Science.gov

Sample records for 3-fold higher risk

  1. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  2. Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157808.html Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women Experts ... have a higher risk." It is clear that "obesity is the risk for asthma, not the other ...

  3. Children with Cushing Syndrome May Have Higher Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Children with Cushing syndrome may have higher suicide risk NIH study finds that depression, anxiety and ... Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other ...

  4. Are People with Rosacea At Higher Risk for Alzheimer'S?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are People With Rosacea at Higher Risk for Alzheimer's? Danish study finds a correlation, but patients shouldn' ... linked to a higher risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. However, the study authors ...

  5. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  6. Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... convincing" case that gallstones, themselves, are a risk factor for heart disease. Stein, who wasn't involved in the research, is director of the urban community cardiology program at New York University School of Medicine. He said that people with ...

  7. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  8. Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk? Data review can't prove cause-and- ... in close succession may increase the risk of autism in children, a large new research review suggests. ...

  9. Risk Communication about AIDS in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of education as the primary response of higher education to the epidemic associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on the personal, social and institutional issues that bear on AIDS education on college campuses and the important features of AIDS education programs. (TW)

  10. Proof of the gamma conjecture for Fano 3-folds of Picard rank 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golyshev, V. V.; Zagier, D.

    2016-02-01

    We verify the (first) gamma conjecture, which relates the gamma class of a Fano variety to the asymptotics at infinity of the Frobenius solutions of its associated quantum differential equation, for all 17 of the deformation classes of Fano 3-folds of rank 1. This involves computing the corresponding limits (`Frobenius limits') for the Picard-Fuchs differential equations of Apéry type associated by mirror symmetry with the Fano families, and is achieved using two methods, one combinatorial and the other using the modular properties of the differential equations. The gamma conjecture for Fano 3-folds always contains a rational multiple of the number \\zeta(3). We present numerical evidence suggesting that higher Frobenius limits of Apéry-like differential equations may be related to multiple zeta values.

  11. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  12. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  13. Are People with Rosacea At Higher Risk for Alzheimer'S?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158559.html Are People With Rosacea at Higher Risk for Alzheimer's? Danish ... the study authors were quick to stress that people with rosacea should not be overly worried about ...

  14. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  15. Smoking Linked to Higher Relapse Risk After Surgery for Crohn's

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Smoking Linked to Higher Relapse Risk After Surgery for Crohn's Research supports immediate drug treatment after bowel surgery for ... Crohn's disease patients will have relapses after bowel surgery, new research suggests. The study included 240 Crohn's disease patients ...

  16. Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alexandria, Virginia October 10, 2013 Early puberty ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  17. Emergency preparedness for higher risk populations: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Gibson, Stacey; Zlepnig, Jennifer; Meyer-Macleod, Robin; Boutette, Paul

    2009-06-01

    This paper was meant to be on 'vulnerable populations', as some population sub-groups do require special care, special planning and special integration of needs. However, the issue should be reframed in terms of groups at higher risks. The text explains how (1) there are contextual vulnerabilities, in (a) higher susceptibility, i.e. higher exposure to risk, (b) higher sensitivity, i.e. higher damage or higher brittleness, and (c) weaknesses and gaps in the emergency system; (2) that these higher susceptibility, sensitivity and system weaknesses involve important psychosocial considerations, which may stem from socio-demographic status or ripple effects in the community; and finally, (3) that addressing those 'soft spots' using the phrase 'vulnerable populations' can be misleading and disserving because it disempowers, stigmatises and deters one from a more thorough analysis. PMID:19447815

  18. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  19. Individual Choice and Risk: The Case of Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of higher education raises the risk environment for school-leavers as more occupations become partially graduate with the result that occupational signals are fuzzy. This makes the educational decision more difficult and more risky, especially with more of the cost of higher education being transferred to the individual. After a discussion of the nature of risk, derived from Beck, and of the role of government policy and of economics in obscuring this, the analysis uses simple quantitative techniques, based on British Labour Force Survey data, to demonstrate the increased fuzziness of graduate work. It is also shown that a rising proportion of graduates receive only average pay, thus raising the risks associated with educational investments even further. PMID:25419008

  20. Hyperhomocysteinemia in preeclampsia is associated to higher risk pressure profiles.

    PubMed

    Noto, R; Neri, S; Noto, Z; Cilio, D; Abate, G; Noto, P; Pepi, F; Leanza, A; Molino, G

    2003-01-01

    Homocysteine levels have been determined with Chromatography on HPLC column, between the 20th and the 24th week of pregnancy, in women with analogous characteristics (a) normotensive, (b) with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), low (LR), medium (MR), high risk (HR). The group they belonged to was confirmed after natural or caesarean delivery. All the patients were submitted to 24 hour blood pressure monitoring for the evaluation of further pressure risk parameters: mean arterial pressure (MAP), non dippers, percentages of pressure peaks. Homocysteine levels in normotensive pregnant women (5.8 +/- 1.7 microM) were low. Significant high levels of homocysteine were present proportionally to the risk degree of PIH. Higher levels of homocysteine statistically significant were present in non dippers of all groups (MR p < 0.05; HR p < 0.01). A direct correlation between plasmatic homocisteine levels and pressure profiles was found out in non dippers (r = 0.56, r = 0.55, r = 0.50 respectively) and in dippers (r = 0.7, r = 0.75, r = 0.60 respectively), and also between levels of homocysteine, MAP value, and pathological percentages of systolic and diastolic nocturnal peaks. In pregnant women presenting preeclampsia afterwards, high levels of homocysteine were not different from mean values present in high risk PIH pregnant women (13.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.7 microM). High levels of homocysteine early determined in the second trimester of PIH pregnancies seem to be associated to a pregnancy higher risk, coexisting with dangerous pressure profiles. High levels confirm a pregnant woman to belong to a higher or lower risk degree of vascular damage, but in the same group context high levels of homocisteine do not allow to identify those pregnant women who will develop eclampsia. PMID:14650644

  1. Cancer in schizophrenia: is the risk higher or lower?

    PubMed

    Grinshpoon, Alexander; Barchana, Micha; Ponizovsky, Alexander; Lipshitz, Irena; Nahon, Daniella; Tal, Orna; Weizman, Abraham; Levav, Itzhak

    2005-03-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer have shown conflicting results. Our study explores this association in three Jewish-Israeli population groups defined by their continent/place of birth (Israel, Europe-America, and Africa-Asia). The identification of the patients was made through the linkage of the nationwide psychiatric and cancer registries. The incidence of cancer in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia was compared with the incidence in the general population. The results showed that the cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all sites were significantly lower among men and women with schizophrenia, 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.93] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.97), respectively. This reduced overall risk was clearest for those born in Europe-America, both men (SIR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97) and women (SIR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). Among women diagnosed with schizophrenia, the SIR was statistically higher for cancer in the breast among those born in Asia-Africa (1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.63) and in the corpus uteri among the Israel-born (2.75, 95% CI 1.69-3.81) than among their counterparts in the general population. Lung cancer was significantly higher in men born in Asia-Africa diagnosed with schizophrenia than in the respective comparison population group (1.58, 95% CI 1.13-2.2). Our findings, and those of the literature, justify conducting a multinational study that includes identification of cancer-related risk factors among patients with schizophrenia and their families, and information on the use of psychotropic medications. This effort may clarify an epidemiological puzzle that remains outstanding. PMID:15653279

  2. College 101: Introducing At-Risk Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Before graduate school, before his undergraduate degree, before community college, all throughout K-12, this author was considered an "at-risk" student--at risk of dropping out of school. During those early years, he took note of the things that seemed unjust and now he directs his academic work toward engaging at-risk students and providing them…

  3. The Evidence for a Risk-Based Approach to Australian Higher Education Regulation and Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the nascent field of risk management in higher education, which is of particular relevance in Australia currently, as the Commonwealth Government implements its plans for a risk-based approach to higher education regulation and quality assurance. The literature outlines the concept of risk management and risk-based approaches…

  4. Risk Management and Insurance. Guidelines for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    Insurance companies, following the campus unrest of the late 1960's and early 1970's, became rather wary of insuring college and university campuses because of the great amount of risk involved. As a study committee found, however, the risk of insuring educational facilities had been overestimated due to widespread newspaper and television…

  5. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the department of cancer prevention and control at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. "Our ... reduce cervical cancer risk," Moysich said in a Roswell release. According to study author Dr. J. Brian ...

  6. Women Smokers at Higher Risk for Brain Bleed

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of stroke usually results from a bleeding aneurysm in the brain. An aneurysm is a small weak spot in a blood ... factors likely increase the risk of developing an aneurysm that eventually ruptures and causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, ...

  7. Future risk of bovine tuberculosis recurrence among higher risk herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2015-01-01

    Within the Irish national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme, controls are tighter on higher risk herds, known as H-herds. These H-herds are defined as herds that have previously had a bTB restriction (also known as a bTB episode), with at least 2 animals positive to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) or with a bTB lesion detected at slaughter. Such herds are considered at higher risk of recurrence following the end of the bTB episode. In this study, we examined if, and when, the future bTB risk of H-herds returned to a similar level comparable to herds with no history of bTB. In addition, the proportion of bTB episodes in 2012 that could be attributed to the recent introduction of an infected animal was also estimated, providing an update of earlier work. The study population consisted of all Irish herds that were not bTB restricted at the start of 2012 and with at least one whole-herd SICTT in 2012, with the herd being the unit of interest. The outcome measure was a bTB restriction, defined as any herd where at least 1 standard SICTT reactor or an animal with a bTB lesion at slaughter in 2012 was identified. A logistic regression model was used to model the probability of a herd being restricted in 2012. Herds that were previously restricted had significantly higher odds of being restricted in 2012 compared to herds that had not. Similarly, the odds of being restricted in 2012 decreased as the time since the previous restriction increased, but increased as the severity of the previous restriction increased. Odds of being restricted also increased with an increase (although not linear) in herd size, the number of animals greater than 1 year of age purchased in 2011, the county incidence rate and the proportion of cows in the herd. The recent introduction of an infected animal accounted for 7.4% (6.7-8.2) of herd restrictions. This study confirms the key role of past bTB history in determining the future risk of Irish herds

  8. Meeting the Challenges of Enterprise Risk Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattie, John

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) and the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) held a summit on enterprise risk management (ERM) in Washington DC with senior officers and trustees from several leading colleges and universities. Approximately 40…

  9. Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study Efforts to improve monitoring and protective equipment ... after 1940 are not at greater risk of death from chronic exposure to low levels of radiation, ...

  10. Underweight or Obese Women Who Drink and Smoke May Have Higher Asthma Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Who Drink and Smoke May Have Higher Asthma Risk Link was less pronounced in men, research ... say they have pinpointed several factors that increase asthma risk in women and -- to a lesser extent -- ...

  11. Moral Values and Higher Education: A Notion at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis L., Ed.

    This volume offers ten essays by a diverse group of thinkers and scholars on the university's role in teaching moral behavior and performing moral duty. An introduction by the volume's editor, Dennis L. Thompson, opens the book by noting the period of moral confusion society is in and calling for higher education institutions to take a clearer…

  12. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  13. The Internet at Risk: The Need for Higher Education Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, James X.

    2007-01-01

    The higher education community has long appreciated the potential of the Internet to expand access to information, facilitate communication, and promote human development. From the inception of the Internet, colleges and universities have worked to advance the realization of that potential. Today, advocacy in support of the open, innovative, and…

  14. Eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking, independent of sex and personality.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking propensities across different domains of risk and that this association is not the result of sex differences or confounding covariation with particular personality traits. Study participants were 172 men and women between 20 and 40 years of age. Surveys assessed chronotype, domain-specific risk-taking and risk-perception, and Big Five personality dimensions. Eveningness was associated with greater general risk-taking in the specific domains of financial, ethical, and recreational decision making. Although risk-taking was associated with both risk perception and some personality dimensions, eveningness predicted risk-taking independent of these factors. Higher risk-taking propensities among evening types may be causally or functionally linked to their propensities for sensation- and novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and sexual promiscuity. PMID:25457099

  15. The Governing Board's Role in Risk Management and Insurance for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    1973-01-01

    This document addresses questions recognized as of great importance in the realm of college and university administration, questions of the governing boards responsibilities, and liabilities with respect to the management of risk within its educational community. Emphasis is placed on insurance and risk management, higher education and risk,…

  16. Open Gromov-Witten Invariants of Toric Calabi-Yau 3-Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bohan; Liu, Chiu-Chu Melissa

    2013-10-01

    We present a proof of the mirror conjecture of Aganagic and Vafa (Mirror Symmetry, D-Branes and Counting Holomorphic Discs. http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0012041v1, 2000) and Aganagic et al. (Z Naturforsch A 57(1-2):128, 2002) on disk enumeration in toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds for all smooth semi-projective toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. We consider both inner and outer branes, at arbitrary framing. In particular, we recover previous results on the conjecture for (i) an inner brane at zero framing in (Graber-Zaslow, Contemp Math 310:107-121, 2002), (ii) an outer brane at arbitrary framing in the resolved conifold (Zhou, Open string invariants and mirror curve of the resolved conifold. http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.0447v1 [math.AG], 2010), and (iii) an outer brane at zero framing in (Brini, Open topological strings and integrable hierarchies: Remodeling the A-model. http://arxiv.org/abs/1102.0281 [hep-th], 2011).

  17. High prevalence of suicide risk in people living with HIV: who is at higher risk?

    PubMed

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Spessato, Bárbara Coiro

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate suicide risk and associated factors in HIV/AIDS patients at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. We assessed 211 patients in regard to suicide risk, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression, and anxiety. Suicide risk was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Module C. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Of the total sample, 34.1% were at risk of suicide. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with suicide risk: female gender; age up to 47 years; unemployment; indicative of anxiety; indicative of depression; and abuse or addiction on psychoactive substances. Suicide risk is high in this population. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation, given their strong association with suicide risk. PMID:24797027

  18. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  19. Mom's Smoking May Put Kids At Higher Risk of COPD in Adulthood

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157712.html Mom's Smoking May Put Kids at Higher Risk of COPD ... 400 adults, and it suggests that heavy maternal smoking -- more than 20 cigarettes per day -- increases a ...

  20. Distinguishing between Higher and Lower Risk Youth Offenders: Applications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the development of an assessment process for distinguishing between higher and lower risk youth offenders through the use of 3 measures. Preliminary results and applications for practice are included. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be At Higher Risk for Suicide, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158504.html Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be at Higher Risk for Suicide, Study ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young gay and bisexual men may be much more likely to attempt suicide ...

  2. Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be At Higher Risk for Suicide, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158504.html Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be at Higher Risk for ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young gay and bisexual men may be much more likely ...

  3. Institutionalizing the academic health department within the context of the 3-fold academic mission.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Bryant, Thomas; Harmon, Robert G; Wood, David L

    2014-01-01

    A mature model of an academic health department (AHD) that has been institutionalized over 2 decades is described within the context of the 3-fold traditional mission of academics (teaching, research, and service/practice). This adaptive model for AHDs, based on mutual benefits that can be viewed through the lenses of both the academic health center mission and the public health functions and services, has important implications for AHD sustainability. Continued collaboration in any academic-public health partnership will depend in part on the commitments of the changing leadership. However, institutionalizing support for the academic mission enables this collaboration to transcend changing leadership styles and priorities. The collaboration of Duval County Health Department and University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville is an example of a model of AHD that has endured major changes in leadership within both the academic center and the Duval County Health Department. PMID:24667196

  4. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  5. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  6. Do Parents of Girls Have a Higher Risk of Divorce an Eighteen-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekmann, Andreas; Schmidheiny, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey, Morgan, Lye, and Condran 1988 reported that families with a daughter have a higher divorce risk than families with a son. They attribute this finding to the higher involvement of fathers in raising a son, which in turn promotes marital stability. We investigate the relation between gender…

  7. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge. PMID:27521322

  8. Preparation and characterization of a 3-fold redundant human PAC library

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, X.; Chen, C.; Frengen, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recently, we have developed new procedures for the cloning of large DNA fragments using a bacteriophage P1-derived vector, pCYPAC1. In view of the large sizes (up to 400 kb clones have been observed) and the single copy mode of maintenance, we have designated our clones as {open_quotes}PACs{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}P1-derived artificial chromosomes{close_quotes}. Our subsequent efforts have focused on the construction of a large human PAC library from MboI digested human DNA (from white blood cells). About 120,000 PAC clones have been picked into 312 microtiter dishes of 384 wells. Preliminary characterization has revealed that the insert containing clones have average inserts of 110-120 kb and that the library has approximately 27% empty clones (vector without insert). Based on the average insert size and the total number of recombinant clones, we estimate that the library has 3-fold genome redundancy. This estimate is consistent with results obtained by screening of the library: 18 STS markers detect 52 corresponding clones and 6 unique probes find 20 positives. The library is expanded to a final size of 6- to 8-fold genome redundancy and is also being characterized with by fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromosome-walking procedures. Copies of the arrayed library are being distributed.

  9. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females. PMID:25429019

  10. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males.

    PubMed

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females. PMID:25429019

  11. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  12. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  13. Psoriasis strikes back! Epicardial adipose tissue: another contributor to the higher cardiovascular risk in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Inês; Torres, Tiago

    2015-10-01

    For many years psoriasis was considered an inflammatory condition restricted to the skin. However, nowadays it is considered an immune-mediated, systemic inflammatory condition associated with numerous medical comorbidities, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, and overall cardiovascular mortality. Several studies have suggested that psoriasis may be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, indicating that psoriasis itself poses an intrinsic risk for cardiovascular disease, probably due to the disease's inflammatory burden. However, other causes beyond systemic inflammation and traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be implicated in cardiovascular disease in psoriasis. Recently, epicardial adipose tissue, an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, has been shown to be increased in psoriasis patients and to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, providing another possible link between psoriasis and atherosclerosis. The reason for the increase in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with psoriasis is unknown, but it is probably multifactorial, with genetic, immune-mediated and behavioral factors having a role. Thus, along with the increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and systemic inflammation in psoriasis, epicardial adipose tissue is probably another important contributor to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in psoriasis. PMID:26417656

  14. Higher Risk of Acute Cellular Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Fiorella; Lunardi, Francesca; Nannini, Nazarena; Balestro, Elisabetta; Loy, Monica; Marulli, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Francesca; Vuljan, Stefania Edith; Schiavon, Marco; Perissinotto, Egle; Rea, Federico

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute cellular rejection (ACR) affects up to 40% of recipients within the first year after lung transplant (LTx). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of ACR and associated major risk factors in cystic fibrosis (CF) recipients. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and 1-year/long-term survival were also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS ACR was reviewed in 643 scheduled biopsies from 44 CF (Group 1) versus 89 other recipients (Group 2). We performed univariate/multivariate analyses of risk factors for ACR and BOS, and survival analysis. RESULTS Group 1 showed higher ACR frequency, especially for ACR ≥ A2. Multivariable generalized linear models considering both native lung disease and age showed that higher values of ACR index were significantly related to the pretransplant diagnosis of CF. BOS and long-term survival were not influenced by the increased incidence of ACR. Poorer long-term survival was observed in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS CF recipients have a higher ACR risk, which may be due to enhanced immune activation related to a genetic disorder, and younger age. PMID:26718747

  15. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  16. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  17. Direct computation of the degree 4 Gopakumar-Vafa invariant on a Calabi-Yau 3-fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2012-05-01

    In this work we compute the topological Euler characteristic of the moduli space of stable sheaves of Hilbert polynomial 4n+1 on P2 to be 192, using tools of algebraic geometry. This Euler characteristic is equal up to sign to the degree 4 BPS (Gopakumar-Vafa) invariant of local P2, a (noncompact) Calabi-Yau 3-fold. This is a new result verifying an instance of conjecture motivated by physics.

  18. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people. PMID:25860409

  19. Oral Clofarabine in the Treatment of Patients With Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faderl, Stefan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Estrov, Zeev; Ravandi, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E.; O'Brien, Susan; Gandhi, Varsha; Plunkett, William; Byrd, Anna; Kwari, Monica; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Efficacy and toxicity profile of orally administered clofarabine were evaluated in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients were treated, of whom 22 had intermediate-2 or high-risk disease (International Prognostic Scoring System). Median age was 70 years (range, 53 to 86), nine patients had secondary MDS, and 20 patients experienced prior therapy failure with hypomethylating agents. Three doses of clofarabine were evaluated: 40 mg/m2, 30 mg/m2, and 20 mg/m2 daily for 5 days. Courses were repeated every 4 to 8 weeks. Results Eight patients (25%) achieved complete remission (CR), three had (9%) hematologic improvement (HI), and three had (9%) clinical benefit (CB; overall response rate, 43%). Responses in patients who experience treatment failure with hypomethylating agents included CR in two (10%), HI in two (10%), and CB in two patients (10%). No patients died within 6 weeks of induction. Renal failure occurred in four patients in the context of myelosuppresssion-associated infectious complications. Common adverse events were gastrointestinal and hepatic. Myelosuppression was common, but prolonged myelosuppression (> 42 days) was rare. The toxicity profile was better with lower doses of clofarabine, whereas response rates did not differ significantly. Conclusion Oral clofarabine has achieved a response rate of 43% in patients with higher-risk MDS. The optimal dose and schedule and the appropriate patient population for such therapy remain to be further defined. PMID:20421540

  20. Predicting high-risk versus higher-risk substance use during late adolescence from early adolescent risk factors using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Andrea E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Data came from a selected subsample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 1,689). Predictors were measured when youth were about 12 years old; ATOD use was assessed when youth were aged 17 years. Results showed that adolescent ATOD use is not a homogenous behavior. Four distinct classes of adolescent ATOD users were derived. Each class had a qualitatively distinct and discriminable pattern of ATOD use. Ecological predictors were shown to differentiate between latent classes, with peer factors playing a particularly important role in differentiating between high-risk and higher-risk users. Implications for prevention and limitations are discussed. PMID:24511308

  1. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HR(DEATH) = 0.35, P = 0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HR(MT) = 1.84; P = 0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HR(DEATH) versus IDHwt: 0.35, P = 0.0194 and 0.15, P = 0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HR(MT) versus IDHwt: 2.83; P = 0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation. PMID:26780338

  2. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is associated with higher risk of adverse events compared to laparoscopic radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bastiampillai, Ravin; Lavallée, Luke T.; Cnossen, Sonya; Witiuk, Kelsey; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Fergusson, Dean; Schramm, David; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Breau, Rodney H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) are similar procedures and some surgeons may believe the perioperative risks are the same. The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare complications following LRN and LNU. Methods: A historical cohort of patients who received either LRN or LNU between 2006 and 2012 was reviewed from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Patient characteristics, surgical characteristics, and perioperative outcomes up to 30 days postoperatively were abstracted. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between procedure (LRN or LNU) and any adverse event were determined. Results: During the study period, 4904 patients met study inclusion criteria; 4159 (84.8%) received a LRN while 745 (15.2%) received a LNU. Overall, 651 (13.3%) patients experienced at least one postoperative complication. LNU was associated with more complications than LRN (21% and 12%, respectively, p value <0.01). The most common complications were: bleeding requiring blood transfusion (9.0% LNU vs. 6.0% LRN), urinary tract infection (4.6% LNU vs. 1.5% LRN), wound infection (1.3% LNU vs. 1.8% LRN), and unplanned intubation (2.3% LNU vs. 0.9% LRN). After adjusting for potential confounders, LNU was associated with higher risk of any complication compared to LRN (relative risk [RR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.72). Other variables independently associated with an increased risk of complications included: increasing patient age (RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01–1.02), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification ≥3 (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10–1.63), higher preoperative creatinine (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17), >4 units of blood transfused within 72 hours before surgery (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.29–2.86), and operative time >6 hours (RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.71–2.75). Conclusions: Postoperative complications within 30 days of surgery are common after LNU and LRN. Despite having

  3. Comparison of risk stratification tools in predicting outcomes of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azanucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, AM; Sekeres, MA; Garcia-Manero, G; Steensma, DP; Zell, K; Barnard, J; Ali, NA; Zimmerman, C; Roboz, G; DeZern, A; Nazha, A; Jabbour, E; Kantarjian, H; Gore, SD; Maciejewski, JP; List, A; Komrokji, R

    2016-01-01

    Established prognostic tools in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were largely derived from untreated patient cohorts. Although azanucleosides are standard therapies for higher-risk (HR)-MDS, the relative prognostic performance of existing prognostic tools among patients with HR-MDS receiving azanucleoside therapy is unknown. In the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database, we compared the prognostic utility of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS (IPSS-R), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MDAPSS), World Health Organization-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS) among 632 patients who presented with HR-MDS and were treated with azanucleosides as the first-line therapy. Median follow-up from diagnosis was 15.7 months. No prognostic tool predicted the probability of achieving an objective response. Nonetheless, all five tools were associated with overall survival (OS, P = 0.025 for the IPSS, P = 0.011 for WPSS and P < 0.001 for the other three tools). The corrected Akaike Information Criteria, which were used to compare OS with the different prognostic scoring systems as covariates (lower is better) were 4138 (MDAPSS), 4156 (FPSS), 4196 (IPSS-R), 4186 (WPSS) and 4196 (IPSS). Patients in the highest-risk groups of the prognostic tools had a median OS from diagnosis of 11 – 16 months and should be considered for up-front transplantation or experimental approaches. PMID:26464171

  4. Pancreatic cancer early detection: Expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters. PMID:25684935

  5. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  6. Accelerated bone turnover identifies hemiplegic patients at higher risk of demineralization.

    PubMed

    Del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Servodio Iammarrone, C; Esposito, A; Scarpa, R; Costa, L; Caso, F; Bardoscia, A; Del Puente, A

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization osteoporosis represents a severe complication in hemiplegic patients (HPs), causing fragility fractures, which may occur during rehabilitation reducing functional recovery and survival. The aim of the study was to investigate determinants of bone loss, independent from length of immobilization, which may be useful in early identification of HPs at higher risk of demineralization. Forty-eight HPs of both sexes underwent anthropometric measurements, evaluation of scores of spasticity and of lower limb motory capacity. Laboratory tests were performed. On serum: calcium; phosphorus; creatinine; ALP; iPTH; 25(OH) vitamin-D; sex hormones; Δ4-androstenedione; DHEA-S; insulin; IGF-1; FT3; FT4; TSH; c-AMP. On urine: c-AMP and calcium/creatinine ratio. Two bone turnover markers were measured: serum osteocalcin (BGP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Bone mineral density was determined at both femoral necks, defining a percentage difference in bone loss between paretic and non-paretic limb, thus controlling for the complex cofactors involved. Only bone turnover markers significantly and directly correlated with the entity of demineralization, controlling for age, sex and length of immobilization in the multivariate analysis (BGP coefficient estimate=0.008; SE=0.003; p=0.020; DPD coefficient estimate=0.005; SE=0.002; p=0.036). BGP and DPD are not dependent on anthropometric and endocrine-metabolic parameters, disability patterns and duration of immobilization, thus represent independent determinants of the degree of demineralization. A cutoff was defined for BGP and DPD above which subjects show significantly greater risk of demineralization. The immobilization event generates more severe bone loss when it occurs in subjects with higher bone turnover. BGP and DPD measurements may be of primary importance for early identification of HPs at risk, with relevant preventive implications. PMID:27049105

  7. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ε4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  8. Association of higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades with risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in females: the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie; Silverwood, Richard; Klinteberg, Britt Af; Koupil, Ilona

    2009-09-01

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden among young women. This study investigated associations of social characteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position, and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. The authors studied Swedish females born in 1952-1989 (n = 13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsala in 1915-1929. Data on grandparental and parental social characteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations, emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages. Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders were studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with more highly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higher risk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher education relative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent of family social characteristics, women with the highest school grades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared with low grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus, higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in female offspring, possibly because of high internal and external demands. PMID:19589840

  9. Higher-dose uses of zolpidem will increase the subsequent risk of developing benign brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Harnod, Tomor; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study identified 37,810 patients with anxiety or sleep disorder (mean age=53.2 years, SD=16.0 years) who had zolpidem prescribed for at least 2 months from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2009. Another non-zolpidem cohort was selected by 1:1 matching with the zolpidem cohort on the estimated probability (propensity score) of being treated. The zolpidem cohort had a higher incidence of benign brain tumors compared with the non-zolpidem cohort, particularly for elderly patients. The matched propensity score analysis showed that the highest risk of benign brain tumors occurred in participants with zolpidem exposure ≥520 mg/year (hazard ratio=1.85, 95% confidence interval=1.21-2.82) compared with those not taking zolpidem. PMID:25923854

  10. Perceptions of mailed HPV self-testing among women at higher risk for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Kayoll V.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Richman, Alice R.; Barclay, Lynn; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Whether human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing can expand access to cervical cancer screening will depend on making the test accessible and acceptable to higher-risk women. To evaluate a novel delivery mode, we mailed HPV self-test kits to low-income, under-screened women and assessed their perceptions of self-testing and cervical cancer prevention. Materials and Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 199 women in North Carolina. Eligibility criteria included not having had a Pap test in 4 years and reporting 1 or more indicators of economic hardship, such as being uninsured. Results Over half (55%) of women in the diverse sample were non-Hispanic black, and almost three-quarters (74%) reported annual household incomes of $20,000 or less. Trust in HPV self-testing was moderate to high, with almost all women (98%) agreeing the mailed test was safe. A few women (6%) preferred HPV self-testing to Pap testing for protecting health, but most (75%) had no preference. Trust in or preference for mailed self-testing did not vary by race or income. However, compared to white women, black women had lower HPV-related knowledge (OR=0.46, 95% CI, 0.23–0.92) and perceived lower cervical cancer risk in the absence of screening (OR=0.44, 95% CI, 0.22–0.86). We found similar patterns of disparities for women with very low (<$10,000) versus relatively higher incomes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, across racial and economic subgroups, under-screened women generally trust HPV self-tests delivered by mail. To succeed, programs for HPV self-testing must overcome disparities in knowledge and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening. PMID:25120228

  11. Cost-effectiveness in Canada of azacitidine for the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, A.R.; Zou, D.; Risebrough, N.; Buckstein, R.; Kim, T.; Brereton, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the economic value of azacitidine in Canada compared with conventional care regimens (ccrs), including best supportive care (bsc) and low- or standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (mdss) and acute myeloid leukemia (aml) with 20%–30% blasts. Methods The cost–utility model is a lifetime probabilistic Markov model with a 35-day cycle length consisting of 3 health states: mds; transformation to aml with more than 30% blasts; and death. A third-party public payer perspective was adopted. Overall survival was extrapolated beyond the time horizon of the aza-001 trial comparing azacitidine with ccr. Resource use was determined through a questionnaire completed by Canadian hematologists. Utility values were obtained from two studies in which EQ-5D health questionnaire values were mapped from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer qlq-C30 survey, and SF-6D scores were mapped from the Short Form 12, elicited from 191 and 43 patients in two different trials. Results In the base case, azacitidine had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (icer) of $86,182 (95% confidence limits: $69,920, $107,157) per quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gained relative to ccr. Comparing azacitidine with bsc, low-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, and standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, the icers were, respectively, $86,973, $84,829, and $2,152 per qaly gained. Results were most sensitive to the utility for azacitidine after 6 months of treatment and to overall survival. Conclusions The prolonged 9-month median overall survival with azacitidine relative to ccr fills a gap w hen treating patients with higher-risk mds and aml with 20%–30% blasts. The economic value of azacitidine is within the threshold of willingness-to-pay for third-party public payers for oncology treatments in Canada. PMID:24523619

