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Sample records for 3-kinase-akt pathway protects

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway mediates acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Ji-Yeun; Moon, Woongjoon; Chae, Younbyoung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that acupuncture treatment reduced dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, the mechanistic pathways underlying, such neuroprotection, are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in a mouse model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). First, we observed that MPTP-induced impairment of Akt activation, but not MPTP-induced c-Jun activation, was effectively restored by acupuncture treatment in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that the brain-specific blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, by intranasal administration of LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, significantly blocked acupuncture-induced dopaminergic neuron protection and motor function improvement. Our results provide evidence that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may play a central role in the mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced benefits in Parkinsonian mice.

  2. Antidiabetic drug voglibose is protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury through glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Itta; Sumi, Shohei; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Shiraki, Takeru; Yamaki, Takahiko; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Takuma; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2010-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) reportedly exerts a protective effect against cardiac ischemia. We hypothesized that the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose, an unabsorbable antidiabetic drug with cardioprotective effects, may act through stimulation of GLP-1 receptors. The results of the present study suggest oral administration of voglibose reduces myocardial infarct size and mitigates cardiac dysfunction in rabbits after 30 minutes of coronary occlusion and 48 hours of reperfusion. Voglibose increased basal and postprandial plasma GLP-1 levels and reduced postprandial plasma glucose levels. The infarct size-reducing effect of voglibose was abolished by treatment with exendin(9-39), wortmannin, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, or 5-hydroxydecanoate), which inhibit GLP-1 receptors, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, nitric oxide synthase, and K(ATP) channels, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that treatment with voglibose upregulated myocardial levels of phospho-Akt, phosphoendothelial nitric oxide synthase after myocardial infarction. The upregulation of phospho-Akt was inhibited by exendin(9-39) and wortmannin. These findings suggest that voglibose reduces myocardial infarct size through stimulation of GLP-1 receptors, activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathways, and the opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels. These findings may provide new insight into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.

  3. Ribonuclease 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woo; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Chan

    2016-01-01

    To maintain corneal transparency, corneal endothelial cells (CECs) exert a pump function against aqueous inflow. However, human CECs are arrested in the G1-phase and non-proliferative in vivo. Thus, treatment of corneal endothelial decompensation is limited to corneal transplantation, and grafts are vulnerable to immune rejection. Here, we show that ribonuclease (RNase) 5 is more highly expressed in normal human CECs compared to decompensated tissues. Furthermore, RNase 5 up-regulated survival of CECs and accelerated corneal endothelial wound healing in an in vitro wound of human CECs and an in vivo cryo-damaged rabbit model. RNase 5 treatment rapidly induced accumulation of cytoplasmic RNase 5 into the nucleus, and activated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in human CECs. Moreover, inhibition of nuclear translocation of RNase 5 using neomycin reversed RNase 5-induced Akt activation. As a potential strategy for proliferation enhancement, RNase 5 increased the population of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated proliferating CECs with concomitant PI3-kinase/Akt activation, especially in CECs deprived of contact-inhibition. Specifically, RNase 5 suppressed p27 and up-regulated cyclin D1, D3, and E by activating PI3-kinase/Akt in CECs to initiate cell cycle progression. Together, our data indicate that RNase 5 facilitates corneal endothelial wound healing, and identify RNase 5 as a novel target for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:27526633

  4. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway mediates geranylgeranylacetone-induced neuroprotection against cerebral infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, Eiji; Fujiki, Minoru; Nagai, Yasuyuki; Shiqi, Kong; Kubo, Takeshi; Ishii, Keisuke; Abe, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    2010-05-12

    Previous studies demonstrated the cytoprotective effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat shock protein inducer, against ischemic insult. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) is thought to be an important factor that mediates neuroprotection. However, the signaling pathways in the brain in vivo after oral GGA administration remain unclear. We measured and compared infarction volumes to investigate the effect of GGA on cerebral infarction induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD), a specific mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel inhibitor; diazoxide (DZX), a selective mitoK(ATP) channel opener and wortmannin (Wort), a specific PI3K inhibitor of GGA-induced neuroprotection against infarction volumes. To clarify the relationship between PI3K/Akt activation and neuroprotection, we used immunoblot analysis to determine the amount of p-Akt proteins present after GGA administration with or without Wort treatment. Neuroprotective effects of GGA (pretreatment with a single oral GGA dose (800 mg/kg) 48 h before ischemia) were prevented by 5HD, DZX and Wort pretreatment, which indicates that the selective mitoK(ATP) channel and the PI3K/Akt pathway may mediate GGA-dependent protection. Oral GGA-induced p-Akt and GGA pretreatment enhanced ischemia-induced p-Akt, both of which were prevented by Wort pretreatment. These results suggest that a single oral dose of GGA induces p-Akt and that GGA plays an important role in neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia through the mitoK(ATP) channel opening. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acadesine Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Thrombus Formation by Activating the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Huan; Tang, Rong; Belcher, John D.; Viollet, Benoit; Geng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Chunxiang; Wu, Chaodong; Slungaard, Arne; Zhu, Chuhong; Huo, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acadesine, an adenosine-regulating agent and activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. This study investigated whether and how acadesine inhibits tissue factor (TF) expression and thrombus formation. Methods and Results Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human peripheral blood monocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide to induce TF expression. Pretreatment with acadesine dramatically suppressed the clotting activity and expression of TF (protein and mRNA). These inhibitory effects of acadesine were unchanged for endothelial cells treated with ZM241385 (a specific adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) or AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound C, and in macrophages lacking adenosine A2A receptor or α1–AMP-activated protein kinase. In endothelial cells and macrophages, acadesine activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, reduced the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and consequently suppressed TF expression by inhibiting the activator protein-1 and NF-κB pathways. In mice, acadesine suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated increases in blood coagulation, decreased TF expression in atherosclerotic lesions, and reduced deep vein thrombus formation. Conclusion Acadesine inhibits TF expression and thrombus formation by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This novel finding implicates acadesine as a potentially useful treatment for many disorders associated with thrombotic pathology, such as angina pain, deep vein thrombosis, and sepsis. PMID:20185792

  6. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  7. Dual regulation of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) by the glucocorticoid receptor and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathways in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Grugan, Katharine D; Ma, Chunguang; Singhal, Seema; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2008-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective therapeutics commonly used in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. Clarifying the pathway of GC-induced apoptosis is crucial to understanding the process of drug resistance and to the development of new targets for MM treatment. We have previously published results of a micro-array identifying glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) as GC-regulated gene in MM.1S cells. Consistent with those results, GCs increased GILZ in MM cell lines and patient samples. Reducing the levels of GILZ with siRNA decreased GC-induced cell death suggesting GILZ may mediate GC-killing. We conducted a screen to identify other pathways that affect GILZ regulation and report that inhibitors of PI3-kinase/AKT enhanced GILZ expression in MM cell lines and clinical samples. The combination of dexamethasone (Dex) and LY294002, wortmannin, triciribine, or AKT inhibitor VIII dramatically up regulated GILZ levels and enhanced apoptosis. Addition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), both which activate the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway and inhibit GC killing, blocked up regulation of GILZ by GC and PI3-kinase/AKT inhibitors. In summary, these results identify GILZ as a mediator of GC killing, indicate a role of PI3-kinase/AKT in controlling GILZ regulation and suggest that the combination of PI3-kinase/AKT inhibitors and GCs may be a beneficial MM treatment.

  8. A Single Oral Dose of Geranylgeranylacetone Upregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Protects against Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Cell Death: Involvement of the Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yukari; Fujiki, Minoru; Uchida, Susumu; Morishige, Masaki; Momii, Yasutomo; Ishii, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the cytoprotective effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat shock protein inducer, against ischemic insult or kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal cell death. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt is thought to be an important factor that mediates neuroprotection. However, the signaling pathways in the brain in vivo after oral GGA administration remain unclear. We measured and compared hippocampal neuron density to investigate the effect of GGA on KA-induced cell death in rats. We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with wortmannin (Wort), a specific PI3K inhibitor, on GGA-induced neuroprotection against KA-induced cell death. To clarify the relationship between PI3K/Akt activation and neuroprotection, we used immunoblot analysis to determine the amounts of p-Akt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins present after GGA administration with or without Wort treatment. Neuroprotective effects of GGA (pretreatment with a single oral dose of GGA, 800 mg/kg, 48 h before KA injection) were prevented by Wort pretreatment, which indicates that the selective PI3K/Akt pathway may mediate the GGA-dependent protection. Oral GGA-induced p-Akt and VEGF, and GGA pretreatment enhanced KA-induced VEGF, both of which were prevented by Wort pretreatment. These results suggest that a single oral dose of GGA induces p-Akt and that GGA plays an important role in neuroprotection against KA-induced neuronal cell death through VEGF induction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  10. Polycystin-1 Induces Resistance to Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boca, Manila; Distefano, Gianfranco; Boletta, Alessandra; Qian, Feng; Bhunia, Anil K.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1), the PKD1 gene product, is a large receptor whose expression in renal epithelial cells results in resistance to apoptosis and tubulogenesis, a model consistent with the phenotype observed in patients. This study links PC-1 expression to a signaling pathway that is known to be both antiapoptotic and important for normal tubulogenesis. This study found that PC-1 expression results in phosphorylation of Akt and downstream effectors and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors prevent this process. In addition, it is shown that dominant negative Akt can revert PC-1-induced protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, it was observed that increased PI3-K β activity in PC-1- expressing MDCK cells seems to be dependent on both tyrosine-kinase activity and heterotrimeric G proteins. It also was found that PC-1-induced tubulogenesis is inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the PI3-K/Akt cascade may be a central modulator of PC-1 function and that its deregulation might be important in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:16452497

  11. Andrographolide inhibits osteopontin expression and breast tumor growth through down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, H S; Sharma, P; Kumar, D; Dasari, S; Puranik, V G; Thulasiram, H V; Kundu, G C

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in India and around the world. Despite recent advancement in the treatment of breast cancer, the results of chemotherapy to date remain unsatisfactory, prompting a need to identify natural agents that could target cancer efficiently with least side effects. Andrographolide (Andro) is one such molecule which has been shown to possess inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth. In this study, Andro, a natural diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase and induces apoptosis through caspase independent pathway. Our experimental evidences suggest that Andro attenuates endothelial cell motility and tumor-endothelial cell interaction. Moreover, Andro suppresses breast tumor growth in orthotopic NOD/SCID mice model. The anti-tumor activity of Andro in both in vitro and in vivo model was correlated with down regulation of PI3 kinase/Akt activation and inhibition of pro-angiogenic molecules such as OPN and VEGF expressions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Andro may act as an effective anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  12. Novel Anti-Microbial Peptide SR-0379 Accelerates Wound Healing via the PI3 Kinase/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Hideki; Nakagami, Hironori; Tenma, Akiko; Saito, Yoshimi; Kaga, Toshihiro; Kanamori, Toshihide; Tamura, Nao; Tomono, Kazunori; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel cationic antimicrobial peptide, AG30/5C, which demonstrates angiogenic properties similar to those of LL-37 or PR39. However, improvement of its stability and cost efficacy are required for clinical application. Therefore, we examined the metabolites of AG30/5C, which provided the further optimized compound, SR-0379. SR-0379 enhanced the proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDFs) via the PI3 kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway through integrin-mediated interactions. Furthermore SR-0379 promoted the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in co-culture with NHDFs. This compound also displays antimicrobial activities against a number of bacteria, including drug-resistant microbes and fungi. We evaluated the effect of SR-0379 in two different would-healing models in rats, the full-thickness defects under a diabetic condition and an acutely infected wound with full-thickness defects and inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment with SR-0379 significantly accelerated wound healing when compared to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). The beneficial effects of SR-0379 on wound healing can be explained by enhanced angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblasts and antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that SR-0379 may have the potential for drug development in wound repair, even under especially critical colonization conditions. PMID:24675668

  13. RUNX1 regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway: role in chemotherapy sensitivity in acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Holly; Xie, Chengzhi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Buck, Steven A.; Boerner, Julie L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    RUNX1 (AML1) encodes the core binding factor α subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor complex which plays critical roles in normal hematopoiesis. Translocations or down-regulation of RUNX1 have been linked to favorable clinical outcomes in acute leukemias, suggesting that RUNX1 may also play critical roles in chemotherapy responses in acute leukemias; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The median level of RUNX1b transcripts in Down syndrome (DS) children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) were 4.4-fold (P < .001) lower than that in non-DS AMkL cases. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of RUNX1 in a non-DS AMkL cell line, Meg-01, resulted in significantly increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of PIK3CD, which encodes the δ catalytic subunit of the survival kinase, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)–kinase. Transcriptional regulation of PIK3CD by RUNX1 was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. Further, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and cytosine arabinoside synergized in antileukemia effects on Meg-01 and primary pediatric AMkL cells. Our results suggest that RUNX1 may play a critical role in chemotherapy response in AMkL by regulating the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Thus, the treatment of AMkL may be improved by integrating PI3-kinase or Akt inhibitors into the chemotherapy of this disease. PMID:19638627

  14. Genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2010-07-01

    Aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis, particularly in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and aggressive thyroid cancer, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). As the drivers of this process, many genetic alterations activating the PI3K/Akt pathway have been identified in thyroid cancer in recent years. This review summarizes the current knowledge on major genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway. These include PIK3CA mutations and genomic amplification/copy gain, Ras mutations, PTEN mutations, RET/PTC and PPARgamma/Pax8 rearrangements, as well as amplification/copy gain of PIK3CB, PDK1, Akt, and various receptor tyrosine kinase genes. Most of these genetic alterations are particularly common in FTC and many of them are even more common in ATC; they are generally less common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), in which the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway activated by the BRAF mutation instead plays a major role. Methylation and, thus, epigenetic silencing of PTEN, a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, occurs in close association with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/Akt pathway, constituting a unique self-enhancement mechanism for this pathway. Many of these genetic alterations are mutually exclusive in differentiated thyroid tumors, but with increasing concurrence from benign tumors to FTC to ATC. RET/PTC, Ras, and receptor tyrosine kinase could dually activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. Most cases of ATC harbor genetic alterations in these genes or other genetic combinations that can activate both pathways. It is proposed that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway promote thyroid cell transformation to FTC and that genetic alterations in the MAPK pathway promote cell transformation to PTC; accumulation of multiple genetic alterations that can activate both pathways promotes thyroid cancer aggressiveness and progression to ATC. Genetic alterations

  15. Genetic Alterations in the Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Pathway in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis, particularly in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and aggressive thyroid cancer, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). As the drivers of this process, many genetic alterations activating the PI3K/Akt pathway have been identified in thyroid cancer in recent years. Summary This review summarizes the current knowledge on major genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway. These include PIK3CA mutations and genomic amplification/copy gain, Ras mutations, PTEN mutations, RET/PTC and PPARγ/Pax8 rearrangements, as well as amplification/copy gain of PIK3CB, PDK1, Akt, and various receptor tyrosine kinase genes. Most of these genetic alterations are particularly common in FTC and many of them are even more common in ATC; they are generally less common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), in which the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway activated by the BRAF mutation instead plays a major role. Methylation and, thus, epigenetic silencing of PTEN, a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, occurs in close association with activating genetic alterations of the PI3K/Akt pathway, constituting a unique self-enhancement mechanism for this pathway. Many of these genetic alterations are mutually exclusive in differentiated thyroid tumors, but with increasing concurrence from benign tumors to FTC to ATC. RET/PTC, Ras, and receptor tyrosine kinase could dually activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. Most cases of ATC harbor genetic alterations in these genes or other genetic combinations that can activate both pathways. It is proposed that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway promote thyroid cell transformation to FTC and that genetic alterations in the MAPK pathway promote cell transformation to PTC; accumulation of multiple genetic alterations that can activate both pathways promotes thyroid cancer aggressiveness and progression to ATC

  16. Sulforaphane prevents human platelet aggregation through inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Ying; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Kuo, Chih-Yun; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, which is a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, is still unclear. In the present study, we show that sulforaphane inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by different receptor agonists, including collagen, U46619 (a thromboxane A2 mimic), protease-activated receptor 1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP), and an ADP P2Y12 receptor agonist. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly reduced thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface under whole blood flow conditions. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that sulforaphane specifically prevented phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling, without markedly affecting other signlaling pathways involved in platelet aggregation, such as protein kinase C activation, calcium mobilisation, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Although sulforaphane did not directly inhibit the catalytic activity of PI3K, it caused ubiquitination of the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, and prevented PI3K translocation to membranes. In addition, sulforaphane caused ubiquitination and degradation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), which is required for Akt activation. Therefore, sulforaphane is able to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway at two distinct sites. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that sulforaphane prevented platelet aggregation and reduced thrombus formation in flow conditions; our data also support that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway by sulforaphane contributes it antiplatelet effects.

  17. Neuroprotective Role of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Yunzhang; Rong, Xiaozhi; Li, Yun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Lu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal survival and growth in the embryo is controlled partly by trophic factors. For most trophic factors (such as Insulin-like growth factor-1), the ability to regulate cell survival has been attributed to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase cascade. This study presents data illustrating the role of PI3K/Akt in attainment of normal brain size during zebrafish embryogenesis. Blocking PI3K with inhibitor LY294002 caused a significant reduction in brain size (in addition to global growth retardation) during zebrafish embryogenesis. This PI3 Kinase inhibition-induced brain size decrease was recovered by the overexpression of myristoylated Akt (myr-Akt), a constitutive form of Akt. Further analysis reveals that expressing exogenous myr-Akt significantly augmented brain size. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of several marker genes showed that myr-Akt overexpression did not alter brain patterning. Furthermore, the expression of myr-Akt was found to protect neuronal cells from apoptosis induced by heat shock and UV light, suggesting that inhibition of neuronal cell death may be part of the underlying cause of the increased brain size. These data provide a foundation for addressing the role of PI3K/Akt in brain growth during zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:28228749

  18. [Significance of phosphoinositide 3 kinase/AKT pathway alterations in endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Yi-ting; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wei; Nong, Lin; Li, Ting; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic implications of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway alterations in endometrial cancers of Chinese women. The expression of PTEN, p-AKT, and ER/PR was assessed in 71 cases of endometrial carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method). The PIK3CA mutation at exon 9 and exon 20 was analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing in 34 tumors. (1) Of the 71 cases of endometrial carcinoma, 65 cases were endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC) and 6 cases were nonendometrioid adenocarcinoma (NEEC). PTEN loss of expression was found in 63.4% (45/71) of tumors, and more commonly occurred in EEC (66.2%, 43/65) than that in NEEC (2/6, P = 0.18). Patients with PTEN loss in their tumors (45 cases) had a better survival than those without (26 cases, P = 0.07). In ER negative subgroup, the patients with PTEN loss of expression (12 cases) had longer survival than those with normal PTEN expression (7 cases; P = 0.04). (2) The frequency of PIK3CA mutation was 41.2% (14/34) with a hot mutation spot at T544 in exon 9. PIK3CA mutations more commonly occurred in EEC (44.8%, 13/29) than in NEEC (1/5, P > 0.05). The mutations at exon 9 more commonly occurred in EEC, well- and moderately-differentiated EEC, and tumors at early stage (P > 0.05). On the contrary, in tumors at early stages, the frequency of mutations in exon 20 (14.3%, 4/28) was significantly lower than that at late stages (4/6, P = 0.01). (3) p-AKT was positive in 59.2% (42/71) of tumors that were more frequently found in EEC (60.0%, 39/65) than that in NEEC (3/6, P = 0.68). However, the significant difference of p-AKT expression was found between well- and moderately-differentiated EEC (75.0%, 21/28; 53.6%, 15/28) and poorly-differentiated EEC (3/9, P = 0.02). Moreover, p-AKT expression was significantly correlated with positive ER (r = 0.339, P = 0.00). Endometrial carcinoma patients with loss of PTEN and p-AKT positivity have a favorable prognosis. PIK3CA mutations at

