe; Delrot, Paul; Loterie, Damien; Morales Delgado, Edgar; Modestino, Miguel; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-03-01

    3D printing as a tool to generate complicated shapes from CAD files, on demand, with different materials from plastics to metals, is shortening product development cycles, enabling new design possibilities and can provide a mean to manufacture small volumes cost effectively. There are many technologies for 3D printing and the majority uses light in the process. In one process (Multi-jet modeling, polyjet, printoptical©), a printhead prints layers of ultra-violet curable liquid plastic. Here, each nozzle deposits the material, which is then flooded by a UV curing lamp to harden it. In another process (Stereolithography), a focused UV laser beam provides both the spatial localization and the photo-hardening of the resin. Similarly, laser sintering works with metal powders by locally melting the material point by point and layer by layer. When the laser delivers ultra-fast focused pulses, nonlinear effects polymerize the material with high spatial resolution. In these processes, light is either focused in one spot and the part is made by scanning it or the light is expanded and covers a wide area for photopolymerization. Hence a fairly "simple" light field is used in both cases. Here, we give examples of how "complex light" brings additional level of complexity in 3D printing.

  4. Block-Cell-Printing for live single-cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Chou, Chao-Kai; Xia, Xiaofeng; Hung, Mien-Chie; Qin, Lidong

    2014-01-01

    A unique live-cell printing technique, termed “Block-Cell-Printing” (BloC-Printing), allows for convenient, precise, multiplexed, and high-throughput printing of functional single-cell arrays. Adapted from woodblock printing techniques, the approach employs microfluidic arrays of hook-shaped traps to hold cells at designated positions and directly transfer the anchored cells onto various substrates. BloC-Printing has a minimum turnaround time of 0.5 h, a maximum resolution of 5 µm, close to 100% cell viability, the ability to handle multiple cell types, and efficiently construct protrusion-connected single-cell arrays. The approach enables the large-scale formation of heterotypic cell pairs with controlled morphology and allows for material transport through gap junction intercellular communication. When six types of breast cancer cells are allowed to extend membrane protrusions in the BloC-Printing device for 3 h, multiple biophysical characteristics of cells—including the protrusion percentage, extension rate, and cell length—are easily quantified and found to correlate well with their migration levels. In light of this discovery, BloC-Printing may serve as a rapid and high-throughput cell protrusion characterization tool to measure the invasion and migration capability of cancer cells. Furthermore, primary neurons are also compatible with BloC-Printing. PMID:24516129

  5. The Art of Small Job Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairhurst, Millicent

    1978-01-01

    Presents guidelines for the design and production of printed promotional materials for library programs, lectures, movies, exhibits, and community events. Areas covered are typography, printing, production, costs, copyfitting and layout, printing stock, and binding. (VT)

  6. Adventitial Cells and Perictyes Support Chondrogenesis Through Different Mechanisms in 3-Dimensional Cultures With or Without Nanoscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Ba, Kai; Wu, Ling; Lee, Siyong; Peault, Bruno; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R; Adams, John S; Evseenko, Denis; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    In previous studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and fat tissues were shown to increase proliferation and matrix production of chondrocytes (CH) in co-culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of pericytes (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146+CD34(neg)) and adventitial cells (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146(neg)CD34+) sub-populations of MSCs in supporting proliferation and matrix deposition of CH. The MSCs were derived from synovial membrane and attaching fat tissue. Then, the pericytes and adventitial cells were sorted from total MSCs and co-cultured with articular CH respectively. In pellet co-culture model, the pericytes showed more prominent effects on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production and Collagen II synthesis than the adventitial cells which had stronger effects on promoting CH proliferation. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to examine the expression of a group of secreted growth factors and co-culture performed on electrospun scaffolds based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB), to verify the trophic effects of different MSC sub-populations in 3-Dimensional (3D) environment. In conclusion, it was found that the pericytes and adventitial cells support CH in different ways; the adventitial cells more supporting the proliferation of CH, while pericytes are better in stimulating GAGs and collagen production of CH. PMID:26502642

  7. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  8. Embellished String Prints. Cover Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on a printmaking activity in which students create embellished string prints using the relief process of string glued to chip board. Explains that string prints can easily be embellished with oil pastels. Provides a description of the procedure and a list of materials and methods. (CMK)

  9. Microcontact printing of proteins inside microstructures.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jennifer; Schmid, Heinz; Stutz, Richard; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2005-11-22

    Microfluidic devices are well suited for the miniaturization of biological assays, in particular when only small volumes of samples and reagents are available, short time to results is desirable, and multiple analytes are to be detected. Microfluidic networks (MFNs), which fill by means of capillary forces, have already been used to detect important biological analytes with high sensitivity and in a combinatorial fashion. These MFNs were coated with Au, onto which a hydrophilic, protein-repellent monolayer of thiolated poly(ethyleneglycol) (HS-PEG) was self-assembled, and the binding sites for analytes were present on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealing cover. We report here a set of simple methods to extend previous work on MFNs by integrating binding sites for analytes inside the microstructures of MFNs using microcontact printing (muCP). First, fluorescently labeled antibodies (Abs) were microcontact-printed from stamps onto planar model surfaces such as glass, Si, Si/SiO2, Au, and Au derivatized with HS-PEG to investigate how much candidate materials for MFNs would quench the fluorescence of printed, labeled Abs. Au coated with HS-PEG led to a fluorescence signal that was approximately 65% weaker than that of glass but provided a convenient surface for printing Abs and for rendering the microstructures of the MFNs wettable. Then, proteins were inked from solution onto the surface of PDMS (Sylgard 184) stamps having continuous or discontinuous micropatterns or locally inked onto planar stamps to investigate how the aspect ratio (depth:width) of microstructures and the printing conditions affected the transfer of protein and the accuracy of the resulting patterns. By applying a controlled pressure to the back of the stamp, Abs were accurately microcontact-printed into the recessed regions of MFNs if the aspect ratio of the MFN microstructures was lower than approximately 1:6. Finally, the realization of a simple assay between Abs (used as antigens

  10. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm(-1)), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems. PMID:26522846

  11. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm-1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  12. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-11-02

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm(-1)), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems.

  13. A novel electroporation system for efficient molecular delivery into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with a 3-dimensional microelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seongsu; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation is one of the most widely used transfection methods because of its high efficiency and convenience among the various transfection methods. Previous micro-electroporation systems have some drawbacks such as limitations in height and design, time-consuming and an expensive fabrication process due to technical constraints. This study fabricates a three dimensional microelectrode using the 3D printing technique. The interdigitated microstructure consisting of poly lactic acid was injected by a 3D printer and coated with silver and aluminum with a series of dip-coatings. With the same strength of electric field (V cm−1), a higher efficiency for molecular delivery and a higher cellular viability are achieved with the microelectrode than with a standard cuvette. In addition, this study investigates chemicophysical changes such as Joule heating and dissolved metal during electroporation and showed the micro-electroporation system had less chemicophysical changes. It was concluded that the proposed micro-electroporation system will contribute to genetic engineering as a promising delivery tool, and this combination of 3D printing and electroporation has many potential applications for diverse designs or systems. PMID:26522846

  14. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Possible Applications of 3D Printing Technology on Textile Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, M.; Bergschneider, J.; Lutz, M.; Mahltig, B.; Finsterbusch, K.; Rabe, M.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing is a rapidly emerging additive manufacturing technology which can offer cost efficiency and flexibility in product development and production. In textile production 3D printing can also serve as an add-on process to apply 3D structures on textiles. In this study the low-cost fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was applied using different thermoplastic printing materials available on the market with focus on flexible filaments such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) or Soft PLA. Since a good adhesion and stability of the 3D printed structures on textiles are essential, separation force and abrasion resistance tests were conducted with different kinds of printed woven fabrics demonstrating that a sufficient adhesion can be achieved. The main influencing factor can be attributed to the topography of the textile surface affected by the weave, roughness and hairiness offering formlocking connections followed by the wettability of the textile surface by the molten polymer, which depends on the textile surface energy and can be specifically controlled by washing (desizing), finishing or plasma treatment of the textile before the print. These basic adhesion mechanisms can also be considered crucial for 3D printing on knitwear.