  12. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  13. A Stress Management Program for Higher Risk Medical Students: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele; Lynch, Denis J; Schaefer, Paul; Whearty, Kary

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 10 % of first year medical students have clinically relevant anxiety or depression which may affect academic success and quality of life. This study tested the effects of a stress management intervention on indicators of anxiety, depression and self-efficacy in self-selected first year medical students. Forty two medical students volunteered to participate and provided informed consent. An eight session intervention was offered and focused on building relaxation skills, adaptive coping, and basic nutrition. Anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy were assessed pre and post intervention. This group of students had significantly higher baseline values of depression and anxiety but lower self-efficacy compared to a previous study of medical students at the same institution (p < 0.03). After the intervention, statistically significant improvements were observed in anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-efficacy (p < 0.05), but not in depression. The entering levels of anxiety and depression in this group suggested that these students were at risk for later clinical syndromes. Intervention directed to decreasing the effects of stress was associated with improvement in indicators of distress and may modify the longer term risk. PMID:26969177

  14. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  15. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  16. Significance of Pre-Radiographic MRI Lesions in Persons at Higher Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Leena; Chmiel, Joan S.; Almagor, Orit; Dunlop, Dorothy; Guermazi, Ali; Bathon, Joan; Eaton, Charles; Hochberg, Marc; Jackson, Rebecca; Kwoh, Kent; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Crema, Michel; Roemer, Frank; Nevitt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about early knee osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of MRI lesions in older persons without radiographic OA is unclear. Our objectives were to determine extent of tissue pathology by MRI and evaluate its significance by testing the hypotheses: cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), and meniscal damage are associated with prevalent frequent knee symptoms and incident persistent symptoms; BMLs and meniscal damage are associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage; BMLs are associated with incident patellofemoral cartilage damage. Methods In a cohort study of 849 OAI (Osteoarthritis Initiative) participants who had bilateral K/L 0, we assessed cartilage, BMLs, and meniscal damage using MOAKS, as well as prevalent frequent knee symptoms, incident persistent symptoms, and incident cartilage damage. Multiple logistic regression (one knee/person) was used to evaluate associations between MRI lesions and each of these outcomes. Results 76% had cartilage damage, 61% BMLs, 21% meniscal tears, and 14% meniscal extrusion. Cartilage damage (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal extrusion, and BMI were associated with prevalent frequent symptoms. Cartilage damage (isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal tears, and BMI were associated with incident persistent symptoms. Hand OA but no individual lesion type was associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage, and BMLs (any; any patellofemoral) with incident patellofemoral damage. Having more lesion types was associated with a greater risk of outcomes. Conclusions MRI-detected lesions are not incidental and may represent early disease in persons at higher risk for knee OA. PMID:24974824

  17. The cyanobacterial cytochrome b6f subunit PetP adopts an SH3 fold in solution.

    PubMed

    Veit, Sebastian; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Rögner, Matthias; Rexroth, Sascha; Stoll, Raphael; Ikegami, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    PetP is a peripheral subunit of the cytochrome b(6)f complex (b(6)f) present in both, cyanobacteria and red algae. It is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of this membrane protein complex where it greatly affects the efficiency of the linear photosynthetic electron flow although it is not directly involved in the electron transfer reactions. Despite the crystal structures of the b(6)f core complex, structural information for the transient regulatory b(6)f subunits is still missing. Here we present the first structure of PetP at atomic resolution as determined by solution NMR. The protein adopts an SH3 fold, which is a common protein motif in eukaryotes but comparatively rare in prokaryotes. The structure of PetP enabled the identification of the potential interaction site for b(6)f binding by conservation mapping. The interaction surface is mainly formed by two large loop regions and one short 310 helix which also exhibit an increased flexibility as indicated by heteronuclear steady-state {(1)H}-(15)N NOE and random coil index parameters. The properties of this potential b(6)f binding site greatly differ from the canonical peptide binding site which is highly conserved in eukaryotic SH3 domains. Interestingly, three other proteins of the photosynthetic electron transport chain share this SH3 fold with PetP: NdhS of the photosynthetic NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH-1), PsaE of the photosystem 1 and subunit α of the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase have, similar to PetP, a great impact on the photosynthetic electron transport. Finally, a model is presented to illustrate how SH3 domains modulate the photosynthetic electron transport processes in cyanobacteria. PMID:27033306

  18. Women are at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Mitra, Amal K; Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Leng, Soo Kah; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults. PMID:23751089

  19. ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients have a higher bleeding risk after antigen-specific immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Leebeek, Frank W; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H

    2015-01-01

    Pretransplant removal of antiblood group ABO antibodies is the cornerstone of all current ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation programmes. In our protocol, plasmapheresis (PP) is performed with a plasmafilter followed by immunoadsorption (IA) of anti-ABO antibodies. The bleeding complications of this technique are not known. We analysed the data of all 65 consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations between March 2006 and October 2013 and compared these with matched 130 ABO-compatible (ABOc) kidney transplantations. Cases differed from controls in the pre-operative regimen, which included IA-PP and rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone and immunoglobulines. Data on platelet count, blood loss and red blood cell (EC) transfusions during 48 h postoperatively were collected. ABOi patients received EC transfusions more frequently than controls (29% vs. 12%, P = 0.005). Intra-operative blood loss was higher (544 vs. 355 ml, P < 0.005) and they experienced more major bleeding (≥3 EC within 24 h, 15% vs. 2%, P < 0.0005). Platelet count decreased by 28% after the pre-operative IA. In a multivariate model, only the number of pre-operative IAs was associated with the number of ECs given (OR per IA 1.9, P < 0.05). ABOi kidney transplant recipients have a high postoperative bleeding risk, correlating with the number of pre-operative IA sessions performed. PMID:25070762

  20. Predictors of HIV risk among Hispanic farm workers in South Florida: women are at higher risk than men.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Collazo, Jose B; Hernández, Nilda; Bowen, G Stephen; Varga, Leah M; Vila, Christie Kibort; Arheart, Kristopher L; Perrino, Tatiana

    2004-06-01

    This study examined factors associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV among a community sample of 244 Hispanic migrant and seasonal farm workers. Bilingual staff interviewed respondents anonymously at worksites, camps, and other public venues in South Florida during the 2002 winter/spring growing season. The following variables were positively associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV in multivariable analyses: being female; being married; having "some" or "a lot" of knowledge about HIV transmission, having ever used marijuana, having two or more sex partners in the last 12 months, and having had a sexually transmitted infection. The findings heighten the importance of recognizing women's elevated risk of HIV infection and conducting further studies to examine the factors associated with this increased risk. The study is an important first step toward developing tailored HIV prevention interventions for this at-risk, understudied population. PMID:15187478

  1. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:222-229. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC. PMID:26108565

  2. Transracial Mothering and Maltreatment: Are Black/White Biracial Children at Higher Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusco, Rachel A.; Rautkis, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of people identifying as biracial is rapidly growing, though little is known about the experiences of interracial families. Previous work indicates that biracial children may be at elevated risk of entering the child welfare system. This could underscore additional risks faced by these families. This document includes data from the…

  3. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  4. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2014-05-01

    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes

  5. Higher plain water intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk: a cross-sectional study in humans.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Harriet A; Davis, Mark G; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plain water intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. It was hypothesized that higher plain water intake would be associated with a lower T2D risk score. One hundred thirty-eight adults from Southwest and Southeast England answered a cross-sectional online survey assessing T2D risk (using the Diabetes UK risk assessment); physical activity (using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire); and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beverages (using an adapted version of the Cambridge European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire). There was a trend for differences in mean plain water intake between those stratified as having low, increased, moderate, or high risk of T2D; but these did not achieve significance (P = .084). However, plain water intake was significantly negatively correlated with T2D risk score (τ = -0°180, P = .005); and for every 240-mL cup of water consumed per day, T2D risk score was reduced by 0.72 point (range, 0-47) (B = -0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.06 to -0.01, P = .014). The current study has provided preliminary results that are supported by theory; mechanisms need to be explored further to determine the true effect of plain water intake on disease risk. As increasing plain water intake is a simple and cost-effective dietary modification, its impact on T2D risk is important to investigate further in a randomized controlled trial. Overall, this study found that plain water intake had a significant negative correlation with T2D risk score; and regression analysis suggested that water may have a role in reducing T2D risk. PMID:26255759

  6. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  7. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Method: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results: The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. Conclusions: To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. PMID:26659411

  8. Critical Race Ethnography of Higher Education: Racial Risk and Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Ethnography of the University Initiative (EUI) joins a long history of critique, challenge and transformation of higher education. EUI courses are an important site for the creation of non-traditional narratives in which students challenge "business-as-usual" in higher education. For under-represented students, this includes inquiry…

  9. Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Patients with Well-Controlled HIV Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Bradley T.; Leitch, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In advanced HIV prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), dysplastic marrow changes occurred and resolved with ART. Few reports of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in well-controlled HIV exist and management is undefined. Methods. Patients with well-controlled HIV and higher risk MDS were identified; characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Of 292 MDS patients since 1996, 1 (0.3%) was HIV-positive. A 56-year-old woman presented with cytopenias. CD4 was 1310 cells/mL and HIV viral load <40 copies/mL. Bone marrow biopsy showed RCMD and karyotype included del(5q) and del(7q); IPSS was intermediate-2 risk. She received azacitidine at 75% dose. Cycle 2, at full dose, was complicated by marrow aplasia and possible AML; she elected palliation. Three additional HIV patients with higher risk MDS, aged 56–64, were identified from the literature. All had deletions involving chromosomes 5 and 7. MDS treatment of 2 was not reported and one received palliation; all died of AML. Conclusion. Four higher risk MDS in well-controlled HIV were below the median age of diagnosis for HIV-negative patients; all had adverse karyotype. This is the first report of an HIV patient receiving MDS treatment with azacitidine. Cytopenias were profound and dosing in HIV patients should be considered with caution. PMID:26904323

  10. Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Patients with Well-Controlled HIV Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Bradley T; Leitch, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In advanced HIV prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), dysplastic marrow changes occurred and resolved with ART. Few reports of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in well-controlled HIV exist and management is undefined. Methods. Patients with well-controlled HIV and higher risk MDS were identified; characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Of 292 MDS patients since 1996, 1 (0.3%) was HIV-positive. A 56-year-old woman presented with cytopenias. CD4 was 1310 cells/mL and HIV viral load <40 copies/mL. Bone marrow biopsy showed RCMD and karyotype included del(5q) and del(7q); IPSS was intermediate-2 risk. She received azacitidine at 75% dose. Cycle 2, at full dose, was complicated by marrow aplasia and possible AML; she elected palliation. Three additional HIV patients with higher risk MDS, aged 56-64, were identified from the literature. All had deletions involving chromosomes 5 and 7. MDS treatment of 2 was not reported and one received palliation; all died of AML. Conclusion. Four higher risk MDS in well-controlled HIV were below the median age of diagnosis for HIV-negative patients; all had adverse karyotype. This is the first report of an HIV patient receiving MDS treatment with azacitidine. Cytopenias were profound and dosing in HIV patients should be considered with caution. PMID:26904323

  11. Lack of replication of higher genetic risk load in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to replicate a recent study which showed higher genetic risk load at 15 loci in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This difference was very significant, and it was interpreted as indicating that men require more genetic susceptibility than women to develop SLE. Methods Nineteen SLE-associated loci (thirteen of which are shared with the previous study) were analyzed in 1,457 SLE patients and 1,728 healthy controls of European ancestry. Genetic risk load was calculated as sex-specific sum genetic risk scores (GRSs). Results Our results did not replicate those of the previous study at either the level of individual loci or the global level of GRSs. GRSs were larger in women than in men (4.20 ± 1.07 in women vs. 3.27 ± 0.98 in men). This very significant difference (P < 10−16) was more dependent on the six new loci not included in the previous study (59% of the difference) than on the thirteen loci that are shared (the remaining 41%). However, the 13 shared loci also showed a higher genetic risk load in women than in men in our study (P = 6.6 × 10−7), suggesting that heterogeneity of participants, in addition to different loci, contributed to the opposite results. Conclusion Our results show the lack of a clear trend toward higher genetic risk in one of the sexes for the analyzed SLE loci. They also highlight several limitations of assessments of genetic risk load, including the possibility of ascertainment bias with loci discovered in studies that have included mainly women. PMID:24946689

  12. Higher relative risk for multiple sclerosis in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population: analysis from DPV database.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Susanne; Blaschek, Astrid; Raile, Klemens; Dost, Axel; Freiberg, Clemens; Askenas, Meik; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Molz, Esther; Holl, Reinhard W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS) are typical autoimmune diseases in children and young adults. We assessed the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS by estimating the relative risk (RR) for MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population and looked for possible influencing factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Within the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV)-Wiss Project, from January 1995 to October 2012, data from 56,653 patients with type 1 diabetes were collected in 248 centers in Germany and Austria. Published data on German and Mid-European MS prevalence were taken for comparison. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify confounders for co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS. RESULTS The RR for MS in patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated at 3.35-4.79 (95% CI 1.56-7.21 and 2.01-11.39, respectively). Immigration status in all patients (P < 0.05) and the presence of thyroid antibodies in male patients only (P = 0.05) were identified as influencing factors on MS incidence within the DPV database. The month-of-birth pattern revealed that risk was higher during the spring and summer months in the population with type 1 diabetes and MS in comparison with the population with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The present cohort study demonstrates a higher risk of co-occurrence of MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population. Immigration status and thyroid antibodies in male patients were independent risk indicators for the incidental rate of MS. Diabetic patients born during spring and summer had a higher risk for the development of MS. We suggest that environmental factors modulate the individual's risk for the co-occurrence of both diseases. PMID:23990514

  13. Improving Learning Processes in Institutions of Higher Education by Incorporating High-Risk Web Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinga, Sophia W.; Chen, Linlin Irene

    With the assistance of learning technology consultants in the Technology Teaching and Learning Center (TTLC) at the University of Houston-Downtown (Texas), professors have shifted their paradigms and are taking the leap to use more high-risk World Wide Web technologies in their courses. One that has become a hallmark is delivering exams via the…

  14. The Lie and the Hope. Making Higher Education a Reality for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    1989-01-01

    Important steps for saving America's school system where at-risk students are fast becoming the new student majority are discussed. For example: 45% of all Mexican American and Puerto Rican youth never finish high school; illiteracy among minority students is as high as 40%; and between 1968 and 1986, the number of white children enrolled in…

  15. Sex workers’ non-commercial male partners who inject drugs report higher risk sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are less likely to use condoms with non-commercial male partners than clients. We compare non-commercial male partners who do and do not inject drugs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Sexual risk behaviors were more prevalent among injectors, who could promote HIV/STI transmission in this region. PMID:24275732

  16. Child welfare clients have higher risks for teenage childbirths: which are the major confounders?

    PubMed Central

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aiming to support effective social intervention strategies targeting high-risk groups for teenage motherhood, this study examined to what extent the elevated crude risks of teenage childbirth among child welfare groups were attributable to the uneven distribution of adverse individual and family background factors. Methods: Comprehensive longitudinal register data for more than 700 000 Swedish females born 1973–1989 (including around 29 000 child welfare clients) were analysed by means of binary logistic regression. The Karlson/Holm/Breen-method was used to decompose each confounding factor’s relative contribution to the difference between crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Elevated crude risks for teenage childbirth are to a large extent attributable to selection on observables. Girls’ school failure was the most potent confounder, accounting for 28–35% of the difference between crude and adjusted ORs. Conclusion: As in majority populations, girls’ school failure was a strong risk factor for teenage childbirth among former child welfare children. At least among pre-adolescents, promoting school performance among children in the child welfare system seems to be a viable intervention path. PMID:27085195

  17. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  18. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  19. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Methods Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Results Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68–0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912–0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81–1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26816289

  20. Association of Common Susceptibility Variants of Pancreatic Cancer in Higher-Risk Patients: A PACGENE Study.

    PubMed

    Childs, Erica J; Chaffee, Kari G; Gallinger, Steven; Syngal, Sapna; Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L; Bondy, Melissa L; Hruban, Ralph H; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Fuchs, Charles S; Rider, David N; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolpin, Brian M; Risch, Harvey A; Goggins, Michael G; Petersen, Gloria M; Klein, Alison P

    2016-07-01

    Individuals from pancreatic cancer families are at increased risk, not only of pancreatic cancer, but also of melanoma, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. While some of the increased risk may be due to mutations in high-penetrance genes (i.e., BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, p16/CDKN2A or DNA mismatch repair genes), common genetic variants may also be involved. In a high-risk population of cases with either a family history of pancreatic cancer or early-onset pancreatic cancer (diagnosis before the age of 50 years), we examined the role of genetic variants previously associated with risk of pancreatic, breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer. We genotyped 985 cases (79 early-onset cases, 906 cases with a family history of pancreatic cancer) and 877 controls for 215,389 SNPs using the iSelect Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (iCOGS) array with custom content. Logistic regression was performed using a log-linear additive model. We replicated several previously reported pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci, including recently identified variants on 2p13.3 and 7p13 (2p13.3, rs1486134: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63; P = 9.29 × 10(-4); 7p13, rs17688601: OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93; P = 6.59 × 10(-3)). For the replicated loci, the magnitude of association observed in these high-risk patients was similar to that observed in studies of unselected patients. In addition to the established pancreatic cancer loci, we also found suggestive evidence of association (P < 5 × 10(-5)) to pancreatic cancer for SNPs at HDAC9 (7p21.1) and COL6A2 (21q22.3). Even in high-risk populations, common variants influence pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1185-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197284

  1. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  2. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364

  3. Inclusive charged particle distribution in nearly 3-fold symmetric 3-jet events at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, A.

    1986-04-01

    Results of inclusive charged particle distribution for gluon jets using nearly 3-fold symmetric 3-jet events taken at center of mass energies of 29 GeV in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are presented. The charged particle spectrum for these jets is observed to be softer than that of quark jets with the same jet energy.

  4. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  5. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  6. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. PMID:25827710

  7. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  8. Home and Away: Risk, Familiarity and the Multiple Geographies of the Higher Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John; Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane

    2009-01-01

    With reference to an ESRC/TLRP project conducted across two academic years with working-class students in higher education (HE), this paper explores the relationship between geographies of home and those of university at two UK HE institutions. It addresses how social relations inflected by class influence the experience of students as they adapt…

  9. Accuracy of physician assessment of treatment preferences and health status in elderly patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Caocci, G; Voso, M T; Angelucci, E; Stauder, R; Cottone, F; Abel, G; Nguyen, K; Platzbecker, U; Beyne-Rauzy, O; Gaidano, G; Invernizzi, R; Molica, S; Criscuolo, M; Breccia, M; Lübbert, M; Sanpaolo, G; Buccisano, F; Ricco, A; Palumbo, G A; Niscola, P; Zhang, H; Fenu, S; La Nasa, G; Mandelli, F; Efficace, F

    2015-08-01

    Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are rarely curable and have a poor prognosis. We investigated the accuracy of physicians' perception of patients' health status and the patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decisions. We examined 280 newly diagnosed higher-risk elderly MDS patients paired with their physicians. Survey tools included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Control Preference Scale. Overall concordance was 49% for physician perception of patient preferences for involvement in treatment decisions. In 36.4% of comparisons there were minor differences and in 14.6% there were major differences. In 44.7% of the patients preferring a passive role, physicians perceived them as preferring an active or collaborative role. Absence of the patient's request for prognostic information (P=0.001) and judging the patient as having a poor health status (P=0.036) were factors independently associated with the physicians' attitude toward a lower degree of patient involvement in clinical decisions. Agreement on health status was found in 27.5% of cases. Physicians most frequently tended to overestimate health status of patients who reported low-level health status. The value of decision aid-tools in the challenging setting of higher-risk MDS should be investigated to further promote patient-centered care. PMID:26120100

  10. An unexpected finding: younger fathers have a higher risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Bernhard; Masood, Rahim; Rufibach, Kaspar; Niedrist, Dunja; Kundert, Oliver; Riegel, Mariluce; Schinzel, Albert

    2015-04-01

    The past decades have seen a remarkable shift in the demographics of childbearing in Western countries. The risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies with advancing maternal age is well known, but most studies failed to demonstrate a paternal age effect. Retrospectively, we analyzed two case data sets containing parental ages from pre- and postnatal cases with trisomies 21, 13 and 18. The reference data set contains the parental ages of the general Swiss population. We dichotomized all couples into two distinct groups. In the first group, the mothers' integral age was as least as the father's age or older. We compared the frequency of cases in nine 5-year intervals of maternal age. In addition, we computed logistic regression models for the binary endpoint aneuploidy yes/no where paternal ages were incorporated as linear or quadratic, as well as smooth functions within a generalized additive model framework. We demonstrated that the proportion of younger fathers is uniformly different between cases and controls of live-born trisomy 21 as well, although not reaching significance, for fetuses over all mother's ages. Logistic regression models with different strategies to incorporate paternal ages confirmed our findings. The negative paternal age effect was also found in pre- and postnatal cases taken together with trisomies 13 and 18. The couples with younger fathers face almost twofold odds for a child with Down syndrome (DS). We estimated odds curves for parental ages. If confirmation of these findings can be achieved, the management of couples at risk needs a major correction of the risk stratification. PMID:25005732

  11. Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Rainey, D Y; Stevens-Simon, C; Kaplan, D W

    1995-10-01

    Adolescents who report prior sexual abuse are at increased risk for adolescent pregnancy. This may result from earlier, more frequent, less well-protected sexual activity or from a greater desire to conceive. To determine the relative contribution of these two possible explanations to the reported association between sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, we studied the reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active 13-18 year old females in relation to self-reported sexual abuse. Anonymous questionnaires revealed that 40 (20%) of the 200 subjects reported sexual abuse. Analyses revealed no group differences in the median age of first voluntary intercourse, the frequency of sexual intercourse, or the consistency of birth control use. Compared to their nonabused peers, however, teenagers reporting abuse were more likely to be trying to conceive (35% vs. 14% p < .01), to have boyfriends pressuring them to conceive (76% vs. 44% p < .01), and to have fears about infertility (38% vs. 16% p < .01). Our findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy by fostering the desire to conceive. Further study is needed to determine why a disproportionate number of sexually abused adolescents desire pregnancy. The efficacy of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may be improved by identifying previously abused adolescents and by designing educational interventions that specifically address their desire to conceive. PMID:8556442

  12. Suicidal risk from TADS study was higher than it first appeared.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Göran; Antonuccio, David O; Healy, David

    2015-01-01

    Completed suicides are a major cause of death in adolescents in Sweden. Forensic analysis of completed suicides in children and adolescents shows there is one completed suicide per 1000 children taking a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). In order to elucidate these events we undertook a study of the results and reporting of suicidal events in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). We conclude that a major, albeit underreported, finding in the TADS was the significant increase of suicidal events in the adolescents on antidepressant medication in comparison to the group on placebo medication. The proportions of suicidal events were 11% and 2.7% respectively. This increased risk of suicidal events might be related to the high incidence of medication with an SSRI in the group of completed suicides among Swedish adolescents. PMID:26410011

  13. Polymorphisms of the ITGAM Gene Confer Higher Risk of Discoid Cutaneous Than of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tiina M.; Hellquist, Anna; Koskenmies, Sari; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Panelius, Jaana; Hasan, Taina; Julkunen, Heikki; Padyukov, Leonid; Kvarnström, Marika; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Nyberg, Filippa; D'Amato, Mauro; Kere, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value  = 4.73×10−11, OR  = 3.20, 95% CI  = 2.23–4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value  = 8.29×10−6, OR  = 2.14, 95% CI  = 1.52–3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value  = 3.59×10−8, OR  = 3.76, 95% CI  = 2.29–6.18). Significance We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE. PMID:21151989

  14. Higher serum total bilirubin concentration is associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ang-Tse; Wang, Ya-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Liang, Jiin-Tsae; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Song, Yuh-Min; Chang, Wen-Dau

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation is proposed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and serum bilirubin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the association between serum total bilirubin (Tb) concentration and renal function in an adult population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and collected anthropometric measurements, fasting blood tests, lifestyle habits and medical history of 3876 subjects attending a health examination. Renal insufficiency was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated by using the CKD-EPI equation. Results: Serum Tb concentrations were higher in subjects without renal insufficiency than in those with renal insufficiency. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that Tb concentration was positively associated with eGFR after adjusting for important CKD risk factors (P=0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis also revealed that higher Tb concentration (each increment of 1.71 μmol/L) (0.1 mg/dL) was associated with a reduced risk of renal insufficiency: odds ratios were 0.94 (P=0.005) for men and 0.90 (P=0.015) for women, respectively. When subjects were divided into quartiles of serum Tb, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for renal insufficiency comparing the fourth to the first Tb quartile were 0.49 (P=0.001) for men and 0.35 (P=0.003) for women. A stepwise exclusion of subjects, first those with possible liver disease and second, those with CKD stage 4 and 5, showed consistent results. Conclusion: Higher serum Tb concentration was associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency, regardless of other conventional CKD risk factors. PMID:26770557

  15. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists: Who Is at Higher Risk for Social Networking Addiction?

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia; Rugai, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Scholars have recently taken an interest in the connection between narcissism and Internet use, especially among users who frequent social networking sites (SNSs). Conversely, the association between narcissism and problematic use of SNSs (i.e., unregulated use that leads to negative outcomes) has been scarcely investigated. This study addresses this gap by comparing the mean levels of problematic use of SNSs among grandiose narcissists, vulnerable narcissists, and non-narcissists. A sample of 535 students completed the 16-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS2). Vulnerable narcissists reported (a) significant higher levels on all GPIUS2 subscales and total scores than non-narcissists and (b) a stronger preference for online social interactions and higher overall levels of problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissists. Conversely, no significant differences were found between grandiose narcissists and non-narcissists. This study suggests that vulnerable narcissism may contribute more to problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissism. PMID:27362922

  16. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  17. Antibodies to Leptospira among blood donors in higher-risk areas of Australia: possible implications for transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Faddy, Helen; Seed, Clive; Lau, Colleen; Racloz, Vanessa; Flower, Robert; Smythe, Lee; Burns, Mary-Anne; Dohnt, Michael; Craig, Scott; Harley, Robert; Weinstein, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide, and clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to acute febrile illness, multi-organ failure and death. Asymptomatic, acute bacteraemia in a blood donor provides a potential for transfusion-transmission, although only a single such case from India has been recorded. Human leptospirosis is uncommon in developed countries; however, the state of Queensland in Australia has one of the highest rates among developed countries, especially after increased rainfall. This study examined the prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira spp. in blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia, to evaluate the appropriateness of current blood safety guidelines. Materials and methods Plasma samples collected from blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia during 2009 and 2011 were included in the study. All samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to 22 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. Result No sample had antibody titres suggestive of a current or recent infection, however, seven samples (1.44%, 95% CI: 0.38–2.50%) had titres suggestive of a past infection. Discussion This study provides data that may support the appropriateness of current relevant donor selection policies in Australia. Given that the risk profile for leptospirosis is expanding and that the infection is likely to become more prevalent with climate change, this disease may become more of a concern for transfusion safety in the future. PMID:24960651

  18. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke; Grénman, Reidar; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  19. Increased risk of phosphorus limitation at higher temperatures for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jonas; Wojewodzic, Marcin Włodzimierz; Hessen, Dag Olav; Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate herbivores frequently face growth rate constraints due to their high demands for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Temperature is a key modulator of growth rate, yet the interaction between temperature and P limitation on somatic growth rate is scarcely known. To investigate this interaction, we conducted a study on the somatic growth rate (SGR) of the cladoceran Daphnia magna, known to be susceptible to P-limitation. We determined the SGR across a broad range of dietary P content of algae (carbon (C):P ratios (125-790), and at different temperatures (10-25°C). There was a strong impact of both temperature and C:P ratio on the SGR of D. magna, and also a significant interaction between both factors was revealed. The negative effect of dietary C:P on growth rate was reduced with decreased temperature. We found no evidence of P limitation at lowest temperature, suggesting that enzyme kinetics or other measures of food quality overrides the demands for P to RNA and protein synthesis at low temperatures. These findings also indicate an increased risk of P limitation and thus reduced growth efficiency at high temperatures. PMID:20803219

  20. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

  1. Detoxification Center-Based Sampling Missed a Subgroup of Higher Risk Drug Users, a Case from Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Jinkou

    2012-01-01

    Background Injection drug use remains among the most important HIV transmission risk in China. Representativeness of drug users sampled from detoxification centers is questionable. A respondent driven sampling survey was conducted to compare the results with those from the detoxification center in the same city. Methods In 2008, two independent surveys were conducted in Dongguan, China, one for community-based drug users using respondent driven sampling and the other for drug users in a compulsory detoxification center as routine sentinel surveillance. Demographic and behavioral information were collected using the same structured questionnaire. Intravenous blood samples were collected to measure antibodies to HIV-1, and syphilis. Results Compared to those 400 drug users recruited from the detoxification center, the 303 community-based drug users had higher HIV prevalence (14.7% versus 4.0%, P = 0.04), lower syphilis prevalence (4.7% versus 10.8%, P = 0.07), higher proportion of injection drug use (83.9% versus 60.2%, P = 0.01) and syringe sharing (47.8% versus 36.3%, P = 0.10), more likely to be separated (12.4% versus 3.8%, P = 0.01) and being migrants from Guangxi province (31.4% versus 18.0%, P = 0.09), more engaging in commercial sex (64.4% versus 52.5%, P = 0.04). HIV prevalence and rate of syringe sharing were consistently higher among drug users from Guangxi. Conclusions Detoxification center-based sampling missed a subgroup with higher HIV prevalence and higher rate of injection drug use. While detoxification center-based sampled can be used to monitor the trend of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors over time, periodic community-based sampling is still necessary to avoid possible systematic error in detoxification center-based samples. PMID:22529988

  2. Statement before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) on Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act: Exploring Institutional Risk-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Kelly, the director of the Center on Higher Education Reform at the American Enterprise Institute, shares his views on the concept of risk-sharing in higher education. The author presents the question: How would a risk-sharing policy--where colleges bear some financial responsibility for a portion of the federal loans that their students do…

  3. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  4. Elevated Biomarkers of Inflammation and Coagulation in Patients with HIV Are Associated with Higher Framingham and VACS Risk Index Scores

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sarah; Tracy, Russell; Osler, Turner; Grace, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of inflammation and altered coagulation are of increasing interest as predictors of chronic disease and mortality in HIV patients, as well as the use of risk stratification scores such as the Framingham index and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) score. Methods Demographic and laboratory data for 252 HIV patients were assessed for their relationship with 5 biomarkers: hsCRP, D-dimer, Cystatin C, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Analysis of variance was used to model the association between the number of elevated biomarkers patients had and their Framingham 10 year cardiovascular risk and VACS scores. Results 87% of patients were male and 75.7% were virally suppressed (HIV RNA <48 copies/ml). The median and interquartile ranges for each biomarker were: hsCRP 1.65 ug/mL (0.73, 3.89), D-dimer 0.17 ug/mL (0.09, 0.31), Cystatin C 0.87 mg/L (0.78, 1.01), IL-6 2.13 pg/mL (1.3, 3.59), TNF-alpha 4.65 pg/mL (3.5, 5.97). 62.6% of patients had more than one biomarker >75th percentile, while 18.6% had three or more elevated biomarkers. Increased age, cigarette smoking, CD4 counts of <200 cells/mm3, Framingham scores and VACS scores were most strongly associated with elevations in biomarkers. When biomarkers were used to predict the Framingham and VACS scores, those with a higher number of elevated biomarkers had higher mean VACS scores, with a similar but less robust finding for Framingham scores. Conclusions Despite viral suppression and immunological stability, biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation remain elevated in a significant number of patients with HIV and are associated with higher scores on risk stratification indices. PMID:26641655