  19. Endurance exercise training increases insulin responsiveness in isolated adipocytes through IRS/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Peres, Sidney B; de Moraes, Solange M Franzói; Costa, Cecilia E M; Brito, Luciana C; Takada, Julie; Andreotti, Sandra; Machado, Magaly A; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Borges-Silva, Cristina N; Lima, Fabio B

    2005-03-01

    Endurance exercise training promotes important metabolic adaptations, and the adipose tissue is particularly affected. The aim of this study was to investigate how endurance exercise training modulates some aspects of insulin action in isolated adipocytes and in intact adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were submitted to daily treadmill running (1 h/day) for 7 wk. Sedentary age-matched rats were used as controls. Final body weight, body weight gain, and epididymal fat pad weight did not show any statistical differences between groups. Adipocytes from trained rats were smaller than those from sedentary rats (205 +/- 16.8 vs. 286 +/- 26.4 pl; P < 0.05). Trained rats showed decreased plasma glucose (4.9 +/- 0.13 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.07 mM; P < 0.05) and insulin levels (0.24 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.049 mM; P < 0.05) and increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (23.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 12.1 +/- 2.9 pmol/cm(2); P < 0.05) compared with sedentary rats. The number of insulin receptors and the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta subunit did not change between groups. Insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 increased significantly (1.57- and 2.38-fold, respectively) in trained rats. Insulin-induced IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase (but not IRS-2/PI3-kinase) association and serine Akt phosphorylation also increased (2.06- and 3.15-fold, respectively) after training. The protein content of insulin receptor-beta subunit, IRS-1 and -2, did not differ between groups. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the increased adipocyte responsiveness to insulin observed after endurance exercise training is modulated by IRS/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  20. Cross-Talk between NFkB and the PI3-Kinase/AKT Pathway Can Be Targeted in Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) Cell Lines for Efficient Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Azhar R.; Ahmed, Saeeda O.; Ahmed, Maqbool; Khan, Omar S.; Al AbdulMohsen, Sally; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S.; Uddin, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of constitutively activated signaling pathways play critical roles in the survival and growth of primary effusion lymphoma cells (PELs) including NFkB and PI3/AKT kinase cascades. NFkBis constitutively activated in a number of malignancies, including multiple myeloma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma. However, its role in primary effusion lymphoma has not been fully explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We used pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing to define the role of NFkB in growth and survival of PEL cells. Inhibition of NFkB activity by Bay11-7085 resulted in decreased expression of p65 in the nuclear compartment as detected by EMSA assays. In addition, Bay11-7085 treatment caused de-phosphorylation of AKT and its downstream targets suggesting a cross-talk between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway. Importantly, treatment of PEL cells with Bay11-7085 led to inhibition of cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Similar apoptotic effects were found when p65 was knocked down using specific small interference RNA. Finally, co-treatment of PEL cells with suboptimal doses of Bay11-7085 and LY294002 led to synergistic apoptotic responses in PEL cells. Conclusion/Significance These data support a strong biological-link between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway in the modulation of anti-apoptotic effects in PEL cells. Synergistic targeting of these pathways using NFKB- and PI3-kinase/AKT- inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of PEL and possibly other malignancies with constitutive activation of these pathways. PMID:22768179

  1. Cross-talk between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway can be targeted in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines for efficient apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Azhar R; Ahmed, Saeeda O; Ahmed, Maqbool; Khan, Omar S; Al Abdulmohsen, Sally; Platanias, Leonidas C; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S; Uddin, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    A number of constitutively activated signaling pathways play critical roles in the survival and growth of primary effusion lymphoma cells (PELs) including NFkB and PI3/AKT kinase cascades. NFkBis constitutively activated in a number of malignancies, including multiple myeloma, Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma. However, its role in primary effusion lymphoma has not been fully explored. We used pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing to define the role of NFkB in growth and survival of PEL cells. Inhibition of NFkB activity by Bay11-7085 resulted in decreased expression of p65 in the nuclear compartment as detected by EMSA assays. In addition, Bay11-7085 treatment caused de-phosphorylation of AKT and its downstream targets suggesting a cross-talk between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway. Importantly, treatment of PEL cells with Bay11-7085 led to inhibition of cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Similar apoptotic effects were found when p65 was knocked down using specific small interference RNA. Finally, co-treatment of PEL cells with suboptimal doses of Bay11-7085 and LY294002 led to synergistic apoptotic responses in PEL cells. These data support a strong biological-link between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway in the modulation of anti-apoptotic effects in PEL cells. Synergistic targeting of these pathways using NFKB- and PI3-kinase/AKT-inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of PEL and possibly other malignancies with constitutive activation of these pathways.

  2. Down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene retinoic acid receptor beta2 through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Bruno; Brand, Céline; Flajollet, Sébastien; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) is a potent, retinoid-inducible tumor suppressor gene, which is a critical molecular relay for retinoid actions in cells. Its down-regulation, or loss of expression, leads to resistance of cancer cells to retinoid treatment. Up to now, no primary mechanism underlying the repression of the RARbeta2 gene expression, hence affecting cellular retinoid sensitivity, has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway affects cellular retinoid sensitivity, by regulating corepressor recruitment to the RARbeta2 promoter. Through direct phosphorylation of the corepressor silencing mediator for retinoic and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), Akt stabilized RAR/SMRT interaction, leading to an increased tethering of SMRT to the RARbeta2 promoter, decreased histone acetylation, down-regulation of the RARbeta2 expression, and impaired cellular differentiation in response to retinoid. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, an important modulator of cellular survival, has thus a direct impact on cellular retinoid sensitivity, and its deregulation may be the triggering event in retinoid resistance of cancer cells.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in hyperinsulinemic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hidenori; Sohara, Eisei; Nomura, Naohiro; Chiga, Motoko; Alessi, Dario R; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome patients have insulin resistance, which causes hyperinsulinemia, which in turn causes aberrant increased renal sodium reabsorption. The precise mechanisms underlying this greater salt sensitivity of hyperinsulinemic patients remain unclear. Abnormal activation of the recently identified with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1)/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)-NaCl cotransporter (NCC) phosphorylation cascade results in the salt-sensitive hypertension of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Here, we report a study of renal WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade activation in the db/db mouse model of hyperinsulinemic metabolic syndrome. Thiazide sensitivity was increased, suggesting greater activity of NCC in db/db mice. In fact, increased phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK and NCC was observed. In both SpakT243A/+ and Osr1T185A/+ knock-in db/db mice, which carry mutations that disrupt the signal from WNK kinases, increased phosphorylation of NCC and elevated blood pressure were completely corrected, indicating that phosphorylation of SPAK and OSR1 by WNK kinases is required for the increased activation and phosphorylation of NCC in this model. Renal phosphorylated Akt was increased in db/db mice, suggesting that increased NCC phosphorylation is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade in the kidney in response to hyperinsulinemia. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) corrected the increased OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation. Another more specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (GDC-0941) and an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) also inhibited increased NCC phosphorylation. These results indicate that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in db/db mice. This mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension in human hyperinsulinemic conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome.

  4. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Negatively Regulates Nod2-Mediated NF-kB Pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan and activate downstream signaling pathways including NF-kB pathway. Here, we show that Nod2 agonist MDP induces Ak...

  5. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Gu, Tieguang; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  6. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates and PTEN antagonizes tumor necrosis factor inhibition of insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1

    PubMed Central

    Ozes, Osman Nidai; Akca, Hakan; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Gustin, Jason A.; Maehama, Tomohiko; Dixon, Jack E.; Donner, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) by the insulin receptor permits this docking protein to interact with signaling proteins that promote insulin action. Serine phosphorylation uncouples IRS-1 from the insulin receptor, thereby inhibiting its tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin signaling. For this reason, there is great interest in identifying serine/threonine kinases for which IRS-1 is a substrate. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and activated the Akt/protein kinase B serine-threonine kinase, a downstream target for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The effect of TNF on insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was blocked by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and the PTEN tumor suppessor, which dephosphorylates the lipids that mediate PI 3-kinase functions, whereas constitutively active Akt impaired insulin-promoted IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, TNF inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by kinase dead Akt. Inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by TNF was blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt. mTOR induced the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser-636/639), and such phosphorylation was inhibited by rapamycin. These results suggest that TNF impairs insulin signaling through IRS-1 by activation of a PI 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is antagonized by PTEN. PMID:11287630

  7. Caffeine and the analog CGS 15943 inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Edling, Charlotte E; Selvaggi, Federico; Ghonaim, Ragheda; Maffucci, Tania; Falasca, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a naturally occurring methylxanthine that acts as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. Epidemiological studies demonstrated habitual coffee drinking to be significantly associated with liver cancer survival. We aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine and its analog CGS 15943 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We demonstrate that caffeine and CGS 15943 block proliferation in HCC and PDAC cell lines by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Importantly a kinase profiling assay reveals that CGS 15943 targets specifically the catalytic subunit of the class IB PI3K isoform (p110γ). These data give mechanistic insight into the action of caffeine and its analogs and they identify these compounds as promising lead compounds to develop drugs that can specifically target this PI3K isoform whose key role in cancer progression is emerging. PMID:24521981

  8. Trpc1 Ion Channel Modulates Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway during Myoblast Differentiation and Muscle Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Zanou, Nadège; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1−/− and Trpc1+/+ murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1−/− muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1−/− mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1−/− muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1−/− primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca2+ through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca2+-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration. PMID:22399301

  9. Trpc1 ion channel modulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zanou, Nadège; Schakman, Olivier; Louis, Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T; Dietrich, Alexander; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gailly, Philippe

    2012-04-27

    We previously showed in vitro that calcium entry through Trpc1 ion channels regulates myoblast migration and differentiation. In the present work, we used primary cell cultures and isolated muscles from Trpc1(-/-) and Trpc1(+/+) murine model to investigate the role of Trpc1 in myoblast differentiation and in muscle regeneration. In these models, we studied regeneration consecutive to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and observed a significant hypotrophy and a delayed regeneration in Trpc1(-/-) muscles consisting in smaller fiber size and increased proportion of centrally nucleated fibers. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of myogenic factors such as MyoD, Myf5, and myogenin and of one of their targets, the developmental MHC (MHCd). Consequently, muscle tension was systematically lower in muscles from Trpc1(-/-) mice. Importantly, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway, which plays a crucial role in muscle growth and regeneration, was down-regulated in regenerating Trpc1(-/-) muscles. Indeed, phosphorylation of both Akt and p70S6K proteins was decreased as well as the activation of PI3K, the main upstream regulator of the Akt. This effect was independent of insulin-like growth factor expression. Akt phosphorylation also was reduced in Trpc1(-/-) primary myoblasts and in control myoblasts differentiated in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or pretreated with EGTA-AM or wortmannin, suggesting that the entry of Ca(2+) through Trpc1 channels enhanced the activity of PI3K. Our results emphasize the involvement of Trpc1 channels in skeletal muscle development in vitro and in vivo, and identify a Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway during myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration.

  10. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Hongchuan; Cheng, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro) was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10−7 mol/L), by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future. PMID:25709476

  11. Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, induces apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells via mitochondrial and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Azhar; Khan, Muhammad; Yu, Bo; Ali, Muhammad; Bo, Yang Jing; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-10-01

    Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, possesses anti-fungal as well as cytotoxic properties. In this study, the effects of Isoalantolactone on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. The results demonstrated that Isoalantolactone induced morphological changes and decreased cell viability. Subsequently, we found that Isoalantolactone induced G2/M and S phase arrest, which was associated with a decrease in the expression level of cyclin B1. Apoptosis triggered by Isoalantolactone was visualized using propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Isoalantolactone-induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells was associated with the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m) that was due to the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax that led to the cleavage of caspase-3. Additionally, it was found that Isoalantolactone was involved in the inhibition of phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. Isoalantolactone-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells involve mitochondria-caspase and PI3K/Akt dependent pathways, which gives the rationale for in vivo studies on the utilization of Isoalantolactone as a potential cancer therapeutic compound.

  12. Semaphorin 3B inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway through neuropilin-1 in lung and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rivera, Emely; Ran, Sophia; Brekken, Rolf A; Minna, John D

    2008-10-15

    Semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B), located at 3p21.3, is a secreted member of the semaphorin family important in axonal guidance. SEMA3B undergoes allele and expression loss in lung and breast cancer and can function as a tumor suppressor. Previously, we found that SEMA3B induces apoptosis in tumor cells either by reexpression or when applied as a soluble ligand. SEMA3B-induced apoptosis was mediated, in part, by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor autocrine activity in tumor cells. In the current study, treatment of lung and breast cancer cells with picomolar concentrations of soluble SEMA3B inhibited their growth; induced apoptosis; and was associated with decreased Akt phosphorylation, increase in cytochrome c release and caspase-3 cleavage, as well as increased phosphorylation of several proapoptotic proteins, including glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, FKHR, and MDM-2. Lung and breast cancer lines resistant to SEMA3B did not show these signaling changes and a tumor-derived missense SEMA3B mutant was inactive in this regard, providing specificity. SEMA3B-mediated inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells were blocked by expressing a constitutively active Akt mutant and are linked to tumor cell expression of neuropilin-1 (Np-1). SEMA3B-insensitive Np-1-negative tumor cells acquired sensitivity to SEMA3B after forced expression of Np-1, whereas SEMA3B-sensitive Np-1-positive tumor cells lost sensitivity to SEMA3B after knockdown of Np-1 by small interfering RNA. We conclude that SEMA3B is a potential tumor suppressor that induces apoptosis in SEMA3B-inactivated tumor cells through the Np-1 receptor by inactivating the Akt signaling pathway. CA118384

  13. Semaphorin 3B Inhibits the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway through Neuropilin-1 in Lung and Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Rivera, Emely; Ran, Sophia; Brekken, Rolf A.; Minna, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B), located at 3p21.3, is a secreted member of the semaphorin family important in axonal guidance. SEMA3B undergoes allele and expression loss in lung and breast cancer and can function as a tumor suppressor. Previously, we found that SEMA3B induces apoptosis in tumor cells either by reexpression or when applied as a soluble ligand. SEMA3B-induced apoptosis was mediated, in part, by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor autocrine activity in tumor cells. In the current study, treatment of lung and breast cancer cells with picomolar concentrations of soluble SEMA3B inhibited their growth; induced apoptosis; and was associated with decreased Akt phosphorylation, increase in cytochrome c release and caspase-3 cleavage, as well as increased phosphorylation of several proapoptotic proteins, including glycogen synthase kinase-3β, FKHR, and MDM-2. Lung and breast cancer lines resistant to SEMA3B did not showthese signaling changes and a tumor-derived missense SEMA3B mutant was inactive in this regard, providing specificity. SEMA3B-mediated inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells were blocked by expressing a constitutively active Akt mutant and are linked to tumor cell expression of neuropilin-1 (Np-1). SEMA3B-insensitive Np-1–negative tumor cells acquired sensitivity to SEMA3B after forced expression of Np-1, whereas SEMA3B-sensitive Np-1–positive tumor cells lost sensitivity to SEMA3B after knockdown of Np-1 by small interfering RNA. We conclude that SEMA3B is a potential tumor suppressor that induces apoptosis in SEMA3B-inactivated tumor cells through the Np-1 receptor by inactivating the Akt signaling pathway. PMID:18922901

  14. Promotion of melanoma cell invasion and tumor metastasis by microcystin-LR via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Miao, Chen; Fu, Ziyi; Li, Zhengrong; Zhang, Gen; Zheng, Maqing; Liu, Yuefang; Yang, Liuyan; Wang, Ting

    2013-08-06

    Recently, we have indicated that microcystin-LR, a cyanobacterial toxin produced in eutrophic lakes or reservoirs, can increase invasive ability of melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells; however, the stimulatory effect needs identification by in vivo experiment and the related molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of microcystin-LR on invasion and metastasis of human melanoma cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism was also explored. MDA-MB-435 xenograft model assay showed that oral administration of nude mice with microcystin-LR at 0.001-0.1 mg/kg/d posed no significant effect on tumor weight. Histological examination demonstrated that microcystin-LR could promote lung metastasis, which is confirmed by Matrigel chamber assay suggesting that microcystin-LR treatment at 25 nM can increase the invasiveness of MDA-MB-435 cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments consistently showed that microcystin-LR exposure increased mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/-9) by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/AKT. Additionally, microcystin-LR treatment at low doses (≤25 nM) decreased lipid phosphatase PTEN expression, and the microcystin-induced invasiveness enhancement and MMP-2/-9 overexpression were reversed by the PI3-K/AKT chemical inhibitor LY294002 and AKT siRNA, indicating that microcystin-LR promotes invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 cells via the PI3-K/AKT pathway.

  15. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Gu, Tieguang; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Redox-Sensitive Induction of Src/PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs Pathways Activate eNOS in Response to EPA:DHA 6:1

    PubMed Central

    Zgheel, Faraj; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Rashid, Sherzad; Burban, Mélanie; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Omega-3 fatty acid products containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have vasoprotective effects, in part, by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). This study determined the role of the EPA:DHA ratio and amount, and characterized the mechanism leading to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation. Methods and Results EPA:DHA 6∶1 and 9∶1 caused significantly greater endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings than EPA:DHA 3∶1, 1∶1, 1∶3, 1∶6, 1∶9, EPA and DHA alone, and EPA:DHA 6∶1 with a reduced EPA + DHA amount, which were inhibited by an eNOS inhibitor. Relaxations to EPA:DHA 6∶1 were insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibition, and reduced by inhibitors of either oxidative stress, Src kinase, PI3-kinase, p38 MAPK, MEK, or JNK. EPA:DHA 6∶1 induced phosphorylation of Src, Akt, p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK and eNOS; these effects were inhibited by MnTMPyP. EPA:DHA 6∶1 induced the endothelial formation of ROS in coronary artery sections as assessed by dihydroethidium, and of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide in cultured endothelial cells as assessed by electron spin resonance with the spin probe CMH, and the Amplex Red based assay, respectively. Conclusion Omega-3 fatty acids cause endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxations in coronary artery rings, which are dependent on the EPA:DHA ratio and amount, and involve an intracellular activation of the redox-sensitive PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs pathways to activate eNOS. PMID:25133540

  17. DNA-hypomethylating agent, 5'-azacytidine, induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song-Ja

    2015-10-01

    The cytosine analogue 5'-azacytidine (5'-aza) induces DNA hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase. In clinical trials, 5'-aza is widely used in epigenetic anticancer treatments. Accumulated evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in various cancers, indicating that it may play a critical role in carcinogenesis. However, few studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the increased COX-2 expression. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that 5'-aza regulates COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, was treated with various concentrations of 5'-aza for different time periods. Protein expressions of COX-2, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), pAkt, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (pERK) were determined using western blot analysis, and COX-2 mRNA expression was determined using RT-PCR. PGE2 production was evaluated using the PGE2 assay kit. The localization and expression of COX-2 were determined using immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with 5'-aza induces protein and mRNA expression of COX-2. We also observed that 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were inhibited by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a methyl donor. Treatment with 5'-aza phosphorylates PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2; inhibition of these pathways by LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase/Akt, or PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK-1/2, respectively, prevents 5'-aza-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Overall, these observations indicate that the hypomethylating agent 5'-aza modulates COX-2 expression via the PI3-kinase/Akt and ERK-1/2 pathways in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

  18. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  19. HspB8 mediates neuroprotection against OGD/R in N2A cells through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiping; Yang, Binbin; Mo, Xiaoye; Zhou, Fangfang

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study, we found that Heat shock protein B8 (HspB8) overexpression could prevent the apoptosis and reduced cell viability induced by OGD/R and showed that the neuroprotective effect of HspB8 was mediated by inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In recent study, HspB8 has been shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. However, whether this protective effect applied to brain I/R injury remained unexplored. To further test the mechanism of HspB8's effects in brain, we used oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R), an in vitro model of ischemia to examine the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling by treating mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2A cells) (untransfected or transfected with an HspB8 expression vector) with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 before OGD/R. Our results revealed that the apoptosis-suppressing effect of HspB8 was mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore, HspB8 protected the N2A cells against OGD/R insult, possibly by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  20. 17β-estradiol impedes Bax-involved mitochondrial apoptosis of retinal nerve cells induced by oxidative damage via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Wang, Baoying; Zhu, Chunhui; Feng, Yan; Wang, Shaolan; Shahzad, Muhammad; Hu, Chenghu; Mo, Mingshu; Du, Fangying; Yu, Xiaorui

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress leading to retinal nerve cells (RNCs) apoptosis is a major cause of neurodegenerative disorders of the retina. 17β-Estradiol (E2) has been suggested to be a neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system; however, at present, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood, and the related research on the RNCs is less reported. Here, in order to investigate the protective role and mechanism of E2 against oxidative stress-induced damage on RNCs, the transmission electron microscopy and annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay were applied to detect the RNCs apoptosis. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to determine the expression of the critical molecules in Bcl-2 and caspase family associated with apoptosis. The transmission electron microscopy results showed that H(2)O(2) could induce typical features of apoptosis in RNCs, including formation of the apoptosome. E2 could, however, suppress the H(2)O(2)-induced morphological changes of apoptosis. Intriguingly, we observed E2-mediated phagocytic scavenging of apoptosome. In response to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, Bax, acting as one of the pivotal pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family, increased significantly, which directly resulted in an increased ratio of Bax to anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (Bax/Bcl-2). Additionally, caspases 9 and 3, which are the critical molecules of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, were activated by H(2)O(2). In contrast, E2 exerted anti-apoptotic effects by reducing the expression of Bax to decrease the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and impeded the caspases 9/3 activation. Moreover, LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, could sharply block the effect of E2 in reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells resistance to H(2)O(2). And the attenuation of Bax, the reduced activities of caspases 9/3 and the impeded release of mitochondrial cytochrome c mediated by E2 resistance to H(2)O(2) damage were significantly retrieved by LY294002 administration. Taken

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  3. Static magnetic field enhances the viability and proliferation rate of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells potentially through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway.