  16. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  17. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27194002

  18. A percolative approach to investigate electromigration failure in printed Ag structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Mamidanna, Avinash; Lefky, Christopher; Hildreth, Owen; Alford, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    The ease of fabrication and wide application of printed microelectronics are driving advances in reactive inks. The long-term performance of structures printed using reactive ink is important for their application in microelectronics. In this study, silver lines are printed with low-temperature, self-reducing, silver-diamine based ink. The electromigration failure of the printed silver is first studied using Black's equation. However, due to the porous nature of the printed Ag line, Black's equation is not the best fit for predicting the lifetime, this is because Black's equation does not take into account morphology-induced current crowding. We find that the resistivity of the printed Ag lines can be described (as a function of void fraction) by percolation theory. In addition, we also demonstrate that the failure lifetimes of the printed Ag can be predicted quite well by a percolative model of failure.

  19. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Beg, Muhammad S.; Das, Prajnan; Meyer, Jeffrey

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for anal cancer and determine disease, patient, and treatment parameters that influence the result. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision model was designed with the various disease states for the base case of a 65-year-old patient with anal cancer treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Health states accounting for rates of local failure, colostomy failure, treatment breaks, patient prognosis, acute and late toxicities, and the utility of toxicities were informed by existing literature and analyzed with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results: In the base case, mean costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) for IMRT and 3D-CRT were $32,291 (4.81) and $28,444 (4.78), respectively, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $128,233/QALY for IMRT compared with 3D-CRT. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that IMRT was cost-effective in 22%, 47%, and 65% of iterations at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000, $100,000, and $150,000 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions: In our base model, IMRT was a cost-ineffective strategy despite the reduced acute treatment toxicities and their associated costs of management. The model outcome was sensitive to variations in local and colostomy failure rates, as well as patient-reported utilities relating to acute toxicities.

  1. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  2. Evaluation of different substrates for inkjet printing of rasagiline mesylate.

    PubMed

    Genina, Natalja; Janßen, Eva Maria; Breitenbach, Armin; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate applicability of the different model substrates, namely orodispersible films (ODFs), porous copy paper sheets, and water impermeable transparency films (TFs) in preparation of the inkjet-printed drug-delivery systems. Rasagiline mesylate (RM) was used as a low-dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Flexible doses of the drug in a single unit were obtained by printing several subsequent layers on top of the already printed ones, using an off-the-shelf consumer thermal inkjet (TIJ) printer. The produced drug-delivery systems were subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis together with solid-state characterization and content uniformity studies. The results revealed that RM recrystallized on the surface of ODFs and TFs, and the printed crystals were arranged in lines. No drug crystals were detected after printing on the surface of the copy paper due to absorption of the ink into the matrix of the substrate. The best linear correlation between the dose of the drug and the number of the printing layers was obtained for the porous copy paper. The other two substrates showed poor linearity and unacceptable standard deviations of the printed drug substance due to limited absorption of the API ink into the carrier. The shear stress between the substrate, the print head, and the paper feeding rollers caused smearing of the drug that had been surface-deposited during the earlier printing cycles. In conclusion, this study indicates that the edible substrates with absorption properties similar to copy paper are favorable for successful preparation of drug-delivery systems by TIJ printers.

  3. Successful Parenchyma-Sparing Anatomical Surgery by 3-Dimensional Reconstruction of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Combined with Anatomic Variation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qihong; Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The combination of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and anatomic variation constitutes a rare and complicated condition. Precise understanding of 3-dimensional position of tumor in the intrahepatic structure in such cases is important for operation planning and navigation. We report a case of a 61-year woman presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Anatomic variation and tumor location were well depicted on preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction as the right posterior segmental duct drained to left hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct, biliary confluence, right anterior segmental duct, and right anterior branch of portal vein were involved by the tumor (Bismuth IIIa). After carefully operation planning, we successfully performed a radical parenchyma-sparing anatomical surgery of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Liver segmentectomy (segments 5 and 8) and caudate lobectomy. MDCTcombined with 3-dimensional reconstruction is a reliable non-invasive modality for preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27376205

  4. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  5. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  6. Three-Dimensional Printed Prosthesis for Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Cheng, Song; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes following repair of superior canal dehiscence (SCD) are variable, and surgery carries a risk of persistent or recurrent SCD symptoms, as well as a risk of hearing loss and vestibulopathy. Poor outcomes may occur from inadequate repair of the SCD or mechanical insult to the membranous labyrinth. Repair of SCD using a customized, fixed-length prosthesis may address current operative limitations and improve surgical outcomes. We aim to 3-dimensionally print customized prostheses to resurface or occlude bony SCD defects. Dehiscences were created along the arcuate eminence of superior semicircular canals in cadaveric temporal bones. Prostheses were designed and created using computed tomography and a 3-dimensional printer. The prostheses occupied the superior semicircular canal defect, reflected in postrepair computed tomography scans. This novel approach to SCD repair could have advantages over current techniques. Refinement of prosthesis design and materials will be important if this approach is translated into clinical use.

  7. Application of 3D printing technology in aerodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasek, K.; Wiklak, P.

    2014-08-01

    3D printing, as an additive process, offers much more than traditional machining techniques in terms of achievable complexity of a model shape. That fact was a motivation to adapt discussed technology as a method for creating objects purposed for aerodynamic testing. The following paper provides an overview of various 3D printing techniques. Four models of a standard NACA0018 aerofoil were manufactured in different materials and methods: MultiJet Modelling (MJM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Various parameters of the models have been included in the analysis: surface roughness, strength, details quality, surface imperfections and irregularities as well as thermal properties.

  8. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  9. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets. PMID:24370007

  10. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  11. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  12. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  13. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  14. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications. PMID:26344279

  15. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications.

  16. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  17. Automatic fabrication of 3-dimensional tissues using cell sheet manipulator technique.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Wada, Masanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-03-01

    Automated manufacturing is a key for tissue-engineered therapeutic products to become common-place and economical. Here, we developed an automatic cell sheet stacking apparatus to fabricate 3-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs exploiting our cell sheet manipulator technique, where cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes are stacked into a multilayered cell sheet. By optimizing the stacking conditions and cell seeding conditions, the apparatus was eventually capable of reproducibly making five-layer human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) sheets with a thickness of approximately 70-80 μm within 100 min. Histological sections and confocal topographies of the five-layer HSMM sheets revealed a stratified structure with no delamination. In cell counts using trypsinization, the live cell numbers in one-, three- and five-layer HSMM sheets were equivalent to the seeded cell numbers at 1 h after the stacking processes; however, after subsequent 5-day static cultures, the live cell numbers of the five-layered HSMM sheets decreased slightly, while one- and three-layer HSMM sheets maintained their live cell numbers. This suggests that there are thickness limitations in maintaining tissues in a static culture. We concluded that by combining our cell sheet manipulator technique and industrial robot technology we can create a secure, cost-effective manufacturing system able to produce tissue-engineered products from cell sheets.

  18. Craniofacial muscle engineering using a 3-dimensional phosphate glass fibre construct.

    PubMed

    Shah, R; Sinanan, A C M; Knowles, J C; Hunt, N P; Lewis, M P

    2005-05-01

    The current technique to replace missing craniofacial skeletal muscle is the surgical transfer of local or free flaps. This is associated with donor site morbidity, possible tissue rejection and limited supply. The alternative is to engineer autologous skeletal muscle in vitro, which can then be re-implanted into the patient. A variety of biomaterials have been used to engineer skeletal muscle with limited success. This study investigated the use of phosphate-based glass fibres as a potential scaffold material for the in vitro engineering of craniofacial skeletal muscle. Human masseter (one of the muscles of mastication)--derived cell cultures were used to seed the glass fibres, which were arranged into various configurations. Growth factors and matrix components were to used to manipulate the in vitro environment. Outcome was determined with the aid of microscopy, time-lapse footage, immunofluorescence imaging and CyQUANT proliferation, creatine kinase and protein assays. A 3-dimensional mesh arrangement of the glass fibres was the best at encouraging cell attachment and proliferation. In addition, increasing the density of the seeded cells and using Matrigel and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced the formation of prototypic muscle fibres. In conclusion, phosphate-based glass fibres can support the in vitro engineering of human craniofacial muscle.

  19. Design of roll-to-roll printing equipment with multiple printing methods for multi-layer printing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Hwan; Jo, Jeongdai; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a novel design concept for roll-to-roll printing equipment used for manufacturing printed electronic devices by multi-layer printing is presented. The roll-to-roll printing system mainly consists of printing units for patterning the circuits, tension control components such as feeders, dancers, load cells, register measurement and control units, and the drying units. It has three printing units which allow switching among the gravure, gravure-offset, and flexo printing methods by changing the web path and the placements of the cylinders. Therefore, depending on the application devices and the corresponding inks used, each printing unit can be easily adjusted to the required printing method. The appropriate printing method can be chosen depending on the desired printing properties such as thickness, roughness, and printing quality. To provide an example of the application of the designed printing equipment, we present the results of printing tests showing the variations in the printing properties of the ink for different printing methods.