  5. Disease Risk in Temperate Amphibian Populations Is Higher at Closed-Canopy Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C. Guilherme; Rodriguez, David; Longo, Ana V.; Talaba, Amanda L.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - Bd) are major drivers of amphibian declines worldwide. Habitat loss regulates host-pathogen interactions by altering biotic and abiotic factors directly linked to both host and pathogen fitness. Therefore, studies investigating the links between natural vegetation and chytridiomycosis require integrative approaches to control for the multitude of possible interactions of biological and environmental variables in spatial epidemiology. In this study, we quantified Bd infection dynamics across a gradient of natural vegetation and microclimates, looking for causal associations between vegetation cover, multiple microclimatic variables, and pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. To minimize the effects of host diversity in our analyses, we sampled amphibian populations in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a region with relatively high single-host dominance. We sampled permanent ponds for anurans, focusing on populations of the habitat generalist frog Lithobates clamitans, and recorded various biotic and abiotic factors that potentially affect host-pathogen interactions: natural vegetation, canopy density, water temperature, and host population and community attributes. We screened for important explanatory variables of Bd infections and used path analyses to statistically test for the strength of cascading effects linking vegetation cover, microclimate, and Bd parameters. We found that canopy density, natural vegetation, and daily average water temperature were the best predictors of Bd. High canopy density resulted in lower water temperature, which in turn predicted higher Bd prevalence and infection intensity. Our results confirm that microclimatic shifts arising from changes in natural vegetation play an important role in Bd spatial epidemiology, with areas of closed canopy favoring Bd. Given increasing rates of anthropogenic habitat modification

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Pregnant Women without Vector Exposure Have Higher Parasitemia Levels: Implications for Congenital Transmission Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, Victoria R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (χx2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy. PMID:25807498

  7. Treatment of Higher-Risk Patients With an Indication for Revascularization: Evolution Within the Field of Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ajay J; Doshi, Darshan; Leon, Martin B; Lasala, John M; Ohman, E Magnus; O'Neill, William W; Shroff, Adhir; Cohen, Mauricio G; Palacios, Igor F; Beohar, Nirat; Uriel, Nir; Kapur, Navin K; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Lombardi, William; Dangas, George D; Parikh, Manish A; Stone, Gregg W; Moses, Jeffrey W

    2016-08-01

    Patients with severe coronary artery disease with a clinical indication for revascularization but who are at high procedural risk because of patient comorbidities, complexity of coronary anatomy, and/or poor hemodynamics represent an understudied and potentially underserved patient population. Through advances in percutaneous interventional techniques and technologies and improvements in patient selection, current percutaneous coronary intervention may allow appropriate patients to benefit safely from revascularization procedures that might not have been offered in the past. The burgeoning interest in these procedures in some respects reflects an evolutionary step within the field of percutaneous coronary intervention. However, because of the clinical complexity of many of these patients and procedures, it is critical to develop dedicated specialists within interventional cardiology who are trained with the cognitive and technical skills to select these patients appropriately and to perform these procedures safely. Preprocedural issues such as multidisciplinary risk and treatment assessments are highly relevant to the successful treatment of these patients, and knowledge gaps and future directions to improve outcomes in this emerging area are discussed. Ultimately, an evolution of contemporary interventional cardiology is necessary to treat the increasingly higher-risk patients with whom we are confronted. PMID:27482004

  8. Responder Interferon λ Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV–Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W.; Klein, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon λ3 (IFN-λ3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-λ genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. Methods. From the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1423), HCV RNA–positive participants in whom IFN-λ genotypes were detected and who were free of fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and chronic hepatitis B at baseline (n = 485) were included. Time to significant fibrosis (defined as an aspartate transaminase level to platelet count ratio index [APRI] of ≥1.5) by IFN-λ genotypes was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol use, CD4+ T-cell count, HCV genotype, γ-glutamyl transferase level, and baseline APRI. Haplotype analysis was performed, with adjustment for ethnicity. Results. A total of 125 participants developed fibrosis over 1595 person-years (7.84 cases/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.58–9.34 cases/100 person-years). Each genotype was associated with an increased fibrosis risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI, .94–2.02) for rs12979860CC, 1.34 (95% CI, .91–1.97) for rs8103142TT, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.24–2.57) for rs8099917TT. Haplotype TCT was also linked with a higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, .73–1.77]). Conclusions. IFN-λ SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs81013142 were individually linked to higher rates of fibrosis in individuals with HIV-HCV coinfection. IFN-λ genotypes may be useful to target HCV treatments to people who are at higher risk of liver disease. PMID:26984148

  9. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  10. Gender Disparities in the Prevalence of Undernutrition and the Higher Risk among the Young Women of Indian Tribes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background High undernutrition is a grave concern in India. Marginalized populations like Indian tribes have been under the serious stress of such nutritional extreme. Women, in particular, are the worst sufferers. Gender-related comprehensive studies regarding the prevalence and risks of undernutrition among the tribes have not been properly pursued in India; the vulnerability of the young females has least been examined. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during January 2011 to December 2013 among 1066 males and 1090 females (n = 2156) in the 20–60 years age group belonging to the nine major tribes; Santals, Oraons and Koras (West Bengal): Santals, Bhumijs and Bathudis (Odisha): Dhodias, Kuknas and Chaudharis (Gujarat). The undernutrition burden was estimated and such risks were analyzed for the women in comparison to the men. The overall undernutrition among the females was found to be 47.4% (95% CI 44.4–50.4) against 32.1% (95% CI 29.3–34.9) among males, indicating about a half of the female population undernourished. The odds of risks for underweight status among females were observed to be high in comparison to males with an odds of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6–2.2; p≤0.001) for the overall undernutrition category, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.3; p≤0.001) for the mild undernutrition category, 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1–1.6; p≤0.01) for combined moderate and mild undernutrition category and 3.3 (95% CI at 2.3–4.6; p≤0.001) for severe undernutrition category. The young females were observed with a high prevalence of undernutrition along with increased risk. The 30-year mean BMI trend of the Indian population in comparison to the males, females, and overall tribal population places the tribal females at the highest risk. Conclusion Indian tribes are suffering from the higher prevalence of undernutrition by further highlighting a high gender bias. The health and empowerment of adolescent and young tribal girls needs additional focus. Overall, no

  11. Clinical activity and safety of the dual pathway inhibitor rigosertib for higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes following DNA methyltransferase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Lewis R; Greenberg, Peter; Raza, Azra; Olnes, Matthew J; Holland, James F; Reddy, Premkumar; Maniar, Manoj; Wilhelm, Francois

    2015-06-01

    Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na) is an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and polo-like kinase pathways that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in neoplastic cells, while sparing normal cells. Our purpose is to summarize the clinical activity and safety of intravenous (IV) rigosertib delivered by an external ambulatory infusion pump in patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts-1, -2, or, -t myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) following prior treatment with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors. A total of 39 patients with MDS who fulfilled these criteria were enrolled in four phase 1-2 clinical trials of IV rigosertib. Thirty five (88%) had higher risk disease according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System. Median overall survival for this group of 39 patients was 35 weeks. Of 30 evaluable patients with follow-up bone marrow biopsies, 12 (40%) achieved complete (n = 5) or partial (n = 7) bone marrow blast responses. In addition, 15 patients achieved stabilization of bone marrow blasts. One patient with a complete bone marrow response also achieved a complete cytogenetic response. A second patient with stable bone marrow blasts achieved a partial cytogenetic response. Two of the responding patients and three patients with stable disease had hematological improvements. Rigosertib-induced bone marrow blast decreases and stability appeared to be predictive of prolonged survival. IV rigosertib had a favorable safety profile without significant myelosuppression. Most common drug-related toxicities included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, dysuria, and hematuria. In summary, IV rigosertib is well tolerated and has clinical activity in patients with higher risk MDS following DNMT inhibitor treatment. A multinational pivotal phase 3 randomized clinical trial of rigosertib versus best supportive care for patients with MDS with excess blasts following prior treatment with DNMT inhibitors (ONTIME: ON 01910.Na Trial In Myelodysplastic SyndromE) has recently

  12. Higher risk of urothelial carcinoma in the upper urinary tract than in the urinary bladder in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Fan; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Purpose This study used the a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study with the claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods The study population consisted of 2689 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) newly diagnosed in 2000-2002 and underwent maintenance HD. Then, 21,449 reference patients were collected without HD randomly selected and matched with sex and age. The exclusion criteria were previous long-term analgesics and Chinese medication usage. Incidence density rates of UC in upper urinary tract (UTUC) and bladder (UBUC) were estimated for both cohorts by the end of 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of UC were measured in association with HD, covariates, and comorbidity. Results The incidence of UC was significantly higher in the HD cohort than in the reference cohort for both UT (21.8 vs. 0.65 per 10,000 person-years) and UB (17.7 vs. 3.55 per 10,000 person-years). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the HRs of UTUC in HD cohort was 33.3 (95% CI = 15.9-69.5) and 5.14 for UBUC (95% CI = 3.24-8.15). The risk increased further for HD patients with comorbidity of hematuria, urinary tract infection (UTI) or hydronephrosis. Conclusion Patients with ESRD on HD are at a high risk of developing UC, especially UTUC in Taiwan. They will be paid more frequent to check urine analysis, urine cytology, and upper urinary tract survey. PMID:26956094

  13. Sequential azacitidine plus lenalidomide in previously treated elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia and higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rupa; Garcia, Jacqueline S; Percival, Mary-Elizabeth M; Berube, Caroline; Coutre, Steve; Gotlib, Jason; Greenberg, Peter; Liedtke, Michaela; Hewitt, Rhonda; Regan, Kathleen; Williamson, Charles; Doykan, Camille; Cardone, Michael H; McMillan, Alex; Medeiros, Bruno C

    2016-03-01

    The outcome of sequential azacitidine with lenalidomide has not been reported in previously treated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This study describes a phase 2 study evaluating the safety and efficacy of this combination in elderly patients with AML and MDS with prior hypomethylating agent (HMA) and/or immunomodulatory agent exposure. Patients were treated on a 42-day cycle with azacitidine at 75 mg/m(2) SQ/IV daily on days 1-7, followed by lenalidomide 50 mg orally daily on days 8-28. The median number of treatment cycles on study was two (range = 1-11). Of 32 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 25%. Neutropenic fever was the most common serious adverse event, but overall the combination was well-tolerated. The median overall survival (OS) for responders vs non-responders was 9.8 vs 4.0 months, respectively (HR = 0.36, p = 0.016). In conclusion, this combination demonstrated modest clinical activity in this poor risk population. PMID:26374199

  14. Computation of Open Gromov-Witten Invariants for Toric Calabi-Yau 3-Folds by Topological Recursion, a Proof of the BKMP Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eynard, B.; Orantin, N.

    2015-07-01

    The BKMP conjecture (2006-2008) proposed a new method to compute closed and open Gromov-Witten invariants for every toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds, through a topological recursion based on mirror symmetry. So far, this conjecture has been verified to low genus for several toric CY3folds, and proved to all genus only for . In this article we prove the general case. Our proof is based on the fact that both sides of the conjecture can be naturally written in terms of combinatorial sums of weighted graphs: on the A-model side this is the localization formula, and on the B-model side the graphs encode the recursive algorithm of the topological recursion. One can slightly reorganize the set of graphs obtained in the B-side, so that it coincides with the one obtained by localization in the A-model. Then it suffices to compare the weights of vertices and edges of graphs on each side, which is done in two steps: the weights coincide in the large radius limit, due to the fact that the toric graph is the tropical limit of the mirror curve. Then the derivatives with respect to Kähler radius coincide due to the special geometry property implied by the topological recursion.

  15. A rapid assessment scorecard to identify informal settlements at higher maternal and child health risk in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah

    2011-10-01

    The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative

  16. ALLOGENEIC TRANSPLANTS IN FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA: HIGHER RISK OF DISEASE PROGRESSION AFTER REDUCED INTENSITY COMPARED TO MYELOABLATIVE CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Parameswaran; Carreras, Jeanette; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Gale, Robert Peter; Bolwell, Brian J.; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Burns, Linda J.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Freytes, César O.; Goldstein, Steven C.; Hale, Gregory A.; Inwards, David J.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Marks, David I.; Schouten, Harry C.; Slavin, Shimon; Vose, Julie M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; van Besien, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have been increasingly used for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Follicular lymphoma (FL). We compared traditional myeloablative conditioning regimens to RIC in FL. Outcomes of HLA-identical sibling HSCT for follicular lymphoma in 208 recipients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1997 and 2002 were studied. Conditioning regimens were categorized as myeloablative (N=120) or reduced-intensity (RIC; N=88). Use of RIC regimens increased from <10% of transplants in 1997 to >80% in 2002 signaling a major shift in practice. Patients receiving RIC were older and had a longer interval from diagnosis to transplant. These differences did not correlate with outcomes. Median follow-up of survivors was 50 mo (4–96 mo) after myeloablative conditioning versus 35 mo (4–82 mo) after RIC (p<0.001). At 3 years, overall survival (OS) for the myeloablative and RIC cohorts were 71 (63–79%) and 62 (51–72%; p=0.15) and progression free survival (PFS), 67 (58–75%) and 55 (44–65%; p=0.07) respectively. Lower Karnofsky performance score (KPS) and resistance to chemotherapy were associated with higher treatment related mortality (TRM), lower OS and PFS. On multivariate analysis, an increased risk of lymphoma progression after RIC was observed (RR=2.97, p=0.04) RIC has become the de facto standard in allogeneic HSCT for FL and appears to result in similar long term outcomes. Although disease free survival is similar compared to myeloablative conditioning, an increased risk of late disease progression after RIC is concerning. PMID:18215784

  17. Cholecystectomy is associated with higher risk of early recurrence and poorer survival after curative resection for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Wang, Shu-Kang; Zhi, Xu-Ting; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Zhao-Ru; Zhang, Zong-Li; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Ye, Qing-Hai; Fan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Although cholecystectomy has been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the association between cholecystectomy and prognosis of HCC patients underwent curative resection has never been examined. Through retrospective analysis of the data of 3933 patients underwent curative resection for HCC, we found that cholecystectomy was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients at early stage (BCLC stage 0/A) (p = 0.020, HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.59), and the 1-, 3-, 5-year RFS rates for patients at early stage were significantly worse in cholecystectomy group than in non-cholecystectomy group (80.5%, 61.8%, 52.0% vs 88.2%, 68.8%, 56.8%, p = 0.033). The early recurrence rate of cholecystectomy group was significantly higher than that of non-cholecystectomy group for patients at early stage (59/47 vs 236/333, p = 0.007), but not for patients at advanced stage (BCLC stage C) (p = 0.194). Multivariate analyses showed that cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (p = 0.005, HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.13–2.03) of early stage HCC, but not for late recurrence (p = 0.959). In conclusion, cholecystectomy is an independent predictor for early recurrence and is associated with poorer RFS of early stage HCC. Removal of normal gallbladder during HCC resection may be avoided for early stage patients. PMID:27320390

  18. Lower diffusing capacity with chronic bronchitis predicts higher risk of acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Haak; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Shim, Jae Jeong; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic bronchitis (CB) symptoms and degree of emphysema in a multicenter Korean cohort. Methods From April 2012 to May 2015, patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) who were aged above 40 years at 46 hospitals throughout Korea were enrolled. All of the patients were classified according to CB symptoms and the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO); demographic data, symptom scores, and the result of lung function tests and exacerbations were then analyzed. Results A total of 812 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 285 (35.1%) had CB symptoms. A total of 51% of patients had high DLCO without CB symptoms [CB (−) high DLCO], 24.9% had CB symptoms only [CB (+) high DLCO], 14.2% had low DLCO only [CB (−) low DLCO], and 10.2% had both low DLCO and CB [CB (+) low DLCO]. Patients with CB (+) low DLCO showed a significantly lower post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1) and more severe dyspnea than patients with CB (−) high DLCO. On multivariate analysis, the risk of acute exacerbation was two times higher [odds ratio (OR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.62; P=0.01] in the CB (+) low DLCO group than in the CB (−) high DLCO group. Conclusions In this COPD cohort, patients showed distinct clinical characteristics and outcomes according to the presence of CB and degree of DLCO. CB and low DLCO were associated with the risk of acute exacerbation.

  19. Patients with Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia (GAVE) Are at a Higher Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Absence of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer; Stine, Jonathan G.; Cornella, Scott L.; Argo, Curtis K.; Cohn, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is commonly found in patients with cirrhosis, but it is also associated with other diseases in the absence of cirrhosis. Whether GAVE confers a different severity of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding between patients with and without cirrhosis remains unknown. We aim to examine whether there is a difference in clinically significant GI bleeding due to GAVE in patients with or without cirrhosis. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of patients who were diagnosed with GAVE between January 2000 and June 2014. Patients were categorized into cirrhosis and noncirrhosis groups, and those with an additional GI bleeding source were excluded. Univariate comparisons and multivariable models were constructed using logistic regression. Results: In total, 110 patients diagnosed with GAVE on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were included in our analysis; 84 patients had cirrhosis (76.4%) and 26 (23.6%) did not. Active GI bleeding was more prevalent in patients without cirrhosis (63.4% vs. 32.1%, p=0.003) despite similar indications for EGD, and endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) was required more often in this group, approaching statistical significance (27% vs. 10.7%, p=0.056). There was no difference in bleeding severity, as evidenced by similar re-bleeding rates, surgery, or death attributed to uncontrolled bleeding. The strongest independent risk factor for GI bleeding was the absence of cirrhosis (odds ratio (OR): 5.151 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-24.48, p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with GAVE in the absence of cirrhosis are at higher risk for active GI bleeding and require more frequent endoscopic treatment than similar patients with cirrhosis. It may be worthwhile to treat GAVE in this population even in the absence of active bleeding. PMID:26807380

  20. Lenalidomide and metronomic melphalan for CMML and higher risk MDS: a phase 2 clinical study with biomarkers of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Buckstein, Rena; Kerbel, Robert; Cheung, Matthew; Shaked, Yuval; Chodirker, Lisa; Lee, Christina R; Lenis, Martha; Davidson, Cindy; Cussen, Mary-Anne; Reis, Marciano; Chesney, Alden; Zhang, Liying; Mamedov, Alexandre; Wells, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Metronomic, low dose chemotherapy may have anti-angiogenic effects and augment the effects of lenalidomide in MDS and CMML. We evaluated the clinical efficacy, tolerability and anti-angiogenic effects of melphalan 2mg and lenalidomide 10mg for 21 days/28 in CMML (n=12) and higher risk MDS (n=8) patients in a prospective phase II study. The primary endpoint was overall response and secondary endpoints included survival, progression-free survival, toxicity and biomarkers of angiogenesis. The median age was 73 years, 55% were pretreated and transfusion dependent. The overall response rate was 3(15%) of 19 evaluable patients but 25% in CMML and 33% in pCMML. Dose reductions and/or delays were common due to myelosuppression. Transient spikes in circulating endothelial cells that declined below baseline were seen in responders and patients with CMML, suggesting anti-angiogenic activity. In conclusion, lenalidomide and metronomic low dose melphalan demonstrate signals of clinical and possible anti-angiogenic activity in patients with pCMML that require future validation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov under # NCT00744536. PMID:24819395

  1. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Blyme, Adam; Asferg, Camilla; Nielsen, Olav W; Boman, Kurt; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Wachtell, Kristian; Olsen, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9-4.9] to 1.8 [0.8-5.4] mg/l, p < 0.001) and not receiving AVR (1.90 [0.90-4.10] to 1.3 [0.6-2.9] mg/l, p < 0.001). In Cox-regression analyses, hsCRP1 predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p < 0.001) independently of hsCRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc = 47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec = 27.5%, p < 0.01). The prognostic benefit of a 1-year reduction in hsCRP was larger in patients with high versus low hsCRP0 eliminating the difference in incidence of AVR between high versus low hsCRP0 (AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec = 27.5% versus AVRlowCRP0CRP1dec = 25.8%, p = 0.66) in patients with reduced hsCRP during the first year. Conclusions High hsCRP1 or an increase in hsCRP during the first year of follow-up predicted later AVR independently of AVA, age, gender and other risk factors, although no significant improvement in C-statistics was observed. PMID:26911132

  2. Higher n3-fatty acid status is associated with lower risk of iron depletion among food insecure Canadian Inuit women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rates of iron deficiency and anemia are common among Inuit and Arctic women despite a traditional diet based on animal source foods. However, representative data on iron status and relevant determinants for this population are lacking. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of anemia and depletion of iron stores, then to identify correlates of iron status in non-pregnant Canadian Inuit women. Methods In a cross-sectional survey of 1550 women in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), C-reactive protein (CRP), RBC fatty acid composition, and H pylori serology were analyzed on fasting venous blood. Sociodemographic, food security status, anthropometric, dietary, and health data were collected. Correlates of iron status were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic models. Results Anemia was observed in 21.7% and iron deficient erythropoiesis in 3.3% of women. For women with CRP ≤ 10 mg/L (n = 1260) 29.4% had depleted iron stores. Inadequate iron intakes were observed in 16% of premenopausal and <1% of postmenopausal women. Among food insecure women, higher long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) status, which reflects a more traditional food pattern, was associated with reduced risk of iron depletion. Conclusions Iron depletion and anemia are a concern for Inuit women despite adequate total dietary iron intake primarily from heme sources. The high prevalence of H. pylori exposure, together with dietary iron adequacy, suggests an inflammation-driven iron deficiency and mild anemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of LC-PUFA may be important for iron status in this population. PMID:23547888

  3. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  4. Behavioral development and sociodemographics of infants and young children at higher and lower risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Maurice A; Hendry, Amanda M; Ward, Rebecca A; Hudson, Melissa; Liu, Xudong

    2015-05-01

    Identification of early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) could lead to earlier diagnosis and intervention. This cross-sectional study used the Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale (POEMS, Feldman et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 42:13-12, 2012) to identify early signs of ASD in 69 ASD high-risk (older sibling diagnosed with ASD) and 69 sex and aged-matched ASD low-risk second-born or later infants (no family history of ASD) between 6 and 36 months of age. Family sociodemographic comparisons were also made between the risk groups. The high-risk children had significantly more elevated POEMS items than the low-risk children at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age, even when the children subsequently diagnosed with ASD were removed from the analyses. Families of the high-risk group had older parents, lower family income and fewer mothers working out of the home than the low-risk group. These sociodemographic variables were not significantly correlated with POEMS scores. The results suggest that high-risk infants may show signs of the broader ASD phenotype as early as 12 months of age that may be unrelated to observed sociodemographic family differences. PMID:25326257

  5. Paradox of risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in uremia: is a higher cholesterol level better for atherosclerosis in uremia?

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Y; Shoji, T; Ishimura, E; Inaba, M; Morii, H

    2001-10-01

    Patients with chronic uremia have a substantially elevated risk of death from cardiovascular disease than do the general population. Although uremic and nonuremic groups share some of the risk factors for cardiovascular mortality, such as older age, diabetes, and inflammation, other factors appear to affect cardiovascular mortality in the opposite direction. For example, being overweight and having hyperlipidemia are established risk factors in the general population, whereas lower body mass index and lower plasma cholesterol have been shown to be risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This paradoxical phenomenon is explained by two facts: (1) that malnutrition is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in ESRD and (2) that plasma lipid levels are lowered in malnutrition. However, it is not known whether atherosclerosis is promoted by malnutrition or by low cholesterol level. Because the cardiovascular mortality rate is theoretically the product of event rate and fatality rate after an event, risk factors for cardiovascular mortality could fall into two categories: those raising the event rate and those affecting the fatality rate. Some factors could work both ways. Patients with ESRD show a significant increase in both event rate and fatality rate. Dyslipidemia is an independent factor affecting atherosclerotic arterial wall changes and cardiovascular events in ESRD. Other factors affecting the cardiovascular event rate in ESRD include diabetes and an elevated homocysteine level. In contrast, factors associated with poor survival after an event include diabetes and anemia. Malnutrition could be a factor causing the fatality rate to rise, although there is no direct evidence supporting this possibility. Further studies are needed to show the differential effects of a risk factor on event rate and fatality rate. Patients with ESRD would have a better chance of living longer by better management of the two categories of

  6. Tooth loss and lack of regular oral hygiene are associated with higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abnet, Christian C.; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Brennan, Paul; Aghcheli, Karim; Merat, Shahin; Pourshams, Akram; Marjani, Haj Amin; Ebadati, Abdolhakim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the association between tooth loss and oral hygiene and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in people living in a high risk area of Iran. We used a case-control study of pathologically-confirmed ESCC cases (N=283) and controls (N=560) matched on sex, age, and neighborhood. Subjects with ESCC had significantly more decayed, missing, or filled teeth with a median (interquartile range) of 31 (23-32) compared to controls 28 (2-32) (P=0.0045). And subjects with ESCC were significantly more likely than controls to fail to practice regular oral hygiene, 78% versus 58%. In multivariate adjusted conditional logistic regression models having 32 decayed, missing, or filled teeth compared to ≤15 conferred an OR (95% CI) of 2.10 (1.19-3.70). Compared to daily tooth brushing, practicing no regular oral hygiene conferred an OR (95% CI) of 2.37 (1.42-3.97). Restricting the analysis to subjects that had never smoked tobacco did not materially alter these results. We found significant associations between two markers of poor oral hygiene, a larger number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth and lack of daily tooth brushing, and risk of ESCC in a population at high risk for ESCC where many cases occur in never smokers. Our results are consistent with several previous analyses in other high risk populations. PMID:18990747

  7. Posterolaterally displaced and flexion-type supracondylar fractures are associated with a higher risk of open reduction.

    PubMed

    Novais, Eduardo N; Carry, Patrick M; Mark, Bryan J; De, Sayan; Miller, Nancy H

    2016-09-01

    To identify factors predictive of the risk of conversion from closed to open reduction. International Classification of Disease-9 codes were used to identify completely displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures that were subjected to planned closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Clinical and radiographic variables were retrospectively collected. Compared with posterior extension fractures, flexion (risk ratio: 34.1, 95% confidence interval: 8.1-143.6, P<0.0001) and posterolateral extension (risk ratio: 6.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-27.5, P=0.0221) fractures were significantly more likely to undergo conversion from closed to open reduction. The direction of displacement should be considered during the preoperative evaluation of supracondylar fractures. PMID:27035497

  8. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  9. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  10. Behavioral Development and Sociodemographics of Infants and Young Children at Higher and Lower Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Hendry, Amanda M.; Ward, Rebecca A.; Hudson, Melissa; Liu, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Identification of early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) could lead to earlier diagnosis and intervention. This cross-sectional study used the Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale (POEMS, Feldman et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 42:13-12, 2012) to identify early signs of ASD in 69 ASD high-risk (older sibling diagnosed with…

  11. Higher risk of myasthenia gravis in patients with thyroid and allergic diseases: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Chen, Yen-Kung; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk of myasthenia gravis (MG) in patients with allergic or autoimmune thyroid disease in a large cohort representing 99% of the population in Taiwan. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database were used to conduct retrospective analyses. The study comprised 1689 adult patients with MG who were 4-fold frequency matched to those without MG by sex, age, and assigned the same index year. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between allergic or autoimmune thyroid disease and MG. An increased subsequent risk of MG was observed in the patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC), allergic rhinitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Graves disease. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 1.93 (1.71-2.18), 1.26 (1.09-1.45), 2.87 (1.18-6.97), and 3.97 (2.71-5.83), respectively. The aORs increased from 1.63 (1.43-1.85) in a patient with only 1 allergic or autoimmune thyroid disease to 2.09 (1.75-2.49) in a patient with 2 thyroid or allergic diseases to 2.82 (2.19-3.64) in a patient with ≥3 thyroid or allergic diseases. MG was associated with the cumulative effect of concurrent allergic and autoimmune thyroid disease with combined AC and Hashimoto thyroiditis representing the highest risk (aOR = 15.62 [2.88-87.71]). This population-based case-control study demonstrates the association between allergic or autoimmune thyroid disease and the risk of MG. The highest risk of subsequent MG was associated with combined AC and Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26020387

  12. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  13. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between freshwater fish intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 53% (OR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.36–0.60, Ptrend < 0.01) after adjustment for various confounders. The inverse association were also observed for sea fish (OR 0.79, 95%CI = 0.62–0.99, Ptrend < 0.01) and fresh fish (OR 0.49, 95%CI = 0.38–0.62, Ptrend < 0.01). No statistically significant association was found between dried/salted fish and shellfish intake and colorectal cancer risk. These results indicate that higher consumption of freshwater fish, sea fish and fresh fish is associated with a lower risk of colorectal caner. PMID:26264963

  14. Hierarchically Flower-like N-Doped Porous Carbon Materials Derived from an Explosive 3-Fold Interpenetrating Diamondoid Copper Metal-Organic Framework for a Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuo-Xi; Zou, Kang-Yu; Zhang, Xue; Han, Tong; Yang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    A peculiar copper metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) was synthesized by a self-assembly method, which presents a 3-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net based on the square-planar Cu(II) node. Although it exhibits a high degree of interpenetration, the Cu-MOF still exhibits a one-dimensional channel, which provides a template for constructing porous materials through the "precursor" strategy. Furthermore, the explosive ClO4(-) ion, which resided in the channel, could induce the quick decomposition of organic ingredients and release a huge amount of gas, which is beneficial for the porosity of postsynthetic materials. Significantly, we first utilize this explosive MOF to prepare a series of Cu@C composites through the calcination-thermolysis method at different temperatures, which contain copper particles exhibiting various shapes and combinations with the carbon substrate. Considering the hole-forming effect of copper particles, Cu@C composites were etched by HCl to afford a sequence of hierarchically flower-like N-doped porous carbon materials (NPCs), which retain the original morphology of the Cu-MOF. Interestingly, NPC-900, originating from the calcination of the Cu-MOF at 900 °C, exhibits a more regular flower-like morphology, the largest specific surface area, abundant porosities, and multiple nitrogen functionalities. The remarkable specific capacitances are 138 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1) and 149 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) for the NPC-900 electrode in a 6 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. Moreover, the retention of capacitance remains 86.8% (125 F g(-1)) at 1 A g(-1) over 2000 cycles, which displays good chemical stability. These findings suggest that NPC-900 can be applied as a suitable electrode for a supercapacitor. PMID:27304095

  15. Managing multiple myeloma: the emerging role of novel therapies and adapting combination treatment for higher risk settings.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Laubach, Jacob; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Schlossman, Robert; Hideshima, Teru; Redman, Katherine; Chauhan, Dharminder; Ghobrial, Irene M; Munshi, Nikhil; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2011-09-01

    Novel therapies have transformed the treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma with significant improvements in survival now seen in both younger and older patients. Nonetheless, the disease is heterogeneous and high-risk patients in particular continue to have poor outcome. Moreover, the disease remains incurable. Efforts to refine risk stratification and disease characteristics continue with the use of cytogenetics, enhanced imaging techniques and other new technologies, such as genomics. The integration of novel therapies into induction therapy, consolidation and maintenance continues to evolve, and the appropriate use of combination strategies including proteasome inhibition and immunomodulatory treatment is emerging as a platform with application across the disease spectrum. Despite these advances, resistance to novel agents occurs and so the identification of new targets and the recognition of clonal heterogeneity are especially important as improvements to current treatment strategies are developed, with the goal of further improving patient outcome. PMID:21732930

  16. Whole Chromosome 7 Gain Predicts Higher Risk of Recurrence in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytomas Independently From KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Status.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jacquelyn J; Fierst, Tamara M; Waanders, Angela J; Yimei, Li; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Santi, Mariarita

    2016-04-01

    The most frequent genetic alteration identified in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and pilomyxoid variant is theKIAA1549-BRAFfusion, which typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. Less frequent abnormalities include fusion genes,BRAF, FGFR, KRAS, andNF1point mutations, and whole chromosome gains. To correlate genetic alterations with clinical course data, we retrospectively analyzed the tumors with pilocytic and pilomyxoid histology of a cohort of 116 pediatric patients, aged 5 months to 23 years. Gross total resection was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (p = 0.001), supporting previous findings that complete tumor excision correlates with long-term and disease-free survival. We found no significant association between recurrence rate and the presence of theKIAA1549-BRAFfusion orBRAFmutation (p = 0.167). Interestingly, gain of whole chromosome 7 (WC7) was associated with a 4.7-fold increased risk of tumor recurrence, even after adjusting for surgical status (p = 0.025), and other genetic alterations. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that when WC7 gain accompanies theKIAA1549-BRAFfusion, the fusion likely arises first. This study highlights the utility of genetic studies for risk assessment of pilocytic and pilomyxoid astrocytomas, which may impact treatment selections. PMID:26945035

  17. TP53 codon 72 Arg/Arg polymorphism is associated with a higher risk for inflammatory bowel disease development

    PubMed Central

    Volodko, Natalia; Salla, Mohamed; Eksteen, Bertus; Fedorak, Richard N; Huynh, Hien Q; Baksh, Shairaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between tumor protein 53 (TP53) codon 72 polymorphisms and the risk for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. METHODS: Numerous genetic and epigenetic drivers have been identified for IBD including the TP53 gene. Pathogenic mutations in TP53 gene have only been reported in 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TP53 gene resulting in the presence of either arginine (Arg) or proline (Pro) or both at codon 72 was shown to alter TP53 tumor-suppressor properties. This SNP has been investigated as a risk factor for numerous cancers, including CRC. In this study we analyzed TP53 codon 72 polymorphism distribution in 461 IBD, 181 primary sclerosing cholangitis patients and 62 healthy controls. Genotyping of TP53 was performed by sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. RESULTS: The most frequent TP53 genotype in IBD patients was Arg/Arg occurring in 54%-64% of cases (and in only 32% of controls). Arg/Pro was the most prevalent genotype in controls (53%) and less common in patients (31%-40%). Pro/Pro frequency was not significantly different between controls and IBD patients. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that the TP53 codon 72 Arg/Arg genotype is associated with increased risk for IBD development. PMID:26420962

  18. [Health risk factors in pedagogy students' educational needs in state school of higher vocational education in Biala Podlaska].