    PubMed

    Marędziak, Monika; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Polinceusz, Paulina; Lewandowski, Daniel; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 0.5T static magnetic field (sMF) on the viability and proliferation rate of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs) via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In a 7-d culture we examined cell growth kinetic and population doubling time (PDT). We also examined cell morphology and the cellular senescence markers level. Exposure to sMF enhanced the viability of these cells. However, the effect was blocked by treating the cells with LY294002, a P13K inhibitor. We compared this effect by Western Blot analysis of Akt protein expression. We also examined whether the cell response on sMF stimulation is dependent on integrin engagement and we measured integrin gene expression. Our results suggest that stimulation using sMF is a viable method to improve hASC viability. sMF is involved in mechanisms associated with controlling cell proliferative potential signaling events.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment in advanced disease for many decades. Personalized targeted therapy such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) and crizotinib has significantly changed the treatment paradigm in NSCLC. The future success of development of molecular targeted therapy relies on the understanding of signal transduction pathways. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway is commonly deregulated in human malignancy including NSCLC. Therefore, this pathway is a target for many therapeutic developments. This review will provide an overview of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, genetic alterations activating the pathway and clinical therapeutic development of pathway inhibitors. PMID:25870799

  5. Inhibition of constitutively activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway enhances antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1-defective breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Hee Jeong; Hwang, Jae Seok; Wang, Antai; Bae, Insoo

    2013-09-01

    Loss or decrease of wild type BRCA1 function, by either mutation or reduced expression, has a role in hereditary and sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers. We report here that the PI3K/AKT pathway is constitutively active in BRCA1-defective human breast cancer cells. Levels of phospho-AKT are sustained even after serum starvation in breast cancer cells carrying deleterious BRCA1 mutations. Knockdown of BRCA1 in MCF7 cells increases the amount of phospho-AKT and sensitizes cells to small molecule protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) targeting the PI3K/AKT pathway. Restoration of wild type BRCA1 inhibits the activated PI3K/AKT pathway and de-sensitizes cells to PKIs targeting this pathway in BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells, regardless of PTEN mutations. In addition, clinical PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, PI-103, and BEZ235, showed anti-proliferative effects on BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cell lines and synergism in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin, doxorubicin, topotecan, and gemcitabine. BEZ235 synergizes with the anti-proliferative effects of gemcitabine by enhancing caspase-3/7 activity. Our results suggest that the PI3K/AKT pathway can be an important signaling pathway for the survival of BRCA1-defective breast cancer cells and pharmacological inhibition of this pathway is a plausible treatment for a subset of breast cancers.

  6. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling by Destabilizing Ski and Inducing Smad7*

    PubMed Central

    Band, Arja M.; Björklund, Mia; Laiho, Marikki

    2009-01-01

    Ski is an oncoprotein that negatively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. It acts as a transcriptional co-repressor by binding to TGF-β signaling molecules, Smads. Efficient TGF-β signaling is facilitated by rapid proteasome-mediated degradation of Ski by TGF-β. Here we report that Ski is phosphorylated by Akt/PKB kinase. Akt phosphorylates Ski on a highly conserved Akt motif at threonine 458 both in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of Ski at threonine 458 is induced by Akt pathway activators including insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and hepatocyte growth factor. The phosphorylation of Ski causes its destabilization and reduces Ski-mediated inhibition of expression of another negative regulator of TGF-β, Smad7. Induction of Smad7 levels leads to inactivation of TGF-β receptors and TGF-β signaling cascade, as indicated by reduced induction of TGF-β target p15. Therefore, Akt modulates TGF-β signaling by temporarily adjusting the levels of two TGF-β pathway negative regulators, Ski and Smad7. These novel findings demonstrate that Akt pathway activation directly impacts TGF-β pathway. PMID:19875456

  7. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in lipocalin-2-promoted human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoliang; Ma, Ning; Meng, Liukun; Wei, Yingjie; Gui, Jingang

    2015-12-01

    Over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling, a pathway strongly related to cancer survival and proliferation, has been reported recently to be involved in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis and proliferation in pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this study, we observed greatly increased lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) expression accompanied with over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in a standard rat model of PH induced by monocrotaline. In view of the close relationship between Lcn2 and PI3K/Akt pathway, we hypothesized that the up-regulated Lcn2 might be a trigger of over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in PH. Our results showed that Lcn2 significantly activated the PI3K/Akt pathway (determined by augmented Akt phosphorylation and up-regulated Mdm2) and significantly promoted proliferation (assessed by Ki67 staining) in cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of Akt phosphorylation (LY294002) abrogated the Lcn2-promoted proliferation in cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly promoted human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by activating PI3K/Akt pathway. Further study on the role and mechanism of Lcn2 will help explore novel therapeutic strategies based on attenuating over-activated PI3K/Akt signaling in PH.

  8. P38 AND EGF RECEPTOR KINASE-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF THE PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ZN2+INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is induced by physiological and inflammatory stimuli. Regulation of COX-2 expression is stimulus- and cell type-specific. Exposure to Zn2+ has been associated with activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways as well as the induction...

  9. P38 AND EGF RECEPTOR KINASE-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF THE PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ZN2+INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is induced by physiological and inflammatory stimuli. Regulation of COX-2 expression is stimulus- and cell type-specific. Exposure to Zn2+ has been associated with activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways as well as the induction...

  10. Paclitaxel resistance in MCF-7/PTX cells is reversed by paeonol through suppression of the SET/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weipeng; Cai, Jiangxia; Chen, Siying; Zheng, Xiaowei; Hu, Sasa; Dong, Weihua; Lu, Jun; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent types of malignant tumor. Paclitaxel is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer; however, the major problem contributing to the failure of chemotherapy in breast cancer is the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel therapeutic targets and reversal agents for breast cancer. In the present study, the protein expression levels of SET, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway were determined in MCF-7/PTX human breast carcinoma paclitaxel-resistant cells using western blot analysis. Small interference RNAs (siRNAs) were used to knock down the gene expression of SET in MCF-7/PTX cells and the cell viability was assessed following treatment with paclitaxel, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assays and flow cytometry. In addition, western blot analysis was used to determined PI3K/Akt pathway activity following SET knockdown. Furthermore, the reversal effects of paeonol on paclitaxel, and its underlying mechanisms of action, were investigated using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that increased levels of SET and PI3K/Akt pathway proteins were present in the MCF-7/PTX cells, compared with normal MCF-7 cells. Knockdown of SET significantly sensitized MCF-7/PTX cells to paclitaxel and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, the expression levels of the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins were significantly reduced in the MCF-7/PTX cells compared with the normal MCF-7 cells. SET-induced paclitaxel resistance was found to be associated with the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Paeonol significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of SET in the MCF-7/PTX cells. Furthermore, paeonol significantly sensitized the MCF-7/PTX to paclitaxel via regulation of ABC transporters, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2

  11. Role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR/P70S6-kinase pathways in the proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Pene, Frédéric; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Muller, Odile; Viguié, Franck; Mayeux, Patrick; Dreyfus, François; Lacombe, Catherine; Bouscary, Didier

    2002-09-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy preliminary localized in the bone marrow and characterized by its capacity to disseminate. IL-6 and IGF-1 have been shown to mediate proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals in plasmocytes. However, in primary plasma-cell leukemia (PCL) and in end-stage aggressive extramedullar disease, the cytokine requirement for both effects may be not mandatory. This suggests that constitutive activation of signaling pathways occurs. One of the signaling pathways whose deregulation may play an oncogenic role in MM is the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway. In human growth factor-independent MM cell lines OPM2 and RPMI8226, we show that the PI 3-K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin strongly inhibited cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR)/P70-S6-kinase (P70(S6K)) pathway with rapamycin or of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway with PD98059 had minimal effect on proliferation. In both cell lines, constitutive activation of the PI 3-K/Akt/FKHRL-1, mTOR/P70(S6K) and MAPK pathways was detected. LY294002 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, FKHRL-1 and P70(S6K) but had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that the PI 3-K and MAPK pathways are independent. IGF-1 but not IL-6 increased phosphorylation of Akt, FKHRL-1 and P70(S6K). Purified plasmocytes from four patients with MM and two patients with primary PCL were studied. In three of them including the two patients with PCL, constitutive phosphorylation of Akt, FKHRL-1 and P70(S6K) was present, inhibited by LY294002 and enhanced by IGF-1. In these patients with constitutive Akt activation, normal PTEN expression was detected. PI 3-K inhibition induced caspase-dependent apoptosis as confirmed by inhibition with the large spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and cleavage of pro-caspase-3. Both cell lines spontaneously expressed Skp2 and cyclin D1 proteins at high levels but no p27(Kip1) protein. In the

  12. TC21 mediates transformation and cell survival via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; He, Qin; Liu, Yusen; Sheikh, M Saeed; Huang, Ying

    2002-02-07

    The signaling pathways of TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival are not well-established. In this study, we have investigated the role of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway in oncogenic-TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival. We found that oncogenic-TC21 stimulated the PI3-K activity. This was associated with the activation of Akt, a key component of PI3-K signaling pathway. We also found that TC21 interacted and formed complex with PI3-K. Mutations in the GTP-binding region of TC21, which enhanced GTP-binding potential of this protein, also stimulated its association with PI3-K, suggesting that PI3-K may preferentially interact with the GTP-bound form. Suppression of PI3-K and Akt by specific inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin reversed TC21-induced transformation. Likewise, inhibition of PI3-K activity by the PI3-K phosphotase PTEN reduced TC21-mediated focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. Investigation of TC21's effect on cell survival revealed that mutant-TC21 expressing cells were more resistant to etoposide- and cisplatin-induced cell death, and this was associated with the activation of anti-apoptotic protein NF-kappaB, a downstream target of Akt. Treatment of PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed TC21-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, we have identified PI3-K as an effector of TC21 and demonstrated that the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway plays important roles in TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival.

  13. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Augments Neovascularization Responses in a Neonatal Rat Model of Premature Brain Damage by Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da-Fan; Zhu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Li

    2017-04-05

    Recombinant human-erythropoietin (rh-EPO) has therapeutic efficacy for premature infants with brain damage during the active rehabilitation and anti-inflammation. In the present study, we found that the rh-EPO was related to the promotion of neovascularization. Our aim was to investigate whether rh-EPO augments neovascularization in the neonatal rat model of premature brain damage through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Postnatal day 5 (PD5), rats underwent permanent ligation of the right common carotid artery and were exposed to hypoxia for 2 h. All the rat pups were randomized into five groups as follows: (1) control group; (2) hypoxia-ischemic (HI) group; (3) HI + LY294002 group; (4) HI + rh-EPO group; and (5) HI + rh-EPO + LY294002 group. The phospho-Akt protein was tested 90 min after the whole operation, and CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also tested 2 days after the whole operation. In the hypoxic and ischemic zone of the premature rat brain, the rh-EPO induced CD34+ cells to immigrate to the HI brain zone (P < 0.05) and also upregulated the VEGFR2 protein expression (P < 0.05) and VEGF mRNA level (P < 0.05) through the PI3K/Akt (P < 0.05) signaling pathway when compared with other groups. The rh-EPO treatment augments neovascularization responses in the neonatal rat model of premature brain damage through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Besides, the endogenous EPO may exist in the HI zone of rat brain and also has neovascularization function through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Aurora-B alters the metastatic behavior of A549 cells via modulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long Dian; Xiong, Xu; Long, Xin Hua; Liu, Zhi Li; Huang, Shan Hu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that an elevated expression level of Aurora-B is associated with metastasis in various types of malignant tumor. However, it is currently unclear whether this molecule is involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis, and the molecular mechanisms associated with Aurora-B and metastasis remain unknown. In the present study, in order to investigate whether Aurora-B is involved in the development and metastasis of NSCLC, the Aurora-B protein expression in NSCLC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and its association with metastasis was analyzed. The results revealed that the expression levels of the Aurora-B protein in tissues obtained from NSCLC patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those without metastatic disease. Furthermore, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on A549 cell migration and invasion, as well as the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was evaluated. Aurora-B was inhibited in the A549 cells using short hairpin RNA, and the cell migration and invasion rates were investigated using wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. In addition, the expression of the main proteins in the PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 were measured by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were decreased as a result of silencing Aurora-B. Furthermore, the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and the expression of MMP-2 and -9 protein were suppressed by silencing Aurora-B. The results of the present study indicate that the knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses A549 cell invasion and migration via the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and thus, targeting Aurora-B may present a potential treatment strategy for NSCLC.

  15. Regulation of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V1 protein synthesis by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in colonic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shanwei; Al-Thumairy, Hamad W; Hashmi, Fiza; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2017-09-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor or vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is expressed in nociceptive neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and participates in the transmission of pain. The present study investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms by which TRPV1 was regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling pathways in colonic hypersensitivity in response to colitis. We found that during colitis TRPV1 protein levels were significantly increased in specifically labeled colonic afferent neurons in both L1 and S1 DRGs. TRPV1 protein up-regulation in DRG was also enhanced by NGF treatment. We then found that TRPV1 protein up-regulation in DRG was regulated by activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway both in vivo and in vitro. Suppression of endogenous PI3K/Akt activity during colitis or NGF treatment with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced TRPV1 protein production in DRG neurons, and also reduced colitis-evoked TRPV1-mediated visceral hypersensitivity tested by hyper-responsiveness to colorectal distention (CRD) and von Frey filament stimulation of abdomen. Further studies showed that TRPV1 mRNA levels in the DRG were not regulated by either colitis or NGF. We then found that an up-regulation of the protein synthesis pathway was involved by which both colitis and NGF caused a PI3K-dependent increase in the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1. These results suggest a novel mechanism in colonic hypersensitivity which involves PI3K/Akt-mediated TRPV1 protein, not mRNA, up-regulation in primary afferent neurons, likely through activation of the protein synthesis pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Aurora-B alters the metastatic behavior of A549 cells via modulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LONG DIAN; XIONG, XU; LONG, XIN HUA; LIU, ZHI LI; HUANG, SHAN HU; ZHANG, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that an elevated expression level of Aurora-B is associated with metastasis in various types of malignant tumor. However, it is currently unclear whether this molecule is involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis, and the molecular mechanisms associated with Aurora-B and metastasis remain unknown. In the present study, in order to investigate whether Aurora-B is involved in the development and metastasis of NSCLC, the Aurora-B protein expression in NSCLC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and its association with metastasis was analyzed. The results revealed that the expression levels of the Aurora-B protein in tissues obtained from NSCLC patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those without metastatic disease. Furthermore, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on A549 cell migration and invasion, as well as the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was evaluated. Aurora-B was inhibited in the A549 cells using short hairpin RNA, and the cell migration and invasion rates were investigated using wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. In addition, the expression of the main proteins in the PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 were measured by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were decreased as a result of silencing Aurora-B. Furthermore, the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and the expression of MMP-2 and -9 protein were suppressed by silencing Aurora-B. The results of the present study indicate that the knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses A549 cell invasion and migration via the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and thus, targeting Aurora-B may present a potential treatment strategy for NSCLC. PMID:25295091

  17. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of DNA methyltransferase 3B is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chuanzhong; Sun, Lidong; Liu, Yonglei; Yang, Yong; Cai, Xiumei; Liu, Mingzhu; Yao, Wantong; Wang, Can; Li, Xin; Wang, Liying; Li, Zengxia; Shi, Yinghong; Qiu, Shuangjian; Fan, Jia; Zha, Xiliang

    2010-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are essential for maintenance of aberrant methylation in cancer cells and play important roles in the development of cancers. Unregulated activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In present study, we found that DNMT3B mRNA and protein levels were decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cell lines with LY294002 treatment. However, we detected that LY294002 treatment did not induce increase of the degradation of DNMT3B protein using protein decay assay. Moreover we found that Akt induced alteration of the expression of DNMT3B in cells transfected with myristylated variants of Akt2 or cells transfected with small interfering RNA respectively. Based on DNMT3B promoter dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found PI3K pathway regulates DNMT3B expression at transcriptional level. And DNMT3B mRNA decay analysis suggested that down-regulation of DNMT3B by LY294002 is also post-transcriptional control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LY294002 down-regulated HuR expression in a time-dependent manner in BEL-7404. In summary, we have, for the first time, demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway regulates the expression of DNMT3B at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which is particularly important to understand the effects of PI3K/Akt and DNMT3B on hepatocarcinogenesis.

  18. WNT16B is a new marker of cellular senescence that regulates p53 activity and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Binet, Romuald; Ythier, Damien; Robles, Ana I; Collado, Manuel; Larrieu, Delphine; Fonti, Claire; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Serrano, Manuel; Harris, Curtis C; Pedeux, Rémy

    2009-12-15

    Senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism that is induced by several stimuli, including oncogenic signaling and telomere shortening, and controlled by the p53/p21(WAF1) signaling pathway. Recently, a critical role for secreted factors has emerged, suggesting that extracellular signals are necessary for the onset and maintenance of senescence. Conversely, factors secreted by senescent cells may promote tumor growth. By using expression profiling techniques, we searched for secreted factors that were overexpressed in fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence. We identified WNT16B, a member of the WNT family of secreted proteins. We found that WNT16B is overexpressed in cells undergoing stress-induced premature senescence and oncogene-induced senescence in both MRC5 cell line and the in vivo murine model of K-Ras(V12)-induced senescence. By small interfering RNA experiments, we observed that both p53 and WNT16B are necessary for the onset of replicative senescence. WNT16B expression is required for the full transcriptional activation of p21(WAF1). Moreover, WNT16B regulates activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Overall, we identified WNT16B as a new marker of senescence that regulates p53 activity and the PI3K/AKT pathway and is necessary for the onset of replicative senescence.