  20. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine.

  1. Hybrid 3D printing: a game-changer in personalized cardiac medicine?

    PubMed

    Kurup, Harikrishnan K N; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease has the potential to increase procedural efficiency and patient safety by improving interventional and surgical planning and reducing radiation exposure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are usually the source datasets to derive 3D printing. More recently, 3D echocardiography has been demonstrated to derive 3D-printed models. The integration of multiple imaging modalities for hybrid 3D printing has also been shown to create accurate printed heart models, which may prove to be beneficial for interventional cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and as an educational tool. Further advancements in the integration of different imaging modalities into a single platform for hybrid 3D printing and virtual 3D models will drive the future of personalized cardiac medicine. PMID:26465262

  2. Self-expanding/shrinking structures by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to create adaptive structures capable of self-expanding and self-shrinking by means of four-dimensional printing technology. An actuator unit is designed and fabricated directly by printing fibers of shape memory polymers (SMPs) in flexible beams with different arrangements. Experiments are conducted to determine thermo-mechanical material properties of the fabricated part revealing that the printing process introduced a strong anisotropy into the printed parts. The feasibility of the actuator unit with self-expanding and self-shrinking features is demonstrated experimentally. A phenomenological constitutive model together with analytical closed-form solutions are developed to replicate thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMPs. Governing equations of equilibrium are developed for printed structures based on the non-linear Green-Lagrange strain tensor and solved implementing a finite element method along with an iterative incremental Newton-Raphson scheme. The material-structural model is then applied to digitally design and print SMP adaptive lattices in planar and tubular shapes comprising a periodic arrangement of SMP actuator units that expand and then recover their original shape automatically. Numerical and experimental results reveal that the proposed planar lattice as meta-materials can be employed for plane actuators with self-expanding/shrinking features or as structural switches providing two different dynamic characteristics. It is also shown that the proposed tubular lattice with a self-expanding/shrinking mechanism can serve as tubular stents and grippers for bio-medical or piping applications.

  3. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  4. Environmental Print: Real-World Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    What is environmental print? It is symbols all around. Environmental print is on signs, billboards, packages, junk mail, and everywhere. Young children easily recognize environmental print in their surroundings. Their everyday experiences with print are an important classroom tool to help children connect what they already know about written…

  5. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Linda Anne; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  6. A systematic review of image segmentation methodology, used in the additive manufacture of patient-specific 3D printed models of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, N; Velasco Forte, M; Tandon, A; Valverde, I

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortcomings in existing methods of image segmentation preclude the widespread adoption of patient-specific 3D printing as a routine decision-making tool in the care of those with congenital heart disease. We sought to determine the range of cardiovascular segmentation methods and how long each of these methods takes. Methods A systematic review of literature was undertaken. Medical imaging modality, segmentation methods, segmentation time, segmentation descriptive quality (SDQ) and segmentation software were recorded. Results Totally 136 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 clinical trial; 80 journal articles; 55 conference, technical and case reports). The most frequently used image segmentation methods were brightness thresholding, region growing and manual editing, as supported by the most popular piece of proprietary software: Mimics (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium, 1992–2015). The use of bespoke software developed by individual authors was not uncommon. SDQ indicated that reporting of image segmentation methods was generally poor with only one in three accounts providing sufficient detail for their procedure to be reproduced. Conclusions and implication of key findings Predominantly anecdotal and case reporting precluded rigorous assessment of risk of bias and strength of evidence. This review finds a reliance on manual and semi-automated segmentation methods which demand a high level of expertise and a significant time commitment on the part of the operator. In light of the findings, we have made recommendations regarding reporting of 3D printing studies. We anticipate that these findings will encourage the development of advanced image segmentation methods. PMID:27170842

  7. Teleprinter uses thermal printing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. D.; Perkins, W. E.; Taylor, J. W.; Thomas, D. G.

    1967-01-01

    Alphameric/facsimile printer receives serial digital data in the form of a specified number of bits per group and prints it on thermally sensitive paper. A solid state shift-register memorizes the incoming serial digital data.

  8. Evaluating Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes through a Novel 3-Dimensional In Vitro System for Cartilage Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanwei; Davison, Noel; Moroni, Lorenzo; Feng, Felicia; Crist, Joshua; Salter, Erin; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize and evaluate osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes, in comparison to normal chondrocytes, through a novel 3-dimensional (3-D) culture system, poly(ethylene-glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was also used to simulate an in vitro OA model. Methods: Normal and OA chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and analyzed for changes in cartilage-specific gene expressions due to passage number. Then, cells were encapsulated in PEGDA to evaluate phenotype and matrix production capabilities through the in vitro culture system. Characterization was conducted with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), biochemical analyses, and histological staining. 3-D encapsulated chondrocytes (human and bovine) were also treated with IL-1β to characterize how the cytokine affects gene transcription and extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Results: In 2-dimensional monolayer, anabolic genes were down-regulated significantly in both normal and OA chondrocytes. In 3-D culture, OA chondrocytes demonstrated significantly higher expressions of catabolic genes when compared to normal cells. Differentiation medium resulted in significantly more matrix production than growth medium from OA chondrocytes, indicated through histological staining. In addition, normal chondrocytes responded more significantly to exogenous administration of IL-1β than OA chondrocytes. Temporary initial stimulation of IL-1β to OA chondrocytes resulted in comparable gene expressions to untreated cells after 3 weeks of in vitro culture. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the use of OA chondrocytes in tissue engineering and their significance for potential future cartilage regeneration research through their matrix production capabilities and the use of a hydrogel culture system. PMID:26069626

  9. Comparison of 3-dimensional dose reconstruction system between fluence-based system and dose measurement-guided system.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Ono, Takeshi; Onitsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Masato; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Kai, Yudai

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) are commercial quasi-3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry arrays. Cross-validation to compare them under the same conditions, such as a treatment plan, allows for clear evaluation of such measurement devices. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of reconstructed dose distributions from the COMPASS system and ArcCHECK with 3DVH software using Monte Carlo simulation (MC) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and clinical VMAT plans. In a phantom study, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed clear differences from COMPASS, measurement and MC due to the detector resolution and the dose reconstruction method. Especially, ArcCHECK 3DVH showed 7% difference from MC for the heterogeneous phantom. ArcCHECK 3DVH only corrects the 3D dose distribution of treatment planning system (TPS) using ArcCHECK measurement, and therefore the accuracy of ArcCHECK 3DVH depends on TPS. In contrast, COMPASS showed good agreement with MC for all cases. However, the COMPASS system requires many complicated installation procedures such as beam modeling, and appropriate commissioning is needed. In terms of clinical cases, there were no large differences for each QA device. The accuracy of the compass and ArcCHECK 3DVH systems for phantoms and clinical cases was compared. Both systems have advantages and disadvantages for clinical use, and consideration of the operating environment is important. The QA system selection is depending on the purpose and workflow in each hospital. PMID:27179708

  10. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  11. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  12. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  13. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology.

  14. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  15. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM) in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27) or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31) participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31) were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27). There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were −6 degrees (affected side), 9 (contralateral side) and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side) and 10 degrees (contralateral side). Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within −6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter the

  16. Role of biplane and biplane echocardiographically guided 3-dimensional echocardiography during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Suk; Pellikka, Patricia A; McCully, Robert B; Oh, Jae K; Kukuzke, Joyce A; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy

    2006-09-01

    Image acquisition time and wall-motion score of conventional 2-dimensional (2D) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) were compared with those of biplane and 3-dimensional (3D) DSE in 50 patients (age 67 +/- 13 years) with regular rhythms during clinically indicated DSE. Commercially available systems were used for the study. We used a conventional transducer for 2D and a matrix-array transducer (x4 or x3-1) for two biplane (60- and 120-degree) images and one 3D full-volume image. Image quality was scored as 1 = good; 2 = adequate; and 3 = inadequate. Segmental wall-motion scores for each method were analyzed in blinded fashion. Acquisition times of biplane (9.3 +/- 2.8 seconds) and biplane-guided 3D (additional 2.6 +/- 1.0 seconds) echocardiography were significantly shorter than those of conventional 2D DSE (60.0 +/- 26.7 seconds) (P < .001). Image quality was adequate or good in 94% for biplane and 96% for 3D echocardiography. Agreement of segmental wall-motion score was present in 87.6% of segments for 2D versus biplane and 85.9% for 2D versus 3D at baseline and in 88.0% for 2D versus biplane and 87.4% for 2D versus 3D at peak stress. Acquisition of biplane or biplane-guided 3D volumetric data during DSE with use of a new matrix-array transducer was feasible and shortened image acquisition time without affecting the diagnostic yield compared with conventional 2D imaging.