    PubMed

    Kublńska, Zofia; Pańczuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The health conditions encompass also the risk factors. The cognition and showing the range of social pedagogy students' interest in the knowledge and abilities useful for minimizing the causes and consequences of the health risk factors was the aim of the work. There were 154 social pedagogy students tested. The questionnaire was applicated within the confess of researches. The results, which were received, showed that the tested students are the most interested in knowledge and abilities within the confess of the factors like: alcoholism, drug addiction, poverty, unemployment, impracticality and different forms and kinds of violence in selected social groups. To the sources of the knowledge from which the students would like to use in the future were ranked post conference materials and the archival sources. The majority of students would like to participate in meetings with authority and work in support groups if we talk about the methods enabling them to gain the prophylactic abilities in the minimizing range of the risk factors. PMID:17472066

  19. Gender difference in apolipoprotein E-associated risk for familial Alzheimer disease: a possible clue to the higher incidence of Alzheimer disease in women.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H.; Zareparsi, S.; Montee, K. R.; Sexton, G. J.; Kaye, J. A.; Bird, T. D.; Yu, C. E.; Wijsman, E. M.; Heston, L. L.; Litt, M.; Schellenberg, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 allele. In late-onset familial AD, women have a significantly higher risk of developing the disease than do men. The aim of this study was to determine whether the gender difference in familial AD is a function of APOE genotype. We studied 58 late-onset familial AD kindreds. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess genotype-specific distributions of age at onset. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age and by conditional logistic regression with stratification on families. All methods detected a significant gender difference for the epsilon4 heterozygous genotype. In women, epsilon4 heterozygotes had higher risk than those without epsilon4; there was no significant difference between epsilon4 heterozygotes and epsilon4 homozygotes. In men, epsilon4 heterozygotes had lower risk than epsilon4 homozygotes; there was not significant difference between epsilon4 heterozygotes and those without epsilon4. A direct comparison of epsilon4 heterozygous men and women revealed a significant twofold increased risk in women. We confirmed these results in 15 autopsy-confirmed AD kindreds from the National Cell Repository at Indiana University Alzheimer Disease Center. These observations are consistent with the increased incidence of familial AD in women and may be a critical clue to the role of gender in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:8644745

  20. Women's higher health risks in the obesogenic environment: a gender nutrition approach to metabolic dimorphism with predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Women's evolution for nurturing and fat accumulation, which historically yielded health and longevity advantages against scarcity, may now be counteracted by increasing risks in the obesogenic environment, recently shown by narrowing gender health gap. Women's differential metabolism/disease risks, i.e. in fat accumulation/distribution, exemplified during puberty/adolescence, suggest gender dimorphism with obesity outcomes. Women's higher body fat percentage than men, even with equal body mass index, may be a better risk predictor. Differential metabolic responses to weight-reduction diets, with women's lower abdominal fat loss, better response to high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets, higher risks with sedentariness vs. exercise benefits, and tendency toward delayed manifestation of central obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers until menopause—but accelerated thereafter—suggest a need for differing metabolic and chronological perspectives for prevention/intervention. These perspectives, including women's differential responses to lifestyle changes, strongly support further research with a gender nutrition emphasis within predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:23311512

  1. Gender difference in apolipoprotein E-associated risk for familial Alzheimer disease: A possible clue to the higher incidence of Alzheimer disease in women

    SciTech Connect

    Payami, H.; Zareparsi, S.; Montee, K.R.; Litt, M.

    1996-04-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE)-{epsilon}4 allele. In late-onset familial AD, women have a significantly higher risk of developing the disease than do men. The aim of this study was to determine whether the gender difference in familial AD is a function of APOE genotype. We studied 58 late-onset familial AD kindreds. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess genotype-specific distributions of age at onset. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age and by conditional logistic regression with stratification on families. All methods detected a significant gender difference for the {epsilon}4 heterozygous genotype. In women, {epsilon}4 heterozygotes had higher risk than those without {epsilon}4; there was no significant difference between {epsilon}4 heterozygotes and {epsilon}4 homozygotes. In men, {epsilon}4 heterozygotes had lower risk than {epsilon}4 homozygotes; there was no significant difference between {epsilon}4 heterozygotes and those without {epsilon}4. A direct comparison of {epsilon}4 heterozygous men and women revealed a significant two-fold increased risk in women. We confirmed these results in 15 autopsy-confirmed AD kindreds from the National Cell Repository at Indiana University Alzheimer Disease Center. These observations are consistent with the increased incidence of familial AD in women and may be a critical clue to the role of gender in the pathogenesis of AD. 53 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Changing the Course: Equity Effects and Institutional Risk amid Policy Shift in Higher Education Financing in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.; Otieno, Wycliffe

    2008-01-01

    Reform in higher education financing in Kenya has been occasioned by both endogenous and exogenous variables. Internal pressures of a declining economy, rapid demographic growth and increased inter- and intra-sectoral competition for scare financial resources, couple with external neo-liberal doctrine championed by global donors like the World…

  3. Western Faculty "Flight Risk" at a Korean University and the Complexities of Internationalisation in Asian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Does the internationalisation of Asian higher education give preference to Western faculty members, especially against the backdrop of internationalisation trends that call for an importation of Western pedagogical practices, ideas, and standards? This article seeks to complicate such a claim through close examination of the Western faculty…

  4. Subspecificities of anticentromeric protein A antibodies identify systemic sclerosis patients at higher risk of pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Perosa, Federico; Favoino, Elvira; Favia, Isabella Eleonora; Vettori, Serena; Prete, Marcella; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo; Valentini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) who express autoantibodies to centromeric proteins (CENPs) are at risk of developing pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension without fibrosis. Currently no biomarkers are available to predict these complications. We previously characterized the fine specificity of anti-CENP-A antibodies in SSc by screening a phage display library (expressing random 12-mer peptides), and identified phage clones whose peptides were differentially recognized by patients’ autoantibodies. Here, we examined if subgroups of SSc patients with different anti-CENP-A antibody subspecificities also differ clinically, and if serum reactivity to phage-displayed peptides can predict pulmonary vascular disease. Clinical data and serum samples were collected from 84 anti-CENP-A-positive SSc patients. Indirect ELISAs were used to test serum reactivity. Pulmonary vascular disease was defined as high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and low diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO; percent of predicted values). Sera were screened for reactivity to peptides expressed by phage clones pc4.2 and pc14.1, confirming our earlier observation of differential specificities. Linear regression showed that the levels of antibodies specific for the 2 phage clones were associated with clinical features of pulmonary vascular disease, but in opposite ways: anti-pc4.2 antibodies were positively associated with sPAP and inversely associated with DLCO, whereas anti-pc14.1 antibodies were inversely associated with sPAP and positively associated with DLCO. Anti-pc4.2 and anti-pc14.1 antibody levels predicted sPAP independently of DLCO. These associations were confirmed by logistic regression using antibodies as predictors and dichotomized sPAP (cutoff, 45 mm Hg) as outcome. The ratio of the 2 antibody levels was a useful marker in predicting high sPAP. This study demonstrates that some SSc clinical features associate with

  5. Subspecificities of anticentromeric protein A antibodies identify systemic sclerosis patients at higher risk of pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perosa, Federico; Favoino, Elvira; Favia, Isabella Eleonora; Vettori, Serena; Prete, Marcella; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo; Valentini, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) who express autoantibodies to centromeric proteins (CENPs) are at risk of developing pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension without fibrosis. Currently no biomarkers are available to predict these complications. We previously characterized the fine specificity of anti-CENP-A antibodies in SSc by screening a phage display library (expressing random 12-mer peptides), and identified phage clones whose peptides were differentially recognized by patients' autoantibodies. Here, we examined if subgroups of SSc patients with different anti-CENP-A antibody subspecificities also differ clinically, and if serum reactivity to phage-displayed peptides can predict pulmonary vascular disease.Clinical data and serum samples were collected from 84 anti-CENP-A-positive SSc patients. Indirect ELISAs were used to test serum reactivity. Pulmonary vascular disease was defined as high systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and low diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO; percent of predicted values).Sera were screened for reactivity to peptides expressed by phage clones pc4.2 and pc14.1, confirming our earlier observation of differential specificities. Linear regression showed that the levels of antibodies specific for the 2 phage clones were associated with clinical features of pulmonary vascular disease, but in opposite ways: anti-pc4.2 antibodies were positively associated with sPAP and inversely associated with DLCO, whereas anti-pc14.1 antibodies were inversely associated with sPAP and positively associated with DLCO. Anti-pc4.2 and anti-pc14.1 antibody levels predicted sPAP independently of DLCO. These associations were confirmed by logistic regression using antibodies as predictors and dichotomized sPAP (cutoff, 45 mm Hg) as outcome. The ratio of the 2 antibody levels was a useful marker in predicting high sPAP.This study demonstrates that some SSc clinical features associate with subspecificities of

  6. Lower Intensified Target LDL-c Level of Statin Therapy Results in a Higher Risk of Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Rongrong; Yuan, Yang; Zhou, Yi; Xia, Wenqing; Wang, Pin; Sun, Haixia; Yang, Yue; Huang, Rong; Wang, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent meta-analysis has reported that intensive-dose statin drug increases the risk of incident diabetes. However, doubling of the statin dose generates only a further 6% decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) on average. This study aimed to determine whether statin therapy with lower intensive-target LDL-c level contributes to higher risk of new-onset diabetes. Methods Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled endpoint trials of statins conducted from 1966 to 2012. We included trials with more than 1000 participants who were followed up for at least 2 years. The included trials were stratified by the target LDL-c level. I2 statistic was used to measure heterogeneity between trials. We further calculated risk estimates with random-effect meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to identify the potential risk factors of statin-induced diabetes. Results Fourteen trials with a total of 95 102 non-diabetic participants were included. The risks elevated by 33% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.56; I2 = 7.7%] and 16% (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.06–1.28; I2 = 0.0%) when the intensified target LDL-c levels were ≤1.8 mmol/L and 1.8–2.59 mmol/L, respectively. The risk of incident diabetes did not increase when the target LDL-c level was ≥2.59 mmol/L. Apart from age, female, and baseline level of total cholesterol, meta-regression analysis showed that the target and baseline levels of LDL-c and relative LDL-c reduction were predictors of statin-induced diabetes. Conclusion A lower intensified target LDL-c level of statin therapy resulted in a higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:25122464

  7. Germline BRCA Mutations Are Associated With Higher Risk of Nodal Involvement, Distant Metastasis, and Poor Survival Outcomes in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Patients and Methods This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). Results PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients. PMID:23569316

  8. Highway proximity and black carbon from cookstoves as a risk factor for higher blood pressure in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James J.; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuqin; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China’s economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P < 0.001), followed by PM mass and water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC’s health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions. PMID:25157159

  9. Cervical Microbiota Associated with Higher Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Women Infected with High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Kumar, Ranjit; Macaluso, Maurizio; Alvarez, Ronald D; Morrow, Casey D

    2016-05-01

    It is increasingly recognized that microbes that reside in and on human body sites play major roles in modifying the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. However, specific microbes or microbial communities that can be mechanistically linked to cervical carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between cervical microbiota and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+) in women infected with high-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses (HPV) and to assess whether the cervical microbiota are associated with oxidative DNA damage as indicated by the presence of cervical cells positive for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. The study included 340 women diagnosed with CIN 2+ (cases) and 90 diagnosed with CIN 1 (non-cases). Microbiota composition was determined by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplified from DNA extracted from cervical mucus samples. Measures of alpha/beta-diversity were not associated with either CIN severity or oxidative DNA damage. However, a cervical mucosal community type (CT) dominated by L. iners and unclassified Lactobacillus spp was associated with CIN 2+ (OR = 3.48; 95% CI, 1.27-9.55). Sequence reads mapping to Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus, L. reuteri, and several sub-genus level Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units were also associated with CIN 2+ when examined independently (effect size >2.0; P < 0.05). Our 16S rRNA sequencing results need confirmation in independent studies using whole-genome shotgun sequencing and that would allow sharpening the suggested associations at finer taxonomic levels. Our results provide little evidence that DNA oxidative damage mediates the effect of the microbiome on the natural history of HPV infection and CIN severity. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 357-66. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26935422

  10. Highway proximity and black carbon from cookstoves as a risk factor for higher blood pressure in rural China.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James J; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuqin; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China's economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P < 0.001), followed by PM mass and water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC's health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions. PMID:25157159

  11. Combinations of Susceptibility Genes Are Associated with Higher Risk for Multiple Sclerosis and Imply Disease Course Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Akkad, Denis A.; Olischewsky, Alexandra; Reiner, Franziska; Hellwig, Kerstin; Esser, Sarika; Epplen, Jörg T.; Curk, Tomaz; Gold, Ralf; Haghikia, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects young adults. The genetic contributions to this multifactorial disease were underscored by a genome wide association study (GWAS) conducted by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetic Consortium in a multinational cohort prompting the discovery of 57 non-MHC MS-associated common genetic variants. Hitherto, few of these newly reported variants have been replicated in larger independent patient cohorts. We genotyped a cohort of 1033 MS patients and 644 healthy controls with a consistent genetic background for the 57 non-MHC variants reported to be associated with MS by the first large GWAS as well as the HLA DRB1*1501 tagging SNP rs3135388. We robustly replicated three of the 57 non-MHC reported MS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, our study revealed several genotype-genotype combinations with an evidently higher degree of disease association than the genotypes of the single SNPs. We further correlated well-defined clinical phenotypes, i.e. ataxia, visual impairment due to optic neuritis and paresis with single SNPs and genotype combinations, and identified several associations. The results may open new avenues for clinical implications of the MS associated genetic variants reported from large GWAS. PMID:26011527

  12. Combinations of susceptibility genes are associated with higher risk for multiple sclerosis and imply disease course specificity.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Denis A; Olischewsky, Alexandra; Reiner, Franziska; Hellwig, Kerstin; Esser, Sarika; Epplen, Jörg T; Curk, Tomaz; Gold, Ralf; Haghikia, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects young adults. The genetic contributions to this multifactorial disease were underscored by a genome wide association study (GWAS) conducted by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetic Consortium in a multinational cohort prompting the discovery of 57 non-MHC MS-associated common genetic variants. Hitherto, few of these newly reported variants have been replicated in larger independent patient cohorts. We genotyped a cohort of 1033 MS patients and 644 healthy controls with a consistent genetic background for the 57 non-MHC variants reported to be associated with MS by the first large GWAS as well as the HLA DRB1*1501 tagging SNP rs3135388. We robustly replicated three of the 57 non-MHC reported MS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, our study revealed several genotype-genotype combinations with an evidently higher degree of disease association than the genotypes of the single SNPs. We further correlated well-defined clinical phenotypes, i.e. ataxia, visual impairment due to optic neuritis and paresis with single SNPs and genotype combinations, and identified several associations. The results may open new avenues for clinical implications of the MS associated genetic variants reported from large GWAS. PMID:26011527

  13. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. PMID:27503976

  14. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Scar Imaging for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Stratification in Patients with Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chattranukulchai, Pairoj

    2015-01-01

    In patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and selection of patients who would benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators remains challenging. We aim to discuss the evidence of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial scar for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in NICM. From the 15 studies analyzed, with a total of 2747 patients, the average prevalence of myocardial scar was 41%. In patients with myocardial scar, the risk for adverse cardiac events was more than 3-fold higher, and risk for arrhythmic events 5-fold higher, as compared to patients without scar. Based on the available observational, single center studies, CMR scar assessment may be a promising new tool for SCD risk stratification, which merits further investigation. PMID:26175568

  15. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming combined with low-dose cytarabine and homoharringtonine in higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-Xia; Zhang, Wang-Gang; He, Ai-Li; Cao, Xin-Mei; Chen, Yin-Xia; Zhao, Wan-Hong; Yang, Yun; Wang, Jian-Li; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Gu, Liu-Fang

    2016-09-01

    As sensitization of leukemia cells with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy in myeloid malignancies, a pilot study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of G-CSF priming combined with low-dose chemotherapy in patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The regimen, G-HA, consisted of cytarabine (Ara-C) 7.5mg/m(2)/12h by subcutaneous injection, days 1-14, homoharringtonine (HHT) 1.5mg/m(2)/day by intravenous continuous infusion, days 1-14, and G-CSF 150mg/m(2)/day by subcutaneous injection, days 0-14. 56 patients were enrolled, 34 patients (61%, 95% confidence interval: 51.44-70.56%) achieved complete remission (CR). Median duration of neutropenia was 7days (ranging from 2 to 16days). Grade 1-2 nonhematologic toxicities were documented, including nausea and vomiting (5%), liver function abnormality (5%), and heart function abnormality (2%). No central nervous system toxicity was found. Mortality within the first 4 weeks was 4%. The G-HA regimen is effective in remission induction for higher risk MDS patients and well tolerated due to the acceptable toxicity in maintenance therapy in the patients who cannot undergo Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). PMID:27497340

  16. Higher Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration Is Associated with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage Risk: Evidence from a Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yueping; Zheng, Yanmin; Jiang, Jingting; Liu, Yinmei; Luo, Xiaoming; Shen, Zongji; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Dai, Yiheng; Zhao, Jing; Liang, Hong; Chen, Aimin; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence about the association between Bisphenol A (BPA) and the risk of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in human being is still limited. Objective We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with RM in human being. Methods A hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study on RM was carried out in Suzhou and Kunshan in Jiangsu Province in China between August 2008 and November 2011. Total urinary BPA concentrations in 264 eligible urine samples (102 RM patients and 162 controls) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The Wilcoxon test and conditional logistic regression were used to estimate the differences between the groups and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), respectively. Results The median ± IQR (interquartile range) (P75-P25) values of non-creatinine-adjusted total urinary BPA levels in the RM patients and the controls were 1.66±3.69ng/ml and 0.58±1.07ng/ml, respectively (0.98±2.67μg/g Cr (creatinine) and 0.40±0.77μg/g Cr. The adjusted BPA level was significantly higher in the RM patients than in the controls (Wilcoxon test, Z = 4.476, P<0.001). Higher level of urinary BPA was significantly associated with an increased risk of RM (P-trend <0.001). Compared to the groups with urinary BPA levels less than 0.16μg/g Cr, the women with levels of 0.40–0.93μg/g Cr and 0.93μg/g Cr or above had a significantly higher risk of RM (OR = 3.91, 95%CI: 1.23–12.45 and OR = 9.34, 95%CI: 3.06–28.44) that persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The time from recently RM date to recruitment does not significantly influence the urinary BPA level (P = 0.090). Conclusion Exposure to BPA may be associated with RM risk. PMID:26011304

  17. The Long-term Risk of Upper-extremity Lymphedema is Two-fold Higher in Breast Cancer Patients than in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Rachel K.; Cromwell, Kate D.; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Armer, Jane M.; Ross, Merrick I.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Stewart, Bob R.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Cormier, Janice N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed the cumulative incidence, symptoms, and risk factors for upper-extremity lymphedema in breast cancer and melanoma patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Methods Patients were recruited preoperatively (time 0) and assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Limb volume change (LVC) was measured by perometry. Lymphedema was categorized as none, mild (LVC 5–9.9%), or moderate/severe (LVC≥10%). Symptoms were assessed with a validated lymphedema instrument. Longitudinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema. Results Among 205 breast cancer and 144 melanoma patients, the cumulative incidence of moderate/severe lymphedema at 18 months was 36.5% and 35.0, respectively. However, in adjusted analyses, factors associated with moderate/severe lymphedema were breast cancer (OR 2.0, p=0.03), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 1.6, p=0.04), greater number of lymph nodes removed (OR 1.05, p<0.01), and longer interval since surgery (OR 2.33 at 18 months, p<0.01). Conclusions: Lymphedema incidence increased over time in both cohorts. However, the adjusted risk of moderate/severe lymphedema was two-fold higher in breast cancer patients. These results may be attributed to surgical treatment of the primary tumor in the breast and more frequent use of radiation. PMID:26477877

  18. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptors: Deficiency in tumor results in scant HBV infection and overexpression in peritumor leads to higher recurrence risk

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Fan, Qing-Min; Yu, Guo-Feng; Yu, Dan-Dan; Gao, Lu; Sun, Kai; Han, Zhi-Peng; Li, Rong; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wei, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and recurrence. Here, we sought to characterize intratumoral and peritumoral expression of HBsAg and its specific receptors in HBsAg-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further examined their correlation with the recurrence-free survival (RFS). HCC tissue and adjacent normal tissue specimens were acquired from HBsAg-positive patients. The presence of HBsAg and receptors, as well as hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) were detected by tissue microassay and immunohistochemistry. Necroinflammatory activity was evaluated by HE staining. The mean IOD of HBsAg and HBV DNA in the intratumoral tissues was markedly lower than that in the peritumoral tissues (P < 0.001). Pearson correlation analysis further showed a significant correlation between the expression of HBsAg and NTCP (r = 0.461, P < 0.001) or ASGPR (r = 0.506, P < 0.001) in peritumoral tissues. And the peritumoral HBsAg and receptors presented a positive association with necroinflammatory activity (P < 0.05). Inflammation induced by HBV infection presented a positive association with HPCs activation (P < 0.05). Additionally, due to lack of HBV receptors, HPCs was not preferentially infected with HBV, but activated HPCs had a significant correlation with HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissues, and the peritumoral HPCs activation was associated with RFS of HCC patients, therefore, the overexpression of HBsAg and receptors in peritumor were also with higher recurrence risk (P < 0.05). In conclusion, lack of HBV receptors resulted in scant HBV infection in tumor cells, and overexpression of HBsAg and receptors in peritumor was strongly associated with higher recurrence risk in HCC patients. PMID:26515593

  19. Do Asian-American women who were maltreated as children have a higher likelihood for HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Lee, Yookyong; Jang, Jisun; Ng, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study is the first to systematically investigate whether multiple child maltreatment is associated with HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes among Asian-American women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n = 400), aged 18 to 35, who are identified as children of immigrants, using Computer-Assisted Survey Interviews (CASI). Results Approximately seven in ten women reported having been maltreated as a child and 6.8% reported any type of sexual abuse. Only 15% of our sample reported having sex at age 16 or before, yet almost 60% had ever engaged with risky sexual partners. Contrary to the findings from previous studies of White and Black women, sexual abuse plus other maltreatment was not associated with HIV risk behaviors among Asian-American women. However,it was associated with a marked increase in depression, lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A higher education was associated with increased odds of HIV risk behaviors including ever having anal sex and ever having potentially risky sexual partners. Conclusion There was no evidence indicating that multiple child maltreatment was linked to HIV risk behaviors, but it exhibited a robust association with poor mental health outcomes. These empirical patterns of internalizing trauma, suffering alone, and stayingsilent are in accord with Asian-cultural norms of saving face and maintaining family harmony. The prevention of multiple child maltreatment may reduce high levels of depression and suicidal behaviors among this population. It is urgently needed to identify victims of multiple child maltreatment and provide culturally appropriate interventions. PMID:21872488

  20. Dosimetric parameters as predictive factors for biochemical control in patients with higher risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Orio, Peter; Wallner, Kent . E-mail: kent.Wallner@med.va.gov; Merrick, Gregory; Herstein, Andrew; Mitsuyama, Paul; Thornton, Ken; Butler, Wayne; Sutlief, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of dosimetric quality parameters in maximizing cancer eradication in higher risk prostate cancer patients treated with palladium (Pd)-103 and supplemental beam radiation. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-nine patients treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation, with minimum 2 years follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and posttreatment computed tomography scans were analyzed. Dosimetric parameters included the V100 (percent of the postimplant volume covered by the prescription dose), the D90 (the minimum dose that covered 90% of the post implant volume), and the treatment margins (the radial distance between the prostatic edge and the prescription isodose). Treatment margins (TMs) were calculated using premarket software. Results: Freedom from biochemical failure was 79% at 3 years, with 92 of the 179 patients (51%) followed beyond 3 years. In comparing patients who did or did not achieve biochemical control, the most striking differences were in biologic factors of pretreatment PSA and Gleason score. The V100, D90, and average TM all showed nonsignificant trends to higher values in patients with biochemical control. In multivariate analysis of each of the three dosimetric parameters against PSA and Gleason score, TM showed the strongest correlation with biochemical control (p = 0.19). Conclusions: For patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 brachytherapy and external beam radiation, biologic factors (PSA and Gleason score) were the most important determinants of cancer eradication. However, there is a trend to better outcomes among patients with higher quality implant parameters, suggesting that attention to implant quality will maximize the likelihood of cure.

  1. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  2. Risk of atypical femoral fracture during and after bisphosphonate use

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Jörg; Koeppen, Veronika; Aspenberg, Per; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Use of bisphosphonates in women is associated with higher risk of atypical femoral fractures. The risk in terms of timing of use and type of bisphosphonate, and in men, remains unclear. Patients and methods We reviewed radiographs of 5,342 Swedish women and men aged 55 years or more who had had a fracture of the femoral shaft in the 3-year period 2008–2010 (97% of those eligible), and found 172 patients with atypical fractures (93% of them women). We obtained data on medication and comorbidity. The risk of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was estimated in a nationwide cohort analysis. In addition, we performed a case-control analysis with comparison to 952 patients with ordinary shaft fractures. A short report of the findings has recently been presented (Schilcher et al. 2014a). Here we provide full details. Results The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was 55 (95% CI: 39–79) in women and 54 (CI: 15–192) in men. In bisphosphonate users, women had a 3-fold higher risk than men (RR = 3.1, CI: 1.1–8.4). Alendronate users had higher risk than risedronate users (RR = 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.3). The RR after 4 years or more of use reached 126 (CI: 55–288), with a corresponding absolute risk of 11 (CI: 7–14) fractures per 10,000 person-years of use. The risk decreased by 70% per year since last use. Interpretation Women have a higher risk of atypical femoral fracture than men. The type of bisphosphonate used may affect risk estimates and the risk decreases rapidly after cessation. PMID:25582459

  3. Association of Ongoing Drug and Alcohol Use with Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Higher Risk of AIDS and Death: Results from ACTG 362

    PubMed Central

    COHN, Susan E.; JIANG, Hongyu; MCCUTCHAN, J. Allen; KOLETAR, Susan L.; MURPHY, Robert L.; ROBERTSON, Kevin R.; DESTMAURICE, Annabelle; CURRIER, Judith S.; WILLIAMS, Paige L.