  19. Nitric oxide decreases subventricular zone stem cell proliferation by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Torroglosa, Ana; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Estrada, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursor cells in adult mice in vivo under physiological conditions. The mechanisms underlying this NO effect have now been investigated using SVZ-derived neural stem cells, which generate neurospheres in vitro when stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In these cultures, NO donors decreased the number of newly formed neurospheres as well as their size, which indicates that NO was acting on the neurosphere-forming neural stem cells and the daughter neural progenitors. The effect of NO was cytostatic, not proapoptotic, and did not involve cGMP synthesis. Neurosphere cells expressed the neuronal and endothelial isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) and produced NO in culture. Inhibition of NOS activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) promoted neurosphere formation and growth, thus revealing an autocrine/paracrine action of NO on the neural precursor cells. Both exogenous and endogenous NO impaired the EGF-induced activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and prevented the EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in neurosphere cells. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly reduced the number of newly formed neurospheres, which indicates that this is an essential pathway for neural stem cell self-renewal. Chronic administration of l-NAME to adult mice enhanced phospho-Akt staining in the SVZ and reduced nuclear p27(Kip1) in the SVZ and olfactory bulb. The inhibition of EGFR and PI3-K pathway by NO explains, at least in part, its antimitotic effect on neurosphere cells and may be a mechanism involved in the physiological role of NO as a negative regulator of SVZ neurogenesis in adult mice.

  20. E6 variants of human papillomavirus 18 differentially modulate the protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (akt/PI3K) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras-Paredes, Adriana

    2009-01-05

    Intra-type genome variations of high risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) have been associated with a differential threat for cervical cancer development. In this work, the effect of HPV18 E6 isolates in Akt/PKB and Mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways and its implication in cell proliferation were analyzed. E6 from HPV types 16 and 18 are able to bind and promote degradation of Human disc large (hDlg). Our results show that E6 variants differentially modulate hDlg degradation, rebounding in levels of activated PTEN and PKB. HPV18 E6 variants are also able to upregulate phospho-PI3K protein, strongly correlating with activated MAPKs and cell proliferation. Data was supported by the effect of E6 silencing in HPV18-containing HeLa cells, as well as hDlg silencing in the tested cells. Results suggest that HPV18 intra-type variations may derive in differential abilities to activate cell-signaling pathways such as Akt/PKB and MAPKs, directly involved in cell survival and proliferation.

  1. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  2. Apigenin induces apoptosis through proteasomal degradation of HER2/neu in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Way, Tzong-Der; Kao, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2004-02-06

    Apigenin is a low toxicity and non-mutagenic phytopolyphenol and protein kinase inhibitor. It exhibits anti-proliferating effects on human breast cancer cells. Here we examined several human breast cancer cell lines having different levels of HER2/neu expression and found that apigenin exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activity in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells but was much less effective for those cells expressing basal levels of HER2/neu. Induction of apoptosis was also observed in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the one or more molecular mechanisms of apigenin-induced apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells remained to be elucidated. A cell survival pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt is known to play an important role in inhibiting apoptosis in response to HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells, which prompted us to investigate whether this pathway plays a role in apigenin-induced apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our results showed that apigenin inhibits Akt function in tumor cells in a complex manner. First, apigenin directly inhibited the PI3K activity while indirectly inhibiting the Akt kinase activity. Second, inhibition of HER2/neu autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation resulting from depleting HER2/neu protein in vivo was also observed. In addition, apigenin inhibited Akt kinase activity by preventing the docking of PI3K to HER2/HER3 heterodimers. Therefore, we proposed that apigenin-induced cellular effects result from loss of HER2/neu and HER3 expression with subsequent inactivation of PI3K and AKT in cells that are dependent on this pathway for cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. This implies that the inhibition of the HER2/HER3 heterodimer function provided an especially effective strategy for blocking the HER2/neu-mediated transformation of breast cancer cells. Our results also

  3. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ping . E-mail: chenping@263.net; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-04-14

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-{kappa}B in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-{kappa}B expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that

  4. Curcumin modulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated inflammation in human tenocytes in vitro: role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Mobasheri, Ali; Busch, Franziska; Aldinger, Constance; Stahlmann, Ralf; Montaseri, Azadeh; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2011-08-12

    Inflammatory processes play essential roles in the pathogenesis of tendinitis and tendinopathy. These events are accompanied by catabolic processes initiated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Pharmacological treatments for tendinitis are restricted to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Recent studies in various cell models have demonstrated that curcumin targets the NF-κB signaling pathway. However, its potential for the treatment of tendinitis has not been explored. Herein, we used an in vitro model of human tenocytes to study the mechanism of curcumin action on IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Curcumin at concentrations of 5-20 μm inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and apoptosis in cultures of human tenocytes. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin included down-regulation of gene products that mediate matrix degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-1, -9, and -13), prostanoid production (cyclooxygenase-2), apoptosis (Bax and activated caspase-3), and stimulation of cell survival (Bcl-2), all known to be regulated by NF-κB. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of κBα, inhibition of inhibitor of κB-kinase activity, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, the effects of IL-1β were abrogated by wortmannin, suggesting a role for the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) pathway in IL-1β signaling. Curcumin suppressed IL-1β-induced PI-3K p85/Akt activation and its association with IKK. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a potential role for curcumin in treating tendon inflammation through modulation of NF-κB signaling, which involves PI-3K/Akt and the tendon-specific transcription factor scleraxis in tenocytes.

  5. PI3-kinase/Akt pathway-regulated membrane insertion of acid-sensing ion channel 1a underlies BDNF-induced pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Duan, Bo; Liu, Di-Shi; Huang, Yu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Wang, Xiang; Yu, Hui; Zhu, Michael X; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Xu, Tian-Le

    2012-05-02

    Central neural plasticity plays a key role in pain hypersensitivity. This process is modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and also involves the type 1a acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC1a). However, the interactions between the BDNF receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), and ASIC1a are unclear. Here, we show that deletion of ASIC1 gene suppressed the sustained mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal BDNF application in mice. In both rat spinal dorsal horn neurons and heterologous cell cultures, the BDNF/TrkB pathway enhanced ASIC1a currents via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) cascade and phosphorylation of cytoplasmic residue Ser-25 of ASIC1a, resulting in enhanced forward trafficking and increased surface expression. Moreover, in both rats and mice, this enhanced ASIC1a activity was required for BDNF-mediated hypersensitivity of spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons and central mechanical hyperalgesia, a process that was abolished by intrathecal application of a peptide representing the N-terminal region of ASIC1a encompassing Ser-25. Thus, our results reveal a novel mechanism underlying central sensitization and pain hypersensitivity, and reinforce the critical role of ASIC1a channels in these processes.

  6. Impact of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway on ITAM and hemITAM receptors: haemostasis, platelet activation and antithrombotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Moroi, Alyssa J; Watson, Steve P

    2015-04-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that are activated in response to various stimulants, and they regulate many processes including inflammation; the stress response; gene transcription; and cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Increasing reports have shown that the PI3Ks and their downstream effector Akt are activated by several platelet receptors that regulate platelet activation and haemostasis. Platelets express two immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) receptors, collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and Fcγ receptor IIA (FcγRIIA), which are characterized by two YxxL sequences separated by 6-12 amino acids. Activation of an ITAM receptor initiates a reaction cascade via its YxxL sequence in which signaling molecules such as spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and phospholipase C γ2 (PLCγ2) become activated, leading to platelet activation. Platelets also express another receptor, C-type lectin 2 (CLEC-2), which has a single YxxL sequence, so it is appropriately called a hemITAM receptor. ITAM receptors and the hemITAM receptor share many signaling features. Here we will summarize our current knowledge about how the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates (hem)ITAM receptor-mediated platelet activation and haemostasis and discuss the possible benefits of targeting PI3K/Akt as an antithrombotic therapy.

  7. Inhibitory effect of capsaicin on B16-F10 melanoma cell migration via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/Rac1 signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Ok-Hee; Jun, Hye-Seung

    2008-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), the major pungent ingredient of red pepper, has been reported to possess anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities. In this study, the anti-migration activity of capsaicin on highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells was investigated. Capsaicin significantly inhibited the migration of melanoma cells without showing obvious cellular cytotoxicity at low doses. This effect correlated with the down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and its downstream target, Akt. Although B16-F10 cell migration was increased by the PI3-K activator through the activation of Akt, these PI3-K activator-induced phenomena were attenuated by capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin was found to significantly inhibit Rac1 activity in a pull-down assay. These results demonstrate that capsaicin inhibits the migration of B16-F10 cells through the inhibition of the PI3-K/Akt/Rac1 signal pathway. The present investigation suggests that capsaicin targets PI3-K/Akt/Rac1-mediated cellular events in B16-F10 melanoma cells. Consequently, capsaicin administration should be considered an effective approach for the suppression of invasion and metastasis in malignant melanoma chemotherapy. PMID:18985006

  8. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-09-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti‑cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti‑cancer effect of fucoidan on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 µg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT‑29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 in a dose‑dependent manner (0‑200 µg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti‑cancer effect on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells.

  9. ASIC1a mediates the drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma via the Ca2+/PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yihao; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Chao; Xia, Quan; Xu, Dujuan

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment method of patients with advanced liver cancer. However, drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is a H+-gated cation channel; it mediates tumor cell migration and invasion, which suggests that it is involved in the development of malignant tumors. Therefore, we studied the relationship between ASIC1a and drug resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma. In our study, we found that ASIC1a is highly expressed in human HCC tissue, and that its levels were significantly increased in resistant HCC cells Bel7402/FU and HepG2/ADM. Inhibiting the activity of ASIC1a enhances the chemosensitivity of Bel7402/FU and HepG2/ADM cells. The overexpression of ASIC1a contributed to drug resistance in Bel7402 and HepG2 cells, whereas knockdown of ASIC1a overcame drug resistance in Bel7402/FU and HepG2/ADM cells. We further demonstrated that ASIC1a mediated calcium influx, which resulted in the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling and increased drug resistance. These data suggest that ASIC1a/Ca2+/PI3K/AKT signaling represents a novel pathway that regulates drug resistance, thus offering a potential target for chemotherapy of HCC. PMID:27918554

  10. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Su, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.

  11. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    CHUANG, WAN-LING; SU, CHIN-CHENG; LIN, PING-YI; LIN, CHI-CHEN; CHEN, YAO-LI

    2015-01-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer. PMID:25847489

  12. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells via Src and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    KONG, DEBO; CHEN, FENG; SIMA, NI

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa, cytosolic, non-receptor, protein tyrosine kinase localized at focal adhesions that can be activated by multiple inputs and in different manners. FAK is implicated in signaling pathways regulating cell movement, invasion, survival, gene expression and cancer stem cell self-renewal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether FAK plays a role in the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. The study employed in situ deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and Annexin V labeling flow cytometry. It was found that both the knockdown of FAK and the suppression of FAK phosphorylation were able to induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Caspase-3 was activated during the apoptosis induced by the suppression of FAK phosphorylation. Src was involved in FAK-regulated apoptosis in bladder cancer cells, while the suppression of Src phosphorylation was able to inhibit FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and induce apoptosis. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was inhibited via the suppression of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, the expression of neither the general nor the tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK was regulated by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, which suggested that PI3K/Akt acted downstream of FAK to regulate apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. These findings indicate the presence of a mechanism of apoptosis involving FAK-mediated oncogenic signaling. FAK may function as an important regulator of extracellular signaling-mediated apoptosis in bladder cancer and be used as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of the condition. PMID:26640543

  13. The Neuron-Specific Rai (ShcC) Adaptor Protein Inhibits Apoptosis by Coupling Ret to the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pelicci, Giuliana; Troglio, Flavia; Bodini, Alessandra; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Pettirossi, Valentina; Coda, Laura; De Giuseppe, Antonio; Santoro, Massimo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Rai is a recently identified member of the family of Shc-like proteins, which are cytoplasmic signal transducers characterized by the unique PTB-CH1-SH2 modular organization. Rai expression is restricted to neuronal cells and regulates in vivo the number of postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We report here that Rai is not a common substrate of receptor tyrosine kinases under physiological conditions and that among the analyzed receptors (Ret, epidermal growth factor receptor, and TrkA) it is activated specifically by Ret. Overexpression of Rai in neuronal cell lines promoted survival by reducing apoptosis both under conditions of limited availability of the Ret ligand glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and in the absence of Ret activation. Overexpressed Rai resulted in the potentiation of the Ret-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Notably, increased Akt phosphorylation and PI3K activity were also found under basal conditions, e.g., in serum-starved neuronal cells. Phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated Rai proteins form a constitutive complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K: upon Ret triggering, the Rai-PI3K complex is recruited to the tyrosine-phosphorylated Ret receptor through the binding of the Rai PTB domain to tyrosine 1062 of Ret. In neurons treated with low concentrations of GDNF, the prosurvival effect of Rai depends on Rai phosphorylation and Ret activation. In the absence of Ret activation, the prosurvival effect of Rai is, instead, phosphorylation independent. Finally, we showed that overexpression of Rai, at variance with Shc, had no effects on the early peak of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, whereas it increased its activation at later time points. Phosphorylated Rai, however, was not found in complexes with Grb2. We propose that Rai potentiates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and regulates Ret-dependent and -independent survival signals. PMID:12242309

  14. Homocysteine ameliorates the endothelium-independent hypoxic vasoconstriction via the suppression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    An, Yuan-Ming; Feng, Han; Zhang, Xing-Zhong; Cong, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Li-Ling; Dou, Dou

    2017-04-22

    Endothelium-independent coronary vasoconstriction induced by continuous hypoxia contributes to the development of ischemic heart diseases. Acute elevation of homocysteine (Hcy) has a potent of vasodilation. The present study aims to investigate the role of Hcy in endothelium-independent hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction and its underlying mechanisms. Vessel tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries was measured by organ chamber study and the protein expression were detected by western blot. A sustained contraction of porcine coronary artery was induced when exposed to prolonged hypoxia for more than 15 min, which was significantly reduced by Hcy in a dose-dependent manner but not affected by cysteine or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC-p) at Ser19 was decreased when exposure to hypoxia for 15 min, and could be reversed by prolonged hypoxia for 30 and 60 min. The recovery of MLC-p at Ser19 by hypoxia for more than 30 min could be abolished by Hcy. The protein levels of phosphorylated Akt at Ser473 and phosphorylated P85 at Tyr508 were decreased by Hcy in normoxia, and were also reduced exposure to hypoxia for 15 min and then augmented by prolonged hypoxia for more than 30 min, which could be prevented by Hcy. The protein level of P110α was not affected by Hcy or prolonged hypoxia. This study demonstrates that Hcy can ameliorate the endothelium-independent hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction, in which the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tannin 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin induces the calcium-dependent activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liu, Yen-Chin; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Liao, Being-Chyuan; Wung, Being-Sun

    2008-10-01

    Many polyphenols have been found to increase endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. In our present study, we investigated the effects of 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin upon endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in endothelial cells (ECs). Both 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin and punicalagin induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner in ECs. Despite having similar chemical structures, punicalagin induced lower levels of NO production than 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin. After 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin addition, a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration preceded NO production. The Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and augmented NO production. Pretreatment with Ca(2+) chelators inhibited 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. Treatment with 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin did not alter the eNOS protein levels but, unlike punicalagin, induced a sustained activation of eNOS Ser(1179) phosphorylation. 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin was also found to activate ERK1/2, JNK and Akt in ECs. Moreover, simultaneous treatment of these cells with specific phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitors significantly inhibited the observed increases in eNOS activity and phosphorylation levels. In contrast, the inhibition of (ERK)1/2, JNK and p38 had no influence on eNOS Ser(1179) phosphorylation. Our present results thus indicate that the 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin-induced calcium-dependent activation of eNOS is primarily mediated via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent increase in eNOS activity, and occurs independently of the eNOS protein content.

  16. Blockade of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway enhances the induction of apoptosis by microtubule-destabilizing agents in tumor cells in which the pathway is constitutively activated.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Kazushi; Tanimura, Susumu; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Kohno, Michiaki

    2007-03-01

    Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is associated with the neoplastic phenotype in many human tumor cell types. Given the antiapoptotic role of this pathway, we examined whether its specific blockade might sensitize human tumor cells to the induction of apoptosis by various anticancer drugs. Although specific blockade of the PI3K-Akt pathway alone with inhibitors such as LY294002 did not induce cell death, it resulted in marked and selective enhancement of the induction of apoptosis by microtubule-destabilizing agents such as vincristine. This effect was apparent only in tumor cells in which the PI3K-Akt pathway is constitutively activated. Blockade of the PI3K-Akt pathway induced the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, which phosphorylates microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and thereby reduces their ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. The consequent destabilization of microtubules induced by the inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling appeared to increase their sensitivity to low concentrations of microtubule-destabilizing agents that alone do not lead to the disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules in tumor cells. Such a synergistic effect on microtubule integrity was not apparent for stable microtubules in the neurites of neuronal cells. These results suggest that the administration of a combination of a PI3K-Akt pathway inhibitor and a microtubule-destabilizing agent is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells in which this signaling pathway is constitutively activated.

  17. Dihydrotestosterone differentially modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathways through the nuclear and novel membrane androgen receptor in C6 cells.

    PubMed

    Gatson, Joshua W; Kaur, Paramjit; Singh, Meharvan

    2006-04-01

    Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are known to exert their effects through the activation of intracellular receptors that regulate the transcription of target genes. Alternatively, nongenomic mechanisms, including the activation of such signaling pathways as the MAPK pathways, have been described. It is unclear, however, whether this latter mechanism of action is mediated by the classical androgen receptor (AR) or some alternative mechanism. In this study, using a glial cell model (C6 cells) that we found to express the AR, we identified that DHT increased the phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotection-associated MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways, respectively, and ERK phosphorylation was blocked by the AR antagonist, flutamide. In contrast, the membrane-impermeable, BSA-conjugated androgen (DHT-BSA) caused a dose-dependent suppression of ERK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting the existence of a novel membrane-associated AR that mediates this opposite effect on neuroprotective signaling. This is also supported by the observation of DHT-displaceable binding sites on the cell surface of live C6 cells. Collectively, these data support the existence of a novel membrane-associated AR in glial cells and argue for the existence of two, potentially competing, pathways in a given cell or tissue. This mutual antagonism was supported by the ability of DHT-BSA to attenuate DHT-induced ERK phosphorylation. Thus, depending on the predominance of one receptor mechanism over another, the outcome of androgen treatment may be very different and, as such, could help explain existing discrepancies as to whether androgens are protective or damage inducing.

  18. Quercetin induces apoptosis via caspase activation, regulation of Bcl-2, and inhibition of PI-3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner; however, a shorter treatment (4 h) had no effect on cell viability. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin for 18 h induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8. Moreover, this flavonoid decreased the Bcl-xL:Bcl-xS ratio and increased translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signals, Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), also occurred in quercetin-treated cells. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2.