  17. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  18. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of Face-Mask Removal Tools in Inducing Helmet Movement

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Armstrong, Charles W.; Rankin, James M.; Rogers, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of specific face-mask removal tools during football helmet face-mask retraction using 3-dimensional (3-D) video. Design and Setting: Four different tools were used: the anvil pruner (AP), polyvinyl chloride pipe cutters (PVC), Face Mask (FM) Extractor (FME), and Trainer's Angel (TA). Subjects retracted a face mask once with each tool. Subjects: Eleven certified athletic trainers served as subjects and were recruited from among local sports medicine professionals. Measurements: We analyzed a sample of movement by 3-D techniques during the retraction process. Movement of the head in 3 planes and time to retract the face mask were also assessed. All results were analyzed with a simple repeated-measures one-way multivariate analysis of variance. An overall efficiency score was calculated for each tool. Results: The AP allowed subjects to perform the face-mask removal task the fastest. Face mask removal with the AP was significantly faster than with the PVC and TA and significantly faster with the TA than the PVC. The PVC and AP created significantly more movement than the FME and TA when planes were combined. No significant differences were noted among tools for flexion-extension, rotation, or lateral flexion. The AP had an efficiency score of 14; FME, 15; TA, 18; and PVC, 35. Conclusions: The subjects performed the face-mask removal task in the least amount of time with the AP. They completed the task with the least amount of combined movement using the FME. The AP and FME had nearly identical overall efficiency scores for movement and time. PMID:12937432

  19. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  20. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  1. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  2. Behavior of printable formulations of loperamide and caffeine on different substrates--effect of print density in inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Palo, Mirja; Peltonen, Jouko; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-09-10

    The primary goal of the current work was to study the applicability of precision inkjet printing in fabrication of personalized doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) and caffeine (CAF) were used as model compounds. Different doses of the drugs in a single dosage unit were produced, using a drop-on-demand inkjet printer by varying printing parameters such as the distance between jetted droplets (drop spacing) and the physical dimensions of the printed dosage forms. The behavior of the formulated printable inks for both APIs was investigated on the model substrates, using different analytical tools. The obtained results showed that printed LOP did not recrystallize on any substrates studied, whereas at least partial recrystallization of printed CAF was observed on all carrier surfaces. Flexible doses of both APIs were easily obtained by adjusting the drop spacing of the depositing inks, and the results were relevant with regards to the theoretical content. Adapting the dose by varying physical dimensions of single dosage units was less successful than the approach in which drop spacing was altered. In conclusion, controlled printing technology, by means of adjusting the distance between jetted droplets, offers a means to fabricate dosage forms with individualized doses.

  3. A 3-Dimensional Absorbed Dose Calculation Method Based on Quantitative SPECT for Radionuclide Therapy: Evaluation for 131I Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen, Katarina; Liu, Xiaowei; Frey, Eric; Dewaraja, Yuni; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    A general method is presented for patient-specific 3-dimensional absorbed dose calculations based on quantitative SPECT activity measurements. Methods The computational scheme includes a method for registration of the CT image to the SPECT image and position-dependent compensation for attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response performed as part of an iterative reconstruction method. A method for conversion of the measured activity distribution to a 3-dimensional absorbed dose distribution, based on the EGS4 (electron-gamma shower, version 4) Monte Carlo code, is also included. The accuracy of the activity quantification and the absorbed dose calculation is evaluated on the basis of realistic Monte Carlo–simulated SPECT data, using the SIMIND (simulation of imaging nuclear detectors) program and a voxel-based computer phantom. CT images are obtained from the computer phantom, and realistic patient movements are added relative to the SPECT image. The SPECT-based activity concentration and absorbed dose distributions are compared with the true ones. Results Correction could be made for object scatter, photon attenuation, and scatter penetration in the collimator. However, inaccuracies were imposed by the limited spatial resolution of the SPECT system, for which the collimator response correction did not fully compensate. Conclusion The presented method includes compensation for most parameters degrading the quantitative image information. The compensation methods are based on physical models and therefore are generally applicable to other radionuclides. The proposed evaluation methodology may be used as a basis for future intercomparison of different methods. PMID:12163637

  4. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  5. A basic study on quantitative evaluation of 3-dimensional foot contact with an inertial sensor for FES foot drop correction.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Maho; Watanabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In these days, FES is used to control ankle dorsiflexion of hemiplegic gait. Since not only dorsiflexion but also 3-dimensional foot contact isimportant for gait stability in hemiplegic gait, evaluation and control system of 3-dimensional foot contact with FES is needed to correct foot movement. In this study, the timing of initial contact and the timing when foot movement became stationary in the sagittal plane were detected, and the inclination angles in the sagittal and the frontal planes at these timings were used for evaluation. Using the inclination angles, 10 m walking of a hemiplegic subject under the 4 different gait conditions were quantitatively evaluated. The gait conditions were without FES, stimulation to the tibialis anterior, stimulation to the common peroneal nerve, and stimulation to both the tibialis anterior and the common peroneal nerve. Result of evaluation with the inclination angles showed that stimulation to the tibialis anterior could control foot contact appropriately in the sagittal plane, and stimulation to the common peroneal nerve was better to control foot inclination angle in the frontal plane. Inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase indicated that FES system which used in clinical site commonly is not appropriate to control 3-dimensional foot contact. It was shown that inclination angle at the beginning of the stance phase was useful to evaluate 3-dimensional foot movements for FES foot drop correction.

  6. 3D-printed supercapacitor-powered electrochemiluminescent protein immunoarray.

    PubMed

    Kadimisetty, Karteek; Mosa, Islam M; Malla, Spundana; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kuhns, Tyler M; Faria, Ronaldo C; Lee, Norman H; Rusling, James F

    2016-03-15

    Herein we report a low cost, sensitive, supercapacitor-powered electrochemiluminescent (ECL) protein immunoarray fabricated by an inexpensive 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The immunosensor detects three cancer biomarker proteins in serum within 35 min. The 3D-printed device employs hand screen printed carbon sensors with gravity flow for sample/reagent delivery and washing. Prostate cancer biomarker proteins, prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and platelet factor-4 (PF-4) in serum were captured on the antibody-coated carbon sensors followed by delivery of detection-antibody-coated Ru(bpy)3(2+) (RuBPY)-doped silica nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay. ECL light was initiated from RuBPY in the silica nanoparticles by electrochemical oxidation with tripropylamine (TPrA) co-reactant using supercapacitor power and ECL was captured with a CCD camera. The supercapacitor was rapidly photo-recharged between assays using an inexpensive solar cell. Detection limits were 300-500f gmL(-1) for the 3 proteins in undiluted calf serum. Assays of 6 prostate cancer patient serum samples gave good correlation with conventional single protein ELISAs. This technology could provide sensitive onsite cancer diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings with the need for only moderate-level training. PMID:26406460

  7. 3D-printed supercapacitor-powered electrochemiluminescent protein immunoarray.

    PubMed

    Kadimisetty, Karteek; Mosa, Islam M; Malla, Spundana; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kuhns, Tyler M; Faria, Ronaldo C; Lee, Norman H; Rusling, James F

    2016-03-15

    Herein we report a low cost, sensitive, supercapacitor-powered electrochemiluminescent (ECL) protein immunoarray fabricated by an inexpensive 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The immunosensor detects three cancer biomarker proteins in serum within 35 min. The 3D-printed device employs hand screen printed carbon sensors with gravity flow for sample/reagent delivery and washing. Prostate cancer biomarker proteins, prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and platelet factor-4 (PF-4) in serum were captured on the antibody-coated carbon sensors followed by delivery of detection-antibody-coated Ru(bpy)3(2+) (RuBPY)-doped silica nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay. ECL light was initiated from RuBPY in the silica nanoparticles by electrochemical oxidation with tripropylamine (TPrA) co-reactant using supercapacitor power and ECL was captured with a CCD camera. The supercapacitor was rapidly photo-recharged between assays using an inexpensive solar cell. Detection limits were 300-500f gmL(-1) for the 3 proteins in undiluted calf serum. Assays of 6 prostate cancer patient serum samples gave good correlation with conventional single protein ELISAs. This technology could provide sensitive onsite cancer diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings with the need for only moderate-level training.