    2011-01-01

    Drug and alcohol use have been associated with a worse prognosis in short-term and cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected populations, but longitudinal effects on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and clinical outcomes in advanced AIDS are less well characterized. We assessed self-reported drug and alcohol use in AIDS patients, and examined their association with non-adherence and death or disease progression in a multicenter observational study. We defined non-adherence as reporting missed ART doses in the 48 hours before study visits. The association between drug use and ART non-adherence was evaluated using repeated measures generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. The association between drug and alcohol use and time to new AIDS diagnosis or death was evaluated via Cox regression models, controlling for covariates including ART adherence. Of 643 participants enrolled between 1997–1999 and followed through 2007, at entry 39% reported ever using cocaine, 24% amphetamines, and 10% heroin. Ongoing drug use during study follow-up was reported by 9% using cocaine, 4% amphetamines, and 1% heroin. Hard drug (cocaine, amphetamines, or heroin) users had 2.1 times higher odds (p=0.001) of ART non-adherence in GEE models and 2.5 times higher risk (p=0.04) of AIDS progression or death in Cox models. Use of hard drugs was attenuated as a risk factor for AIDS progression or death after controlling for non-adherence during follow-up (HR=2.11, p=0.08), but was still suggestive of a possible adherence-independent mechanism of harm. This study highlights the need to continuously screen and treat patients for drug use as a part of ongoing HIV care. PMID:21293986

  4. Higher serum uric acid level increases risk of prehypertension in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but not pre-diabetes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-H; Wu, J-S; Sun, Z-J; Lu, F-H; Chang, C-S; Chang, C-J; Yang, Y-C

    2016-08-01

    Although the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and prehypertension has been reported in previous studies, it is unknown whether their relationship is similar in subjects with diabetes, pre-diabetes and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This study thus aimed to investigate the relationship between SUA and prehypertension in subjects with different glycemic status, including NGT, pre-diabetes and diabetes. A total of 12 010 participants were included after excluding subjects with blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg, history of hypertension, leukaemia, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, medication for hypertension and hyperuricemia and missing data. Subjects were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles (male Q1: ⩽345.0, Q2: 345.0-392.6, Q3: 392.6-440.2, Q4: ⩾440.2 μmol l(-1) and female Q1: ⩽249.8, Q2: 249.8-285.5, Q3: 285.5-333.1, Q4: ⩾333.1 μmol l(-1)). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and NGT were assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Normotension and prehypertension were defined according to the JNC-7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) criteria. The SUA was significantly higher in prehypertensive subjects as compared with normotensive subjects. SUA, as a continuous variable, was positively associated with prehypertension in subjects with NGT but not pre-diabetes and diabetes. Besides, NGT subjects with the highest quartile of SUA exhibited a higher risk of prehypertension after adjustment for other confounding factors. In pre-diabetes and diabetes groups, none of SUA quartiles was significantly related to prehypertension. SUA was significantly associated with an increased risk of prehypertension in subjects with NGT but insignificantly in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. PMID:26911534

  5. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Parametric Cox models and pooled logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CKD. We observed 238 incident cases of CKD during 70,515.8 person-years of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, the hazard ratios for CKD comparing quartiles 2–4 vs. quartile 1 of serum direct bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  6. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Physical Function Outcome in Persons with or at Higher Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis in the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Carmelita J.; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chmiel, Joan S.; Hayes, Karen W.; Cahue, September; Moisio, Kirsten C.; Chang, Alison H.; Sharma, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate whether low knee confidence at baseline is associated with poor baseline-to-3-year physical function outcome in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Knee confidence was assessed using an item from the KOOS instrument. Physical function was assessed using self-report (WOMAC function, SF-12 physical component scale) and performance-based (20 m walk, chair stand test) measures. Poor function outcome was defined as moving into a worse function group or remaining in the 2 worst function groups between baseline and 3 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline knee confidence and poor baseline-to-3-year function outcome, adjusting for potential confounders. The sample included 3975 men and women with or at higher risk to develop knee OA. 37-53% had poor baseline-to-3-year function outcome. For both self-report measures, increasingly worse knee confidence was associated with a greater risk of poor function outcome and trend tests supported a graded response [e.g., for WOMAC, adjusted OR (95% CI) for worsening confidence categories: 1.26 (1.07, 1.49), 1.43 (1.16, 1.77), 2.05 (1.49, 2.82), p for trend <.0001]. Similar associations between confidence and performance-based function outcome were observed but statistical significance did not persist in adjusted analyses. Factors independently associated with poor function outcome for all 4 outcome measures were depressive symptoms, comorbidity, BMI, and joint space narrowing. Worse knee confidence at baseline was independently associated with greater risk of poor function outcome by self-report measures, with evidence of a graded response; the relationship was not significant for the performance measures in the fully adjusted models. PMID:22135125

  7. Efficacy of azacitidine compared with that of conventional care regimens in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a randomised, open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Fenaux, Pierre; Mufti, Ghulam J; Hellstrom-Lindberg, Eva; Santini, Valeria; Finelli, Carlo; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Schoch, Robert; Gattermann, Norbert; Sanz, Guillermo; List, Alan; Gore, Steven D; Seymour, John F; Bennett, John M; Byrd, John; Backstrom, Jay; Zimmerman, Linda; McKenzie, David; Beach, C L; Silverman, Lewis R

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Drug treatments for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes provide no survival advantage. In this trial, we aimed to assess the effect of azacitidine on overall survival compared with the three commonest conventional care regimens. Methods In a phase III, international, multicentre, controlled, parallel-group, open-label trial, patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes were randomly assigned one-to-one to receive azacitidine (75 mg/m² per day for 7 days every 28 days) or conventional care (best supportive care, low-dose cytarabine, or intensive chemotherapy as selected by investigators before randomisation). Patients were stratified by French–American–British and international prognostic scoring system classifications; randomisation was done with a block size of four. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat for all patients assigned to receive treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00071799. Findings Between Feb 13, 2004, and Aug 7, 2006, 358 patients were randomly assigned to receive azacitidine (n=179) or conventional care regimens (n=179). Four patients in the azacitidine and 14 in the conventional care groups received no study drugs but were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy analysis. After a median follow-up of 21·1 months (IQR 15·1–26·9), median overall survival was 24·5 months (9·9–not reached) for the azacitidine group versus 15·0 months (5·6–24·1) for the conventional care group (hazard ratio 0·58; 95% CI 0·43–0·77; stratified log-rank p=0·0001). At last follow-up, 82 patients in the azacitidine group had died compared with 113 in the conventional care group. At 2 years, on the basis of Kaplan-Meier estimates, 50·8% (95% CI 42·1–58·8) of patients in the azacitidine group were alive compared with 26·2% (18·7–34·3) in the conventional care group (p<0·0001). Peripheral cytopenias were the most

  8. Donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics as risk factors after unrelated donor PBSC transplantation: beneficial effects of higher CD34+ cell dose

    PubMed Central

    Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R.; Leitman, Susan F.; Anderlini, Paolo; Klein, John P.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Miller, John P.; King, Roberta J.; Confer, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    We report outcomes of 932 recipients of unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-PBSC HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome enrolled on a prospective National Marrow Donor Program trial from 1999 through 2003. Preparative regimens included myeloablative (MA; N = 611), reduced-intensity (RI; N = 160), and nonmyeloablative (NMA; N = 161). For MA recipients, CD34+ counts greater than 3.8 × 106/kg improved neutrophil and platelet engraftment, whereas improved overall survival (OS) and reduced transplant-related mortality (TRM) were seen for all preparative regimens when CD34+ cell doses exceeded 4.5 × 106/kg. Higher infused doses of CD34+ cell dose did not result in increased rates of either acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Three-year OS and disease-free survival (DFS) of recipients of MA, RI, and NMA approaches were similar (33%, 35%, and 32% OS; 33%, 30%, and 29% DFS, respectively). In summary, recipients of URD-PBSC HCT receiving preparative regimens differing in intensity experienced similar survival. Higher CD34+ cell doses resulted in more rapid engraftment, less TRM, and better 3-year OS (39% versus 25%, MA, P = .004; 38% versus 21% RI/NMA, P = .004) but did not increase the risk of GVHD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00785525. PMID:19608747

  9. Prior Knowledge, Older Age, and Higher Allowance Are Risk Factors for Self-Medication with Antibiotics among University Students in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui; Cui, Binglin; Zhang, Dangui; Farrar, Jeremy; Law, Frieda; Ba-Thein, William

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) has been reported among university students in many countries, but little research has been done on this issue in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and behaviors of university students and risk factors concerning SMA. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a novel questionnaire-based data collection instrument, an anonymous online survey was conducted with the students of Shantou University (STU), a university comprising 8 schools/colleges in eastern Guangdong, China. Of 1,300 respondents (13.8% of total eligible participants), 47.8% had self-treated with antibiotics. Logistic regression analysis identified prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA), older age, and higher monthly allowance as independent risk factors for SMA. PKA significantly influenced students' knowledge about antibiotics, their uses, and common adverse reactions (all p<0.05). Among self-medicated students, 61.7% used antibiotics at least twice in the previous year. Community pharmacies were the major source of self-prescribed antibiotics. Reported common indications for SMA were sore throat (59.7%), fever (38.2%), cough (37.4%), runny nose (29.3%), and nasal congestion (28.7%). While 74.1% of self-medication episodes were based on students' own experiences, only 31.1% of students claimed to understand the package insert. Alteration of antibiotics and dosage during the course of self-treatment was made by 63.8% and 55.6% of students, respectively. At least two kinds of antibiotics were simultaneously taken by 82.6% of students. The majority of self-medicated students failed to complete the course of antibiotics. Adverse reactions were reported by 16.3% of students. Amoxicillin was the most common antibiotic used for self-medication. Conclusions High prevalence of SMA was noted among STU students. Presence of risk factors and risk-associated behaviors/attitudes in the study population calls for focused educational intervention

  10. The PXR rs7643645 polymorphism is associated with the risk of higher prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F; Lugo-García, Juan A; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  11. The PXR rs7643645 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Risk of Higher Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D.; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A.; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F.; Lugo-García, Juan A.; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  12. Higher FT4 or TSH below the normal range are associated with increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of 11 studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue; Pei, Yuqing; Wang, Fei; Xu, Danfei; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies of thyroid function and dementia have reported conflicting results. We reviewed cohort and case-control studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library that focused on the association between serum thyroxine, thyrotropin and dementia. A total of 24,952 participants from three case-control and eight cohort studies were included. The relationships between dementia and the per standard deviation (SD) increment of free thyroxine (FT4) (random relative ratio (RR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.17) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (fixed RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84–0.99) were well established. TSH levels in the low category were associated with an increased risk of dementia (fixed RR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.27–2.00). However, the positive association was confined to TSH levels below the normal range (fixed RR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.31–2.39), not those in the lower tertile of the normal range (fixed RR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.98–1.97). Additionally, dementia was not significantly associated with high TSH levels (fixed RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.76–1.29). Furthermore, there was no positive association between dementia and the low or high categories of TSH in men. Thus, individuals with higher FT4 levels or those with TSH levels below the normal range have an increased risk of dementia. PMID:27558885

  13. Higher FT4 or TSH below the normal range are associated with increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of 11 studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Pei, Yuqing; Wang, Fei; Xu, Danfei; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies of thyroid function and dementia have reported conflicting results. We reviewed cohort and case-control studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library that focused on the association between serum thyroxine, thyrotropin and dementia. A total of 24,952 participants from three case-control and eight cohort studies were included. The relationships between dementia and the per standard deviation (SD) increment of free thyroxine (FT4) (random relative ratio (RR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.17) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (fixed RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) were well established. TSH levels in the low category were associated with an increased risk of dementia (fixed RR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00). However, the positive association was confined to TSH levels below the normal range (fixed RR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.31-2.39), not those in the lower tertile of the normal range (fixed RR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.98-1.97). Additionally, dementia was not significantly associated with high TSH levels (fixed RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.29). Furthermore, there was no positive association between dementia and the low or high categories of TSH in men. Thus, individuals with higher FT4 levels or those with TSH levels below the normal range have an increased risk of dementia. PMID:27558885

  14. Is a CIS phenotype apparent in children with Disorders of Sex Development? Milder testicular dysgenesis is associated with a higher risk of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chemes, H E; Venara, M; Del Rey, G; Arcari, A J; Musse, M P; Papazian, R; Forclaz, V; Gottlieb, S

    2015-01-01

    All malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) of adult men are preceded by an in situ stage (CIS) of protracted evolution. The adult CIS is well characterized, but there is debate on the phenotype of infantile CIS, its distinction from delayed maturation of germ cells and prognostic potential. A large series of 43 patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and dysgenetic testes (90% ranging from neonates to 12 years, mean age 4.7 years), was studied by quantifying dysgenetic features, degree of germ cell abnormalities/atypia (GCA), expression of OCT 3/4 (a pluripotency-undifferentiation marker), germ cell ploidy and evolution to CIS and invasive TGCT. Findings were compared with those of normal testes. The type of gonads present defined three groups of patients: bilateral testes (BT-DSD, n = 21), one testis and one streak gonad (CT-DSD, C for combined, n = 13), and ovarian-testicular combinations (OT-DSD, n = 9). There were 5 boys with infantile CIS, bilateral in 3 (total of 8 infantile CIS) and two patients with adult CIS, bilateral in one (total of 3 adult CIS). Two patients had bilateral seminomas one at 12-17 and the other at 23 years. Histological dysgenesis was significantly higher in CT-DSD (p < 0.05), that had only 1 CIS. The highest frequency of GCA was in BT-DSD (p < 0.05), which coincided with a total of 11CIS + Seminomas. In all patients, aneuploidy was significantly higher (63%) than diploidy (p < 0.02), and GCA were more frequent in aneuploid than in diploid samples (p < 0.02). All CIS and TGCT were OCT 3/4 positive. Finally, there was a significant association between the triad Aneuploidy + GCA + OCT 3/4 positivity and the incidence of CIS (Fisher Exact test p < 0.002, relative risk 7.0). The degree of testicular dysgenesis (derived from abnormal organization of Sertoli cells in fetal testicular cords) is inversely related to the incidence of CIS. Our data demonstrate that the combined use of OCT 3/4 expression

  15. Children with ADHD Symptoms Have a Higher Risk for Reading, Spelling and Math Difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Czamara, Darina; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Kohlböck, Gabriele; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schaaf, Beate; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20–60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10−13) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10−04). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based. PMID:23724008

  16. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of the Pelvic Lymph Nodes to the Aortic Bifurcation in Higher Risk Prostate Cancer: Early Toxicity Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hesselberg, Gina; Fogarty, Gerald; Haydu, Lauren; Dougheney, Nicole; Stricker, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) in higher risk prostate carcinoma is controversial. The primary focus of the study was to evaluate the early toxicity profile for this cohort of patients treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Methods. Patient, tumour, and treatment characteristics of those who received VMAT from May 2010 to December 2012 were analysed. A simplified contouring process of the PLNs to the aortic bifurcation was developed based on consensus guidelines. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were documented according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Version 2 Guidelines. Successive Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) values after treatment were measured on average 3 months apart. Results. 113 patients were treated between May 2010 to December 2012 with a median follow-up of 14 months. No patients experienced acute grade 3 or 4 GU and GI toxicity. Only 1 patient experienced a late grade 3 GU complication. No late grade 4 GU or GI events have yet occurred. Conclusions. This study reviews the first Australian experience of VMAT in the treatment of pelvic lymph nodes in prostate cancer, specifically to the level of the aortic bifurcation. It demonstrates a favorable acute toxicity profile whilst treating large PLN volumes with optimal dose coverage. PMID:26539522

  17. Female attempted suicide patients with low HDL levels are at higher risk of suicide re-attempt within the subsequent year: a clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emet, Mucahit; Yucel, Atakan; Ozcan, Halil; Akgol Gur, Sultan Tuna; Saritemur, Murat; Bulut, Nevzat; Gumusdere, Musa

    2015-01-30

    Our aims were, to clarify the blood lipid differences [Total serum cholesterol (TC), High-density lipoprotein (HDL), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Triglyceride (TG)] between female patients who had attempted suicide and controls and to determine whether we could use the patients׳ initial lipid profiles to predict suicide re-attempt within the subsequent year. A total of 284 participants (110 cases and 174 controls) were recruited, with no differences in body mass index, age, blood sampling time and gender. Blood samples were collected from all participants for serum lipid profiles and assayed in an auto-analyzer. We divided the suicide re-attempter group into suicide attempters in the subsequent year (SSY) and suicide attempters after the subsequent year (SASY). The TC, LDL, and TG levels were significantly lower in the suicidal group than in the control group. HDL was significantly higher in the suicidal group than in the control group. Low TG (<70mg/dL) (OR (odds ratio)=12.8; 95% CI (confidence interval)=5.4-30.5; p<0.0001)and low LDL/HDL (<1.8) (OR=4.1; 95% CI=1.8-9.3; p=0.001) were significantly associated with a current suicide attempt. HDL levels in the SSY (41.5±4.5mg/dL) were lower than in the non-suicide attempters group (NSA) (50.9±10.3mg/dL) and SASY (58.7±12.8mg/dL)(d.f.=2, F=5.2, p=0.007). Serum HDL level may be a potential candidate predictor for the future risk of suicidality. PMID:25482392

  18. Do telomeres have a higher plasticity than thought? Results from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study as a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Titze, Stephanie; Köttgen, Anna; Bärthlein, Barbara; Ekici, Arif B; Forer, Lukas; Schönherr, Sebastian; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Haun, Margot; Wanner, Christoph; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Telomere length is considered as a biological marker for aging. It is expected that telomeres shorten with age and with conditions associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Both are present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have a very high cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether CKD duration is associated with relative telomere length (RTL) in 4802 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. We measured RTL in each sample in quadruplicates using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We observed a U-shaped association of RTL with CKD duration: the longest RTL was found in those 339 patients who reported the shortest disease duration (<6 months) and shorter RTL in 2108 patients with duration between 6 months and less than 5 years. Most importantly, those 2331 patients who reported a CKD duration of 5 years and more had significantly longer RTL compared to those with intermediate CKD duration (6 months to less than 5 years): mean 0.954, 95%CI 0.946-0.961 versus 0.937, 95%CI 0.929-0.944, p=0.002). Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study these surprising results have to be considered with caution and as hypothesis-generating. Whether the longer RTL in patients with long-lasting disease is caused by an activation of telomerase to counteract the shortening of RTL due to oxidative stress and inflammation or whether they are caused by a survival bias needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies. Our data are in support of a higher plasticity of shortening and elongations of RTL as until recently anticipated. PMID:26423240

  19. Anomalous equivalent potential temperature: an atmospheric feature predicting days with higher risk for fatal outcome in acute ischemic stroke-a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Folyovich, András; Biczó, Dávid; Al-Muhanna, Nadim; Béres-Molnár, Anna K; Fejős, Ádám; Pintér, Ádám; Bereczki, Dániel; Fischer, Antal; Vadasdi, Károly; Pintér, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Acute stroke is a life-threatening condition. Fatal outcome is related to risk factors, some of these affected by climatic changes. Forecasting potentially harmful atmospheric processes may therefore be of practical importance in the acute care of stroke patients. We analyzed the history of all patients with acute ischemic stroke (N = 184) confirmed by neuroimaging including those who died (N = 35, 15 males) at our hospital department in the winter months of 2009. Patient data were anonymized, and the human meteorologists were only aware of patients' age, gender, and exact time of death. Of the meteorological parameters, equivalent potential temperature (EPT) has been chosen for analysis. EPT is generally used for forecasting thunderstorms, but in the case of synoptic scale airflow (10(6) m), it is suitable for characterizing the air mass inflowing from different regions. The behavior of measured EPT values was compared to the climatic (30 years) averages. We developed meteorological criteria for anomalous periods of EPT and tested if such periods are associated with higher rate of fatal outcome. The duration of anomalous and non-anomalous periods was nearly equal during the studied 3 months. Stroke onset distributed similarly between anomalous and non-anomalous days; however, of the 35 deaths, 27 occurred during anomalous periods: on average, 0.56 deaths occurred on anomalous days and 0.19 on non-anomalous days. Winter periods meeting the criteria of anomalous EPT may have a significant adverse human-meteorological impact on the outcome in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26233665

  20. Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both testosterone and vitamin D levels affect muscle and thus may also affect risk of falling. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex hormone levels and the risk of falling in older men and women. 199 men and 246 women age 65 or older living at home followed for 3 years...

  1. HIV Prevalence and Incidence in a Cohort of Women at Higher Risk for HIV Acquisition in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Paul J.; Enosse, Sónia; Dubé, Karine; Arnaldo, Paulo; Muluana, Chadreque; Banze, Reginaldo; Nhanala, Aristides; Cunaca, Joana; Chen, Pai-Lien; Robb, Merlin L.; Thompson, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable HIV incidence estimates for Mozambique are limited. We conducted a prospective HIV incidence study as part of a clinical research site development initiative in Chókwè district, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Methods Between June 2010 and October 2012, we recruited women at sites where women at higher risk of HIV infection would likely be found. We enrolled and tested 1,429 sexually active women in the screening phase and 479 uninfected women in the prospective phase. Participants were scheduled for 12+ months follow-up, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. We observed a total of 373.1 woman-years (WY) of follow-up, with mean (median) of 9.4 (9.7) women-months per participant. Results The prevalence of HIV was 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.0–31.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors that remained significantly associated with prevalent HIV were: older age (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7), lower educational level (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and using hormonal contraception (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7) or condoms (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). We observed an HIV incidence rate of 4.6 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.7, 7.3). The HIV incidence was 4.8 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.5, 8.3) in women aged 18–24 years, 4.5 per 100 WY (95% CI: 1.2, 11.4) in women aged 25–29 years and 3.2 per 100 WY (95% CI: 0.1, 18.0) in the 30–35 years stratum. None of the demographic factors or time-varying behavioral factors examined was significantly associated with incident HIV infection in bivariable analysis at p≤0.10. Conclusions We found a high HIV incidence among sexually active young women in Chókwè, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened in the area, with more comprehensive reproductive health services, regular HIV testing, condom promotion, and messaging about multiple sexual partners. PMID:24842811

  2. What Are the Recommended Timing and Screening Modalities in Women at Higher Risk for Developing Breast Cancer? A Clin-IQ

    PubMed Central

    Jatala, Summer; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Tietze, Pamela; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.; Wickersham, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer is desirable to prevent progression to advanced disease. This subject has been one of significant study and debate for women at normal risk, and recommendations continue to evolve. However, with regard to women at high risk, the recommendations from various health care professional organizations, including the recent recommendations from the United States Preventative Services Task Force, are different and also inconsistent concerning when to begin screening and which modalities should be used. We review several randomized controlled trials and consensus opinions regarding when to begin screening for breast cancer and how to best screen women at high risk. Specifically, we address women with known personal history of breast cancer, prior mantle radiation, or specific family history (including genetic family history) of breast cancer. The purpose of this inquiry is to present current evidence and suggest a clinical pathway regarding the screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. PMID:26848484

  3. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths {>=}10mm, and margin distances {<=}4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  4. A four-stage model explaining the higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asians compared with European populations.

    PubMed

    Bhopal, R S

    2013-01-01

    With approximately 1.5 billion people at risk, the staggeringly high risk of Type 2 diabetes in South Asians comprises a global problem. The causes of this high risk are complex, with 23 major risk factors identified in a Lancet seminar. This paper proposes a four-stage explanatory model: (1) the birth of a small, adipose, lowlean mass South Asian baby--the phenotype tracking through life; (2) in childhood and early adulthood, the deposition of any excess energy intake preferentially in upper body and ectopic fat stores rather than in the lower body or superficial subcutaneous fat stores; (3) as a consequence of points 1 and 2, and exacerbated by an environment of low physical activity and excess calories, the accelerated appearance of high levels of plasma insulin, triglycerides and glucose, and the fatty-liver vicious cycle; (4) β-cell failure as a result of fewer β-cells at birth, exposure to apoptotic triggers such as fat in the pancreas, and high demand from insulin resistance, which causes diabetes. Other risk factors--especially energy-dense hyperglycaemic diet and low physical activity--play into this pathway. The recommended behavioural changes fit with this model, which brings clarity to guide future research, policy, practice and health promotion. PMID:22998210

  5. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A Polymorphisms Are Significantly Associated with Higher Cancer Risk: An Updated Meta-Analysis from 34 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Qin, Qin; Liu, Jia; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhao, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Qu; Cai, Jing; Ma, Jian-Xin; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background HIF-1 activates various genes in cancer progression and metastasis. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are reportedly associated with cancer risk; however, the results are inconclusive. Methodology/Principal Findings A meta-analysis of 34 studies that involved 7522 cases and 9847 controls for 1772 C/T and 24 studies that involved 4884 cases and 8154 controls for 1790 G/A was conducted to identify the association of C/T and G/A polymorphisms with cancer risk. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms were associated with higher cancer risk in homozygote comparison (1772C/T: TT vs. CC: OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.96; Pheterogeneity = 0.028; 1790G/A: AA vs. GG: OR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.78, 12.6; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), dominant model (1772C/T: TT/CT vs. CC: OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55; Pheterogeneity < 0.01, 1790G/A: AA/GA vs. GG: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.60; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), T allele versus C allele (T vs. C: OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.70; Pheterogeneity < 0.01), and A allele versus G allele (A vs. G: OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.96; Pheterogeneity < 0.01). On a subgroup analysis, the 1772 C/T polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer, whereas the 1790 G/A polymorphism was significantly linked to higher risks for lung cancer and prostate cancer. A significantly increased cancer risk was found in both Asians and Caucasians for 1772C/T polymorphism, whereas a significantly increased cancer risk was found in Caucasians in the heterozygote comparison and recessive model for 1790G/A polymorphism. Conclusions HIF-1α 1772 C/T and 1790 G/A polymorphisms are significantly associated with higher cancer risk. PMID:24260383

  6. Albuminuria and Racial Disparities in the Risk for ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, David G.; Judd, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul; Kewalramani, Reshma; Cushman, Mary; McClure, Leslie A.; Newsome, Britt B.; Howard, George

    2011-01-01

    The causes of the increased risk for ESRD among African Americans are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether higher levels of urinary albumin excretion among African Americans contributes to this disparity. We analyzed data from 27,911 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who had urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated GFR (eGFR) measured at baseline. We identified incident cases of ESRD through linkage with the United States Renal Data System. At baseline, African Americans were less likely to have an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 but more likely to have an ACR ≥30 mg/g. The incidence rates of ESRD among African Americans and whites were 204 and 58.6 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age and gender, African Americans had a fourfold greater risk for developing ESRD (HR 4.0; 95% CI 2.8 to 5.9) compared with whites. Additional adjustment for either eGFR or ACR reduced the risk associated with African-American race to 2.3-fold (95% CI 1.5 to 3.3) or 1.8-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 2.7), respectively. Adjustment for both ACR and eGFR reduced the race-associated risk to 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.4). Finally, in a model that further adjusted for both eGFR and ACR, hypertension, diabetes, family income, and educational status, African-American race associated with a nonsignificant 1.4-fold (95% CI 0.9 to 2.3) higher risk for ESRD. In conclusion, the increased prevalence of albuminuria may be an important contributor to the higher risk for ESRD experienced by African Americans. PMID:21868498

  7. Maternal hypertension with nifedipine treatment associated with a higher risk for right-sided obstructive defects of the heart: a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Vereczkey, Attila; Gerencsér, Balázs; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish possible aetiological factors contributing to congenital heart defects (CHD) overall and separately for different types of CHD, as causes are unknown for the vast majority of patients. Design To estimate a possible association with maternal diseases and related drug treatments as exposures in the mothers of cases with right-sided obstructive defects of the heart (RSODH). Setting A large population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities data set. Patients Newborn infants with four types of RSODH based on autopsy or surgical records. Interventions Comparison of 200 live-born cases with RSODH including 72 (36.0%) with pulmonary valve stenosis, 13 (6.5%) with tricuspid atresia/stenosis, 7 (3.5%) with Ebstein's anomaly and 108 (54.0%) with pulmonary atresia, with 304 matched controls and 38 151 population controls without any defects. Main outcome measures Risk of any RSODH and risk of each type of RSODH. Results High blood pressure, particularly chronic hypertension with nifedipine treatment, was associated with a risk for RSODH (OR 7.03, 95% CI 3.13 to 13.84). High doses of folic acid reduced the birth prevalence of pulmonary atresia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.53). Conclusions The multifactorial threshold model provides the best explanation for the origins of RSODH. Genetic predisposition may be triggered by maternal hypertension with nifedipine treatment, while the risk for pulmonary atresia is reduced by high doses of folic acid in early pregnancy.

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  12. Higher breakfast glycaemic load is associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk, including lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations and increased TAG concentrations, in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Analise; du Heaume, Mary; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Oddy, Wendy H; Bremner, Alexandra P; O'Sullivan, Therese A

    2014-12-28

    Almost all previous studies examining the associations between glycaemic load (GL) and metabolic syndrome risk have used a daily GL value. The daily value does not distinguish between peaks of GL intake over the day, which may be more closely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily and mealtime measures of GL and metabolic syndrome risk, including metabolic syndrome components, in adolescents. Adolescents participating in the 14-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed 3 d food records and metabolic assessments. Breakfast GL, lunch GL, dinner GL and a score representing meal GL peaks over the day were determined in 516 adolescents. Logistic regression models were used to investigate whether GL variables were independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome in this population-based cohort (3.5% prevalence of the metabolic syndrome). Breakfast GL was found to be predictive of the metabolic syndrome in girls (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27; P <0.01), but not in boys. Other meal GL values and daily GL were found to be not significant predictors of the metabolic syndrome. When breakfast GL was examined in relation to each of the components of the metabolic syndrome in girls, it was found to be negatively associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P= 0.037; β = - 0.004; 95% CI - 0.008, - 0.002) and positively associated with fasting TAG concentrations (P= 0.008; exp(β) = 1.002; 95% CI 1.001, 1.004). he results of the present study suggest that there may be an association between breakfast composition and metabolic syndrome components in adolescent girls. These findings support further investigation into including lower-GL foods as part of a healthy breakfast in adolescence, particularly for girls. PMID:25327283

  13. HIV-1 subtype C is not associated with higher risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission: a multinational study among African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Erin; Campbell, Mary; Lingappa, Jairam; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Ondondo, Raphael; Mujugira, Andrew; Fife, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Kapiga, Saidi; Mullins, James I.; Baeten, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 subtype C has emerged as the most prevalent strain of HIV-1 worldwide, leading to speculation that subtype C may be more transmissible than other subtypes. We compared the risk of HIV-1 transmission for subtype C versus non-C subtypes (A, D, G and recombinant forms) among heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Methods We conducted a nested case-control analysis using data from two prospective cohort studies of heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from 6 countries in eastern and southern Africa. Cases (N=121) included incident HIV-1 transmissions that were established as linked within the serodiscordant partnership by viral sequencing; controls (N=501) were non-transmitting HIV-1 infected partners. Subtype was determined for partial env and gag genes. Multiple logistic regression controlled for age and gender of the HIV-1 infected partner and self-reported unprotected sex. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations were compared between subtype C and non-C subtypes using generalized estimating equations. Results HIV-1 subtype C was not associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission compared to non-C subtypes: env adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–1.75, p=0.6) and gag adjOR 0.98 (95% CI 0.63–1.52, p=0.9). Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels did not differ significantly for subtype C versus non-C. Conclusion In a geographically diverse population of heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, subtype C was not associated with greater risk of HIV-1 transmission compared to non-C subtypes, arguing against the hypothesis that subtype C is more transmissible compared to other common subtypes. PMID:24413311

  14. Higher Serum Ferritin Levels Correlate with an Increased Risk of Cutaneous Morbidity in Adult Patients with β-Thalassemia: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Skandalis, Konstantinos; Vlachos, Christoforos; Pliakou, Xanthi; Gaitanis, Georgios; Kapsali, Eleni; Bassukas, Ioannis D

    2016-01-01

    Disturbed iron homeostasis characterizes β-thalassemia and increases its morbidity. Our aim was to retrospectively associate β-thalassemia disease characteristics with treatment-requiring skin conditions. The files of adult β-thalassemia (including sickle β-thalassemia) patients were screened over a 10-year period for treatment-requiring skin disease episodes and their correlation with hematologic diagnoses and epidemiological and serological characteristics. Seventy-eight patients were identified, and 7 (9%) developed at least one relevant episode including cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis (CSVV), urticaria, and leg ulcers. Average ferritin serum level correlated significantly with development of a dermatosis (2,034 ± 799 μg/l in cases vs. 920 ± 907 μg/l in the overall population; p = 0.001, ANOVA). This difference relied exclusively on the high ferritin levels observed in patients with 'generalized' dermatoses (urticaria and CSVV: 3,860 ± 1,220 μg/l) as opposed to values within the normal range in the case of 'localized' ones (leg ulcers: 662 ± 167 μg/l). The employed iron chelation treatment influenced ferritin levels (p = 0.002, Kruskal-Wallis test) since chelation with a single agent seems to increase the risk of a skin disease (p = 0.013, likelihood ratio method). Conclusively, serum ferritin can be evaluated as risk factor for generalized dermatoses, but not for leg ulcers, in patients with the β-thalassemia genotype. This risk can be efficiently controlled with adequate chelation. PMID:26509267

  15. Co-morbid psychological dysfunction is associated with a higher risk of asthma exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hong-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal associations between psychological dysfunction (PD) and asthma exacerbations (AE) have not been adequately addressed. This study aimed to systematically assess the influence of PD on AE, and to determine whether different PD affects AE differentially. Methods Electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Embase, and Ovid) were searched for prospective cohort studies on the influence of PD on AE in individuals with asthma. Relative risk (RR) and adjusted RR (RRadj) were pooled across studies. Subgroup analyses assessed the effects of different types of PD and the time-dependent response to the duration of PD exposure. Results Ten articles that involved 31,432 adults with asthma with follow-up of 6.0–86.4 months were included. PD significantly increased the risk of AE [RRadj =1.06, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.04–1.09, P<0.001], presenting as hospitalizations (RRadj =1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.34, P<0.001), unscheduled doctor visits (RR =4.26, 95% CI: 2.52–7.19), and emergency department (ED) visits (RRadj =1.06, 95% CI: 1.01–1.10, P=0.009) because of asthma. Depression significantly increased the risk of AE (RRadj =1.07, 95% CI: 1.04–1.11, P<0.001), presenting as hospitalizations (RRadj =1.26, 95% CI: 1.07–1.49, P=0.007) and ED visits (RRadj =1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11, P=0.007) because of asthma. Anxiety was only associated with an increased risk of AE in pregnant women (RR =1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.08), possibly due to the small amount of data available on anxiety. The influence of PD on AE was only significant when the PD exposure time exceeded one year. Conclusions Co-morbid PD adversely affects AE, and there are differential effects of depression and anxiety. Asthmatic subjects with PD may benefit from more attention when establishing a treatment regimen in clinical practice. PMID:27293845

  16. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

    PubMed Central

    LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods. PMID:23583963

  17. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  18. Higher TSH can be used as an additional risk factor in prediction of malignancy in euthyroid thyroid nodules evaluated by cytology based on Bethesda system.