  19. Implication of the calcium sensing receptor and the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in the extracellular calcium-mediated migration of RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Cédric; Saidak, Zuzana; Boulanouar, Abdel Krim; Petit, Laurent; Gouilleux, Fabrice; Massy, Ziad; Brazier, Michel; Mentaverri, Romuald; Kamel, Saïd

    2010-05-01

    While the processes involved in the formation, maturation and apoptosis of osteoclasts have been investigated extensively in previous studies, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the localization and homing of osteoclast precursor cells to the bone environment in order to initiate the bone remodeling process. Recent studies have suggested that the extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(o)) concentration gradient present near the bone environment may be one of the participating factors, producing a chemoattractant effect on osteoclast precursors. Using the murine osteoclast precursor cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, the RAW 264.7 cell line, we have shown that Ca(2+)(o) increases the migration of these cells in a directional manner. The participation of the calcium sensing receptor (CaR) in this effect was tested by knocking down its expression through RNA interference, which resulted in an abolition of the migratory response. By the use of specific pathway inhibitors and western blot analysis, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and phospholipase Cbeta pathways were shown to be implicated in the migratory effect. The implication of the Akt pathway in the Ca(2+)(o)-induced chemoattraction of RAW 264.7 cells was also confirmed by transducing the cells with the fusion protein TAT-dominant negative-Akt, which decreased the migratory effect. In contrast, the MAPK pathways (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK) were not involved in the production of the migratory effect. We conclude that through the activation of the CaR and subsequent signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway, Ca(2+)(o) produces a chemoattractant effect on the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the Ca(2+)(o) gradient present near the bone may be one of the initiating factors for the homing of osteoclast precursors to bone, thus possibly playing a role in the initiation of bone remodeling. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1 promotes G(1)/S cell cycle progression through bidirectional regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in developing rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Mairet-Coello, Georges; Tury, Anna; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2009-01-21

    Although survival-promoting effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during neurogenesis are well characterized, mitogenic effects remain less well substantiated. Here, we characterize cell cycle regulators and signaling pathways underlying IGF-1 effects on embryonic cortical precursor proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, IGF-1 stimulated cell cycle progression and increased cell number without promoting cell survival. IGF-1 induced rapid increases in cyclin D1 and D3 protein levels at 4 h and cyclin E at 8 h. Moreover, p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) expression were reduced, suggesting downregulation of negative regulators contributes to mitogenesis. Furthermore, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway specifically underlies IGF-1 activity, because blocking this pathway, but not MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), prevented mitogenesis. To determine whether mechanisms defined in culture relate to corticogenesis in vivo, we performed transuterine intracerebroventricular injections. Whereas blockade of endogenous factor with anti-IGF-1 antibody decreased DNA synthesis, IGF-1 injection stimulated DNA synthesis and increased the number of S-phase cells in the ventricular zone. IGF-1 treatment increased phospho-Akt fourfold at 30 min, cyclins D1 and E by 6 h, and decreased p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) expression. Moreover, blockade of the PI3K/Akt pathway in vivo decreased DNA synthesis and cyclin E, increased p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) expression, and prevented IGF-1-induced cyclin E mRNA upregulation. Finally, IGF-1 injection in embryos increased postnatal day 10 brain DNA content by 28%, suggesting a role for IGF-1 in brain growth control. These results demonstrate a mitogenic role for IGF-1 that tightly controls both positive and negative cell cycle regulators, and indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates IGF-1 mitogenic signaling during corticogenesis.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 Contributes to the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Rei; Edamura, Kazuya; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Narita, Takanori; Okabayashi, Ken; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered as candidates for regenerative therapy and a useful model for studying neuronal differentiation. The role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in neuronal differentiation has been previously studied; however, the signaling pathway involved in this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. bFGF induced the mRNA expression of the neuron marker, microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) and the neuron-like morphological change in canine BMSCs. In the presence of inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, i.e., SU5402, LY294002, and MK2206, respectively, bFGF failed to induce the MAP2 mRNA expression and the neuron-like morphological change. bFGF induced Akt phosphorylation, but it was attenuated by the FGFR inhibitor SU5402 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In canine BMSCs, expression of FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 was confirmed, but only FGFR-2 activation was detected by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGFR-2 in canine BMSCs resulted in the attenuation of bFGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that the FGFR-2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation of canine BMSCs. PMID:26523832

  2. Role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of the rapamycin signaling pathway in long-term potentiation and trace fear conditioning memory in rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the amygdala. The present study investigated the role of the PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), also a crucial neural locus for the control of cognition and emotion. Western blot analysis of mPFC tissues showed an activation of phosphorylation of Akt at the Ser473 residues, mTOR, p70S6k, and 4E-BP1 in response to long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Infusion of PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) and an mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) into the mPFC in vivo suppressed HFS-induced LTP as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. In parallel, these inhibitors interfered with the long-term retention of trace fear memory examined 3 d and 6 d after the trace fear conditioning training, whereas short-term trace fear memory and object recognition memory were kept intact. These results provide evidence of involvement of activation of the PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway in the mPFC for LTP and long-term retention of trace fear memory.

  3. Resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced IL-1β, MMP-3 production in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes via modulation of PI3kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Chen, Jin-wei; Gao, Jie-sheng; Li, Len; Xie, Xi

    2013-07-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a natural phytoalexin, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunomodulatory properties and has the potential for treating inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokines production of IL-1β and MMP3 in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and further to explore the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by which resveratrol modulates those cytokines production. The levels of IL-1β, MMP-3 in cultural supernatants among groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Messenger RNA expression of IL-1β and MMP-3 in RA FLS was analyzed using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis was used to detect proteins expression in RA FLS intervened by resveratrol. Resveratrol inhibited both mRNA and proteins expressions of IL-1β and MMP-3 on RA FLS in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol also decreased significantly the expression of phosphorylated Akt dose dependently. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway exists in TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β and MMP3 on RA FLS, which is hampered by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TNF-α alone increased the production of P-Akt, whereas LY294002 and 50 μM resveratrol suppressed the TNF-α-stimulated expression of P-Akt. Resveratrol attenuates TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β and MMP-3 via inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RA FLS, suggesting that resveratrol plays an anti-inflammatory role and might have beneficial effects in preventing and treating RA.

  4. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-mammalian target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in the hippocampus is essential for the acquisition of morphine-induced place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, X Q; Cui, Y; Xin, W J; Jing, J; Liu, X G

    2010-11-24

    Hippocampus is a critical structure for the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is a usual learning paradigm for assessing drug reward. However, the precise mechanisms remain largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt, mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), are critical molecules implicated in learning and memory. Here, we tested the role of PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p70S6K signaling pathway in morphine-induced CPP in the hippocampus. Our results showed that the acquisition of morphine CPP increased phosphorylation of Akt in the hippocampal CA3, but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the CA1. Moreover, the phosphorylated Akt exclusively expressed in the CA3 neurons. Likewise, levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p70S6K were significantly enhanced in the CA3 following morphine CPP. The alterations of these phosphorylated proteins are positively correlated with the acquisition of morphine CPP. More importantly, microinjection of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) into the CA3 prevented the acquisition of CPP and inhibited the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In addition, pre-infusion of β-FNA (β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride), a selective irreversible μ opioid receptor antagonist, into CA3 significantly prevented the acquisition of CPP and impaired Akt phosphorylation. All these results strongly implied that the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway activated by μ opioid receptor in hippocampal CA3 plays an important role in acquisition of morphine-induced CPP.

  5. Phytosphingosine-1-phosphate represses the hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human dermal fibroblasts through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Pyo; Cha, Hwa Jun; Lee, Kwang Sik; Lee, Kun Kook; Son, Ju Hyun; Kim, Kwang Nyeon; Lee, Dong Kyu; An, Sungkwan

    2012-10-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are differentiated mesenchymal cells that regulate the extracellular matrix through the production of dermis components. Dermal fibroblasts can be damaged by reactive oxygen species induced by ultraviolet rays and chemicals. In addition to its effects on the dermis, oxidative stress poses a major threat to organisms and is believed to play an essential role in many disease processes. In this study, we show that human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) express sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P(1), S1P(2), and S1P(3). In addition, cell viability of HDFs is increased by phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (PhS1P) via regulation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Akt pathway. Interestingly, regulation of the JNK/Akt pathway by PhS1P attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced cell growth arrest. Together, our data indicate that PhS1P attenuates H(2)O(2)-induced growth arrest through regulation of the signal molecules Akt and JNK, and suggest that PhS1P may have value as an anti-aging material in cosmetics and medicine.

  6. Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling enhances cell migration and invasion by induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Ping; Li, Chen-Long; Du, Wen-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2015-11-01

    Aberrant hedgehog signaling contributes to the development of various malignancies, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the potential mechanism of hedgehog signaling in GBM migration and invasion has remained to be elucidated. The present study showed that enhanced hedgehog signaling by recombinant human sonic hedgehog N‑terminal peptide (rhSHH) promoted the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by increases in mRNA and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) and MMP‑9. However, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GBM cells, accompanied by decreases in mRNA and protein levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Furthermore, it was found that MMP‑2- and MMP‑9-neutralizing antibodies or GAM6001 reversed the inductive effects of rhSHH on cell migration and invasion. In addition, enhanced hedgehog signaling by rhSHH increased AKT phosphorylation, whereas blockade of hedgehog signaling decreased AKT phosphorylations. Further experiments showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), decreased rhSHH‑induced upregulation of MMP‑2 and ‑9. Finally, the protein expression of glioblastoma-associated oncogene 1 was positively correlated with levels of phosphorylated AKT as well as protein expressions of MMP‑2 and ‑9 in GBM tissue samples. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the hedgehog pathway regulates GBM-cell migration and invasion by increasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  7. Quercetin inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition in diabetic rats, high-glucose-cultured lens, and SRA01/04 cells through transforming growth factor-β2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Hao, Meng; Li, Chengcheng; Wu, Wenya; Wang, Wenwen; Ma, Zhongxuan; Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Nan; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Zhu, Xia; Sun, Ying; Lu, Qian; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2017-09-05

    Diabetic cataract (DC), an identified life-threatening secondary complication of diabetes mellitus, has proven to be a dilemma because of its multifactorial caused and progression. An increasing number of studies have shown that in addition to the maillard reaction, enhanced polyol pathway, and oxidative insults, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to the prevalence of DC. Quercetin, a classic flavonoid with multiple pharmacological effects has been reported to possess therapeutic efficacy in the management and treatment of this disease. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic efficacy in EMT of lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) and contribution to resolving DC remains a mystery. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on EMT of SRA01/04 and high-glucose (HG)-induced lens opacity accompanied by lens fibrosis induced by type-1 diabetes. Furthermore, we sought to clarify the specific mechanisms underlying these effects. At week 14 after streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal administration, diabetic rats showed lens opacity accompanied with diminished antioxidant function, enhanced polyol pathway activity, and non-enzymatic glycation. Western blotting confirmed EMT in rat SRA01/04 cells with significantly increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decreased E-cadherin expressions. Treatment of the lens with quercetin ameliorated the oxidative stress, inhibited aldose reductase (AR) activation, reduced advanced glycation end product (AGE) production, and finally suppressed EMT in the early stages. Our in vitro results showed that high-glucose activated the transforming growth factor-β2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (TGF-β2/PI3K/Akt) signalling and EMT in SRA01/04 cells. Further, induced oxidative stress, activation of aldose reductase, and accumulation of advanced glycation end products were also involved in this process. Quercetin was potent enough to effectively ameliorate the high glucose (HG

  8. o,p'-DDT induces cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in murine macrophages: Role of AP-1 and CRE promoter elements and PI3-kinase/Akt/MAPK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyung-Kyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used as an insecticide to prevent the devastation of malaria in tropical zones. However, many reports suggest that DDT may act as an endocrine disruptor and may have possible carcinogenic effects. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) acts as a link between inflammation and carcinogenesis through its involvement in tumor promotion. In the present study, we examined the effect of o,p'-DDT on COX-2 gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Exposure to o,p'-DDT markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major COX-2 metabolite, in murine macrophages. Furthermore, o,p'-DDT dose-dependently increased the levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA. Transfection with human COX-2 promoter construct, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNA-affinity protein-binding assay experiments revealed that o,p'-DDT activated the activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic AMP response element (CRE) sites, but not the NF-{kappa}B site. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, its downstream signaling molecule, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also significantly activated by the o,p'-DDT-induced AP-1 and CRE activation. These results demonstrate that o,p'-DDT induced COX-2 expression via AP-1 and CRE activation through the PI3-K/Akt/ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the carcinogenic effects of o,p'-DDT.

  9. PI3 kinase/Akt activation mediates estrogen and IGF-1 nigral DA neuronal neuroprotection against a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Arnulfo; Lee, Becky Y; Micevych, Paul E

    2008-04-01

    Recently, using the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) 6-hydroxydopmaine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have demonstrated that blockade of central IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) attenuated estrogen neuroprotection of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DA neurons, but exacerbated 6-OHDA lesions in IGF-1 only treated rats (Quesada and Micevych [2004]: J Neurosci Res 75:107-116). This suggested that the IGF-1 system is a central mechanism through which estrogen acts to protect the nigrostriatal DA system. Moreover, these results also suggest that IGF-1R-induced intracellular signaling pathways are involved in the estrogen mechanism that promotes neuronal survival. In vitro, two convergent intracellular signaling pathways used by estrogen and IGF-1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt), have been demonstrated to be neuroprotective. Continuous central infusions of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt inhibitors were used to test the hypothesis that one or both of these signal transduction pathways mediates estrogen and/or IGF-1 neuroprotection of SNpc DA neurons after a unilateral administration of 6-OHDA into the MFB of rats. Motor behavior tests and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity revealed that the inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt pathway (LY294002) blocked the survival effects of both estrogen and IGF-1, while an inhibitor of the MAPK/ERK signaling (PD98059) was ineffective. Western blot analyses showed that estrogen and IGF-1 treatments increased PI3K/Akt activation in the SN; however, MAPK/ERK activation was decreased in the SN. Indeed, continuous infusions of inhibitors blocked phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK. These findings indicate that estrogen and IGF-1-mediated SNpc DA neuronal protection is dependent on PI3K/Akt signaling, but not on the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  10. Isorhamnetin protects against cardiac hypertrophy through blocking PI3K-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Yao, Rui; Liu, Yuzhou; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Zhen; Du, Binbin; Zhang, Dianhong; Wu, Leiming; Xiao, Lili; Zhang, Yanzhou

    2017-02-07

    Isorhamnetin, a flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Hippophae rhamnoides L., is well known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-adipogenic, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumor activities. However, the role of isorhamnetin in cardiac hypertrophy has not been reported. The aims of the present study were to find whether isorhamnetin could alleviate cardiac hypertrophy and to define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effects of isorhamnetin (100 mg/kg/day) on cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding in mice. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by echocardiographic, hemodynamic, pathological, and molecular analyses. Our data demonstrated that isorhamnetin could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis 8 weeks after aortic banding. The results further revealed that the effect of isorhamnetin on cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by blocking the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway. In vitro studies performed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes confirmed that isorhamnetin could attenuate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II, which was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, these data indicate for the first time that isorhamnetin has protective potential for targeting cardiac hypertrophy by blocking the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway. Thus, our study suggests that isorhamnetin may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

  11. Kinetic analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Shin; Schneider, Ian C; Haugh, Jason M

    2003-09-26

    Isoforms of the serine-threonine kinase Akt coordinate multiple cell survival pathways in response to stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Activation of Akt is a multistep process, which relies on the production of 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositide (PI) lipids by PI 3-kinases. To quantitatively assess the kinetics of PDGF receptor/PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts, a systematic study of this pathway was performed, and a mechanistic mathematical model that describes its operation was formulated. We find that PDGF receptor phosphorylation exhibits positive cooperativity with respect to PDGF concentration, and its kinetics are quantitatively consistent with a mechanism in which receptor dimerization is initially mediated by the association of two 1:1 PDGF/PDGF receptor complexes. Receptor phosphorylation is transient at high concentrations of PDGF, consistent with the loss of activated receptors upon endocytosis. By comparison, Akt activation responds to lower PDGF concentrations and exhibits more sustained kinetics. Further analysis and modeling suggest that the pathway is saturated at the level of PI 3-kinase activation, and that the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase contributes most to PDGF-stimulated 3'-PI production. Thus, at high concentrations of PDGF the kinetics of 3'-PI production are limited by the turnover rate of these lipids, while the Akt response is additionally influenced by the rate of Akt deactivation.

  12. FHL-2 suppresses VEGF-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation via interaction with sphingosine kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagami, Hironori; Takami, Yoichi; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki; Tamai, Katsuto; Sun, Jianxin; Nagao, Kaori; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2009-06-01

    In the functional screening of a human heart cDNA library to identify a novel antiangiogenic factor, the prime candidate gene was "four-and-a-half LIM only protein-2" (FHL-2). The goal of this study is to clear the mechanism of antiangiogenic signaling of FHL-2 in endothelial cells (ECs). Overexpressed FHL-2 strongly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced EC migration. In the angiogenic signaling, we focused on sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1), which produces sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid, as a potent angiogenic mediator in ECs. Immunoprecipitation and immunostaining analysis showed that FHL-2 might bind to SK1. Importantly, overexpression of FHL-2 in ECs inhibited VEGF-induced SK1 activity, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, and phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. In contrast, overexpression of FHL-2 had no effect on S1P-induced Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, VEGF stimulation decreased the binding of FHL-2 and SK1. Depletion of FHL-2 by siRNA increased EC migration accompanied with SK1 and Akt activation, and increased the expression of VEGF receptor-2 which further enhanced VEGF signaling. Furthermore, injection of FHL-2 mRNA into Xenopus embryos resulted in inhibition of vascular network development, assessed by in situ hybridization with endothelial markers. FHL-2 may regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt via direct suppression of the SK1-S1P pathway in ECs.

  13. Rumex acetosa L. induces vasorelaxation in rat aorta via activation of PI3-kinase/Akt- AND Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Su, X H; Jin, J Y; Zhou, Z Q; Sun, S S; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N

    2015-12-01

    Rumex acetosa L. (RA) (Polygonaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used in clinic for a long history in China and the aerial parts of RA has a wide variety of pharmacological actions such as diuretic, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanisms involved are to be defined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect and define the mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of Rumex acetosa L. (ERA) in rat aorta. ERA was examined for its vascular relaxant effect in isolated phenylephrine-precontracted rat thoracic aorta and its acute effects on arterial blood pressure. In addition, the roles of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the ERA-induced effects were tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The phosphorylation levels of Akt and eNOS were assessed by Western blot analysis in the cultured HUVECs. ERA induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The ERA-induced vasorelaxation was abolished by L-NAME (an NOS inhibitor) or ODQ (a sGC inhibitor), but not by indomethacin. Inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway markedly reduced the ERA-induced vasorelaxation. In HUVECs, ERA increased NO formation in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by L-NAME and by removing extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, ERA promoted phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which was prevented by wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that ERA induces eNOS phosphorylation through the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Further, in anesthetized rats, intravenously administered ERA decreased arterial blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner through an activation of the NOS-NO system. In summary, the ERA- induced vasorelaxation was dependent on endothelial integrity and NO production, and was mediated by activation of both the endothelial PI3-kinase/Akt- and Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling and muscular NO-sGC-cGMP signaling.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids block platelet-activating factor-induced phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Caplan, Michael S; Li, Dan; Jilling, Tamas

    2008-05-01

    We have shown earlier that platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes apoptosis in enterocytes via a mechanism that involves Bax translocation to mitochondria, followed by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Herein we report that, in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6), these downstream apoptotic effects are mediated by a PAF-induced inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Treatment with PAF results in rapid dephosphorylation of Akt, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, and the YXXM p85 binding motif of several proteins and redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein, i.e., an in vivo phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate sensor, from membrane to cytosol. The proapoptotic effects of PAF were inhibited by both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids but not by a saturated fatty acid palmitate. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, did not influence the baseline or PAF-induced apoptosis, but 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of protein palmitoylation, inhibited all of the proapoptotic effects of PAF. Our data strongly suggest that an inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is the main mechanism of PAF-induced apoptosis in enterocytes and that polyunsaturated fatty acids block this mechanism very early in the signaling cascade independently of any effect on prostaglandin synthesis, and probably directly via an effect on protein palmitoylation.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids block platelet-activating factor-induced phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Caplan, Michael S.; Li, Dan; Jilling, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We have shown earlier that platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes apoptosis in enterocytes via a mechanism that involves Bax translocation to mitochondria, followed by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Herein we report that, in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6), these downstream apoptotic effects are mediated by a PAF-induced inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Treatment with PAF results in rapid dephosphorylation of Akt, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, and the YXXM p85 binding motif of several proteins and redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein, i.e., an in vivo phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate sensor, from membrane to cytosol. The proapoptotic effects of PAF were inhibited by both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids but not by a saturated fatty acid palmitate. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, did not influence the baseline or PAF-induced apoptosis, but 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of protein palmitoylation, inhibited all of the proapoptotic effects of PAF. Our data strongly suggest that an inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is the main mechanism of PAF-induced apoptosis in enterocytes and that polyunsaturated fatty acids block this mechanism very early in the signaling cascade independently of any effect on prostaglandin synthesis, and probably directly via an effect on protein palmitoylation. PMID:18356536

  16. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    PubMed

    Alhosin, Mahmoud; Anselm, Eric; Rashid, Sherzad; Kim, Jong Hun; Madeira, Socorro Vanesca Frota; Bronner, Christian; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-01-01

    The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ), which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase), SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK), and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK). Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  17. Redox-Sensitive Up-Regulation of eNOS by Purple Grape Juice in Endothelial Cells: Role of PI3-Kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Sherzad; Kim, Jong Hun; Frota Madeira, Socorro Vanesca; Bronner, Christian; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B.