  8. On tail formation during gravure printing of sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Kitsomboonloha et al. (2012) study the deposition of femtolitre drops by the gravure method. The substrate (gravure plate) passes under a stationary blade; liquid placed on the substrate upstream of the blade fills the engraved wells as they enter the blade-substrate gap. Motion of the substrate beneath the blade removes the excess, leaving liquid-filled wells. The resulting pattern can then be printed. As a well leaves the blade, some liquid is, however, subtracted from it and left as a tail between the well and blade. Tails are undesirable because they reduce the sharpness of printed features. It was proposed that tails form by a 3-dimensional mechanism involving lateral wicking of liquid from the wells along the blade-substrate intersection. Here, lubrication theory is used to show that the effect can be understood within the context of plane flow. As a well passes under the trailing edge of the blade, capillary suction causes the meniscus to rise on the blade, but once the well has left, the increased drag exerted by the substrate pulls the meniscus down. Liquid dragged from the meniscus forms the tail. We conclude that tail formation is a problem in plane Stokes flow.

  9. Silver Ink For Jet Printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Singaram, Saraswathi

    1989-01-01

    Metallo-organic ink containing silver (with some bismuth as adhesion agent) applied to printed-circuit boards and pyrolized in air to form electrically conductive patterns. Ink contains no particles of silver, does not have to be mixed during use to maintain homogeneity, and applied to boards by ink-jet printing heads. Consists of silver neodecanoate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene and/or toluene.

  10. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  11. Understanding the Relationships between Print Size and Reading in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ian L.; Lueck, Amanda Hall; Greer, Robert B.; Tuan, Kuang Mon; Bailey, Valerie M.; Dornbusch, Helen G.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents conceptual models of relationships between print size and reading speed and preferred viewing distances. These models illustrate how various factors can influence reading behaviors and influence decisions about the optimal angular size of print and resolution reserve. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Comparative evaluation of dimension and surface detail accuracy of models produced by three different rapid prototype techniques.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K; Anandapandian, Ponsekar Abraham; Sharma, Sumeet Kumar; Vasantha Kumar, M

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces physical models by selectively solidifying ultra violet (UV) sensitive liquid resin using a laser beam. These models can be formed using various techniques. A study was undertaken to compare the dimensional accuracy and surface details of three prototype models with a 3D STL (standard template library) image. In this study the STL file was used to produce three different rapid prototype models namely; model 1-fused deposition model (FDM) using ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), model 2-Polyjet using a clear resin and model 3-a 3 dimensional printing using a composite material. Measurements were made at various anatomical points. For surface detail reproductions the models were subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. The dimensions of the model created by Polyjet were closest to the 3D STL virtual image followed by the 3DP model and FDM. SEM analysis showed uniform smooth surface on Polyjet model with adequate surface details.

  13. Skin tissue generation by laser cell printing.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lothar; Deiwick, Andrea; Schlie, Sabrina; Michael, Stefanie; Gruene, Martin; Coger, Vincent; Zychlinski, Daniela; Schambach, Axel; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M; Chichkov, Boris

    2012-07-01

    For the aim of ex vivo engineering of functional tissue substitutes, Laser-assisted BioPrinting (LaBP) is under investigation for the arrangement of living cells in predefined patterns. So far three-dimensional (3D) arrangements of single or two-dimensional (2D) patterning of different cell types have been presented. It has been shown that cells are not harmed by the printing procedure. We now demonstrate for the first time the 3D arrangement of vital cells by LaBP as multicellular grafts analogous to native archetype and the formation of tissue by these cells. For this purpose, fibroblasts and keratinocytes embedded in collagen were printed in 3D as a simple example for skin tissue. To study cell functions and tissue formation process in 3D, different characteristics, such as cell localisation and proliferation were investigated. We further analysed the formation of adhering and gap junctions, which are fundamental for tissue morphogenesis and cohesion. In this study, it was demonstrated that LaBP is an outstanding tool for the generation of multicellular 3D constructs mimicking tissue functions. These findings are promising for the realisation of 3D in vitro models and tissue substitutes for many applications in tissue engineering. PMID:22328297

  14. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  15. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  16. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-01-01

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy. PMID:27501761

  17. Photochemical Copper Coating on 3D Printed Thermoplastics.

    PubMed

    Yung, Winco K C; Sun, Bo; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Meng, Zhengong; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-08-09

    3D printing using thermoplastics has become very popular in recent years, however, it is challenging to provide a metal coating on 3D objects without using specialized and expensive tools. Herein, a novel acrylic paint containing malachite for coating on 3D printed objects is introduced, which can be transformed to copper via one-step laser treatment. The malachite containing pigment can be used as a commercial acrylic paint, which can be brushed onto 3D printed objects. The material properties and photochemical transformation processes have been comprehensively studied. The underlying physics of the photochemical synthesis of copper was characterized using density functional theory calculations. After laser treatment, the surface coating of the 3D printed objects was transformed to copper, which was experimentally characterized by XRD. 3D printed prototypes, including model of the Statue of Liberty covered with a copper surface coating and a robotic hand with copper interconnections, are demonstrated using this painting method. This composite material can provide a novel solution for coating metals on 3D printed objects. The photochemical reduction analysis indicates that the copper rust in malachite form can be remotely and photo-chemically reduced to pure copper with sufficient photon energy.

  18. Printing low-voltage dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Alexandre; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of fully printed thin dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), reducing the operation voltage below 300 V while keeping good actuation strain. DEAs are soft actuators capable of strains greater than 100% and response times below 1 ms, but they require driving voltage in the kV range, limiting the possible applications. One way to reduce the driving voltage of DEAs is to decrease the dielectric membrane thickness, which is typically in the 20-100 μm range, as reliable fabrication becomes challenging below this thickness. We report here the use of pad-printing to produce μm thick silicone membranes, on which we pad-print μm thick compliant electrodes to create DEAs. We achieve a lateral actuation strain of 7.5% at only 245 V on a 3 μm thick pad-printed membrane. This corresponds to a ratio of 125%/kV2, by far the highest reported value for DEAs. To quantify the increasing stiffening impact of the electrodes on DEA performance as the membrane thickness decreases, we compare two circular actuators, one with 3 μm- and one with 30 μm-thick membranes. Our experimental measurements show that the strain uniformity of the 3 μm-DEA is indeed affected by the mechanical impact of the electrodes. We developed a simple DEA model that includes realistic electrodes of finite stiffness, rather than assuming zero stiffness electrodes as is commonly done. The simulation results confirm that the stiffening impact of the electrodes is an important parameter that should not be neglected in the design of thin-DEAs. This work presents a practical approach towards low-voltage DEAs, a critical step for the development of real world applications.

  19. Technique for 3-Dimesional (3D) Modeling of Osteoarticular Medial Femoral Condyle Vascularized Grafting to Replace the Proximal Pole of Unsalvagable Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Matsumoto, Jane M; Morris, Jonathan M; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    This study describes a novel technique for the preoperative surgical planning for an osteoarticular medial femoral condyle (MFC) graft to replace the proximal pole of a scaphoid. In cases of proximal pole scaphoid nonunion or in Preiser disease, fragmentation of the articular surface can occur, leading to significant pain and disability. Osteoarticular MFC bone grafting can be used to treat these injuries by providing a vascularized osteoarticular surface. Using 3-dimensional imaging and printing we are able to precisely model the injured scaphoid, and also accurately plan the harvest of MFC osteoarticular graft. This technique allows for accurate preoperative planning of a complex 3-dimensional bone, and has improved our execution of the plan intraoperatively. PMID:27466049

  20. Technique for 3-Dimesional (3D) Modeling of Osteoarticular Medial Femoral Condyle Vascularized Grafting to Replace the Proximal Pole of Unsalvagable Scaphoid Nonunions.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Matsumoto, Jane M; Morris, Jonathan M; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    This study describes a novel technique for the preoperative surgical planning for an osteoarticular medial femoral condyle (MFC) graft to replace the proximal pole of a scaphoid. In cases of proximal pole scaphoid nonunion or in Preiser disease, fragmentation of the articular surface can occur, leading to significant pain and disability. Osteoarticular MFC bone grafting can be used to treat these injuries by providing a vascularized osteoarticular surface. Using 3-dimensional imaging and printing we are able to precisely model the injured scaphoid, and also accurately plan the harvest of MFC osteoarticular graft. This technique allows for accurate preoperative planning of a complex 3-dimensional bone, and has improved our execution of the plan intraoperatively.