    PubMed

    Baser, Husniye; Topaloglu, Oya; Tam, Abbas Ali; Evranos, Berna; Alkan, Afra; Sungu, Nuran; Dumlu, Ersin Gurkan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2016-08-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that thyrotropin (TSH) concentration can be used as a marker for prediction of thyroid malignancy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between TSH levels and prediction of malignancy in euthyroid patients with different Bethesda categories. The data of 1433 euthyroid patients with 3206 thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy were screened retrospectively. The preoperative cytology results, thyroid function tests, thyroid autoantibodies, and presence of histopathological Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) were recorded. Of the 1433 patients, 585 (40.8 %) had malignant and 848 (59.2 %) had benign histopathology. Malignant group had smaller nodule size, elevated TSH levels, and higher rate of presence of HT compared to benign group (p < 0.001, all). Cytology results of 3206 nodules were as follows: 832 nondiagnostic (ND), 1666 benign, 392 atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), 68 follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN), 133 suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 115 malignant. Both SM and malignant cytology groups had higher TSH levels than other 4 Bethesda categories (p < 0.05, all). Benign cytology group had significantly lower TSH levels compared to other cytology groups (p < 0.05, all). Patients with malignant final histopathology in ND and AUS/FLUS cytology groups had significantly higher TSH levels compared to patients with benign final histopathology (p < 0.05, all). Moreover, TSH levels showed to increase from Bethesda categories II to VI. In addition to cytology, higher TSH levels can be used as a supplementary marker in prediction of malignancy in certain Bethesda categories. PMID:26972701

  19. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Patients and methods In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Results Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. Conclusions We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and

  20. Loss of breast epithelial marker hCLCA2 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and indicates higher risk of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Walia, V; Yu, Y; Cao, D; Sun, M; McLean, J R; Hollier, B G; Cheng, J; Mani, S A; Rao, K; Premkumar, L; Elble, R C

    2012-04-26

    Transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states is a feature of both normal development and tumor progression. We report that expression of chloride channel accessory protein hCLCA2 is a characteristic of epithelial differentiation in the immortalized MCF10A and HMLE models, while induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by cell dilution, TGFβ or mesenchymal transcription factors sharply reduces hCLCA2 levels. Attenuation of hCLCA2 expression by lentiviral small hairpin RNA caused cell overgrowth and focus formation, enhanced migration and invasion, and increased mammosphere formation in methylcellulose. These changes were accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and fibronectin. Moreover, hCLCA2 expression is greatly downregulated in breast cancer cells with a mesenchymal or claudin-low profile. These observations suggest that loss of hCLCA2 may promote metastasis. We find that higher-than-median expression of hCLCA2 is associated with a one-third lower rate of metastasis over an 18-year period among breast cancer patients compared with lower-than-median (n=344, unfiltered for subtype). Thus, hCLCA2 is required for epithelial differentiation, and its loss during tumor progression contributes to metastasis. Overexpression of hCLCA2 has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and is accompanied by increases in chloride current at the plasma membrane and reduced intracellular pH (pHi). We found that knockdown cells have sharply reduced chloride current and higher pHi, both characteristics of tumor cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the effects on differentiation. Loss of hCLCA2 may allow escape from pHi homeostatic mechanisms, permitting the higher intracellular and lower extracellular pH that are characteristic of aggressive tumor cells. PMID:21909135

  1. Novel genetic predictors of venous thromboembolism risk in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wenndy; Gamazon, Eric R.; Smithberger, Erin; O’Brien, Travis J.; Harralson, Arthur F.; Tuck, Matthew; Barbour, April; Kittles, Rick A.; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular condition in the United States, with African Americans (AAs) having a 30% to 60% higher incidence compared with other ethnicities. The mechanisms underlying population differences in the risk of VTE are poorly understood. We conducted the first genome-wide association study in AAs, comprising 578 subjects, followed by replication of highly significant findings in an independent cohort of 159 AA subjects. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between genetic variants and VTE risk. Through bioinformatics analysis of the top signals, we identified expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in whole blood and investigated the messenger RNA expression differences in VTE cases and controls. We identified and replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 20 (rs2144940, rs2567617, and rs1998081) that increased risk of VTE by 2.3-fold (P < 6 × 10−7). These risk variants were found in higher frequency among populations of African descent (>20%) compared with other ethnic groups (<10%). We demonstrate that SNPs on chromosome 20 are cis-eQTLs for thrombomodulin (THBD), and the expression of THBD is lower among VTE cases compared with controls (P = 9.87 × 10−6). We have identified novel polymorphisms associated with increased risk of VTE in AAs. These polymorphisms are predominantly found among populations of African descent and are associated with THBD gene expression. Our findings provide new molecular insight into a mechanism regulating VTE susceptibility and identify common genetic variants that increase the risk of VTE in AAs, a population disproportionately affected by this disease. PMID:26888256

  2. Cigarette smoking topography among alternative school youth: why African American youth smoke less but are at higher long-term risk.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Kelder, Steven H; Johnson, Regina Jones; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Meshack, Angela; Jefferson, Troy; Essien, E James

    2012-01-01

    A paradox exists in health disparities research where African-American cigarette smokers consume fewer cigarettes per day, yet experience higher rates of tobacco-related disease compared to White American smokers. In this study we conducted focus group interviews among alternative high school youth (N = 78; age 18-19 years old) in an urban area in Southwest Texas to investigate if African-American youth smoke cigarettes differently than their White-American and Hispanic-American counterparts. The majority of African-American participants reported inhaling deeper and smoking their cigarettes "to the filter" because of their concern over wasting any part of an expensive cigarette. White and Hispanic respondents most often put out their cigarettes closer to the middle, and did not express concern about wasting cigarettes. The implication from this qualitative study is that because African Americans smoke differently they are exposed to a higher level of harmful particulate per cigarette. Further research on smoking topography is warranted. PMID:23061325

  3. Different levels in orexin concentrations and risk factors associated with higher orexin levels: comparison between detoxified opiate and methamphetamine addicts in 5 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoran; Lian, Zhi; Yan, Shiyan; Bao, Yanping; Liu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC) in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P < 0.05). Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than "chasing the dragon" (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2-7.9). No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome. PMID:24102051

  4. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  5. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    PubMed Central

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Stephenson, Robert; Cox, Angela; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; FitzGerald, Liesel; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Guy, Michelle; Dadaev, Tokhir; Little, Sarah J.; Govindasami, Koveela; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Herkommer, Kathleen; Hopper, John L.; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of PrCa. Methods We genotyped 25 PrCa susceptibility loci in 40,414 individuals and derived a polygenic risk score (PRS). We estimated empirical Odds Ratios for PrCa associated with different risk strata defined by PRS and derived age-specific absolute risks of developing PrCa by PRS stratum and family history. Results The PrCa risk for men in the top 1% of the PRS distribution was 30.6 (95% CI 16.4-57.3) fold compared with men in the bottom 1%, and 4.2 (95% CI 3.2-5.5) fold compared with the median risk. The absolute risk of PrCa by age 85 was 65.8% for a man with family history in the top 1% of the PRS distribution, compared with 3.7% for a man in the bottom 1%. The PRS was only weakly correlated with serum PSA level (correlation=0.09). Conclusions Risk profiling can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk of PrCa. The effect size, measured by OR per unit PRS, was higher in men at younger ages and in men with family history of PrCa. Incorporating additional newly identified loci into a PRS should improve the predictive value of risk profiles. Impact We demonstrate that the risk profiling based on SNPs can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk that could have useful implications for targeted prevention and screening programs. PMID:25837820

  6. Efficacy and toxicity of decitabine versus CHG regimen (low-dose cytarabine, homoharringtonine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) in patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chunkang; Xu, Feng; He, Qi; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Zheng; Su, Jiying; Zhou, Liyu; Song, Luxi; Chao, Xiao; Zhao, Youshan

    2016-06-01

    Decitabine and CHG regimen (low-dose cytarabine and homoharringtonine with G-CSF) have been used for treating higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In this study, we retrospectively compared the efficacy and toxicity of the two regimens in 132 MDS patients. Complete remission (CR) was not significantly different between the groups (27.1% with decitabine vs. 30.6% with CHG, p = 0.657). The CR rate with decitabine (58.8%) was significantly higher than that with CHG (7.7%) (p = 0.007) among the patients with poor karyotypes. Five of 23 (21.7%) patients who failed to respond to decitabine achieved CR with CHG, while one of two patients achieved CR with decitabine after failure with CHG. Overall and relapse-free survival were not different between the groups. In conclusion, both decitabine and CHG regimen are effective for higher risk MDS; there is no cross resistance between the regimens. Decitabine might be a better choice for patients with poor karyotypes. PMID:26397697

  7. Little evidence that hepatitis C virus leads to a higher risk of mortality in the absence of cirrhosis and excess alcohol intake: the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, L; Spicher, V M; Negro, F; Rickenbach, M; Zwahlen, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause mortality of participants in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort compared to the Swiss general population. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection attending secondary and tertiary care centres in Switzerland. One thousand six hundred and forty-five patients with HCV infection were followed up for a mean of over 2 years. We calculated all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using age, sex and calendar year-specific Swiss all-cause mortality rates. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to model the variability of SMR by cirrhotic status, HCV genotype, infection with hepatitis B virus or HIV, injection drug use and alcohol intake. Sixty-one deaths were recorded out of 1645 participants. The crude all-cause SMR was 4.5 (95% CI: 3.5-5.8). Patients co-infected with HIV had a crude SMR of 20 (95% CI: 11.1-36.1). The SMR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.63-2.03) for patients who were not cirrhotic, not infected with HBV or HIV, did not inject drugs, were not heavy alcohol consumers (risk factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of providing appropriate preventive advice, such as counselling to avoid alcohol intake, in those infected with HCV. PMID:19243494

  8. Younger Age at Crisis Following Parental Death in Male Children and Adolescents is Associated with Higher Risk for Dementia at Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of midlife report of crisis following parental death (CFPD) during childhood and adolescence, with dementia at old age. Methods In 1965, 9362 male participants of the Israel Ischemic Heart disease (IIHD) study were asked whether they have experienced CFPD (paternal or maternal) during the following ages: 0–6. 7–12. 13–18 or >18 years. Dementia was assessed over three decades later in 1889 survivors of the original cohort, 1,652 of whom were assessed for CFPD in 1965. Results Controlling for age, the estimated odds for dementia relative to individuals who reported crisis following paternal parental death (CFPR-P) at the age of 18 and above, were 3.06 (95%CI 1.42–6.61), 2.15 (95% CI 0.87–5.31) and 2.35 (95%CI 1.05–5.28) for those who reported CFPD-P at the ages of 0–6, 7–12 and 13–18 respectively. Odds for dementia were 0.60 (95% CI 0.32–1.11) for participants who reported CFPD-P at ages of 18 and above, compared to participants who did not report such a crisis. Similar results were obtained for the association of crisis reported following maternal parental death (CFPD-M) at different age groups and dementia. Conclusions CFPD during childhood is associated with increased risk for dementia in males who survived until old age. PMID:21537146

  9. SULT 1A3 single-nucleotide polymorphism and the single dose pharmacokinetics of inhaled salbutamol enantiomers: are some athletes at risk of higher urine levels?

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Yee, Kwang Choon; Wood-Baker, Richard; Walters, E Haydn

    2015-02-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of a common genetic variation of the main salbutamol metabolizing enzyme SULT1A3 (single nucleotide polymorphism 105A>G, rs1975350) on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of salbutamol. Subjects were administered a 400 µg dose of inhaled salbutamol via a large volume spacer and blood samples were collected over 4 h. Plasma levels of (R)- and (S)-salbutamol were determined by an enantioselective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Twenty-five subjects with asthma were recruited and underwent SULT1A3 genotyping, from which four SNP homozygote (GG) subjects and nine wild-type (AA) subjects were selected to participated in the pharmacokinetic investigation. There were no differences in pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2 , Cmax , AUC0-4h ) between SNP and wild-type genotypes for either the R- or S-enantiomer. Observed Cmax of R- and S-salbutamol [mean (SD)] was 0.64 (0.30) ng/mL and 1.32 (0.98) ng/mL, respectively. The mean t1/2 of R- and S-salbutamol was estimated at 2.94 (1.17) h and 7.86 (6.14) h respectively. The AUC0-4h of R- and S-salbutamol was 14.0 (6.8) and 38.3 (19.5) ng/mL.h respectively. In conclusion, the common SULT1A3 SNP 105A>G is not an important determinant of salbutamol enantiomer pharmacokinetics under normal clinical use and does not place some individuals at greater risk of accumulation in the body. PMID:24692077

  10. Total Arterial Revascularization with Radial Artery T-grafts in Patients with Significant Left Main Stem Stenosis Is Not Associated with Higher Perioperative Risk.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, Felix; Reitz, Michael; Cebotari, Serghei; Kaufeld, Tim; Haverich, Axel; Shrestha, Malakh; Ismail, Issam; Martens, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Background Total arterial revascularization (TAR) has become a standard procedure for the treatment of coronary multivessel disease, due to the superior long-term patency rates of arterial grafts as compared with saphenous vein graft material. Controversies about the use of TAR in patients with left main coronary artery disease exist. Hence, we ought to determine whether left main coronary artery disease is a risk factor for early postoperative mortality and morbidity after TAR using the in situ left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and radial artery as composite T-graft. Methods A total of 904 consecutive patients were included in this retrospective study. They underwent first-time coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in our institution, receiving TAR using the in situ LITA and RA T-graft. Of these patients, 247 (27%) had left main coronary artery disease (Group LMSS) and 657 (73%) had no significant left main coronary artery stenosis (Group nLMSS). Results Results were comparable. Mortality and perioperative myocardial infarction rates were 0.4% LMSS versus 0.3% nLMSS, p = 1, and 2% LMSS versus 2% nLMSS, p = 0.81, respectively. Stroke rate, acute renal failure rate, and reoperation rates were 2% LMSS versus 1% nLMSS, p = 0.36, 7% LMSS versus 8% nLMSS, p = 0.41, and 2% LMSS versus 3% nLMSS, p = 0.5, respectively. Postoperative stay was shorter in the LMSS group (8.1 ± 4.3 days vs. 8.9 ± 6.1 days nLMSS, p = 0.048). Conclusion Our perioperative results indicate that TAR in patients with left main stenosis is safe and feasible. Long-term results will have to be awaited to further evaluate prognostic outcome. PMID:26334240

  11. A Mediterranean Diet Enriched with Olive Oil Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Osteocalcin Levels in Elderly Men at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341

  12. Magnitude of Virologic Blips Is Associated With a Higher Risk for Virologic Rebound in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Recurrent Events Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grennan, J. Troy; Loutfy, Mona R.; Su, DeSheng; Harrigan, P. Richard; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Rourke, Sean; Tsoukas, Christos; Hogg, Bob

    2012-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Taiwo and Bosch, on pages 1189–91.) Background. The importance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) blip magnitude on virologic rebound has been raised in clinical guidelines relating to viral load assays. Methods. Antiretroviral-naive individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after 1 January 2000 and achieving virologic suppression were studied. Negative binomial models were used to identify blip correlates. Recurrent event models were used to determine the association between blips and rebound by incorporating multiple periods of virologic suppression per individual. Results. 3550 participants (82% male; median age, 40 years) were included. In a multivariable negative binomial regression model, the Amplicor assay was associated with a lower blip rate than branched DNA (rate ratio, 0.69; P < .01), controlling for age, sex, region, baseline HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count, AIDS-defining illnesses, year of cART initiation, cART type, and HIV-1 RNA testing frequency. In a multivariable recurrent event model controlling for age, sex, intravenous drug use, cART start year, cART type, assay type, and HIV-1 RNA testing frequency, blips of 500–999 copies/mL were associated with virologic rebound (hazard ratio, 2.70; P = .002), whereas blips of 50–499 were not. Conclusions. HIV-1 RNA assay was an important determinant of blip rates and should be considered in clinical guidelines. Blips ≥500 copies/mL were associated with increased rebound risk. PMID:22438396

  13. Basal Subtype of Invasive Breast Cancer Is Associated With a Higher Risk of True Recurrence After Conventional Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Sreedhara, Meera; Freer, Phoebe E.; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Wong, Julia S.; Harris, Jay R.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether breast cancer subtype is associated with patterns of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), either true recurrence (TR) or elsewhere local recurrence (ELR), among women with pT1-T2 invasive breast cancer (IBC) who receive breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From Jan 1998 to Dec 2003, 1,223 women with pT1-T2N0-3 IBC were treated with BCT (lumpectomy plus whole-breast radiation). Ninety percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy, but none received trastuzumab. Biologic cancer subtypes were approximated by determining estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (HER-2+) expression, classified as luminal A (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2 negative [HER-2-]), luminal B (ER+ or PR+ and HER-2+), HER-2 (ER- and PR- and HER-2+), and basal (ER- and PR- and HER-2- ) subtypes. Imaging, pathology, and operative reports were reviewed by two physicians independently, including an attending breast radiologist. Readers were blinded to subtype and outcome. TR was defined as IBTR within the same quadrant and within 3 cm of the primary tumor. All others were defined as ELR. Results: At a median follow-up of 70 months, 24 patients developed IBTR (5-year cumulative incidence of 1.6%), including 15 TR and 9 ELR patients. At 5 years, basal (4.4%) and HER-2 (9%) subtypes had a significantly higher incidence of TR than luminal B (1.2%) and luminal A (0.2%) subtypes (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, basal subtype (hazard ratio [HR], 4.8, p = 0.01), younger age at diagnosis (HR, 0.97; p = 0.05), and increasing tumor size (HR, 2.1; p = 0.04) were independent predictors of TR. Only younger age (HR, 0.95; p = 0.01) significantly predicted for ELR. Conclusions: Basal and HER-2 subtypes are significantly associated with higher rates of TR among women with pT1-T2 IBC after BCT. Younger age predicts for both TR and ELR. Strategies to reduce TR in basal

  14. A Promoter Polymorphism in the CD59 Complement Regulatory Protein Gene in Donor Lungs Correlates With a Higher Risk for Chronic Rejection After Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Budding, K; van de Graaf, E A; Kardol-Hoefnagel, T; Broen, J C A; Kwakkel-van Erp, J M; Oudijk, E-J D; van Kessel, D A; Hack, C E; Otten, H G

    2016-03-01

    Complement activation leads primarily to membrane attack complex formation and subsequent target cell lysis. Protection against self-damage is regulated by complement regulatory proteins, including CD46, CD55, and CD59. Within their promoter regions, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present that could influence transcription. We analyzed these SNPs and investigated their influence on protein expression levels. A single SNP configuration in the promoter region of CD59 was found correlating with lower CD59 expression on lung endothelial cells (p = 0.016) and monocytes (p = 0.013). Lung endothelial cells with this SNP configuration secreted more profibrotic cytokine IL-6 (p = 0.047) and fibroblast growth factor β (p = 0.036) on exposure to sublytic complement activation than cells with the opposing configuration, whereas monocytes were more susceptible to antibody-mediated complement lysis (p < 0.0001). Analysis of 137 lung transplant donors indicated that this CD59 SNP configuration correlates with impaired long-term survival (p = 0.094) and a significantly higher incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (p = 0.046) in the recipient. These findings support a role for complement in the pathogenesis of this posttransplant complication and are the first to show a deleterious association of a donor CD59 promoter polymorphism in lung transplantation. PMID:26517734

  15. No Higher Risk of CRPS After External Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures – Subgroup Analysis Under Randomised Vitamin C Prophylaxis§

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Paul E.; Kreis, Robert W.; van der Meulen, Hub G.; van der Elst, Maarten; Breederveld, Roelf S.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Operative and conservative treatment of wrist fractures might lead to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I. In our multicenter dose response study in which patients with distal radial fractures were randomly allocated to placebo or vitamin C in a daily dose of 200mg, 500mg or 1500mg during 50 days, an operated subgroup was analyzed. 48 (of 427) fractures) were operated (11.2%). Twenty-nine patients (60%) were treated with external fixation, 14 patients (29%) with K-wiring according to Kapandji and five patients (10%) with internal plate fixation. The 379 remaining patients were treated with a plaster. In the operated group of patients who received vitamin C no CRPS (0/37) was seen in comparison with one case of CRPS (Kapandji technique) in the operated group who received placebo (1/11 = 9%, p=.23). There was no CRPS after external fixation. In the conservatively treated group 17 cases of CRPS (17/379 = 4.5%) occurred in comparison with one in case of CRPS in the operated group (1/48 = 2.1%, p=.71). External fixation doesn’t necessarily lead to a higher incidence of CRPS in distal radial fractures. Vitamin C may also play a role in this. This subgroup analysis in operated distal radial fractures showed no CRPS occurrence with vitamin C prophylaxis. PMID:20309405

  16. Prudent Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1995-01-01

    Despite recent substantial losses through an investment adviser, mid-size universities are reducing their traditional low-risk investments and engaging in investments that are higher-risk but potentially higher-yielding. For some institutions, this translates into more investment in the domestic stock market and some ventures into foreign markets.…

  17. Are females who inject drugs at higher risk for HIV infection than males who inject drugs: an international systematic review of high seroprevalence areas

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Feelemyer, Jonathan P; Modi, Shilpa N.; Arasteh, Kamyar; Hagan, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Objective There are multiple reasons why females who inject drugs may be more likely to become infected with HIV than males who inject drugs. Where this is the case, special HIV prevention programs for females would be needed. Design International systematic review and meta-analysis of studies across 14 countries. Methods Countries with high seroprevalence (>20%) HIV epidemics among persons who inject drugs (PWID) were identified from the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Systematic literature reviews collected data on HIV prevalence by gender for these countries. Non-parametric and parametric tests along with meta-analytic techniques examined heterogeneity and differences in odds ratios (OR) across studies. Results Data were abstracted from 117 studies in 14 countries; total sample size N=128,745. The mean weighted OR for HIV prevalence among females to males was 1.18 [95% CI 1.10–1.26], with high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 70.7%). There was a Gaussian distribution of the log ORs across studies in the sample. Conclusion There was a significantly higher HIV prevalence among females compared to males who inject drugs in high seroprevalence settings, but the effect size is extremely modest. The high level of heterogeneity and the Gaussian distribution suggest multiple causes of differences in HIV prevalence between females and males, with a specific difference determined by local factors. Greater understanding of factors that may protect females from HIV infection may provide insights into more effective HIV prevention for both females and males who inject drugs. PMID:22257753

  18. Antiplatelet antibodies detected by the MAIPA assay in newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia are associated with chronic outcome and higher risk of bleeding.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David; Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Croisille, Laure; Lee, Ketty; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Languille, Laetitia; Khellaf, Medhi; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand; Bierling, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) results in part from the presence of platelet antibodies, which can be demonstrated by the Monoclonal Antibody-Specific Immobilization of Platelet Antigens (MAIPA) assay. The aim of our study was to correlate the presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies and the natural history of ITP. We performed a retrospective, single-center study of 108 adults with newly diagnosed ITP who had indirect MAIPA assay performed at disease onset. Chronic ITP was defined by the presence of thrombocytopenia after 1 year. Bleeding diathesis was evaluated with a bleeding score. At baseline, patients with a positive indirect MAIPA have a greater bleeding score than patients with negative MAIPA assay [median (interquartile) = 8 (6-12) vs 2 (0-6), p = 0.002]. Patients with a positive indirect MAIPA also had a higher rate of chronic ITP (92.9 vs 68.7 %, p = 0.06). In multivariate analysis, a positive indirect MAIPA result and a platelet count at onset ≥10 × 10(9)/L remained independently associated with chronic ITP [adjusted OR (aOR) = 8.01; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.98-66.6; p = 0.05 and aOR = 3.09; 95 % CI, 1.18-8.10; p = 0.02, respectively]. Furthermore, when we analyzed together the results of direct (n = 41) and indirect MAIPA, the same results were observed. Thus, indirect MAIPA positivity at disease onset is associated with more severe hemorrhage and predicts a chronic course in adult ITP patients. MAIPA assay could be useful in the management of ITP patients when it is performed at diagnosis. PMID:23912633

  19. Stroke Risk among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Zhejiang: A Population-Based Prospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Zhong, Jieming; Wu, Haibin; Pan, Jin; Gong, Weiwei; Wang, Meng; Fei, Fangrong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to explore the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the long-term surveillance data in Zhejiang, China, during 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods. During January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, a total of 327,268 T2DM and 307,984 stroke patients were registered on Diabetes and Stroke Surveillance System, respectively. Stroke subtypes were classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes was calculated by standardized incidence ratio (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared with general population. Results. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was significantly higher than in general population. Stroke risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 3.87 (95% CI 3.76–3.99) and 3.38 (95% CI 3.27–3.48) in females and males, respectively. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to the significantly higher risk of cerebral infarctions with the risk for T2DM being four times that for general population. Conclusions. The relationship between stroke and T2DM was strong, especially in female. The incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes among patients with T2DM was up to 3-fold higher than in general population in Zhejiang province, especially the subtype of cerebral infarctions. PMID:27403161

  20. Risk of tuberculosis is higher with anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody therapy than with soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor therapy: The three-year prospective French Research Axed on Tolerance of Biotherapies registry

    PubMed Central

    Tubach, Florence; Salmon, Dominique; Ravaud, Philippe; Allanore, Yannick; Goupille, Philippe; Bréban, Maxime; Pallot-Prades, Béatrice; Pouplin, Sophie; Sacchi, Antoinette; Chichemanian, Rose Marie; Bretagne, Stéphane; Emilie, Dominique; Lemann, Marc; Lorthololary, Olivier; Mariette, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy but whether it is drug-specific remains a concern. Our objective was to describe cases of tuberculosis associated with anti-TNF therapy, identify risk factors and estimate the incidence. Methods An incidence study with the French population as reference and a case-control analysis. We collected, for 3 years, cases of TB among French patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, whatever the indication, with two controls treated with anti-TNF agents per case. Results We collected 69 cases of TB in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis (n=40), spondylarthropathies (n=18), inflammatory colitis (n=9), psoriasis (n=1) and Behçet’s disease (n=1) treated with infliximab (n=36), adalimumab (n=28) and etanercept (n=5). None of the cases had received correct chemoprophylaxis treatment. The sex and age-adjusted incidence rate of TB was 116.7 per 100,000 patient-years. The SIR was 12.2 (95% confidence interval 9.7–15.5) and was higher for therapy with infliximab and adalimumab than for that with etanercept: 18.6 (13.4–25.8) and 29.3 (20.2–42.4) versus 1.8 (0.7–4.3), respectively. In the case-control analysis, the exposure to infliximab or adalimumab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for TB: odds ratio=13.3 (2.6–69.0) and 17.1 (3.6–80.6), respectively. Other risk factors were age, the first year of anti-TNF treatment, and being born in an endemic area. Conclusions The risk of TB is higher for patients receiving monoclonal-antibody than soluble-receptor anti-TNF therapy. The increased risk with early anti-TNF treatment and the absence of correct chemoprophylaxis treatment favours the reactivation of latent TB. PMID:19565495

  1. Increased Risk of Parkinson Disease in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Chou, Mei-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the association of carbon monoxide intoxication (COI) with Parkinson disease (PD). A total of 9012 adults newly diagnosed with COI were enrolled in this study as the COI cohort. The control (non-COI) cohort, comprising 36,048 participants, was matched for each COI patient according to age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. We calculated the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. The overall incidence of PD (per 10,000 person-year) in the COI and non-COI cohorts was 27.4 and 2.53, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the COI patients exhibited a 9.08-fold increased risk for PD. The COI patients without comorbidity exhibited a significantly higher risk of PD (adjusted HR = 15.8) than did the COI patients without comorbidity (adjusted HR = 4.15). Patients with COI and receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy exhibited a 14.3-fold increased risk of PD; the adjusted HR of patients who did not receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment was increased 7.97-fold. The risk of PD increased in the COI patients and the significance increased in young people. COI is a crucial factor leading to PD. PMID:25984676

  2. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-06-01

    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  3. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart disease and stroke. However, certain groups—including African Americans and older individuals—are at higher risk ... life expectancy found among minorities. As of 2007, African American men were 30% more likely to die ...