    2013-01-01

    The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ), which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase), SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK), and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK). Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene. PMID:23533577

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling enhances nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of BRCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, Cimona V.; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Thompson, Marilyn E. . E-mail: methompson@mmc.edu

    2007-05-15

    Signaling pathways involved in regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of BRCA1 have not been previously reported. Here, we provide evidence that heregulin {beta}1-induced activation of the Akt pathway increases the nuclear content of BRCA1. First, treatment of T47D breast cancer cells with heregulin {beta}1 results in a two-fold increase in nuclear BRCA1 as assessed by FACS analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. This heregulin-induced increase in nuclear BRCA1 is blocked by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Akt. Second, mutation of threonine 509 in BRCA1, the site of Akt phosphorylation, to an alanine, attenuates the ability of heregulin to induce BRCA1 nuclear accumulation. These data suggest that Akt-catalyzed phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required for the heregulin-regulated nuclear concentration of BRCA1. Because most functions ascribed to BRCA1 occur within the nucleus, we postulated that phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation of BRCA1 would result in enhanced nuclear activity, specifically transcriptional activity, of BRCA1. This postulate is affirmed by our observation that the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate GADD45 promoter constructs was enhanced in T47D cells treated with heregulin {beta}1. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 human breast cancer cells, which have constitutively active Akt, also induces GADD45 promoter activity, whereas the expression of BRCA1 in which threonine 509 has been mutated to an alanine is able to only minimally induce promoter activity. These findings implicate Akt in upstream events leading to BRCA1 nuclear localization and function.

  19. Aldosterone Stimulates Elastogenesis in Cardiac Fibroblasts via Mineralocorticoid Receptor-independent Action Involving the Consecutive Activation of Gα13, c-Src, the Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt*

    PubMed Central

    Bunda, Severa; Wang, Yanting; Mitts, Thomas F.; Liu, Peter; Arab, Sara; Arabkhari, Majid; Hinek, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that aldosterone, which stimulates collagen production through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent pathway, also induces elastogenesis via a parallel MR-independent mechanism involving insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling. The present study provides a more detailed explanation of this signaling pathway. Our data demonstrate that small interfering RNA-driven elimination of MR in cardiac fibroblasts does not inhibit aldosterone-induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and subsequent increase in elastin production. These results exclude the involvement of the MR in aldosterone-induced increases in elastin production. Results of further experiments aimed at identifying the upstream signaling component(s) that might be activated by aldosterone also eliminate the putative involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi proteins, which have previously been shown to be responsible for some MR-independent effects of aldosterone. Instead, we found that small interfering RNA-dependent elimination of another heterotrimeric G protein, Gα13, eliminates aldosterone-induced elastogenesis. We further demonstrate that aldosterone first engages Gα13 and then promotes its transient interaction with c-Src, which constitutes a prerequisite step for aldosterone-dependent activation of the IGF-IR and propagation of consecutive downstream elastogenic signaling involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. In summary, the data we present reveal new details of an MR-independent cellular signaling pathway through which aldosterone stimulates elastogenesis in human cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:19372600

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) activates the Mtor signaling through a PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GLP-2 is a nutrient-responsive enterotrophic neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract including enhancing mucosal cell survival and proliferation, inducing mucosal blood flow and anabolic metabolism, and suppressing gastric motility and secretion. GLP-2-stimulated muco...

  1. Remote Limb Ischemic Postconditioning Protects Against Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury in Rat Pups by the Opioid Receptor/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yilin; Fathali, Nancy; Lekic, Tim; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Chen, Chunhua; Martin, Robert D.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Remote ischemic postconditoning, a phenomenon in which brief ischemic stimuli of 1 organ protect another organ against an ischemic insult, has been demonstrated to protect the myocardium and adult brain in animal models. However, mediators of the protection and underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that remote limb ischemic postconditioning applied immediately after hypoxia provides neuroprotection in a rat model of neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI) by mechanisms involving activation of the opioid receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Methods HI was induced in postnatal Day 10 rat pups by unilateral carotid ligation and 2 hours of hypoxia. Limb ischemic postconditioning was induced by 4 conditioning cycles of 10 minutes of ischemia and reperfusion on both hind limbs immediately after HI. The opioid antagonist naloxone, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, or opioid agonist morphine was administered to determine underlying mechanisms. Infarct volume, brain atrophy, and neurological outcomes after HI were evaluated. Expression of phosphorylated Akt, Bax, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by Western blotting. Results Limb ischemic postconditioning significantly reduced infarct volume at 48 hours and improved functional outcomes at 4 weeks after HI. Naloxone and wortmannin abrogated the postconditioning-mediated infarct-limiting effect. Morphine given immediately after hypoxia also decreased infarct volume. Furthermore, limb ischemic postconditioning recovered Akt activity and decreased Bax expression, whereas no differences in phosphorylated ERK1/2expression were observed. Conclusions Limb ischemic postconditioning protects against neonatal HI brain injury in rats by activating the opioid receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:21183744

  2. Targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling network in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martelli, A M; Evangelisti, C; Follo, M Y; Ramazzotti, G; Fini, M; Giardino, R; Manzoli, L; McCubrey, J A; Cocco, L

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) comprise a subset of hierarchically organized, rare cancer cells with the ability to initiate cancer in xenografts of genetically modified murine models. CSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor onset, self-renewal/maintenance, mutation accumulation, and metastasis. The existence of CSCs could explain the high frequency of neoplasia relapse and resistance to all of currently available therapies, including chemotherapy. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulator of physiological cell processes which include proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, motility, metabolism, and autophagy. Nevertheless, aberrantly upregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling characterizes many types of cancers where it negatively influences prognosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that this signaling system plays a key role also in CSC biology. Of note, CSCs are more sensitive to pathway inhibition with small molecules when compared to healthy stem cells. This observation provides the proof-of-principle that functional differences in signaling transduction pathways between CSCs and healthy stem cells can be identified. Here, we review the evidence which links the signals deriving from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network with CSC biology, both in hematological and solid tumors. We then highlight how therapeutic targeting of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling with small molecule inhibitors could improve cancer patient outcome, by eliminating CSCs.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Translocates across the Intestinal Epithelium via Rho GTPase- and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt-Dependent Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Pan, Yi-Jiun; Liu, Ju-Yun; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes hospital-acquired septicemia and is associated with the recent emergence of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical typing suggests that K. pneumoniae infections originate from the gastrointestinal reservoir. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we have sought to determine how K. pneumoniae penetrates the intestinal barrier. We identified that bacteremia and PLA clinical isolates adhered to and invaded intestinal epithelial cells. Internalization of K. pneumoniae in three different human colonic cell lines was visualized by confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Using a Transwell system, we demonstrated that these K. pneumoniae isolates translocated across a polarized Caco-2 monolayer. No disruptions of transepithelial electrical resistance and altered distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 or occludin were observed. Therefore, K. pneumoniae appeared to penetrate the intestinal epithelium via a transcellular pathway. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized the host signaling pathways involved. Inhibition by cytochalasin D and nocodazole suggested that actin and microtubule cytoskeleton were both important for K. pneumoniae invasion. A Rho inhibitor, ML141, LY294002, and an Akt1/2 inhibitor diminished K. pneumoniae invasion in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Rho family GTPases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling were required. By a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, in vivo invasion of K. pneumoniae into colonic epithelial cells was demonstrated. Our results present evidence to describe a possible mechanism of gastrointestinal translocation for K. pneumoniae. Cell invasion by manipulating host machinery provides a pathway for gut-colonized K. pneumoniae cells to penetrate the intestinal barrier and access extraintestinal locations to cause disease. PMID:25452552

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae translocates across the intestinal epithelium via Rho GTPase- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Pan, Yi-Jiun; Liu, Ju-Yun; Chen, Chun-Tang; Lin, Tzu-Lung; Wang, Jin-Town

    2015-02-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen that causes hospital-acquired septicemia and is associated with the recent emergence of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical typing suggests that K. pneumoniae infections originate from the gastrointestinal reservoir. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we have sought to determine how K. pneumoniae penetrates the intestinal barrier. We identified that bacteremia and PLA clinical isolates adhered to and invaded intestinal epithelial cells. Internalization of K. pneumoniae in three different human colonic cell lines was visualized by confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Using a Transwell system, we demonstrated that these K. pneumoniae isolates translocated across a polarized Caco-2 monolayer. No disruptions of transepithelial electrical resistance and altered distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 or occludin were observed. Therefore, K. pneumoniae appeared to penetrate the intestinal epithelium via a transcellular pathway. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized the host signaling pathways involved. Inhibition by cytochalasin D and nocodazole suggested that actin and microtubule cytoskeleton were both important for K. pneumoniae invasion. A Rho inhibitor, ML141, LY294002, and an Akt1/2 inhibitor diminished K. pneumoniae invasion in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Rho family GTPases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling were required. By a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, in vivo invasion of K. pneumoniae into colonic epithelial cells was demonstrated. Our results present evidence to describe a possible mechanism of gastrointestinal translocation for K. pneumoniae. Cell invasion by manipulating host machinery provides a pathway for gut-colonized K. pneumoniae cells to penetrate the intestinal barrier and access extraintestinal locations to cause disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  5. Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Suppresses Tumor Cell Proliferation and Neuroendocrine Marker Expression in GI Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Susan C.; Chen, Herbert; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    Background Over-activation of PI3K/Akt signaling facilitates tumor proliferation in several cancers. We have shown that various signal transduction pathways promote tumorigenesis in carcinoid tumors, which exhibit endogenously high levels of active, phosphorylated Akt. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway would suppress carcinoid tumor cell growth and neuroendocrine (NE) marker production. Methods Human carcinoid BON cells were treated in vitro with LY294002, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, or transfected with Akt1 siRNA. Tumor cell proliferation was measured by MTT for six days. The effect of LY294002 or Akt1 siRNA treatment was assessed by western analysis. We examined the levels of phosphorylated Akt, total Akt, Akt1, and the NE markers human achaete-scute homolog1 (ASCL1) and chromogranin A (CgA). Results Treatment of BON cells with LY294002 reduced tumor cell proliferation (76%) in a dose-dependent manner. Growth also decreased in Akt1 siRNA transfected cells (29%). Levels of active, phosphorylated Akt and the NE tumor markers, ASCL1 and CgA, were diminished with both LY294002 and Akt1 siRNA treatments proportional to the degree of Akt inhibition. Total Akt, Akt2, and Akt3 levels were unaffected by these experiments. Conclusions These data indicate that PI3K/Akt signaling performs a critical role in human carcinoid tumor cell survival and NE hormone generation. Furthermore, the development of novel therapeutics targeting Akt1 or components of the PI3K/Akt pathway may enhance the management of carcinoid disease. Synopsis Carcinoid tumor cells were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and Akt1 siRNA to delineate the role of PI3K/Akt signaling in carcinoids. The effects of treatment on cellular proliferation and neuroendocrine marker expression were observed. PMID:19588205

  6. Cobalt chloride stimulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Mi Heon; Park, Jeong Hee; Park, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin; Lee, Chang Hun; Park, Hae Ryoun

    2010-04-01

    Tumor cells are often found under hypoxic conditions due to the rapid outgrowth of their vascular supply, and, in order to survive hypoxia, these cells induce numerous signaling factors. Akt is an important kinase in cell survival, and its activity is regulated by the upstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In this study, we examined Akt activation and RTKs/PI3K/Akt signaling using the hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride in oral squamous carcinoma cells. Cobalt chloride increases Akt phosphorylation in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Blocking the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway using LY294002 abolished Akt activation in response to cobalt chloride, suggesting that Akt phosphorylation by cobalt chloride is dependent on PI3K. In addition, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway seems to rely on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), since the inhibition of EGFR attenuated cobalt chloride-induced Akt activation. The results in this study also demonstrate that cobalt chloride increases EGFR protein levels and induces oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to enter S phase.

  7. Involvement of PI 3 kinase/Akt-dependent Bad phosphorylation in Toxoplasma gondii-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Wei; Chu, Jia-Qi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Lee, Young-Ha

    2013-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii-infected cells are resistant to various apoptotic stimuli, however, the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bad protein in T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis in connection with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-PKB/Akt pathway was not well delineated. Here, we investigated the signaling patterns of Bad, Bax and PKB/Akt in T. gondii-infected and uninfected THP-1 cells treated with staurosporine (STS) or PI3K inhibitors. STS treatment, without T. gondii infection, reduced the viability of THP-1 cells in proportion to STS concentration and triggered many cellular death events such as caspase-3 and -9 activation, Bax translocation, cytochrome c release from host cell mitochondria into cytosol, and PARP cleavage in the host cell. However, T. gondii infection eliminated the STS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic events described above. Additionally, T. gondii infection in vitro and in vivo induced the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad in a parasite-load-dependent manner which subsequently inhibited Bax translocation. The PI3K inhibitors, LY294002 and Wortmannin, both blocked parasite-induced phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and Bad. Furthermore, THP-1 cells pretreated with these PI3K inhibitors showed reduced phosphorylation of Bad in a dose-dependent manner and subsequently failed to inhibit the Bax translocation, also these cells also failed to overcome the T. gondii-imposed inhibition of host cell apoptosis. These data demonstrate that the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway may be one of the major route for T. gondii in the prevention of host cell apoptosis and T. gondii phosphorylates the pro-apoptotic Bad protein to prevent apoptosis.

  8. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR signaling network as a therapeutic target in acute myelogenous leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Alberto M.; Evangelisti, Camilla; Chiarini, Francesca; McCubrey, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis plays a central role in cell proliferation, growth, and survival under physiological conditions. However, aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been implicated in many human cancers, including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Therefore, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR network is considered as a validated target for innovative cancer therapy. The limit of acceptable toxicity for standard polychemotherapy has been reached in AML. Novel therapeutic strategies are therefore needed. This review highlights how the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis is constitutively active in AML patients, where it affects survival, proliferation, and drug-resistance of leukemic cells including leukemic stem cells. Effective targeting of this pathway with small molecule kinase inhibitors, employed alone or in combination with other drugs, could result in the suppression of leukemic cell growth. Furthermore, targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network with small pharmacological inhibitors, employed either alone or in combinations with other drugs, may result in less toxic and more efficacious treatment of AML patients. Efforts to exploit pharmacological inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR cascade which show efficacy and safety in the clinical setting are now underway. PMID:20671809

  9. Signalling mechanisms mediated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt cascade in synaptic plasticity and memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Jennifer M; Dufour, Franck; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2006-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling cascade has classically been implicated in promoting cell survival but more recently has been shown to regulate a number of other cellular functions. In particular, studies have suggested that PI3K contributes to mechanisms associated with synaptic plasticity and memory processes but the function of this cascade in forms of synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation, remains controversial and the PI3K substrates which mediate these effects are poorly understood. Here we report that the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 infused i.c.v. in vivo blocked maintenance of long-term potentiation induced in the dentate gyrus with a single tetanus to the perforant path but not with repeated tetani. This pattern of stimulation led to rapid and transient phosphorylation of the PI3K substrate Akt at Ser473 but not at Thr308. Functional readout of partial activation of Akt was demonstrated by an increase in phosphorylation of two downstream substrates, Forkhead (FKHR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in a delayed and prolonged manner at Akt-specific phosphorylation sites. LY294002 blocked phosphorylation of Akt and the prolonged phosphorylation of FKHR and mTOR but did not impair long-term potentiation-induced phosphorylation of extracellular receptor kinase. In addition, the same i.c.v. concentration of LY294002 impaired long-term consolidation of recognition memory but not short-term recognition memory or spatial learning and repeated training in the recognition memory task overcame the deficit in consolidation. These results suggest that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway may contribute to the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation by promoting cell survival via FKHR and protein synthesis via mTOR. Importantly, only partial activation of Akt at its Ser473 residue was necessary to mediate these effects.

  10. Ellagitannin-rich cloudberry inhibits hepatocyte growth factor induced cell migration and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT activation in colon carcinoma cells and tumors in Min mice

    PubMed Central

    Pajari, Anne-Maria; Päivärinta, Essi; Paavolainen, Lassi; Vaara, Elina; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Garg, Ritu; Heiman-Lindh, Anu; Mutanen, Marja; Marjomäki, Varpu; Ridley, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have been found to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in animal models, and thus represent a potential source of compounds for prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. The mechanistic basis for their effects is not well understood. We used human colon carcinoma cells and Min mice to investigate the effects of ellagitannin-rich cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) extract on cancer cell migration and underlying cell signaling. Intrinsic and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) -induced cell motility in human HT29 and HCA7 colon carcinoma cells was assessed carrying out cell scattering and scratch wound healing assays using time-lapse microscopy. Activation of Met, AKT, and ERK in cell lines and tumors of cloudberry-fed Min mice were determined using immunoprecipitation, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Cloudberry extract significantly inhibited particularly HGF-induced cancer cell migration in both cell lines. Cloudberry extract inhibited the Met receptor tyrosine phosphorylation by HGF and strongly suppressed HGF-induced AKT and ERK activation in both HT29 and HCA7 cells. Consistently, cloudberry feeding (10% w/w freeze-dried berries in diet for 10 weeks) reduced the level of active AKT and prevented phosphoMet localization at the edges in tumors of Min mice. These results indicate that cloudberry reduces tumor growth and cancer cell motility by inhibiting Met signaling and consequent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT in vitro and in tumors in vivo. As the Met receptor is recognized to be a major target in cancer treatment, our results suggest that dietary phytochemicals may have therapeutic value in reducing cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:27270323

  11. The New Synthetic H2S-Releasing SDSS Protects MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing Oxidative Stress, Inhibiting MAPKs, and Activating the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaofei; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Zhiyuan; Hua, Fei; Liang, Dong; Sun, Hong; Yang, Yong; Huang, Dejian; Bian, Jin-Song

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in osteoporosis development. Oxidative stress induces apoptosis of osteoblasts and arrest of their differentiation. Both Danshensu (DSS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produce significant antioxidant effect in various systems. In this study, we synthesized SDSS, a novel H2S-releasing compound derived from DSS, and studied its antioxidant effect in an H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell injury model. We first characterized the H2S releasing property of SDSS in both in vivo and in vitro models. HPLC chromatogram showed that intravenous injection of SDSS in adult rats released ADT-OH, a well proved H2S sustained-release moiety, within several minutes in the rat plasma. Using an H2S selective fluorescent probe, we further confirmed that SDSS released H2S in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Biological studies revealed that SDSS had no significant toxic effect but produced protective effects against H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. SDSS also reversed the arrest of cell differentiation caused by H2O2 treatment. This was caused by the stimulatory effect of SDSS on bone sialoprotein, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone nodule formation. Further studies revealed that SDSS reversed the reduced superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content, and the increased ROS production in H2O2 treated cells. In addition, SDSS significantly attenuated H2O2-induced activation of p38-, ERK1/2-, and JNK-MAPKs. SDSS also stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway attenuated the cytoprotective effect of SDSS. In conclusion, SDSS protects MC3T3-E1 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress, inhibiting MAPKs, and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:28163684

  12. The New Synthetic H2S-Releasing SDSS Protects MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing Oxidative Stress, Inhibiting MAPKs, and Activating the PI3K/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaofei; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Zhiyuan; Hua, Fei; Liang, Dong; Sun, Hong; Yang, Yong; Huang, Dejian; Bian, Jin-Song