  1. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d.

  2. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d. PMID:27077333

  3. Constrained acquisition of ink spreading curves from printed color images.

    PubMed

    Bugnon, Thomas; Hersch, Roger D

    2011-02-01

    Today's spectral reflection prediction models are able to predict the reflection spectra of printed color images with an accuracy as high as the reproduction variability allows. However, to calibrate such models, special uniform calibration patches need to be printed. These calibration patches use space and have to be removed from the final product. The present contribution shows how to deduce the ink spreading behavior of the color halftones from spectral reflectances acquired within printed color images. Image tiles of a color as uniform as possible are selected within the printed images. The ink spreading behavior is fitted by relying on the spectral reflectances of the selected image tiles. A relevance metric specifies the impact of each ink spreading curve on the selected image tiles. These relevance metrics are used to constrain the corresponding ink spreading curves. Experiments performed on an inkjet printer demonstrate that the new constraint-based calibration of the spectral reflection prediction model performs well when predicting color halftones significantly different from the selected image tiles. For some prints, the proposed image based model calibration is more accurate than a classical calibration.

  4. Study of Impingement Types and Printing Quality during Laser Printing of Viscoelastic Alginate Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Xiong, Ruitong; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-29

    Laser-induced forward transfer-based laser printing has been being implemented as a promising orifice-free direct-write strategy for different printing applications. The printing quality during laser printing is largely affected by the jet and droplet formation process and subsequential impingement. The objective of this study is to investigate the impingement-based printing type and resulting printing quality during the laser printing of viscoelastic alginate solutions, which are representative inks for soft structure printing such as bioprinting. Three printing types are identified: droplet-impingement printing, jet-impingement printing with multiple breakups, and jet-impingement printing with a single breakup. Printing quality, in terms of printed droplet morphology and size, has been investigated as a function of alginate concentration, laser fluence, and direct-writing height based on a time-resolved imaging approach and microarrays of printed droplets. Of these, the best printing quality is achieved with single-breakup jet-impingement printing, followed by multiple-breakup jet-impingement printing, with droplet-impingement printing producing the lowest quality printing. The printing quality can be improved by using high-concentration alginate solutions. The increase of laser fluence may lead to a well-defined primary droplet for low-concentration alginate solutions; however, this can cause the droplet diameter to increase, which may not be desirable. The direct-writing height (i.e., ribbon coating-receiving substrate distance) also influences the print quality. For example, an increase in direct-writing height can cause the printing type to change from the ideal jet-impingement with a single breakup, to the jet-impingement with multiple breakups, and even the least desired droplet-impingement printing, with only slight variations in droplet diameter. PMID:26934283

  5. Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    McAfee, Paul C.; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Background This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. Methods A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ≥2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. Results In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal

  6. Carotid-Sparing TomoHelical 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chae-Seon; Oh, Dongryul; Ju, Sang Gyu; Ahn, Yong Chan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jin Sung; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits and treatment efficiency of carotid-sparing TomoHelical 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (TH-3DCRT) for early glottic cancer. Materials and Methods Ten early-stage (T1N0M0) glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients were simulated, based on computed tomography scans. Two-field 3DCRT (2F-3DCRT), 3-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (3F-IMRT), TomoHelical-IMRT (TH-IMRT), and TH-3DCRT plans were generated with a 67.5-Gy total prescription dose to the planning target volume (PTV) for each patient. In order to evaluate the plan quality, dosimetric characteristics were compared in terms of conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, dose to the carotid arteries, and maximum dose to the spinal cord. Treatment planning and delivery times were compared to evaluate treatment efficiency. Results The median CI was substantially better for the 3F-IMRT (0.65), TH-IMRT (0.64), and TH-3DCRT (0.63) plans, compared to the 2F-3DCRT plan (0.32). PTV HI was slightly better for TH-3DCRT and TH-IMRT (1.05) compared to 2F-3DCRT (1.06) and 3F-IMRT (1.09). TH-3DCRT, 3F-IMRT, and TH-IMRT showed an excellent carotid sparing capability compared to 2F-3DCRT (p < 0.05). For all plans, the maximum dose to the spinal cord was < 45 Gy. The median treatment planning times for 2F-3DCRT (5.85 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (7.10 minutes) were much lower than those for 3F-IMRT (45.48 minutes) and TH-IMRT (35.30 minutes). The delivery times for 2F-3DCRT (2.06 minutes) and 3F-IMRT (2.48 minutes) were slightly lower than those for TH-IMRT (2.90 minutes) and TH-3DCRT (2.86 minutes). Conclusion TH-3DCRT showed excellent carotid-sparing capability, while offering high efficiency and maintaining good PTV coverage. PMID:25761477

  7. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  8. Correlation Among Lip Print Pattern, Finger Print Pattern and Abo Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    N, Srilekha; A, Anuradha; Srinivas G, Vijay; Devi R, Sabitha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study correlation between lip print pattern, finger print pattern and ABO blood group. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 27 males and 27 females who were aged between 20–40 years. Lip prints, finger prints and ABO and Rh blood groups of each individual were recorded. Lip prints were classified, based on Suzuki’s and Tsuchihashi’s classification and finger prints were classified, based on Michael’s and Kucken’s classification. The results were statistically analyzed by using Chi–square test. Results: Complete vertical lip print, loop finger print pattern, O+ blood group were predominant among individual groups. O+ blood group-type I lip print combination, loop finger print pattern-type IV lip print pattern combination, O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern combination and both B+ blood group-loop finger print pattern- type IV lip print pattern combination and O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern-type I lip print pattern were predominant. Conclusion: Though lip prints, finger prints and blood groups had their own specificities, correlation of the three parameters did not show any significance. PMID:24783079

  9. Properties and Printability of Inkjet and Screen-Printed Silver Patterns for RFID Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmerón, José F.; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Briand, Danick; Ruan, Jason J.; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Carvajal, Miguel A.; Capitán-Vallvey, L. F.; de Rooij, Nico F.; Palma, Alberto J.

    2014-02-01

    We report the modeling, and geometrical and electrical characterization, of inkjet and screen-printed patterns on different polymeric substrates for use as antennas in radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. We compared the physical and electrical characteristics of two silver nanoparticle-based commercial inkjet-printable inks and one screen-printable silver paste, when deposited on polyimide (PI), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyetherimide (PEI) substrates. First, the thickness of the inkjet-printed patterns was predicted by use of an analytical model based on printing conditions and ink composition. The predicted thickness was confirmed experimentally, and geometrical characterization of the lines was completed by measuring the root-mean-square roughness of the patterns. Second, direct-current electrical characterization was performed to identify the printing conditions yielding the lowest resistivity and sheet resistance. The minimum resistivity for the inkjet-printing method was 8.6 ± 0.8 μΩ cm, obtained by printing four stacked layers of one of the commercial inks on PEI, whereas minimum resistivity of 44 ± 7 μΩ cm and 39 ± 4 μΩ cm were obtained for a single layer of screen-printed ink on polyimide (PI) with 140 threads/cm mesh and 90 threads/cm mesh, respectively. In every case, these minimum values of resistivity were obtained for the largest tested thickness. Coplanar waveguide transmission lines were then designed and characterized to analyze the radio-frequency (RF) performance of the printed patterns; minimum transmission losses of 0.0022 ± 0.0012 dB/mm and 0.0016 ± 0.0012 dB/mm measured at 13.56 MHz, in the high-frequency (HF) band, were achieved by inkjet printing on PEI and screen printing on PI, respectively. At 868 MHz, in the ultra-high-frequency band, the minimum values of transmission loss were 0.0130 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for inkjet printing on PEI and 0.0100 ± 0.0014 dB/mm for screen printing on PI. Although the

  10. Engineered PRINT(®) nanoparticles for controlled delivery of antigens and immunostimulants.

    PubMed

    Beletskii, Anton; Galloway, Ashley; Rele, Shyam; Stone, Michele; Malinoski, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Particle replication in non-wetting templates (PRINT) is a novel nanoparticle platform that provides compositional flexibility with the ability to specify size and shape in formulating vaccines. The PRINT platform also offers manufacturing and cost advantages over traditional particle technologies. Across multiple antigen and adjuvant formulations, robust antibody and cellular responses have been achieved using PRINT particles in mouse models. Preclinical studies applying PRINT technology in the disease areas of influenza, malaria, and pneumonia are described in this commentary. The proof of principle studies pave the way toward significant cost-effective solutions to global vaccine supply needs.