  4. Children of rural-to-urban migrant workers in China are at a higher risk of contracting severe hand, foot and mouth disease and EV71 infection: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Mei; Pu, Dongbo; Mo, Xiaowei; Zhu, Chaomin; Gong, Sitang; Xu, Yi; Lin, Guangyu; Wu, Beiyan; He, Suli; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiangshi; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qianqian; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease have increased in mainland China since 2008. Therapies and vaccines are currently at different stages of development. This study aimed to determine the social factors associated with the outbreaks and severity of the disease in Chinese children. A multicentre, prospective, case-controlled study was conducted in Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and Shantou to identify the sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors for hand, foot and mouth disease. Children hospitalized for hand, foot and mouth disease were randomly enrolled from April to November 2011. Stool samples were collected to test for the presence of enterovirus 71 (EV71). A total of 443 children between 1.6 and 68 months of age were enrolled; 304 were uncomplicated cases and 139 were severe cases with central nervous system involvement. The overall detection rate of EV71 was 54.2%, and the positivity rate of EV71 was significantly higher in the severe group than in the uncomplicated group (82.0% versus 40.9%, odds ratio (OR): 8.35, P=0.000). The children of migrant workers (OR: 3.014, P=0.000) and children attending kindergarten (OR: 2.133, P=0.002) were significantly associated with a severe outcome of the disease (OR: 1.765, P=0.026). Our findings indicate that kindergarten attendance and migrant worker parents are the major risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease in children <5 years of age. Future public health intervention vaccination campaigns should consider the particular difficulties of achieving high compliance with multiple-dose vaccination regimens in the children of migrant workers. PMID:26038441

  5. Predicting the Risk of Recurrent Adenoma and Incident Colorectal Cancer Based on Findings of the Baseline Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Kimberly J; Li, Jinhong; Komar, Michael; Steigerwalt, Nancy; Erlich, Porat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The decision tree underlying current practice guidelines for post polypectomy surveillance relies on risk stratification based on predictive attributes gleaned from adenomas removed on screening colonoscopy examination. Our primary aim was to estimate the magnitude of association between baseline adenoma attributes and the risk of adenoma recurrence and invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Our secondary aims were to estimate the adenoma detection rate (ADR) of surveillance compared with screening colonoscopies and describe time trends in preventive colonoscopy utilization. Methods: We used prospective analyses of retrospectively collected clinical data from electronic health records. A cohort of primary care patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening was assembled encompassing 110,452 subjects, of which 3,300 had adenomas removed on screening examination. Of those patients who had a follow-up surveillance colonoscopy (defined as a patient with a documented adenoma on prior colonoscopy) recorded during the study period, 537 had a recurrent adenoma. Results: Of those recurrent adenomas, 354 had a high-risk attributes. High-risk attributes were described at >3 adenomas, at least one adenoma >10 mm in size, high-grade dysplasia, or villous features. The risk of developing invasive CRC among post polypectomy patients was significantly higher if the baseline adenomas displayed any of the following attributes: more numerous than 3 (4.3-fold higher risk, 95% confidence interval (CI) low, high 1.4, 12.9), larger than 10 mm in size (5.2-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 1.8, 15.1), high-grade dysplasia (13.2-fold risk, 95% CI low, high 2.8, 62.1), or villous features (7.4-fold higher risk, 95% CI low, high 2.5, 21.5). These attributes combined added a net value of 22.8% to the probability of correctly predicting CRC. There was a threefold increase in surveillance utilization relative to screening from 2005 to 2011. The ADR of surveillance (34

  6. Estimating the size of key populations at higher risk of HIV infection: a summary of experiences and lessons presented during a technical meeting on size estimation among key populations in Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia; Zhao, Jinkou; Reddy, Amala; Seguy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Problem Size estimates of key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure are recognized as critical for understanding the trajectory of the HIV epidemic and planning and monitoring an effective response, especially for countries with concentrated and low epidemics such as those in Asia. Context To help countries estimate population sizes of key populations, global guidelines were updated in 2011 to reflect new technical developments and recent field experiences in applying these methods. Action In September 2013, a meeting of programme managers and experts experienced with population size estimates (PSE) for key populations was held for 13 Asian countries. This article summarizes the key results presented, shares practical lessons learnt and reviews the methodological approaches from implementing PSE in 13 countries. Lessons learnt It is important to build capacity to collect, analyse and use PSE data; establish a technical review group; and implement a transparent, well documented process. Countries should adapt global PSE guidelines and maintain operational definitions that are more relevant and useable for country programmes. Development of methods for non-venue-based key populations requires more investment and collaborative efforts between countries and among partners. PMID:25320676

  7. Genotyping for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18/52/58 Has a Higher Performance than HPV16/18 Genotyping in Triaging Women with Positive High-risk HPV Test in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khunamornpong, Surapan; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Srisomboon, Jatupol; Intaraphet, Suthida; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Background Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV test) has gained increasing acceptance as an alternative method to cytology in cervical cancer screening. Compared to cytology, HPV test has a higher sensitivity for the detection of histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+), but this could lead to a large colposcopy burden. Genotyping for HPV16/18 has been recommended in triaging HPV-positive women. This study was aimed to evaluate the screening performance of HPV testing and the role of genotyping triage in Northern Thailand. Methods A population-based cervical screening program was performed in Chiang Mai (Northern Thailand) using cytology (conventional Pap test) and HPV test (Hybrid Capture 2). Women who had abnormal cytology or were HPV-positive were referred for colposcopy. Cervical samples from these women were genotyped using the Linear Array assay. Results Of 5,456 women, 2.0% had abnormal Pap test results and 6.5% tested positive with Hybrid Capture 2. Of 5,433 women eligible for analysis, 355 with any positive test had histologic confirmation and 57 of these had histologic HSIL+. The sensitivity for histologic HSIL+ detection was 64.9% for Pap test and 100% for Hybrid Capture 2, but the ratio of colposcopy per detection of each HSIL+ was more than two-fold higher with Hybrid Capture 2 than Pap test (5.9 versus 2.8). Genotyping results were available in 316 samples. HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58 were the three most common genotypes among women with histologic HSIL+. Performance of genotyping triage using HPV16/18/52/58 was superior to that of HPV16/18, with a higher sensitivity (85.7% versus 28.6%) and negative predictive value (94.2% versus 83.9%). Conclusions In Northern Thailand, HPV testing with genotyping triage shows better screening performance than cervical cytology alone. In this region, the addition of genotyping for HPV52/58 to HPV16/18 is deemed necessary in triaging women with positive HPV test. PMID

  8. Alcohol Use Disorder Increases the Risk of Irritable Bowel Disease: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan.This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients.During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9-12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36-6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06-3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26-6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49-4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96-15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4-35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively.The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226

  9. CREBRF variant increases obesity risk and protects against diabetes in Samoans.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-08-30

    A genome-wide study in Samoans has identified a protein-altering variant (p.Arg475Gln) in CREBRF as being associated with 1.3-fold increased risk of obesity and, intriguingly, 1.6-fold decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. This variant, which is common among Samoans (minor allele frequency = 26%) but extremely rare in other populations, promotes fat storage and reduces energy use in cellular models. PMID:27573685

  10. Mycotoxin risk assessment for the purpose of setting international regulatory standards.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Mycotoxin report states that one 21st century goal is the development of uniform regulations worldwide for foodborne mycotoxin contamination. This study informs that endeavor by a risk assessment and economic analysis of two important mycotoxins: fumonisins and aflatoxins. The goals are to identify the nations that would be most heavily impacted by tighter mycotoxin regulations, examine costs and benefits as a function of regulatory stringency, and address risk-risk tradeoffs between health benefits and economic losses from compliance with those regulations. Among industrial nations, the United States would experience the heaviest economic losses from more precautionary mycotoxin standards. Environmental conditions in the developing world, however, are more conducive to mycotoxin accumulation in crops. Contrary to concerns expressed among policymakers, the less developed countries that would likely experience the greatest loss from tighter mycotoxin standards are not sub-Saharan African nations, but China and Argentina. If a fumonisin standard of 0.5 mg/kg were adopted worldwide, total export losses from fumonisins in corn may exceed 300 million dollars annually: 3-fold higher than if the less stringent U.S. standard of 2 mg/kg were adopted. Likewise, export losses from aflatoxins in peanuts may exceed 450 million dollars under the current EU regulatory standard of 4 microg/kg: almost 5-fold higher than if the U.S. standard of 20 microg/kg were adopted. Stricter standards are unlikely to improve health significantly. In developing nations such as China where hepatitis B and C are prevalent, tighter aflatoxin standards may increase health risks until improved control methods for aflatoxins are found, as high-quality crops may be exported instead of being consumed domestically. PMID:15352440

  11. Alcohol Use Disorder Increases the Risk of Irritable Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients. During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9–12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36–6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06–3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26–6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49–4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96–15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4–35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively. The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226

  12. Elliptic CY3folds and non-perturbative modular transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Amer; Shabbir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    We study the refined topological string partition function of a class of toric elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. These Calabi-Yau threefolds give rise to five dimensional quiver gauge theories and are dual to configurations of M5-M2-branes. We determine the Gopakumar-Vafa invariants for these threefolds and show that the genus g free energy is given by the weight 2 g Eisenstein series. We also show that although the free energy at all genera are modular invariant, the full partition function satisfies the non-perturbative modular transformation property discussed by Lockhart and Vafa in arXiv:1210.5909 and therefore the modularity of free energy is up to non-perturbative corrections.

  13. Toxicological effects of cationic nanobubbles on the liver and kidneys: biomarkers for predicting the risk.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Huang, Yi-Ju; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-11-01

    Nanobubbles with acoustical activity are used as both diagnostic and therapeutic carriers for detecting and treating diseases. We aimed to prepare nanobubbles and assess toxic responses to them in the liver and kidneys. The cytotoxicity of nanobubbles was determined by examining the viability of liver (HepG2) and kidney (293T) cell lines after a 24-h treatment at various concentrations (0.01-2%). Toxic effects of different formulations were compared by determining functional markers such as γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after intravenous administration of nanobubbles. Cationic nanobubbles caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against cultured cells with a more significant effect in the liver than in the kidneys. A significant reduction of viability was revealed at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Cational systems with soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate (SME) exhibited the greatest γ-GT level at 6-fold higher than the control. Immunohistochemistry detected liver fibrosis and inflammation with nanobubbles treatment, especially SME-containing ones at higher doses. According to plasma proteomic profiles, gelsolin and fetuin-B were significantly downregulated 3-fold in the high-dose SME-treated group. Transthyretin decreased by 6-fold in this group. The fibrinogen gamma chain expression was highly elevated. The results suggest that these protein biomarkers are sensitive for assessing the risk of nanobubble exposure. This study is the first to systematically evaluate the possible toxicity of nanobubbles in the liver and kidneys. PMID:22809472

  14. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  15. Bridging the Digital Divide in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviranus, Jutta; Coombs, Norman

    The emergence of the digital campus, and the rapid convergence of previously disparate methods of communicating information, presents both a risk and an opportunity for people with disabilities. The imminent risk is that non-inclusive design of the digital campus will irreparably widen the digital divide within higher education, to the detriment…

  16. [Risk and risk perception].

    PubMed

    de Vries, N K

    2002-06-01

    After having delineated the concept of risk and having described the type of risks that are relevant to dental practice, an overview of empirical and theoretical work on risk perception is given. The perception of risks is determined both by the actual magnitude and by perceptual bias, originating from either general perceptual phenomena such as (cognitive) availability or the ego-relevance of risks: persons in general underestimate risks for themselves as compared to the risks for others (unrealistic optimism). PMID:12092334

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  18. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  20. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  2. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  3. Special Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer

    1982-01-01

    Cites works relevant to the higher education of Blacks and minority group members. Lists references alphabetically under the following headings: (1) financial aid on the campus; (2) Chicanos in higher education; and (3) race and equality on California campuses. (GC)

  4. Spotlight on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna; Iwanowski, Jay

    1997-01-01

    A number of current issues and initiatives in higher education are highlighted, including impending reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, the need for advocacy of higher education in public policy arenas, a University of Florida program combining accountability and institutional autonomy, and institutional compliance with nonresident alien…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  6. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  7. Mode of action based risk assessment of the botanical food-borne alkenylbenzene apiol from parsley using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling and read-across from safrole.

    PubMed

    Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M; Al Malahmeh, Amer J; Kiwamoto, Reiko; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Soffers, Ans E M F; Al-Subeihi, Ala A A; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2016-03-01

    The present study developed physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models for the alkenylbenzene apiol in order to facilitate risk assessment based on read-across from the related alkenylbenzene safrole. Model predictions indicate that in rat liver the formation of the 1'-sulfoxy metabolite is about 3 times lower for apiol than for safrole. These data support that the lower confidence limit of the benchmark dose resulting in a 10% extra cancer incidence (BMDL10) that would be obtained in a rodent carcinogenicity study with apiol may be 3-fold higher for apiol than for safrole. These results enable a preliminary risk assessment for apiol, for which tumor data are not available, using a BMDL10 value of 3 times the BMDL10 for safrole. Based on an estimated BMDL10 for apiol of 5.7-15.3 mg/kg body wt per day and an estimated daily intake of 4 × 10(-5) mg/kg body wt per day, the margin of exposure (MOE) would amount to 140,000-385,000. This indicates a low priority for risk management. The present study shows how PBK modelling can contribute to the development of alternatives for animal testing, facilitating read-across from compounds for which in vivo toxicity studies on tumor formation are available to compounds for which these data are unavailable. PMID:26826679

  8. Association of β-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Arab Population.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Rizk, Nasser M; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Thani, Hassan; Elgendy, Akram; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the association between beta-adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB1 and ADRB2) polymorphism, cardiovascular risk, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in individuals from an Arab ethnicity. A total of 388 Qatari participants were assessed and genotyped for ADRB1 (rs1801252 & rs1801253) and ADRB2 (rs1042718 & rs1042713) polymorphisms using allele-specific PCR. Minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not show statistically significant difference between cases and controls. A higher proportion of patients with ACS had homozygous minor alleles (GG) for rs1801253 (28.8% vs 17.1%; P = .019) compared with controls. Among cases with ACS, there was an association of minor allele frequency (G) for rs1801253 with severe coronary artery stenosis (0.485 vs 0.428; P = .04) than that of insignificant stenosis (<50% stenosis). There was a 3-fold increased risk of significant coronary stenosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and carrier of rs1801253 genotypes with dominant model (P = .01) and recessive model (P = .05). There is a possible synergic association between DM, carrier of ADRB1 (Arg389Gly) variants, and significant coronary artery stenosis among Arabs. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to support our findings. PMID:26602751

  9. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  10. Higher Education in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

  11. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  12. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  13. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent D. Ruben.…

  14. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  15. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  16. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  17. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  18. Consumerism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark

    1973-01-01

    In considering consumerism in higher education, the student becomes the consumer,'' the university the corporation,'' and higher education the education industry.'' Other members of the education fraternity become investors, management, workers, direct consumers, and indirect consumers. This article proposes that it behooves the student to…

  19. [Deregulation and Higher Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The extent to which the Reagan Administration has achieved its deregulation goals in the area of higher education is addressed in three articles: "Deregulation and Higher Education: The View a Year Later" (Sheldon Elliot Steinbach); "Student Financial Aid Deregulation: Rhetoric or Reality?" (Robin E. Jenkins); and "Administration Reform of Civil…

  20. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  2. Association of trans fatty acids (vegetable ghee) and clarified butter (Indian ghee) intake with higher risk of coronary artery disease in rural and urban populations with low fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Niaz, M A; Ghosh, S; Beegom, R; Rastogi, V; Sharma, J P; Dube, G K

    1996-10-25

    These cross-sectional surveys included 1769 rural (894 men and 875 women) and 1806 urban (904 men and 902 women) randomly selected subjects between 25-64 years of age from Moradabad in North India. The total prevalence of coronary artery disease based on clinical history and electrocardiogram was significantly higher in urban compared to rural men (11.0 vs. 3.9%) and women (6.9 vs. 2.6%), respectively. Food consumption patterns showed that important differences in relation to coronary artery disease were higher intake of total visible fat, milk and milk products, meat, eggs, sugar and jaggery in urban compared to rural subjects. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in relation to visible fat intake showed a higher prevalence rate with higher visible fat intake in both sexes and the trend was significant for total prevalence rates both for rural and urban men and women. Subgroup analysis among urban (694 men and 694 women) and rural (442 men and 435 women) subjects consuming moderate to high fat diets showed that subjects eating trans fatty acids plus clarified butter or those consuming clarified butter as total visible fat had a significantly higher prevalence of coronary artery disease compared to those consuming clarified butter plus vegetable oils in both rural (9.8, 7.1 vs. 3.0%) and urban (16.2, 13.5 vs. 11.0%) men as well as in rural (9.2, 4.5 vs. 1.5%) and urban (10.7, 8.8 vs. 6.4%) women. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for age showed that sedentariness in women, body mass index in urban men and women, milk and clarified butter plus trans fatty acids in both rural and urban in both sexes were significantly associated with coronary artery disease. It is possible that lower intake of total visible fat (20 g/day), decreased intake of milk, increased physical activity and cessation of smoking may benefit some populations in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:8910075

  3. Organic Cation Transporter 2 Overexpression May Confer an Increased Risk of Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gai, Zhibo; Visentin, Michele; Hiller, Christian; Krajnc, Evelin; Li, Tongzhou; Zhen, Junhui; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2016-09-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a relevant limitation of gentamicin, and obese patients have an increased risk for gentamicin-induced kidney injury. This damage is thought to depend on the accumulation of the drug in the renal cortex. Obese rats showed substantially higher levels of gentamicin in the kidney than did lean animals. This study characterized the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in gentamicin transport and elucidated their possible contribution in the increased renal accumulation of gentamicin in obesity. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the organic cation transporters Oct2 (Slc22a2) and Oct3 (Slc22a3) were increased in kidney samples from obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Similarly, OCT2 (∼2-fold) and OCT3 (∼3-fold) showed increased protein expression in the kidneys of obese patients compared with those of nonobese individuals. Using HEK293 cells overexpressing the different OCTs, human OCT2 was found to transport [(3)H]gentamicin with unique sigmoidal kinetics typical of homotropic positive cooperativity (autoactivation). In mouse primary proximal tubular cells, [(3)H]gentamicin uptake was reduced by approximately 40% when the cells were coincubated with the OCT2 substrate metformin. The basolateral localization of OCT2 suggests that gentamicin can enter proximal tubular cells from the blood side, probably as part of a slow tubular secretion process that may influence intracellular drug concentrations and exposure time. Increased expression of OCT2 may explain the higher accumulation of gentamicin, thereby conferring an increased risk of renal toxicity in obese patients. PMID:27401566

  4. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  5. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  6. Marketing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the 4 basic areas in which institutional marketing can be put to use in higher educational institutions: educational services offered, pricing (tuition), promotion to prospective students, and distribution (extension courses and courses that go to the student). (PG)

  7. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  8. Urinary Phthalates Are Associated with Higher Blood Pressure in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Spanier, Adam J.; Trachtman, Howard; Attina, Teresa M.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of urinary phthalate levels with blood pressure (BP) and serum triglyceride and lipoprotein levels in children. Study design We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children aged 6–19 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2008. We quantified exposure to 3 families of phthalates—low molecular weight, high molecular weight and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP)—based on molar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate associations with BP and lipid levels. Results Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass index, levels of metabolites of DEHP, a phthalate commonly found in processed foods, were associated with higher age-, sex-, and height-standardized BP. For each log unit (roughly 3-fold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.041 SD unit increase in systolic BP z-score was identified (P = .047). Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products were not associated with BP. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein level, or prehypertension. Conclusions Dietary phthalate exposure is associated with higher systolic BP in children and adolescents. Further work is needed to confirm these associations, as well as to evaluate opportunities for intervention. PMID:23706605

  9. Implementation and Operational Research: Early Tracing of Children Lost to Follow-Up From Antiretroviral Treatment: True Outcomes and Future Risks

    PubMed Central

    Ardura-Garcia, Cristina; Feldacker, Caryl; Tweya, Hannock; Chaweza, Thom; Kalulu, Mike; Phiri, Sam; Wang, Duolao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up among pediatric patients. Little is known about children who drop out of care. We aim to analyze risk factors for LTFU among children on ART, find their true outcomes through tracing, and investigate their final outcomes after resuming ART. Methods: This is a descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of children on ART between April 2006 and December 2010 in 2 clinics in urban Malawi. Routine data from an electronic data system were used and matched with information obtained through routine tracing procedures. Results: Of 985 children (1999 child-years) on ART, 251 were LTFU: 12.6/100 child-years. At ART initiation, wasting [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 2.44] was independently associated with higher risk of LTFU. Of 201 LTFU children traced, 79% were found: 11% died, 25% stopped, 26% transferred-out, and 37% were still on ART. Median time between last visit and first tracing was 84 days (interquartile range: 64–101 days). Tracing reduced risk of LTFU by 38% (AHR 0.62 and 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.91) and decreased LTFU from 23.2% to 8.5%. Additional outcomes of stop, death, and transfer-out increased 4.4-fold, 1.8-fold, and 1.3-fold, respectively. Traced children with gaps in ART intake who resumed ART had higher risk of stopping (AHR 4.92 and 95% CI: 1.67 to 14.5) and transfer out (AHR 2.70 and 95% CI: 1.75 to 4.17) as final outcome. Conclusions: Early tracing substantially reduces LTFU; approximately one-third presumed LTFU was found to be still on ART. Children with wasting at initiation and those traced and found to have irregular ART intake require targeted interventions. PMID:26218409

  10. Higher dimensional Hadamard matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlichta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper defines higher dimensional Hadamard matrices and enumerates on some of the simplest three-, four-, and five-dimensional cases and procedures for generating them. Special emphasis is given to proper matrices that have a dimensional hierarchy of orthogonalities. It is determined that this property lends itself primarily to the application of higher dimensional Hadamard matrices to error-correcting codes. A list of derived statements for n-dimensional Hadamard matrices are given, as well as a definition of Hadamard matrix families, such as minimal, Petrie polygon, antipodal (n-2)-dimensional sections, and double proximity shells.

  11. Higher Spin Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Ming

    This dissertation splits into two distinct halves. The first half is devoted to the study of the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 3. We present a conjecture that the holographic dual of W N minimal model in a 't Hooft-like large N limit is an unusual "semi-local" higher spin gauge theory on AdS3 x 1. At each point on the S1 lives a copy of three-dimensional Vasiliev theory, that contains an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields coupled to a single massive complex scalar propagating in AdS3. The Vasiliev theories at different points on the S1 are correlated only through the AdS3 boundary conditions on the massive scalars. All but one single tower of higher spin symmetries are broken by the boundary conditions. This conjecture is checked by comparing tree-level two- and three-point functions, and also one-loop partition functions on both side of the duality. The second half focuses on the holography of higher spin gauge theory in AdS 4. We demonstrate that a supersymmetric and parity violating version of Vasiliev's higher spin gauge theory in AdS4 admits boundary conditions that preserve N = 0,1,2,3,4 or 6 supersymmetries. In particular, we argue that the Vasiliev theory with U( M) Chan-Paton and N = 6 boundary condition is holographically dual to the 2+1 dimensional U(N) k x U(M) -k ABJ theory in the limit of large N, k and finite M. In this system all bulk higher spin fields transform in the adjoint of the U(M) gauge group, whose bulk t'Hooft coupling is M/N. Our picture suggests that the supersymmetric Vasiliev theory can be obtained as a limit of type IIA string theory in AdS4 x CP3, and that the non-Abelian Vasiliev theory at strong bulk 't Hooft coupling smoothly turn into a string field theory. The fundamental string is a singlet bound state of Vasiliev's higher spin particles held together by U(M) gauge interactions.

  12. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  13. Interdisciplinarity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar; Vollmann, Wolfgang, Ed.

    The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach to college instruction and research are examined, based in part on a 1983 symposium of the European Centre for Higher Education. Six case studies are also presented. It is noted that interdisciplinarity opens up possibilities of exchange between individual disciplines and encourages the development…

  14. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  15. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  16. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  17. Corporatizing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Gerda

    2008-01-01

    The process of changing U.S. higher education institutions along a corporate model has been going on for several decades. It consists of changes, some open, some obscured, on various fronts: the erosion of tenure by attrition; the simultaneous increase in the use of contingent faculty; the rise in tuition; the dramatic decrease in federal and…

  18. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  19. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  20. Higher Education Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue; Lee, John

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews changes in higher education staff by occupation between 1993 and 1997. Specific attention is paid to staffing patterns in states with right to work laws compared to those without it. When a state enacts a right to work law, it can be assumed it is not supportive of public unions. This analysis is based on data from the National…

  1. Curriculum in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Four articles on higher education curriculum are presented. In "The Articulate Curriculum" an approach to curriculum description is presented that is designed to have minimal ambiguity concerning the intention, content, and processes of the curriculum and that will lead to questioning several discrete factors in the curriculum planning process. It…

  2. Networks for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interuniversity Communications Council (EDUCOM), Princeton, NJ.

    EDUCOM, the Inter University Communications Council, Inc., planned its 1972 spring conference as a forum for presentations, discussions, and informal meetings to review the present state and the future possibilities of computer networks for higher education. Speeches presented were specifically related to: (1) the current status and future plans…

  3. Evaluation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  4. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  5. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  7. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  8. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson and Helen…

  9. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  10. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  11. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  12. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…

  13. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried, who explores the…

  14. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  15. NEXUS: Digitizing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of digital technology in the context of higher education planning considers how these technologies change teaching; the digital divide; the costs of information technology; hard wiring the campus; material consequences of information technology; digitally enabled crimes and misdemeanors; and libraries and scholarly publishing. Concludes…

  16. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  17. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  18. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  19. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  20. Comparative Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    The comparative higher education course offered at the State University of New York at Buffalo is briefly described, and a course schedule is presented, including required and recommended readings for each topic. The course is intended to provide a broad cross-cultural perspective and considers the growth and development of universities in Europe,…

  1. Contemporary Issues in Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph, Ed.; Dagley, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Colleges and universities remain vulnerable to lawsuits and face an increasingly litigious environment. This book is intended to provide board members, administrators, faculty, and students of higher education with a basis for informed decision-making that will reduce the risk of liability through a preventive-law approach. Readers will find this…

  2. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  3. Denture wearing during sleep doubles the risk of pneumonia in the very elderly.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, T; Arai, Y; Abe, Y; Takayama, M; Fukumoto, M; Fukui, Y; Iwase, T; Takebayashi, T; Hirose, N; Gionhaku, N; Komiyama, K

    2015-03-01

    Poor oral health and hygiene are increasingly recognized as major risk factors for pneumonia among the elderly. To identify modifiable oral health-related risk factors, we prospectively investigated associations between a constellation of oral health behaviors and incident pneumonia in the community-living very elderly (i.e., 85 years of age or older). At baseline, 524 randomly selected seniors (228 men and 296 women; mean age, 87.8 years) were examined for oral health status and oral hygiene behaviors as well as medical assessment, including blood chemistry analysis, and followed up annually until first hospitalization for or death from pneumonia. During a 3-year follow-up period, 48 events associated with pneumonia (20 deaths and 28 acute hospitalizations) were identified. Among 453 denture wearers, 186 (40.8%) who wore their dentures during sleep were at higher risk for pneumonia than those who removed their dentures at night (log rank P = 0.021). In a multivariate Cox model, both perceived swallowing difficulties and overnight denture wearing were independently associated with an approximately 2.3-fold higher risk of the incidence of pneumonia (for perceived swallowing difficulties, hazard ratio [HR], 2.31; and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.82; and for denture wearing during sleep, HR, 2.38; and 95% CI, 1.25-4.56), which was comparable with the HR attributable to cognitive impairment (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.06-4.34), history of stroke (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.13-5.35), and respiratory disease (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.20-4.23). In addition, those who wore dentures during sleep were more likely to have tongue and denture plaque, gum inflammation, positive culture for Candida albicans, and higher levels of circulating interleukin-6 as compared with their counterparts. This study provided empirical evidence that denture wearing during sleep is associated not only with oral inflammatory and microbial burden but also with incident pneumonia, suggesting potential

  4. Generalized higher gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Patricia; Sämann, Christian; Schmidt, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid T M ⊕ T ∗ M over some manifold M and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.

  5. [Epilepsy and pregnancy. Balancing between risks to the mother and child].

    PubMed

    Tomson, T; Danielsson, B R; Winbladh, B

    1997-08-20

    Pregnancy may be especially problematic for the epileptic woman, obstetric complications tend to be more frequent, and seizure control and the pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants may be affected. The risk of seizures is particularly high during labour and delivery-almost 10-fold higher than at other times during pregnancy. As uncontrolled generalised tonic-clonic seizures may be hazardous to both gravida and fetus, the use of anticonvulsants to prevent their occurrence is to be recommended during pregnancy even though all anticonvulsant drugs are potential teratogens. There is a 2- to 3-fold increase in the risk of birth defects in conjunction with fetal exposure to these drugs. Although the mechanisms mediating the teratogenic effects have not been identified, interference with folate metabolism, formation of toxic metabolites and drug-induced fetal hypoxia have been suggested. Despite the incompleteness of our knowledge, some recommendations can be made for the management of pregnant women with epilepsy. Pre-pregnancy counselling is important. Epileptic women contemplating pregnancy need to be informed of the pros and cons, and any major change in anticonvulsant therapy should be made before conception. Monotherapy is preferable, using the drug appropriate to seizure type and epilepsy syndrome at the lowest dosage and serum level that protects against tonic-clonic seizure. The clinical situation needs to be assessed and drug levels need to be monitored more frequently during pregnancy than otherwise. Patients on anticonvulsant treatment during pregnancy also need to be informed of the possibility of antenatal diagnosis. The use of new anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy represents a particular challenge, since available clinical data may be insufficient to indicate their teratogenic potential Such a drug should be used in pregnancy only if essential to obtain seizure control. Moreover, the outcome of all such pregnancies needs to be carefully documented. PMID

  6. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. A scale of risk.

    PubMed

    Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for ranking the relative gravity of diverse risks. This framework identifies the moral considerations that should inform the evaluation and comparison of diverse risks. A common definition of risk includes two dimensions: the probability of occurrence and the associated consequences of a set of hazardous scenarios. This article first expands this definition to include a third dimension: the source of a risk. The source of a risk refers to the agents involved in the creation or maintenance of a risk and captures a central moral concern about risks. Then, a scale of risk is proposed to categorize risks along a multidimensional ranking, based on a comparative evaluation of the consequences, probability, and source of a given risk. A risk is ranked higher on the scale the larger the consequences, the greater the probability, and the more morally culpable the source. The information from the proposed comparative evaluation of risks can inform the selection of priorities for risk mitigation. PMID:24372160

  8. Serum vitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian screening trial.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Hayes, Richard B; Horst, Ron L; Anderson, Kristin E; Hollis, Bruce W; Silverman, Debra T

    2009-02-15

    Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D has anticarcinogenic properties; however, a nested case-control study conducted in a population of male Finnish smokers found that higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the best indicator of vitamin D status as determined by the sun and diet, was associated with a significant 3-fold increased risk for pancreatic cancer. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Screening Trial cohort of men and women 55 to 74 years of age at baseline to test whether prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Between 1994 and 2006, 184 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occurred (follow-up to 11.7 years). Two controls (n = 368) who were alive at the time the case was diagnosed were selected for each case and matched by age, race, sex, and calendar date of blood draw (to control for seasonal variation). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for smoking and body mass index. Vitamin D concentrations were not associated with pancreatic cancer overall (highest versus lowest quintile, >82.3 versus <45.9 nmol/L: OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.66-3.15; P trend = 0.49). However, positive associations were observed among subjects with low estimated annual residential solar UBV exposure, but not among those with moderate to high annual exposure (P interaction = 0.015). We did not confirm the previous strong positive association between 25(OH)D and pancreatic cancer; however, the increased risk among participants with low residential UVB exposure is similar. PMID:19208842

  9. Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the identification of risk management, risk management processes such as: quantification and prioritization; mitigation planning; implementation of risk reduction; and tracking process. It develops examples and answers questions about Risk Management.