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in osteoporosis development. Oxidative stress induces apoptosis of osteoblasts and arrest of their differentiation. Both Danshensu (DSS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produce significant antioxidant effect in various systems. In this study, we synthesized SDSS, a novel H2S-releasing compound derived from DSS, and studied its antioxidant effect in an H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell injury model. We first characterized the H2S releasing property of SDSS in both in vivo and in vitro models. HPLC chromatogram showed that intravenous injection of SDSS in adult rats released ADT-OH, a well proved H2S sustained-release moiety, within several minutes in the rat plasma. Using an H2S selective fluorescent probe, we further confirmed that SDSS released H2S in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Biological studies revealed that SDSS had no significant toxic effect but produced protective effects against H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis. SDSS also reversed the arrest of cell differentiation caused by H2O2 treatment. This was caused by the stimulatory effect of SDSS on bone sialoprotein, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone nodule formation. Further studies revealed that SDSS reversed the reduced superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content, and the increased ROS production in H2O2 treated cells. In addition, SDSS significantly attenuated H2O2-induced activation of p38-, ERK1/2-, and JNK-MAPKs. SDSS also stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway attenuated the cytoprotective effect of SDSS. In conclusion, SDSS protects MC3T3-E1 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress, inhibiting MAPKs, and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  13. PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to Neurovascular Unit Protection of Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction against Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Guo-Hua; Bao, Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we used a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model to investigate the protective effects of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) on neurovascular unit and to examine the role of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt pathway in this protection. The cerebral ischemia was induced by 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral infarct area was measured by tetrazolium staining, and neurological function was observed at 24 h after reperfusion. DNA fragmentation assay, combined with immunofluorescence, was performed to evaluate apoptosis of neuron, astrocyte, and vascular endothelial cell which constitute neurovascular unit. The expression levels of proteins involved in PI3K/Akt pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that XXMD improved neurological function, decreased cerebral infarct area and neuronal damage, and attenuated cellular apoptosis in neurovascular unit, while these effects were abolished by inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002. We also found that XXMD upregulated p-PDKl, p-Akt, and p-GSK3β expression levels, which were partly reversed by LY294002. In addition, the increases of p-PTEN and p-c-Raf expression levels on which LY294002 had no effect were also observed in response to XXMD treatment. The data indicated the protective effects of XXMD on neurovascular unit partly through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:23781261

  14. Tissue Kallikrein Reverses Insulin Resistance and Attenuates Nephropathy in Diabetic Rats by Activation of PI3 kinase/Akt and AMPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Gang; Deng, Juanjuan; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Xizheng; Wang, Peihua; Voltz, James W.; Edin, Matthew L.; Xiao, Xiao; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie; Zhang, Xin A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wang, Dao Wen

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that intravenous delivery of the human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene reduced blood pressure and plasma insulin levels in fructose-induced hypertensive rats with insulin resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the potential of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing the HK cDNA (rAAV·HK) as a sole, long term therapy to correct insulin resistance and prevent renal damage in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Administration of streptozotocin in conjunction with a high fat diet induced systemic hypertension, diabetes and renal damage in rats. Delivery of rAAV·HK resulted in a long-term reduction in blood pressure, and fasting plasma insulin was significantly lower in the rAAV·HK group than in the control group. The expression of PI3-kinase p110 catalytic subunit, and the levels of phosphorylation at residue Thr-308 of Akt, insulin receptor B and AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK) were significantly decreased in organs from diabetic animals. These changes were significantly attenuated following rAAV-mediated HK gene therapy. Moreover, rAAV·HK significantly decreased urinary microalbumin excretion, improved creatinine clearance and increased urinary osmolarity. HK gene therapy also attenuated diabetic renal damage as assessed by histology. Together, these findings demonstrate that rAAV·HK delivery can efficiently attenuate hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:17272402

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) activates the mTOR signaling through a PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent pathway

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    GLP-2 is a nutrient-responsive enterotrophic neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract including enhancing mucosal cell survival and proliferation, inducing mucosal blood flow and anabolic metabolism, and suppressing gastric motility and secretion. GLP-2-stimulated mucos...

  16. Protective Role of PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS Signaling in Mechanical Stress Through Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Mouse Lung

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    81. 6 Iwakiri Y. Tsai MH. McCabe TJ. Gratton JP. Fulton D. Groszmann RJ. et al. Phosphorylation of eNOS initiates excessive NO production in early...Crit care Med 2008; 177(Abstracts issue): A760. 21 Gratton JP. Morales-Ruiz M. Kureishi Y. Fulton D. Walsh K. Sessa WC. Akt down-regulation of p38

  17. Programmed Death-1 Inhibition of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Signaling Impairs Sarcoidosis CD4(+) T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Rotsinger, Joseph E; Young, Anjuli; Shaginurova, Guzel; Shelton, Debresha; Hawkins, Charlene; Drake, Wonder P

    2017-01-01

    Patients with progressive sarcoidosis exhibit increased expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on their CD4(+) T cells. Up-regulation of this marker of T cell exhaustion is associated with a reduction in the proliferative response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, a defect that is reversed by PD-1 pathway blockade. Genome-wide association studies and microarray analyses have correlated signaling downstream from the TCR with sarcoidosis disease severity, but the mechanism is not yet known. Reduced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT expression inhibits proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression. To test the hypothesis that PD-1 expression attenuates TCR-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT activity in progressive systemic sarcoidosis, we analyzed PI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression at baseline and after PD-1 pathway blockade in CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients with sarcoidosis and healthy control subjects. We confirmed an increased percentage of PD-1(+) CD4(+) T cells and reduced proliferative capacity in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy control subjects (P < 0.001). There was a negative correlation with PD-1 expression and proliferative capacity (r = -0.70, P < 0.001). Expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression, including PI3K and AKT, were significantly decreased. Gene and protein expression levels reverted to healthy control levels after PD-1 pathway blockade. Reduction in sarcoidosis CD4(+) T cell proliferative capacity is secondary to altered expression of key mediators of cell cycle progression, including the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, via PD-1 up-regulation. This supports the concept that PD-1 up-regulation drives the immunologic deficits associated with sarcoidosis severity by inducing signaling aberrancies in key mediators of cell cycle progression.

  18. The Emerging Role of the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/ Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Network in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Alberto M.; Evangelisti, Camilla; Chiarini, Francesca; Grimaldi, Cecilia; McCubrey, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The cancer stem cell theory entails the existence of a hierarchically organized, rare population of cells which are responsible for tumor initiation, self-renewal/maintenance, and mutation accumulation. The cancer stem cell proposition could explain the high frequency of cancer relapse and resistance to currently available therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates a wide array of physiological cell functions which include differentiation, proliferation, survival, metabolism, autophagy, and motility. Dysregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been documented in many types of neoplasias. It is now emerging that this signaling network plays a key role in cancer stem cell biology. Interestingly, cancer stem cells displayed preferential sensitivity to pathway inhibition when compared to healthy stem cells. This observation provides the proof-of-principle that functional differences in signaling pathways between neoplastic stem cells and healthy stem cells could be identified. In this review, we present the evidence which links the signals emanating from the PI3K/Akt/mTOR cascade with the functions of cancer stem cells, both in solid and hematological tumors. We then highlight how targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling with small molecules could improve cancer patient outcome. PMID:24281174

  19. Restoration of SHIP activity in a human leukemia cell line downregulates constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling and leads to an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Horn, S; Endl, E; Fehse, B; Weck, M M; Mayr, G W; Jücker, M

    2004-11-01

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP (SHIP-1) is a negative regulator of signal transduction in hematopoietic cells and targeted disruption of SHIP in mice leads to a myeloproliferative disorder. We analyzed the effects of SHIP on the human leukemia cell line Jurkat in which expression of endogenous SHIP protein is not detectable. Restoration of SHIP expression in Jurkat cells with an inducible expression system caused a 69% reduction of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) and a 65% reduction of Akt kinase activity, which was associated with reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) (Ser-9) without changing the phosphorylation of Bad (Ser-136), FKHR (Ser-256) or MAPK (Thr-202/Tyr-204). SHIP-expressing Jurkat cells showed an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but SHIP did not cause a complete cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Extension of the G1 phase was associated with an increased stability of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) and reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb at serine residue 780. Our data indicate that restoration of SHIP activity in a human leukemia cell line, which has lost expression of endogenous SHIP, downregulates constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling and leads to an increased transit time through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

  20. Early activation of mTORC1 signalling in response to mechanical overload is independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; McCarthy, John J; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a central integrator of a wide range of signals that modulate protein metabolism and cell growth. However, the contributions of individual pathways regulating mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to mTORC1 activation during mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Consistent with previous studies, mechanical overload induced progressive hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle which was associated with significant increases in total RNA content and protein metabolism. mTORC1 was activated after a single day of overload as indicated by a significant increase in S6K1 phosphorylation at T389 and T421/S424. In contrast, Akt activity, as assessed by Akt phosphorylation status (T308 and S473), phosphorylation of direct downstream targets (glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)) and a kinase assay, was not significantly increased until 2–3 days of overload. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by wortmannin was sufficient to block insulin-dependent signalling but did not prevent the early activation of mTORC1 in response to overload. We identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway was activated at day 1 after overload. In addition, a target of MEK/ERK signalling, phosphorylation of TSC2 at S664, was also increased at this early time point. These observations demonstrate that in vivo, mTORC1 activation at the early phase of mechanical overload in skeletal muscle occurs independently of PI3K/Akt signalling and provide evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway may contribute to mTORC1 activation through phosphorylation of TSC2. PMID:21300751

  1. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signal transduction in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Chen, Yongchang; Jiang, Lu; Li, Yueying; Lan, Ting; Wang, Ying; Qian, Hai

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study revealed that Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK-mediated signal transduction through the inhibition of the phosphorylation/activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). As EGFR also mediates several other signal transduction pathways besides MAPK-mediated pathways, the present study was designed to investigate whether PKG II was able to inhibit EGF/EGFR-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-mediated signal transduction. The AGS human gastric cancer cell line was infected with adenoviral constructs encoding a cDNA of PKG II (Ad-PKG II) to increase the expression of PKG II, and treated with 8-pCPT-cGMP to activate the enzyme. Western blotting was used to detect the phosphorylation/activation of the key components of the signal transduction pathway, including EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9 and DNA fragment factor (DFF), were also determined by western blotting. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining was used to detect the apoptosis of the AGS cells. The results revealed that EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation (activation) of EGFR, PI3K, Akt and mTOR, and increased the nuclear localization (activation) of NF-κB. EGF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the AGS cells and increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but had no effect on the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and did not alter the levels of caspase 9 and DFF. Increasing the PKG II activity of AGS cells by infecting them with Ad-PKG II and stimulating them with 8-pCPT-cGMP inhibited the EGF-induced activation of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB; caused an increase in caspase 9 breakdown (activation) and DFF levels; and reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of EGF. The results suggest that PKG II may also inhibit EGF-induced signal transduction of PI3

  2. Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR Activation by Semliki Forest and Chikungunya Viruses Is Dependent on nsP3 and Connected to Replication Complex Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Biasiotto, Roberta; Eng, Kai; Neuvonen, Maarit; Götte, Benjamin; Rheinemann, Lara; Mutso, Margit; Utt, Age; Varghese, Finny; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Merits, Andres; Ahola, Tero; McInerney, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-Δ50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed and reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-Δ50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane and subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt and SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-Δ50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV and CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation and replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. IMPORTANCE SFV and CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular and cell biology, e.g., regarding replication and molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human

  3. Dystrophin Glycoprotein Complex-associated Gβγ Subunits Activate Phosphatidyl Inositol-3-Kinase/Akt signaling in Skeletal Muscle in a Laminin-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein, (Gαβγ) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsα subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gβγ, released when Gsα is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gβγ, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gβγ. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to α-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gβγ also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gβγ is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin β1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gβγ, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gβγ, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gβγ-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Up-regulating integrin β1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease. PMID:19117013

  4. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex-associated Gbetagamma subunits activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling in skeletal muscle in a laminin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongmin; Zhou, Yanwen; Jarrett, Harry W

    2009-05-01

    Previously, we showed that laminin-binding to the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) of skeletal muscle causes a heterotrimeric G-protein (Galphabetagamma) to bind, changing the activation state of the Gsalpha subunit. Others have shown that laminin-binding to the DGC also leads to Akt activation. Gbetagamma, released when Gsalpha is activated, is known to bind phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which activates Akt in other cells. Here, we investigate whether muscle Akt activation results from Gbetagamma, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and purified Gbetagamma. In the presence of laminin, PI3K-binding to the DGC increases and Akt becomes phosphorylated and activated (pAkt), and glycogen synthase kinase is phosphorylated. Antibodies, which specifically block laminin-binding to alpha-dystroglycan, prevent PI3K-binding to the DGC. Purified bovine brain Gbetagamma also caused PI3K and Akt activation. These results show that DGC-Gbetagamma is binding PI3K and activating pAkt in a laminin-dependent manner. Mdx mice, which have greatly diminished amounts of DGC proteins, display elevated pAkt signaling and increased expression of integrin beta1 compared to normal muscle. This integrin binds laminin, Gbetagamma, and PI3K. Collectively, these suggest that PI3K is an important target for the Gbetagamma, which normally binds to DGC syntrophin, and activates PI3K/Akt signaling. Disruption of the DGC in mdx mouse is causing dis-regulation of the laminin-DGC-Gbetagamma-PI3K-Akt signaling and is likely to be important to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Upregulating integrin beta1 expression and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in muscular dystrophy may partially compensate for the loss of the DGC. The results suggest new therapeutic approaches to muscle disease.

  5. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Shin-Da; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Tsai, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Cheng; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2010-10-15

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  6. Berberine protects endothelial progenitor cell from damage of TNF-α via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Men, Li Na; Xu, Ming Guo; Wang, Guo Bing; Lv, Hai Tao; Liu, Cong

    2014-11-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) dysfunction is closely correlated with the coronary artery injury induced by Kawasaki disease (KD). The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elevated significantly in acute phase of KD which can damage the functions of EPCs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether berberine (BBR) can protect EPCs from the inhibition caused by TNF-α via the PI3K (Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase) /AKT (Serine/threonine protein kinase B) /eNOS (endothelial Nitric Oxide synthase) signaling pathway. The cell proliferative ability of EPCs was determined by MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assays. Nitric oxide (NO) level was determined in supernatants. The mRNA level of eNOS, PI3K and AKT were measured by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and the protein levels of eNOS, phospho-eNOS (p-eNOS), Akt, phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and PI3K were analyzed using Western-blot. The results demonstrated that TNF-α inhibits the proliferative ability of EPCs. However, BBR improves the proliferative activity of EPCs inhibited by TNF-α. Blockade of PI3K by 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (Ly294002) and blockade of eNOS by l-NAME (NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester) attenuates the effect of BBR. BBR can increase the level of PI3K/Akt/eNOS mRNA and the protein level of PI3K, p-Akt, eNOS and p-eNOS, which can be blocked by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and eNOS inhibitor (l-NAME). Therefore, we concluded that impaired EPCs proliferation could be reversed by BBR via the PI3K/AKT/eNOS signaling pathway.

  7. Importance of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in HER2, FGFR2 and MET-unamplified gastric cancer with and without Ras pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Saisana, Marina; Griffin, S. Michael; May, Felicity E.B.

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of seven oncogenes: HER2, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR2, MET, KRAS and IGF1R has been identified in gastric cancer. The first five are targeted therapeutically in patients with HER2-positivity, FGFR2- or MET-amplification but the majority of patients are triple-negative and require alternative strategies. Our aim was to evaluate the importance of the IGF1R tyrosine kinase in triple-negative gastric cancer with and without oncogenic KRAS, BRAF or PI3K3CA mutations. Cell lines and metastatic tumor cells isolated from patients expressed IGF1R, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activated the PI3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathways. IGF-1 protected triple-negative cells from caspase-dependent apoptosis and anoikis. Protection was mediated via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Remarkably, IGF-1-dependent cell survival was greater in patient samples. IGF-1 stimulated triple-negative gastric cancer cell growth was prevented by IGF1R knockdown and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway inhibition. The importance of the receptor in cell line and metastatic tumor cell growth in serum-containing medium was demonstrated by knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with figitumumab. The proportions of cells in S-phase and mitotic-phase, and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway activity, were reduced concomitantly. KRAS-addicted and BRAF-impaired gastric cancer cells were particularly susceptible. In conclusion, IGF1R and the IGF signal transduction pathway merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets in patients with triple-negative gastric cancer. PMID:27437872

  8. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  9. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  10. The Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Mosca, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Studies using cultured melanoma cells and patient tumor biopsies have demonstrated deregulated PI3 kinase-Akt3 pathway activity in ∼70% of melanomas. Furthermore, targeting Akt3 and downstream PRAS40 has been shown to inhibit melanoma tumor development in mice. Although these preclinical studies and several other reports using small interfering RNAs and pharmacological agents targeting key members of this pathway have been shown to retard melanoma development, analysis of early Phase I and Phase II clinical trials using pharmacological agents to target this pathway demonstrate the need for (1) selection of patients whose tumors have PI3 kinase-Akt pathway deregulation, (2) further optimization of therapeutic agents for increased potency and reduced toxicity, (3) the identification of additional targets in the same pathway or in other signaling cascades that synergistically inhibit the growth and progression of melanoma, and (4) better methods for targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents inhibiting this pathway. In this review we discuss key potential targets in PI3K-Akt3 signaling, the status of pharmacological agents targeting these proteins, drugs under clinical development, and strategies to improve the efficacy of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway. PMID:22157148

  11. A physically-modified saline suppresses neuronal apoptosis, attenuates tau phosphorylation and protects memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Arundhati; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the aging population, is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and extensive neuronal apoptosis. Neuritic plaques are mainly composed of aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein while neurofibrillary tangles are composed of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is currently available to halt the progression of this disease. Here, we have undertaken a novel approach to attenuate apoptosis and tau phosphorylation in cultured neuronal cells and in a transgenic animal model of AD. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing oxygenated nanobubbles that is generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. In our experiments, fibrillar Aβ1-42, but not the reverse peptide Aβ42-1, induced apoptosis and cell death in human SHSY5Y neuronal cells. RNS60, but not NS (normal saline), RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen) or PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification), attenuated Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. RNS60 inhibited neuronal cell death via activation of the type 1A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase-Akt-BAD pathway. Furthermore, RNS60 also decreased Aβ(1-42)-induced tau phosphorylation via (PI-3 kinase-Akt)-mediated inhibition of GSK-3β. Similarly, RNS60 treatment suppressed neuronal apoptosis, attenuated Tau phosphorylation, inhibited glial activation, and reduced the burden of Aβ in the hippocampus and protected memory and learning in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD. Therefore, RNS60 may be a promising pharmaceutical candidate in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

  12. Hyaluronan Activates Cell Motility of v-Src-transformed Cells via Ras-Mitogen–activated Protein Kinase and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt in a Tumor-specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sohara, Yasuyoshi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Machida, Kazuya; Kurata, Hisashi; Thant, Aye Aye; Senga, Takeshi; Matsuda, Satoru; Kimata, Koji; Iwata, Hisashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the production of hyaluronan (HA) and its effect on cell motility in cells expressing the v-src mutants. Transformation of 3Y1 by v-src virtually activated HA secretion, whereas G2A v-src, a nonmyristoylated form of v-src defective in cell transformation, had no effect. In cells expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, HA secretion was temperature dependent. In addition, HA as small as 1 nM, on the other side, activated cell motility in a tumor-specific manner. HA treatment strongly activated the motility of v-Src–transformed 3Y1, whereas it showed no effect on 3Y1- and 3Y1-expressing G2A v-src. HA-dependent cell locomotion was strongly blocked by either expression of dominant-negative Ras or treatment with a Ras farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Similarly, both the MEK1 inhibitor and the kinase inhibitor clearly inhibited HA-dependent cell locomotion. In contrast, cells transformed with an active MEK1 did not respond to the HA. Finally, an anti-CD44–neutralizing antibody could block the activation of cell motility by HA as well as the HA-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that simultaneous activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway by the HA-CD44 interaction is required for the activation of HA-dependent cell locomotion in v-Src–transformed cells. PMID:11408591

  13. Sestrin2 integrates Akt and mTOR signaling to protect cells against energetic stress-induced death

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Sahra, I; Dirat, B; Laurent, K; Puissant, A; Auberger, P; Budanov, A; Tanti, J-F; Bost, F

    2013-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway has a central role in cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. More importantly, it is one of the cardinal pro-survival pathways mediating resistance to apoptosis. The role of Akt in response to an energetic stress is presently unclear. Here, we show that Sestrin2 (Sesn2), also known as Hi95, a p53 target gene that protects cells against oxidative and genotoxic stresses, participates in the protective role of Akt in response to an energetic stress induced by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Sesn2 is upregulated in response to an energetic stress such as 2-DG and metformin, and mediates the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the major cellular regulator of energy metabolism. The increase of Sesn2 is independent of p53 but requires the anti-apoptotic pathway, PI3K/Akt. Inhibition of Akt, as well as loss of Sesn2, sensitizes cells to 2-DG-induced apoptosis. In addition, the rescue of Sesn2 partially reverses the pro-apoptotic effects of 2-DG. In conclusion, we identify Sesn2 as a new energetic stress sensor, which appears to be protective against energetic stress-induced apoptosis that integrates the pro-survival function of Akt and the negative regulation of mTOR. PMID:23238567

  14. ON01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) mitigates radiation damage through activation of the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Anthony D; Cosenza, Stephen C; Bonagura, Marie; Manair, Manoj; Reddy, M V Ramana; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Development of radio-protective agents that are non-toxic is critical in light of ever increasing threats associated with proliferation of nuclear materials, terrorism and occupational risks associated with medical and space exploration. In this communication, we describe the discovery, characterization and mechanism of action of ON01210.Na, which effectively protects mouse and human bone marrow cells from radiation-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that treatment of normal fibroblasts with ON01210.Na before and after exposure to ionizing radiation provides dose dependent protection against radiation-induced damage. Treatment of mice with ON01210.Na prior to radiation exposure was found to result in a more rapid recovery of their hematopoietic system. The mechanistic studies described here show that ON01210.Na manifests its protective effects through the up-regulation of PI3-Kinase/AKT pathways in cells exposed to radiation. These results suggest that ON 01210.Na is a safe and effective radioprotectant and could be a novel agent for use in radiobiological disasters.