  11. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.

  12. Contact Printing of Arrayed Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Luikart, Alicia M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    A novel contact printing method utilizing a sacrificial layer of polyacrylic acid (PAA) was developed to selectively modify the upper surfaces of arrayed microstructures. The method was characterized by printing polystyrene onto SU-8 microstructures to create an improved substrate for a cell-based microarray platform. Experiments measuring cell growth SU-8 arrays modified with polystyrene and fibronectin demonstrated improved growth of NIH 3T3 (93% vs. 38%), HeLa (97% vs. 77%), and HT1080 (76% vs. 20%) cells relative to that for the previously used coating method. In addition, use of the PAA sacrificial layer permitted the printing of functionalized polystyrene, carboxylate polystyrene nanospheres, and silica nanospheres onto the arrays in a facile manner. Finally, a high concentration of extracellular matrix materials (ECM), such as collagen (5 mg/mL) and gelatin (0.1%), was contact printed onto the array structures using as little as 5 μL of the ECM reagent and without the formation of a continuous film bridge across the microstructures. Murine embryonic stem cells cultured on arrays printed with this gelatin-hydrogel remained in an undifferentiated state indicating an adequate surface gelatin layer to maintain these cells over time. PMID:20425106

  13. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article.

  14. Use of 3-dimensional computed tomography to detect a barium-masked fish bone causing esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Atsushi; Tagami, Takashi; Kim, Shiei; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating esophageal foreign bodies and detecting perforation. However, when evaluation is difficult owing to the previous use of barium as a contrast medium, 3-dimensional CT may facilitate accurate diagnosis. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of esophageal perforation. Because barium had been used as a contrast medium for an esophagram performed at a previous hospital, horizontal CT and esophageal endoscopy could not be able to identify the foreign body or characterize the lesion. However, 3-dimensional CT clearly revealed an L-shaped foreign body and its anatomical relationships in the mediastinum. Accordingly, we removed the foreign body using an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The foreign body was the premaxillary bone of a sea bream. The patient was discharged without complications.

  15. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use.

  16. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männl, U.; van den Berg, C.; Magunje, B.; Härting, M.; Britton, D. T.; Jones, S.; van Staden, M. J.; Scriba, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used.

  17. Fingerprint + Iris = IrisPrint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Asem; Ross, Arun

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating a biometric image from two different traits. Specifically, we focus on generating an IrisPrint that inherits its structure from a fingerprint image and an iris image. To facilitate this, the continuous phase of the fingerprint image, characterizing its ridge flow, is first extracted. Next, a scheme is developed to extract "minutiae" from an iris image. Finally, an IrisPrint, that resembles a fingerprint, is created by mixing the ridge flow of the fingerprint with the iris minutiae. Preliminary experiments suggest that the new biometric image (i.e., IrisPrint) (a) can potentially be used for authentication by an existing fingerprint matcher, and (b) can potentially conceal and preserve the privacy of the original fingerprint and iris images.

  18. Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Song, Yanru; Pont-Lezica, R.; Lin, Liangshiou; Ye, Zhenghua; Varner, J.E. )

    1989-04-01

    In the 1950's Daoust developed substrate film printing on gelatin and starch films to localize protease, amylase, DNAase and RNAase activities. These procedures were adapted to plant tissues by Yomo and Taylor (1973) and by Jacobsen and Knox (1973). Membranes such as nitrocellulose bind cellular materials from cut tissue surfaces with little lateral diffusion. Thus accurate chemical prints are obtained. When the tissue is pressed firmly onto nitrocellulose a physical impression is obtained which shows the anatomy of the tissue. We have used the tissue-print technique to localize (1) proteins with labeled antibodies, (2) RNA with labeled nucleic acid probes, (3) enzymes by catalytic activity, (4) glycoproteins by fluorescent lectins, (5) lectins by fluorescent sugars, (6) cysteine-rich proteins by dansylated iodoacetamide, (7) ascorbic acid by silver nitrate, (8) soluble fluorescent compounds by direct observation.

  19. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  20. Correlated dynamics in human printing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Uli; Paczuski, Maya

    2006-02-01

    Arrival times of requests to print in a student laboratory were analyzed. Inter-arrival times between subsequent requests follow a universal scaling law relating time intervals and the size of the request, indicating a scale invariant dynamics with respect to the size. The cumulative distribution of file sizes is well-described by a modified power-law often seen in non-equilibrium critical systems. For each user, waiting times between their individual requests show long range dependence and are broadly distributed from seconds to weeks. All results are incompatible with Poisson models, and may provide evidence of critical dynamics associated with voluntary thought processes in the brain.

  1. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics - A review of research and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Harrington, Tomás S; Martin, Graham D; Hutchings, Ian M

    2015-10-30

    Global regulatory, manufacturing and consumer trends are driving a need for change in current pharmaceutical sector business models, with a specific focus on the inherently expensive research costs, high-risk capital-intensive scale-up and the traditional centralised batch manufacturing paradigm. New technologies, such as inkjet printing, are being explored to radically transform pharmaceutical production processing and the end-to-end supply chain. This review provides a brief summary of inkjet printing technologies and their current applications in manufacturing before examining the business context driving the exploration of inkjet printing in the pharmaceutical sector. We then examine the trends reported in the literature for pharmaceutical printing, followed by the scientific considerations and challenges facing the adoption of this technology. We demonstrate that research activities are highly diverse, targeting a broad range of pharmaceutical types and printing systems. To mitigate this complexity we show that by categorising findings in terms of targeted business models and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) chemistry we have a more coherent approach to comparing research findings and can drive efficient translation of a chosen drug to inkjet manufacturing. PMID:25772419

  2. Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    3D Printing promises to produce complex biomedical devices according to computer design using patient-specific anatomical data. Since its initial use as pre-surgical visualization models and tooling molds, 3D Printing has slowly evolved to create one-of-a-kind devices, implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Fueled by the recent explosion in public interest and access to affordable printers, there is renewed interest to combine stem cells with custom 3D scaffolds for personalized regenerative medicine. Before 3D Printing can be used routinely for the regeneration of complex tissues (e.g. bone, cartilage, muscles, vessels, nerves in the craniomaxillofacial complex), and complex organs with intricate 3D microarchitecture (e.g. liver, lymphoid organs), several technological limitations must be addressed. In this review, the major materials and technology advances within the last five years for each of the common 3D Printing technologies (Three Dimensional Printing, Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering, Stereolithography, and 3D Plotting/Direct-Write/Bioprinting) are described. Examples are highlighted to illustrate progress of each technology in tissue engineering, and key limitations are identified to motivate future research and advance this fascinating field of advanced manufacturing.

  3. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics - A review of research and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Harrington, Tomás S; Martin, Graham D; Hutchings, Ian M

    2015-10-30

    Global regulatory, manufacturing and consumer trends are driving a need for change in current pharmaceutical sector business models, with a specific focus on the inherently expensive research costs, high-risk capital-intensive scale-up and the traditional centralised batch manufacturing paradigm. New technologies, such as inkjet printing, are being explored to radically transform pharmaceutical production processing and the end-to-end supply chain. This review provides a brief summary of inkjet printing technologies and their current applications in manufacturing before examining the business context driving the exploration of inkjet printing in the pharmaceutical sector. We then examine the trends reported in the literature for pharmaceutical printing, followed by the scientific considerations and challenges facing the adoption of this technology. We demonstrate that research activities are highly diverse, targeting a broad range of pharmaceutical types and printing systems. To mitigate this complexity we show that by categorising findings in terms of targeted business models and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) chemistry we have a more coherent approach to comparing research findings and can drive efficient translation of a chosen drug to inkjet manufacturing.

  4. High resolution printing of charge

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  5. Blood Print Detection By Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everse, K. E.; Menzel, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    We have surveyed the current methods for detection of blood prints and have compared representative procedures from the standpoint of the general type of involved chemistry. We find that the methods that involve fluorescent products produce the greatest sensitivity in concert with laser fluorescence excitation. The ninhydrin/ZnCl2 procedure is very effective for porous items, including cloth. Merbromin or dichlorofluorescein are effective for non-porous surfaces. Development of blood prints on surfaces that display overwhelming background fluorescence is best performed by peroxidase-type absorption methods.