  10. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  11. Defining Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholkes, Ben F.

    1998-01-01

    Defines camping risks and lists types and examples: (1) objective risk beyond control; (2) calculated risk based on personal choice; (3) perceived risk; and (4) reckless risk. Describes campers to watch ("immortals" and abdicators), and several "treatments" of risk: avoidance, safety procedures and well-trained staff, adequate insurance, and a…

  12. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, L. Nathan

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" presents an overview of risk management for school districts. The chapter first discusses four fundamental elements of risk management: (1) identifying and measuring risks; (2) reducing or eliminating risks; (3) transferring unassumable risks; and (4) assuming remaining risks. The chapter…

  13. Teaching at higher levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  14. Higher-dimensional targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelich, E.J. ); Grebogi, C. Department of Mathematics and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 ); Ott, E. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 ); Yorke, J.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure to steer rapidly successive iterates of an initial condition on a chaotic attractor to a small target region about any prespecified point on the attractor using only small controlling perturbations. Such a procedure is called targeting.'' Previous work on targeting for chaotic attractors has been in the context of one- and two-dimensional maps. Here it is shown that targeting can also be done in higher-dimensional cases. The method is demonstrated with a mechanical system described by a four-dimensional mapping whose attractor has two positive Lyapunov exponents and a Lyapunov dimension of 2.8. The target is reached by making very small successive changes in a single control parameter. In one typical case, 35 iterates on average are required to reach a target region of diameter 10[sup [minus]4], as compared to roughly 10[sup 11] iterates without the use of the targeting procedure.

  15. Semistrict higher gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.

  16. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  17. 77 FR 54721 - Appraisals for Higher-Risk Mortgage Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...'' rules address unfair or deceptive practices in connection with subprime mortgages. See 73 FR 44522, July... requirements in TILA section 129C. 15 U.S.C. 1639c; 76 FR 27390, May 11, 2011 (2011 ATR Proposal). In addition... TILA section 129D. 15 U.S.C. 1639d; 76 FR 11598, March 2, 2011 (2011 Escrow Proposal). The...

  18. Brain Bleed Risk from Warfarin May Be Higher Than Thought

    MedlinePlus

    ... older, with a common heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation. The investigators found that almost one in three ... intracranial" bleed while taking warfarin for the condition. "Atrial fibrillation ("a-fib") is a common heart rhythm disorder ...

  19. Ibrutinib and Azacitidine for Treatment of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-26

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  20. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  1. Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.

    PubMed

    Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples. PMID:9684207

  2. Texas Higher Education in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    The status of higher education in Texas is examined in this major report of changes in higher education over the past decade. Information on enrollment, cost, financial aid, job opportunities, and facilities in higher education institutions is given for private higher education, professional higher education, community colleges, and state colleges…

  3. Polyesters in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E

    2001-01-01

    Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9,10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acid. These monomers are produced in the epidermal cells by omega hydroxylation, in-chain hydroxylation, epoxidation catalyzed by P450-type mixed function oxidase, and epoxide hydration. The monomer acyl groups are transferred to hydroxyl groups in the growing polymer at the extracellular location. The other type of polyester found in the plants is suberin, a polymeric material deposited in the cell walls of a layer or two of cells when a plant needs to erect a barrier as a result of physical or biological stress from the environment, or during development. Suberin is composed of aromatic domains derived from cinnamic acid, and aliphatic polyester domains derived from C16 and C18 cellular fatty acids and their elongation products. The polyesters can be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and cutinase, a polyesterase produced by bacteria and fungi. Catalysis by cutinase involves the active serine catalytic triad. The major function of the polyester in plants is as a protective barrier against physical, chemical, and biological factors in the environment, including pathogens. Transcriptional regulation of cutinase gene in fungal pathogens is being elucidated at a molecular level. The polyesters present in agricultural waste may be used to produce high value polymers, and genetic engineering might be used to produce large quantities of such polymers in plants. PMID:11217409

  4. Report on Higher Education Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Commission on Higher Education.

    Recognizing the rapid development of telecommunications and networking technologies and their growing importance to higher education and New Jersey's overall economic competitiveness, New Jersey's Plan for Higher Education called for the Commission on Higher Education and the Presidents' Council to appoint a Higher Education Technology Task Force…

  5. Women in Virginia Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New University Conference, Hampton, VA. Peninsula Chapter.

    This document explores how Virginia higher education perpetuates stereotypic social roles, the evolution of sexually segregated schools, the current evidences of sexual discrimination towards faculty, staff and students, the State Council of Higher Education's 1967 plan for higher education, the status of Virginia higher education under the law…

  6. Higher Education and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John

    2008-01-01

    An agenda for future higher education research is proposed which incorporates four interconnected elements: changing social contexts; their implications for higher education; mechanisms of interaction between higher education and society; higher education's impact on society. The role of comparative research in investigating these topics is…

  7. Methamphetamine/amphetamine abuse and risk of Parkinson’s disease in Utah: a population-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Robison, Reid J.; Crookston, Michael J.; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of methamphetamine and other amphetamine-type stimulants (METH/AMPH), little is known about the long-term medical consequences of METH/AMPH abuse and dependence. Preclinical neurotoxicity findings raise public health concerns that these stimulants may damage dopamine neurons, resulting in dopamine-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods A retrospective design was used to examine statewide medical records (1996 through 2011) linked to the Utah Population Database. Individuals 30y or older on December 31, 2011 were assigned to a METH/AMPH cohort (ICD-9-CM 304.4, 305.7, 969.7, E854.2; N=4,935), a cocaine cohort (ICD-9-CM 304.2, 305.6, 968.5, E855.2; N=1,867) or a population cohort unexposed to drugs or alcohol for control selection. A competing-risks, proportional hazards model was used to determine whether the METH/AMPH or cocaine cohorts were at increased risk of developing PD (ICD-9-CM 332.0) or PD/parkinsonism/essential tremor (PD/PT; ICD-9-CM 332.0, 332.1, 333.0, 333.1) compared to individually sex- and age-matched controls (5:1 control to case ratio; N=34,010). Results In METH/AMPH users, we observed an increased risk of PD and PD/PT (HRPD=2.8, 95%CI 1.6–4.8, P<10−3; HRPD/PT=3.1, 95%CI 1.9–4.9, P<10−4) compared to population-based controls. Conversely, cocaine users exhibited no elevated risk of PD compared to controls. Conclusions We observed a near 3-fold increased risk of PD in METH/AMPH users vs. controls which confirms prior observations and supports that PD risk in users may be higher than previous estimates. A suggestion that female and male users may differ in PD susceptibility warrants further study. PMID:25479916

  8. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  9. Transforming Higher Education: Implications for State Higher Education Finance Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    1998-01-01

    Examines how information technology is transforming higher education (asynchronous learning, distance education, customized program structure, customized delivery, outcome-based programs, collaboration, and competition) and discusses implications for state higher education finance policy (competition, student costs, collaboration, and…

  10. Fetal Risks, Relative Risks, and Relatives' Risks.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2016-01-01

    Several factors related to fetal risk render it more or less acceptable in justifying constraints on the behavior of pregnant women. Risk is an unavoidable part of pregnancy and childbirth, one that women must balance against other vital personal and family interests. Two particular issues relate to the fairness of claims that pregnant women are never entitled to put their fetuses at risk: relative risks and relatives' risks. The former have been used-often spuriously-to advance arguments against activities, such as home birth, that may incur risk; the latter implicate the nature of relationships in determining the acceptability of coercing or precluding activities. Motivated reasoning by clinicians and judges leads to inaccurate risk assessments, and judgments based on false claims to objectivity. Such judgments undermine the moral and legal standing of pregnant women and do not advance the interests of fetuses, pregnant women, families, or states. PMID:26832079

  11. Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

    The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education…

  12. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  13. Reflections on Higher Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George; Moore, Kathryn M.

    1989-01-01

    Two senior scholars assess the first four volumes of "Higher Education: A Handbook of Theory and Research," a series on the nature of higher education as a discipline and the state of research in the field. (Author/MSE)

  14. What's wrong with risk matrices?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2008-04-01

    Risk matrices-tables mapping "frequency" and "severity" ratings to corresponding risk priority levels-are popular in applications as diverse as terrorism risk analysis, highway construction project management, office building risk analysis, climate change risk management, and enterprise risk management (ERM). National and international standards (e.g., Military Standard 882C and AS/NZS 4360:1999) have stimulated adoption of risk matrices by many organizations and risk consultants. However, little research rigorously validates their performance in actually improving risk management decisions. This article examines some mathematical properties of risk matrices and shows that they have the following limitations. (a) Poor Resolution. Typical risk matrices can correctly and unambiguously compare only a small fraction (e.g., less than 10%) of randomly selected pairs of hazards. They can assign identical ratings to quantitatively very different risks ("range compression"). (b) Errors. Risk matrices can mistakenly assign higher qualitative ratings to quantitatively smaller risks. For risks with negatively correlated frequencies and severities, they can be "worse than useless," leading to worse-than-random decisions. (c) Suboptimal Resource Allocation. Effective allocation of resources to risk-reducing countermeasures cannot be based on the categories provided by risk matrices. (d) Ambiguous Inputs and Outputs. Categorizations of severity cannot be made objectively for uncertain consequences. Inputs to risk matrices (e.g., frequency and severity categorizations) and resulting outputs (i.e., risk ratings) require subjective interpretation, and different users may obtain opposite ratings of the same quantitative risks. These limitations suggest that risk matrices should be used with caution, and only with careful explanations of embedded judgments. PMID:18419665

  15. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  16. Higher Education and the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores the answers to the following questions: (1) What does the "marketisation" of higher education mean? (2) What are the potential implications for United Kingdom higher education? and (3) How should everyone handle those implications? He also cites the three main reasons why higher education cannot simply be left to…

  17. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  18. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  19. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  20. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  1. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  2. The Privitization of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    1991-01-01

    Attributes the growth of private education to excess and differentiated demand for higher education. Argues that evidence shows that the higher quality of private education is exaggerated and that private school attendance does not result in higher salaries for graduates. Criticizes private education as not wholly self-financing, elitist, and…

  3. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  4. Economic Trends and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1992-01-01

    This research brief highlights current and projected economic trends that affect higher education and discusses some of their implications. The brief is organized into three sections: (1) national economic conditions affecting higher education, which presents data on gross national product, inflation, the Higher Education Price Index, the federal…

  5. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  6. Bone density variation and its effects on risk of vertebral deformity in men and women studied in thirteen European centers: the EVOS Study.

    PubMed

    Lunt, M; Felsenberg, D; Reeve, J; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dodenhof, C; Falch, J A; Masaryk, P; Pols, H A; Poor, G; Reid, D M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; Varlow, J; Kanis, J A; O'Neill, T W; Silman, A J

    1997-11-01

    In Europe there is a 3-fold variation, according to geographical center, in risk of vertebral deformity in men and women over the age of 50. We investigated the relationship between bone density, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the spine and hip and prevalent vertebral deformities in 13 of the 36 centers participating in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Each center recruited an age-stratified sample of men and women aged 50 years and over, and of those who agreed to densitometry, 288/2088 women and 233/1908 men were found to have one or more deformities of the vertebrae between T4 and L4 as assessed by the McCloskey algorithm. DEXA was in each case performed on L2-L4, the proximal femur, or both. Bone densitometry results were cross-calibrated between centers using the European Spine Phantom prototype and results expressed as bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). In both genders, subjects with deformities involving loss of anterior vertebral body height alone comprised over 20% of the total with deformities and these related poorly to BMD. Other classes of deformity were found by logistic regression to relate significantly to BMD in one or both genders, with odds ratios for the risk of any of these ranging from 1.67 to 2.11 for a 1 SD reduction in bone density at spine, femoral neck, or trochanter (p < 0.001). Adjusting for anthropometric variables and BMD did not remove the effect of age on risk which rose 1.67- to 1.78-fold per decade according to gender. The greater unadjusted rate of increase in deformity risk with age in women was attributable to their faster rate of bone loss with age; after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD at the trochanter in grams per square centimeter, men had a 2-fold higher risk of deformity than women. Analysis of the relationship between mean bone density and the prevalence of deformity in each center demonstrated no significant differences between centers in either gender

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jeanette; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 440 high and low sports and danger risk-taking adolescents. Sports risk takers reported more danger-related risk taking, more drug use, and higher self-esteem than non-risk takers. Danger risk takers reported greater sports-related risk taking, more drug use, less intimacy with their mothers, less family responsibility taking, and less…

  8. Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159904.html Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk? Chances were actually ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ...

  9. Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159557.html Diabetes Ups Risk of Heart Attack Death Study points to need for better coordinated care, ... people with diabetes have a higher risk of death after a heart attack. "We knew that following ...

  10. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change requires dedication ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher level of heart-lung fitness may reduce your risk ...

  11. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  12. AT2R -1332 G:A polymorphism and its interaction with AT1R 1166 A:C, ACE I/D and MMP-9 -1562 C:T polymorphisms: risk factors for susceptibility to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Rahimi, Ziba; Aghaei, Amir; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad

    2014-03-15

    The possible association of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) -1332 G:A polymorphism with susceptibility to preeclampsia was studied in 252 women consisted of 155 women with preeclampsia and 97 healthy pregnant women. Also, the interaction of this polymorphism with angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) 1166 A:C, angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and also with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) -1562 C:T polymorphism was investigated. The AT2R -1332 G:A polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP method. Significantly higher frequencies of GG+GA genotype and G allele of AT2R were observed in mild (80.2%, p=0.003 and 47.5%, p=0.012, respectively) and severe (77.8%, p=0.034 and 48.1%, p=0.026, respectively) preeclampsia compared to controls (60.8% and 35.1%, respectively). The presence of G allele was associated with 1.69-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (p=0.005). In severe preeclamptic women, systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the presence of GG+GA genotype were significantly higher compared to those in the presence of AA genotype. The concomitant presence of both alleles of AT2R G and AT1R C was associated with 1.3 times increased risk of mild preeclampsia (p=0.03). There was an interaction between AT2R G and ACE D alleles that significantly increased the risk of mild and severe preeclampsia by 1.38- and 1.3-fold, respectively. Also, interaction between MMP-9 T and AT2R G alleles increased the risk of severe preeclampsia 1.39-fold (p=0.028). Our study demonstrated that the G allele of AT2R -1332 G:A polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Also, epistatic interaction of G allele and each allele of the AT1R C, ACE D and MMP-9 T was associated with the risk of preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) variants and gene-gene interactions affect the risk of preeclampsia. PMID:24440243

  13. [The reduction of stroke risk, risk of myocardial infarction and death by healthy diet and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Droste, D W; Keipes, M

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that a healthy diet and regular physical activity improve risk factors for cerebro-cardio-vascular disease and death. However, there is less evidence from prospective randomised controlled trials that they also reduce the actual risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The only evidence from randomised controlled trials is, that a mediterranean diet with nuts and/or native olive oil considerably reduces stroke risk by 47% respectively 31%, however not the risk of myocardial infarction and death. A low-fat diet, a low-salt diet, and the addition of omega-3 fatty acids have no influence. In case of severe obesity with a BMI of > 34-38 kg/m2, weight reduction is the priority, if necessary by means of bariatric surgery. In longitudinal studies mortality (-29%), stroke (-34%), and myocardial infarction (-29%) could thus be reduced. Regular physical activity, whether endurance or more intense activity, leads to weight loss and improved vascular risk factors. An independent impact on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality has not yet been demonstrated in prospective studies (double-blinding being impossible). Nevertheless, several epidemiological meta-analyses with observation durations of 4 to 28 years using data of up to 880 000 persons, indicate that there is a 2-3 fold risk reduction of cerebro-cardio-vascular death and global mortality in people with regular physical activity versus sedentary behaviour. PMID:24437075

  14. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Occasional Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Two papers on the funding formula of the Alabama Commission for Higher Education are presented. The first paper, by John F. Porter, Jr., "The Origins and Evolutions of the Funding Formula Model Utilized by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, 1973-82," presents the historical antecedents for the existing formula elements and notes…

  15. Higher Education in the Byelorussian SSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondarenko, E. G.; And Others

    Higher education in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) is described, including the system's history, current conditions, functions, and structure. The particular shape of the Byelorussian higher education is in part due to the fact that it only came into being as a system after the revolution of 1917, meaning that from the beginning…

  16. Compensation in Higher Education. ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivett, David A.

    Compensation in higher education is an inclusive term, since all the benefits associated with teaching, research, work with people, and work with knowledge might be included. But in terms of purchasing power it appears that compensation for work in higher education has lost ground against inflation. In contrast, wage and salary earners in many…

  17. Higher Education in the USSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyev, A. Y.; And Others

    This monograph describes the system of higher education in the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The preface points out that despite perestroika, two features of Soviet education persist, a high degree of unity and centralization and a close link between higher education and employers. Chapter 1, "Historical Overview," begins with 4th…

  18. [Epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Kuroda, Takeshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Itaya, Kazuhiro; Ishigaki, Seiichiro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2013-02-01

    Acquired higher brain dysfunction is for the most part due to cerebral vascular disease, but epilepsy may also be a cause. In this study with five patients, we discuss the advantages of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for persistent higher brain dysfunction. The patients showed chronic amnesia or acute aphasia, with associated symptoms like personality change. All five cases affected automatism or convulsive attack, though only after the emergence of higher brain dysfunction and administration of AEDs. There were underlying diseases like cerebral arteriovenous malformation in four cases, but the other patient had none. Electroencephalogram and single photon emission computed tomography revealed one case of aphasia epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction. These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of AEDs for persistent higher brain dysfunction, and we must differentiate epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction from dementia or cerebral vascular disease. PMID:23399676

  19. Risk Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asch, Peter; Quandt, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that attitudes toward risk comprise an important topic in economics courses, whereas risk love receives limited attention, perhaps because of the lack of clear and appealing examples for teaching. Provides a definition for the term risk love and includes illustrations drawn from empirical studies of racetrack betting for teaching this…

  20. Incorporating Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is about cost risk identification and estimation which is only a part of risk management. The purpose of this step is to identify common software risks, to assess their impact on the cost estimate, and to make revisions to the estimate based on these impacts.

  1. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  2. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  3. Risk management.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Every plan contains risk. To proceed without planning some means of managing that risk is to court failure. The basic logic of risk is explained. It consists in identifying a threshold where some corrective action is necessary, the probability of exceeding that threshold, and the attendant cost should the undesired outcome occur. This is the probable cost of failure. Various risk categories in dentistry are identified, including lack of liquidity; poor quality; equipment or procedure failures; employee slips; competitive environments; new regulations; unreliable suppliers, partners, and patients; and threats to one's reputation. It is prudent to make investments in risk management to the extent that the cost of managing the risk is less than the probable loss due to risk failure and when risk management strategies can be matched to type of risk. Four risk management strategies are discussed: insurance, reducing the probability of failure, reducing the costs of failure, and learning. A risk management accounting of the financial meltdown of October 2008 is provided. PMID:21314051

  4. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  5. Higher Education in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveljev, Alexander

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the Soviet system of higher education and the expansion of the role of higher education are described, emphasizing the development of labor and industry for increased productivity, creativity, and specialization. A trend toward regular continuing education to keep pace with technological advancement is also noted. (MSE)

  6. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  7. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  8. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  9. History of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of trustees and…

  10. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  11. Higher Education in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Frederick, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    New York State higher education policy and finance are discussed in four articles. In "Higher Education and Public Policy in New York," Frederick S. Lane considers the state's institutions, policymakers and politics, financing of colleges, enrollment patterns, links to economic development, and the changing educational environment. Paul T.…

  12. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  13. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  14. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited…

  15. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  16. History of Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers which focus on significant developments in higher education in nineteenth-century Europe and the United States. An introduction to the volume by Roger L. Geiger notes commonalities across the four papers and major trends in historical research on institutions of higher education. The first paper, by…

  17. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  18. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

  19. Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

  20. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  1. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  2. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  3. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  4. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  5. Strategy Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions educate those who are the most talented and best able to secure the future for the next generation. This study examines an efficient strategy process in higher education and emphasises the importance of sufficient dialogue during the process. The study describes the strategy process of the Turku University of Applied…

  6. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  7. The Overselling of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leef, George C.

    2006-01-01

    There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

  8. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  9. The State and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    Although the federal influence on higher education is important, throughout the United States' history the state role in higher education has been a vital and changing one, and not always uniform. In 1976, two-thirds of the institutional revenue coming from government came from the states, making the state issue an important one. One of the most…

  10. Directory of Higher Education, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory contains addresses or other contact information for members of the Illinois Board of Higher Education and administrators at Illinois public and private colleges and universities. Mailing addresses are given for members of the state Board of Higher Education and members of the boards of the institutions listed. Telephone numbers are…

  11. Directory of Higher Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of members of higher education organizations in the state of Illinois. Included for the Illinois Board of Higher Education is an organization chart, list of board and staff members, and a list of members of the Illinois Century Network. Board members and administrative officers are…

  12. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  13. Canuck-Do Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a business.…

  14. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  15. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  16. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  17. A Higher Education Issues Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balm, Gerald J.; Blomberg, Robert

    1987-01-01

    As part of a strategic planning effort guiding community socioeconomic development through 2000, the citizens of Rochester, Minnesota, tackled the problem of providing equitable, accessible, and accountable higher education. Studying external factors and developing an internal situation analysis led to a set of higher education issues and…

  18. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  19. Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canterbury, Richard

    1999-01-01

    States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

  20. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  1. The Cost of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartle, Terry W.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of the current cost and financing of higher education looks at how higher education has been treated in federal policy in recent years, its status in public policy in the near future, including some salient uncertainties, and college cost and student debt. Emphasis is given to trends in the cost of professional education. (MSE)

  2. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  3. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  4. Higher order stationary subspace analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panknin, Danny; von Bünau, Paul; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Meinecke, Frank C.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-03-01

    Non-stationarity in data is an ubiquitous problem in signal processing. The recent stationary subspace analysis procedure (SSA) has enabled to decompose such data into a stationary subspace and a non-stationary part respectively. Algorithmically only weak non- stationarities could be tackled by SSA. The present paper takes the conceptual step generalizing from the use of first and second moments as in SSA to higher order moments, thus defining the proposed higher order stationary subspace analysis procedure (HOSSA). The paper derives the novel procedure and shows simulations. An obvious trade-off between the necessity of estimating higher moments and the accuracy and robustness with which they can be estimated is observed. In an ideal setting of plenty of data where higher moment information is dominating our novel approach can win against standard SSA. However, with limited data, even though higher moments actually dominate the underlying data, still SSA may arrive on par.

  5. Multiple Sclerosis Risk Variant HLA-DRB1*1501 Associates with High Expression of DRB1 Gene in Different Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Grau, María del Mar; Fedetz, María; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lucas, Miguel; Fernández, Óscar; Ndagire, Dorothy; Catalá-Rabasa, Antonio; Ruiz, Agustín; Gayán, Javier; Delgado, Concepción; Arnal, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*1501 has been consistently associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in nearly all populations tested. This points to a specific antigen presentation as the pathogenic mechanism though this does not fully explain the disease association. The identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for genes in the HLA locus poses the question of the role of gene expression in MS susceptibility. We analyzed the eQTLs in the HLA region with respect to MS-associated HLA-variants obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We found that the Tag of DRB1*1501, rs3135388 A allele, correlated with high expression of DRB1, DRB5 and DQB1 genes in a Caucasian population. In quantitative terms, the MS-risk AA genotype carriers of rs3135388 were associated with 15.7-, 5.2- and 8.3-fold higher expression of DQB1, DRB5 and DRB1, respectively, than the non-risk GG carriers. The haplotype analysis of expression-associated variants in a Spanish MS cohort revealed that high expression of DRB1 and DQB1 alone did not contribute to the disease. However, in Caucasian, Asian and African American populations, the DRB1*1501 allele was always highly expressed. In other immune related diseases such as type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, asthma and IgA deficiency, the best GWAS-associated HLA SNPs were also eQTLs for different HLA Class II genes. Our data suggest that the DR/DQ expression levels, together with specific structural properties of alleles, seem to be the causal effect in MS and in other immunopathologies rather than specific antigen presentation alone. PMID:22253788

  6. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Defamation Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazluke, Francine Tilewick

    This monograph reviews the law applying to defamation issues, cites various judicial decisions that affect colleges and universities, and offers guidance for minimizing the risk of defamation liability. It defines the two subclasses of defamatory statements: first, libel, which is a recorded or printed statement, and second, slander, which is…

  18. Higher Education: A Growth Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the implications for the future of higher education by examining data concerning demographic factors, growth projections, supply factors, expansion concerns, health care needs, and manpower supplies. (Author/PG)

  19. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  20. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  1. Differentiation of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, P.; Lapointe, S.

    1983-01-01

    Historical and political influences in the trend toward diversification in French universities are traced. Related issues discussed include institutional versus governmental preferences, institutional functions (curriculum, vocational training, research), and implications for the quality and democratization of higher education. (MSE)

  2. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  3. Alcohol demand and risk preference

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6–8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  4. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  5. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The successful…

  6. Higher Education Accounting Manual. Utah Coordinating Council of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Coordinating Council of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognition of a critical need for accurate and detailed information to refine the process of budgeting funds for higher education in Utah led to the preparation of this accounting manual for universities and colleges in the state. The manual presents guidelines for the uniform accounting and reporting of financial and statistical data, and is…

  7. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  8. Embracing risk.

    PubMed

    Cagan, Ross

    2015-08-01

    I entered the science field because I imagined that scientists were society's "professional risk takers", that they like surfing out on the edge. I understood that a lot of science - perhaps even most science - has to be a solid exploration of partly understood phenomena. But any science that confronts a difficult problem has to start with risk. Most people are at least a bit suspicious of risk, and scientists such as myself are no exception. Recently, risk-taking has been under attack financially, but this Editorial is not about that. I am writing about the long view and the messages we send to our trainees. I am Senior Associate Dean of the graduate school at Mount Sinai and have had the privilege to discuss these issues with the next generation of scientists, for whom I care very deeply. Are we preparing you to embrace risk? PMID:26203124

  9. Embracing risk

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Ross

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT I entered the science field because I imagined that scientists were society's “professional risk takers”, that they like surfing out on the edge. I understood that a lot of science – perhaps even most science – has to be a solid exploration of partly understood phenomena. But any science that confronts a difficult problem has to start with risk. Most people are at least a bit suspicious of risk, and scientists such as myself are no exception. Recently, risk-taking has been under attack financially, but this Editorial is not about that. I am writing about the long view and the messages we send to our trainees. I am Senior Associate Dean of the graduate school at Mount Sinai and have had the privilege to discuss these issues with the next generation of scientists, for whom I care very deeply. Are we preparing you to embrace risk? PMID:26203124

  10. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  11. The Post-9/11 Risk Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Ann H.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to place the post-9/11 risk agenda for colleges and universities in historical perspective by offering a refresher on some of the most serious perennial risks for U.S. higher education. Offers an eight-point road map of how to enhance boards' risk management efforts. (EV)

  12. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  13. Arbitration in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Bob Thompson, Ed.

    Areas of concern related to grievance arbitration in higher education are examined. Selected arbitration awards, court and National Labor Relation Board rulings, and related literature are reviewed, and probable patterns and trends in arbitration are identified. Potential conflicts between collective bargaining and collegiality (self-governance)…

  14. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  15. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  16. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  17. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  18. Elevating the Higher Education Beat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    1998-01-01

    Problems in media coverage of higher education in New England are examined, noting high turnover in journalists covering colleges and universities and journalists' lack of time to visit campuses. What coverage there is appears to be focused heavily on a few prestigious institutions and state colleges where news is easily gathered from bureaucrats…

  19. Refocusing Higher Education Budget Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report proposes changes to the current higher education budget development process in Illinois in order to provide more information to institutions and to make the process more inclusive and open. It argues that budget development should be goal-based and accountable, responsive, incentive-based, recognize diversity of institutions, stable…

  20. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  1. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  2. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  3. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  4. Evaluating Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.; Hashimoto, Masanori; Fleisher, Belton M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors develop an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, they show that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. They offer evidence that the weak relationship between learning and…

  5. Class Struggle in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Dan; Leiblum, Mishy

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This…

  6. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  7. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  8. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

  9. Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Often, campus policies and public debate on student success has been too heavily focused on standardization of curriculum and assessment and on an unacceptably flawed graduation rate formula. The report, "Student Success in Higher Education," brings the voice of front-line faculty and staff into student success policymaking to ensure that ideas…

  10. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  11. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  12. History of Higher Education, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers on different aspects of the history of higher education in Europe and the United States. The first paper is "The Rights of Man and the Rites of Youth: Fraternity and Riot at Eighteenth Century Harvard" by Leon Jackson. This paper argues that the lines of division in the student body at…

  13. History of Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

  14. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  15. Gender Equity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans discrimination in schools receiving federal financial assistance with regard to both academics and athletics. The law has helped ensure that women have access to both academic and athletic opportunities at most higher education institutions in the United States, dramatically increasing the range…

  16. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  17. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  18. American Higher Education in Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Kenneth H.

    The decline in the quality of American higher education over the past several decades and the ramifications of this phenomena are discussed in this book. It is suggested that in responding to modern egalitarianism and the need to attract students, colleges and universities have initiated innovative programs, noncampuses, and nontraditional degrees…

  19. On Education: The Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1980-01-01

    Higher education is described as a name for the highest formation of soul and mind, and the highest goal of education is "wisdom." Practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom are seen as exemplified at their peak in the comprehension of the genuine statesman and the genuine philosopher. (MLW)

  20. Higher Education Evaluation in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bernhard; von Hippel, Aiga; Tippelt, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance in the area of higher education has become a central issue among both politicians and scientists. University evaluations which refer to both research and teaching are an important element of quality assurance. The present contribution starts out by determining the different components of quality at universities according to…

  1. Danger: Work on Higher Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

  2. Higher Education: Building Connecticut's Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisa, Cynthia L.; Placzek, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    The Connecticut Departments of Labor (DOL) and Higher Education (DHE), working in close collaboration with the University of Connecticut, Connecticut State University, Connecticut Community Colleges and Charter Oak State College, present this comprehensive report on employment outcomes for graduates of the State's public college system. This…

  3. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  4. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  5. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  6. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  7. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  8. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  9. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  10. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  11. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  12. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Thomas M., Ed.

    The 1975 conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education covered a wide range of topics. The proceedings included discussion of such areas as collective bargaining's impact on governance; the U.S. Congress and public employee legislation; federal legislation from a management perspective and from a…

  13. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  14. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent…

  15. Higher Education in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdahl, Robert O., Ed.

    The wide-ranging impact of social, political and economic forces on higher education and their specific consequences for faculty, students, and administrators is addressed within the broad context of autonomy and accountability. The book is organized around several themes. The first section discusses such basic issues as: the historical…

  16. State Budgeting for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.

    1976-01-01

    State government is and is expected to remain the chief source of funding for higher education. At the same time, the state is confronted with serious policy issues relating to support of research, public services, and adult education, to falling enrollments in some public institutions, to the probable closure of some private liberal arts colleges…

  17. Systems Applications in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schure, Alexander

    This paper discusses the application of computers for higher education and describes a philosophy and initial application of an accountability system that can aid in coping with the problems of occupationally related schools. Discussed are: (1) the role of computers in systems application; (2) the need for systems related information: the…

  18. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  19. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  20. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…