  6. Francis Bacon's New Science: Rhetoric and the Transformative Power of Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckel, David

    The process of projecting textual models onto the phenomenal world began with the invention of writing and accelerated through the manuscript culture of classical antiquity and the Middle Ages into the age of print. In Francis Bacon's work, the book (a metaphor for the phenomenal world) adapted to the demands of the printed text and reflects the…

  7. Digital Print Concepts: Conceptualizing a Modern Framework for Measuring Emerging Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javorsky, Kristin H.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation sought to produce and empirically test a theoretical model for the literacy construct of print concepts that would take into account the unique affordances of digital picture books for emergent readers. The author used an exploratory study of twenty randomly selected digital story applications to identify print conventions, text…

  8. 3D/Additive Printing Manufacturing: A Brief History and Purchasing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bill; Wilson, Greg

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is recognized as a collection of technologies known as rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, and most commonly, additive manufacturing (AM). With these emerging technologies it is possible to print (but not limited to): architectural models, discontinued car-part foundry patterns, industry-wide prototypes, human tissues, the…

  9. Evaluating 3D-printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Martha O; Vorwald, Charlotte E; Dreher, Maureen L; Mott, Eric J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M; Fisher, John P

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and models angiogenesis.

  10. Philadelphia Printing and Publishing, 1876-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Thomas M.

    1976-01-01

    Two Philadelphia printing histories, both reflecting the relationship of printing to publishing, are examined in this article: the manufacture by the publisher of his own product and the development and commercialization of the photomechanical halftone process. (Author)

  11. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  12. Printing considerations for non-printers

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper explains the basics of printing to editors, graphic artists, and others who prepare copy for the printer. It discusses pre-press requirements, paper selection, printing methods, and finishing options.

  13. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reproduction in excess of the limits set forth above, the Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer in... printing plant. (3) Printing services not obtained in compliance with this guidance will result in the...

  14. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  15. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B; Fisher, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 3–4 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy.

  16. Reading Environmental Print: What Is the Role of Concepts about Print in Discriminating Young Readers' Responses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Fawson, Parker C.; Young, Janet R.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wilcox, Brad

    2003-01-01

    Examines how concepts-about-print knowledge interacted with other traditional measures of print knowledge, to affect children's reading environmental print in context and out. Demonstrates that concepts-about-print and word recognition were the most reliable discriminators between children who could accurately and consistently read environmental…

  17. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  18. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  19. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  20. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  1. Improved pen alignment for bidirectional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Edgar; Allebach, Jan P.; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    The quality of the prints produced by an inkjet printer is highly dependent on the characteristics of the dots produced by the inkjet pens. While some literature discusses metrics for the objective evaluation of print quality, few of the efforts have combined automated quality tests with subjective assessment. We develop an algorithm for analyzing printed dots and study the effects of the dot characteristics on the perceived print alignment. We establish the perceptual preferences of human observers via a set of psychophysical experiments.

  2. Understanding and Improving the Quality of Inter-Layer Interfaces in FDM 3-D Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward; Spradlin, Brandon; Stark, Madeline; Dadmun, Mark

    We have studied the effect of thermal history and material diffusion on inter-filament bonding in FDM 3D printed parts and developed methods to improve interlayer adhesion in 3D printed samples. The available thermal energy during the FDM print environment was determined quantitatively by tracking the temperature of the bottom most printed layer using a thermocouple attached to the print bed. The role of the thermal history of the filaments during the deposition process on the quality of inter-layer bonding in an FDM ABS part was monitored using a T-peel test and an innovative sample design. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion between 3D printed layers was improved by the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent 4,4 '-diaminodiphenylmethane (DADPM). These studies have increased our understanding of the importance of the complex thermal history of a filament in the 3D printing process and its impact on the interfaces that form during the fused deposition modeling print process. Furthermore, the chemical crosslinking process demonstrates a potential method to covalently link layers in FDM printed parts, improving the bulk strength of the part. The insight provided in this work may aid in the development of techniques that can produce FDM parts that could be used as replacement parts in structural applications, or as completely standalone products.

  3. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Printing....

  4. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Printing....

  5. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Printing....

  6. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Printing....

  7. Organic materials for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, M.; Nilsson, D.; Robinson, N. D.

    2007-01-01

    Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences - via molecular-level control of functionality - compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

  8. Conservation of Drawings and Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Antoinette

    1972-01-01

    Some of the basic techniques of preserving and restoring prints and drawings are outlined. Examination, dry cleaning, stain removal, mending, backing removal, and lining are discussed, as well as aspects of the complexity of bleaching, types and nature of some stains and discolorations, and materials of poor quality used by many framers. (Author)

  9. Qualification of security printing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Aronoff, Jason S.; Arnabat, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the statistical and hardware processes involved in qualifying two related printing features for their deployment in product (e.g. document and package) security. The first is a multi-colored tiling feature that can also be combined with microtext to provide additional forms of security protection. The color information is authenticated automatically with a variety of handheld, desktop and production scanners. The microtext is authenticated either following magnification or manually by a field inspector. The second security feature can also be tile-based. It involves the use of two inks that provide the same visual color, but differ in their transparency to infrared (IR) wavelengths. One of the inks is effectively transparent to IR wavelengths, allowing emitted IR light to pass through. The other ink is effectively opaque to IR wavelengths. These inks allow the printing of a seemingly uniform, or spot, color over a (truly) uniform IR emitting ink layer. The combination converts a uniform covert ink and a spot color to a variable data region capable of encoding identification sequences with high density. Also, it allows the extension of variable data printing for security to ostensibly static printed regions, affording greater security protection while meeting branding and marketing specifications.

  10. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  11. End of the Printed Line?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishengrad, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Considers whether laptop and handheld computers will be able to replace printed textbooks in classrooms. Topics cover benefits of classroom computers, including the need for computer literacy; computer costs, including service contracts, theft, and the need for staff development; the problems with dated textbooks; publishers' concerns; and…

  12. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  13. The Power of the Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The print has a long-standing tradition of carrying a political message. This can be seen in the works of artists from the German Expressionists, like Kathe Kollwitz and Emil Nolde, to Mexican printmakers like Jose Posada and Leopoldo Mendez. Whether it was during the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the War in Iraq, or the 2008 presidential election,…

  14. Design of printed circuit coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, W. T.

    1969-01-01

    Spiral-like coil is printed with several extra turns which increase the realizable coil inductance. Included are shorting connections which not only short the extra turns, but also short out several turns of the main body. Coil tuning is accomplished by removing the shorts until the desired inductance is obtained.

  15. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  16. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  17. Percutaneous Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Patient-specific Three-dimensional Computer-based Heart Model and Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-12-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement.

  18. Engineering design of artificial vascular junctions for 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoxiao; Bibb, Richard; Harris, Russell

    2016-06-20

    Vascular vessels, including arteries, veins and capillaries, are being printed using additive manufacturing technologies, also known as 3D printing. This paper demonstrates that it is important to follow the vascular design by nature as close as possible when 3D printing artificial vascular branches. In previous work, the authors developed an algorithm of computational geometry for constructing smooth junctions for 3D printing. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) is used to compare the wall shear stress and blood velocity field for the junctions of different designs. The CFD model can reproduce the expected wall shear stress at locations remote from the junction. For large vessels such as veins, it is shown that ensuring the smoothness of the junction and using smaller joining angles as observed in nature is very important to avoid high wall shear stress and recirculation. The issue is however less significant for capillaries. Large joining angles make no difference to the hemodynamic behavior, which is also consistent with the fact that most capillary junctions have large joining angles. The combination of the CFD analysis and the junction construction method form a complete design method for artificial vascular vessels that can be 3D printed using additive manufacturing technologies.

  19. Engineering design of artificial vascular junctions for 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoxiao; Bibb, Richard; Harris, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Vascular vessels, including arteries, veins and capillaries, are being printed using additive manufacturing technologies, also known as 3D printing. This paper demonstrates that it is important to follow the vascular design by nature as close as possible when 3D printing artificial vascular branches. In previous work, the authors developed an algorithm of computational geometry for constructing smooth junctions for 3D printing. In this work, computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) is used to compare the wall shear stress and blood velocity field for the junctions of different designs. The CFD model can reproduce the expected wall shear stress at locations remote from the junction. For large vessels such as veins, it is shown that ensuring the smoothness of the junction and using smaller joining angles as observed in nature is very important to avoid high wall shear stress and recirculation. The issue is however less significant for capillaries. Large joining angles make no difference to the hemodynamic behavior, which is also consistent with the fact that most capillary junctions have large joining angles. The combination of the CFD analysis and the junction construction method form a complete design method for artificial vascular vessels that can be 3D printed using additive manufacturing technologies. PMID:27321286

  20. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.