  15. ON01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) Mitigates Radiation Damage through Activation of the AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Marie; Manair, Manoj; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Development of radio-protective agents that are non-toxic is critical in light of ever increasing threats associated with proliferation of nuclear materials, terrorism and occupational risks associated with medical and space exploration. In this communication, we describe the discovery, characterization and mechanism of action of ON01210.Na, which effectively protects mouse and human bone marrow cells from radiation-induced damage both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that treatment of normal fibroblasts with ON01210.Na before and after exposure to ionizing radiation provides dose dependent protection against radiation-induced damage. Treatment of mice with ON01210.Na prior to radiation exposure was found to result in a more rapid recovery of their hematopoietic system. The mechanistic studies described here show that ON01210.Na manifests its protective effects through the up-regulation of PI3-Kinase/AKT pathways in cells exposed to radiation. These results suggest that ON 01210.Na is a safe and effective radioprotectant and could be a novel agent for use in radiobiological disasters. PMID:23505494

  16. Differential Modulation of Brainstem Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Signaling Underlies WIN55,212-2 Centrally Mediated Pressor Response in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Badr Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that central cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) activation caused dose-related pressor response in conscious rats, and reported studies implicated the brainstem phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in blood pressure control. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that the modulation of brainstem PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2 signaling plays a critical role in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response. In conscious freely moving rats, the pressor response elicited by intracisternal (i.c.) (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt (WIN55,212-2) (15 μg) was associated with significant increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced in the same neuronal pools. Pretreatment with the selective CB1R antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) (30 μg i.c.) attenuated the neurochemical responses elicited by central CB1R activation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor 2′-amino-3′-methoxyflavone (PD98059) (5 μg i.c.) abrogated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in blood pressure and neuronal ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not the reduction in Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, prior PI3K inhibition with wortmannin (0.4 μg i.c.) exacerbated the WIN55,212-2 (7.5 and 15 μg i.c.) dose-related increases in blood pressure and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the RVLM. The present neurochemical and integrative studies yield new insight into the critical role of two brainstem kinases, PI3K and ERK1/2, in the pressor response elicited by central CB1R activation in conscious rats. PMID:21946192

  17. Potential protective effects of autophagy activated in MPP+ treated astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cunzhou; Xian, Wenbiao; Zhou, Hongyan; Chen, Ling; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes, which have various important functions, have previously been associated with Parkinsons disease (PD), particularly in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of PD. MPP+ is the toxic metabolite of MPTP and is generated by the enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase B, which is predominantly located in astrocytes. MPP+ acts as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-digestion pathway in eukaryotic cells, which occurs in response to various types of stress, including starvation and oxidative stress. Lithium treatment has previously been shown to induce autophagy in astrocytes by inhibiting the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, which may aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, in which the toxic protein is an autophagy substrate. Therefore, using western blotting and MTT assay, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lithium-induced autophagy against astrocyte injury caused by MPP+ treatment, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. The results of the present study suggested that lithium was able to induce autophagy in astrocytes treated with MPP+, and this likely occurred via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. PMID:27882077

  18. Flagellin/TLR5 responses in epithelia reveal intertwined activation of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wu, Huixia; Sloane, Valerie; Jones, Rheinallt; Yu, Yimin; Lin, Patricia; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Neish, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Flagellin, the primary structural component of bacterial flagella, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) present on the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells. Utilizing biochemical assays of proinflammatory signaling pathways and mRNA expression profiling, we found that purified flagellin could recapitulate the human epithelial cell proinflammatory responses activated by flagellated pathogenic bacteria. Flagellin-induced proinflammatory activation showed similar kinetics and gene specificity as that induced by the classical endogenous proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, although both responses were more rapid than that elicited by viable flagellated bacteria. Flagellin, like TNF-α, activated a number of antiapoptotic mediators, and pretreatment of epithelial cells with this bacterial protein could protect cells from subsequent bacterially mediated apoptotic challenge. However, when NF-κB-mediated or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt proinflammatory signaling was blocked, flagellin could induce programmed cell death. Consistently, we demonstrate that flagellin and viable flagellate Salmonella induces both the extrinsic and intrinsic caspase activation pathways, with the extrinsic pathway (caspase 8) activated by purified flagellin in a TLR5-dependant fashion. We conclude that interaction of flagellin with epithelial cells induces caspase activation in parallel with proinflammatory responses. Such intertwining of proinflammatory and apoptotic signaling mediated by bacterial products suggests roles for host programmed cell death in the pathogenesis of enteric infections. PMID:16179598

  19. Naringin inhibits TNF-α induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in HUVECs via Nox4/NF-κ B and PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenshuang; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liang, Jing; Jin, Yue; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin; Sun, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    In the development of atherosclerosis, naringin has exhibited potential protective effects. However, the specific mechanisms are not clearly understood. The aim of this trial was to determine the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin and uncover the mechanisms in Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry assay. The levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), p22(phox), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) over-expressions were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) was evaluated by Western blotting. Naringin inhibited ROS production as well as over-expression levels of Nox4, p22(phox) induced by TNF-α. Naringin inhibited TNF-α induced mRNA and protein over-expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Naringin also suppressed activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results indicated the preventive effects of naringin on HUVECs injury caused by oxidative stress and inflammation response and the effects might be obtained via inhibition of Nox4 and NF-κB pathways as well as activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Naringin may be useful in preventing endothelial dysfunction, therefore to ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis.

  20. Protective Effects of Shen-Yuan-Dan, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongxu; Shang, Juju; Chu, Fuyong; Li, Aiyong; Wu, Bao; Xie, Xinran; Liu, Weihong; Yang, Hongzhi; Tong, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Shen-Yuan-Dan (SYD) pharmacological postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods. In the in vivo experiment, myocardial injury markers and histopathology staining were examined. In the in vitro experiment, cell viability and cell apoptosis were, respectively, detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome staining. The protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Results. Both low and high doses of SYD protected myocardium against I/R injury in rat model by reducing lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and attenuating histopathology injury. Meanwhile, in the in vitro experiment, SYD promoted cell viability and inhibited the cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of Bcl-2 protein was restored to the normal level by SYD pharmacological postconditioning. In contrast, the Bax protein level was markedly reduced by SYD pharmacological postconditioning. These effects of SYD were inhibited by LY294002. Conclusions. The results of this study suggested that SYD pharmacological postconditioning has protective effects against myocardial I/R injury in both in vivo and in vitro models, which are related to activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway. PMID:24454518

  1. Shikonin inhibits inflammation and chondrocyte apoptosis by regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Daijie; Shang, Xifu; Ni, Zhe; Shi, Guoguang

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin has previously been shown to have antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and extensive pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the protective effect of shikonin is mediated via the inhibition of inflammation and chondrocyte apoptosis, and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms in a rat model of osteoarthritis. A model of osteoarthritis was established in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats and 10 mg/kg/day shikonin was administered intraperitoneally for 4 days. It was found that shikonin treatment significantly inhibited inflammatory reactions in the rats with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was found to significantly increase interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels compared with those in the sham group. However, shikonin treatment significantly inhibited the increases in IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS levels in the rats with osteoarthritis. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 protein expression were significantly increased and phosphorylated Akt protein expression was greatly suppressed in rats with osteoarthritis when compared with the sham group. Shikonin administration attenuated the changes in caspase-3 activity and COX-2 expression and Akt phosphorylation in rats with osteoarthritis. These results indicate that shikonin inhibits inflammation and chondrocyte apoptosis by regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in a rat model of osteoarthritis. PMID:27703516

  2. Notch3 activation modulates cell growth behaviour and cross-talk to Wnt/TCF signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Holt, Cathy M; Xu, Chiheng; Ridley, Caroline; P O Jones, Richard; Baron, Martin; Trump, Dorothy

    2007-12-01

    Notch3 is one of the four Notch receptors identified in mammal and expressed mainly in the arterial smooth muscle cells of human adult. Signalling via Notch3 is thought to be important in maintaining the phenotypic stability of the cells, but the nature of the signalling and its regulation to other signalling pathways are largely unknown. To understand further of the cellular function of Notch3 signalling, we generated cell lines stably expressing a constitutively active form of human Notch3 comprising of its soluble intracellular domain (N3IC). The N3IC expressing cells showed accelerated proliferation, decreased migration, increased cell surface N-cadherin, and growth in a colonised fashion that was reversible by N-cadherin blockade. N3IC expressing cells were also protected significantly against staurosporine-induced apoptosis and exhibited lower caspase 3/7 activity, accompanied by up-regulation of pAKT compared to control cells. We also found a complex cross-talk between Notch3 signalling and the Wnt pathway. N3IC stimulated Wnt-independent T-cell factor (TCF, the target transcription factor in the Wnt pathway) activation which was associated with increased Tyr-142 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. In contrast N3IC suppressed TCF activation in response to LiCl, which mimics the Wnt-dependent TCF activation mechanism. We conclude that Notch3 promotes cell growth and survival by activating PI3-kinase/AKT pathway; N-cadherin participates in the change of cell growth caused by Notch3 activation; and Notch3 signalling has dual-effects on the Wnt/TCF pathway suggesting a buffering role that Notch3 signalling may play in balancing these two important signalling pathways in regulating cell function.

  3. Tissue kallikrein promotes neovascularization and improves cardiac function by the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yu-Yu; Yin, Hang; Shen, Bo; Smith, Robert S.; Liu, Yuying; Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Aims We investigated the role of the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β signalling pathway in mediating the protective effects of tissue kallikrein on myocardial injury by promoting angiogenesis and blood flow in rats after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Human tissue kallikrein gene in an adenoviral vector, with or without co-administration of dominant-negative Akt (Ad.DN-Akt) or constitutively active GSK-3β (Ad.GSK-3βS9A), was injected into rat myocardium after MI. The expression of recombinant human kallikrein in rat heart significantly improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size 10 days after gene delivery. Kallikrein administration significantly increased myocardial blood flow as well as capillary and arteriole densities in the infarcted myocardium. Kallikrein increased cardiac Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation in conjunction with decreased GSK-3β activity and the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). All of kallikrein’s effects on the myocardium were abrogated by Ad.DN-Akt and Ad.GSK-3βS9A. Moreover, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells, tissue kallikrein stimulated capillary tube formation and promoted cell migration; however, these effects were blocked by Ad.DN-Akt, Ad.GSK-3βS9A, icatibant (a kinin B2 receptor antagonist), Tki (a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor), and a neutralizing VEGF antibody. In addition, tissue kallikrein decreased GSK-3β activity via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway and enhanced VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression in endothelial cells. Conclusion These data provide the first direct evidence that tissue kallikrein protects against acute-phase MI by promoting neovascularization, restoring regional blood flow and improving cardiac function through the kinin B2 receptor-Akt-GSK-3β and VEGF signalling pathways. PMID:18689794

  4. JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: effects of salvianolic acid A intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that diabetes impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, while insulin resistance syndrome has been associated with alterations of this pathway in diabetic rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved. The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibiting JNK activity would partially restore the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and protect against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of intervention with salvianolic acid A (Sal A). The inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and Sal A were used in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats, outcome measures included heart hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SERCA2a activity, cardiomyocyte apotosis, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and JNK. The p-Akt levels were increased after myocardial I/R in non-diabetic rats, while there was no change in diabetic rats. Pretreatment with the SP600125 and Sal A decreased the p-JNK levels and increased the p-Akt levels in diabetic rats with I/R, and heart hemodynamic data improved, infarct size and LDH release decreased, SERCA2a activity increased, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Our results suggest that the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats and Sal A exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and improves cardiac function following I/R injury through the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in this model.

  5. JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: effects of salvianolic acid A intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Dongye; Pan, Defeng; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yanfeng; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that diabetes impairs the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, while insulin resistance syndrome has been associated with alterations of this pathway in diabetic rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and activation of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved. The present study was designed to investigate whether inhibiting JNK activity would partially restore the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and protect against myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of intervention with salvianolic acid A (Sal A). The inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) and Sal A were used in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats, outcome measures included heart hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SERCA2a activity, cardiomyocyte apotosis, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and the phosphorylation status of Akt and JNK. The p-Akt levels were increased after myocardial I/R in non-diabetic rats, while there was no change in diabetic rats. Pretreatment with the SP600125 and Sal A decreased the p-JNK levels and increased the p-Akt levels in diabetic rats with I/R, and heart hemodynamic data improved, infarct size and LDH release decreased, SERCA2a activity increased, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels decreased, and the expression of Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Our results suggest that the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats and Sal A exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and improves cardiac function following I/R injury through the JNK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in this model. PMID:27398138

  6. Protective effects of erythropoietin on endotoxin-related organ injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-jiang; Zhang, Guo-xing; Sun, Ni; Sun, Yu; Yang, Li-zhi; Du, Yu-jun

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on tissues following ischemia and reperfusion injuries remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of EPO in preventing endotoxin-induced organ damage. Rat model of multiple organ failure (MOF) was established by tail vein injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recombinant human EPO treatment (5000 U/kg) was administered by tail vein injection at 30 min after LPS challenge. Twenty-four h after EPO treatment, changes in serum enzyme levels, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by using immunoradiometric assay. Histological examination of tissue sections was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructure evaluation of organ tissues was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression levels were detected by using Western blotting. EPO treatment showed a modest effect in preventing LPS-induced elevation of AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, and TNF-α levels, and in protecting against LPS-induced tissue degeneration and injured ultrastructure in the lung, liver, and kidney. Moreover, LPS promoted phosphorylation of alanine aminotransferase (AKT) and increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the lung, liver, and kidney (P<0.05 vs. control). However, EPO treatment significantly decreased the LPS-induced pAKT up-regulation in these tissues (P<0.05 vs. LPS treatment alone). The present study demonstrates that EPO may play a protective role against LPS-induced MOF by reducing the inflammatory response and tissue degeneration, possibly via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  7. Dysregulation of AKT Pathway by SMYD2-Mediated Lysine Methylation on PTEN.

    PubMed

    Nakakido, Makoto; Deng, Zhenzhong; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the well-characterized tumor suppressor proteins, counteracts the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway through its unique lipid phosphatase activity. The functions of PTEN are regulated by a variety of posttranslational modifications such as acetylation, oxidation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation. However, methylation of PTEN has not been reported so far. In this study, we demonstrated that the oncogenic protein lysine methyltransferase SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) methylates PTEN at lysine 313 in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of SMYD2 suppressed the cell growth of breast cancer cells and attenuated phosphorylation levels of AKT, indicating that SMYD2-mediated methylation negatively regulates PTEN tumor suppressor activity and results in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. Furthermore, PTEN protein with lysine 313 substitution diminished phosphorylation of PTEN at serine 380, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor functions of PTEN. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of PTEN dysregulation regulated by lysine methylation in human cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis through activation of integrin/focal adhesion kinase/Akt signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    A hypoxic stress which causes apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is the main problem in the ischemic heart disease. Canstatin, a non-collagenous fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, is an endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. We have previously reported that canstatin has a cytoprotective effect on cardiomyoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of canstatin on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Cell counting assay was performed to determine a cell viability. Western blotting was performed to detect expression of cleaved casepase-3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt. Immunocytochemical staining was performed to observe a distribution of αv integrin. Hypoxia (1% O2, 48 h) significantly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression. Canstatin (10–250 ng/ml) significantly inhibited these changes in a concentration-dependent manner. Cilengitide (1 μM), an αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibitor, significantly prevented the protective effects of canstatin on cell viability. Canstatin significantly increased phosphorylation of FAK and Akt under hypoxic condition, which were inhibited by cilengitide. LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway, suppressed the canstatin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reversed the protective effects of canstatin. It was observed that hypoxia caused a localization of αv integrin to focal adhesion. In summary, we for the first time clarified that canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis via FAK and Akt pathways through activating integrins in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. PMID:28235037

  9. Overexpression of phospholipase D prevents actinomycin D-induced apoptosis through potentiation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathways in Chinese-hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Momoko; Banno, Yoshiko; Takuwa, Yoh; Koda, Masahiro; Hara, Akira; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    To examine the roles of PLD (phospholipase D) in the regulation of the apoptotic process, PLD1 and PLD2 were stably overexpressed in S1P3-CHO cells [CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells expressing the S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) receptor S1P3]. Treatment of S1P3-CHO cells with ActD (actinomycin D) induced apoptosis, as shown by the occurrence of nuclear fragmentation and the caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] and protein kinase Cd. Overexpression of either PLD1 or PLD2 protected S1P3-CHO cells from ActD-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increased number of viable cells and inhibition of PARP and protein kinase Cd cleavage. However, in the early phase of apoptosis, ActD induced an increase in PLD activity and activation of key factors in the cell-survival signalling pathways, such as PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt, p70S6K (p70 S6 kinase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase). Furthermore, the ActD-induced activation of these survival signalling enzymes was potentiated by overexpression of either PLD1 or PLD2. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited the ActD-induced activation of Akt and p70S6K, and completely abolished the effects of PLD1 or PLD2, whereas inhibition of ERK activity by the MEK inhibitor U0126 had a milder effect. The ActD-induced activation of p70S6K and ERKs was blocked by 1-butanol, but not by t-butanol; similar to S1P, exogenous PLD suppressed the ActD-induced events in the apoptosis signalling pathways. These results show that, in S1P3-CHO cells, increased expression of PLDs prevents ActD-induced apoptosis by enhanced activation of the PI3K signalling pathways. PMID:14640974

  10. Molecular signaling pathways regulating muscle proteolysis during atrophy.

    PubMed

    Franch, Harold A; Price, S Russ

    2005-05-01

    Although a variety of diverse stimuli induce muscle atrophy, there is a surprising number of similarities in the intracellular responses. One prominent response is an increase in muscle proteolysis resulting from stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Understanding the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate muscle mass should offer insights into the coordination of cellular responses. This review will discuss recent findings on the molecular signaling pathways regulating proteolysis during muscle atrophy. The expression of several muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases is consistently increased in conditions causing muscle atrophy. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 act through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway to suppress the expression of two of these enzymes, MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1. Efforts to identify targets of the muscle-specific E3 ligases are yielding interesting information. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 also attenuate wasting by inhibiting caspase-3, which cleaves actin to facilitate its destruction by the ubiqutin-proteasome system. Other signaling systems involved in the regulation of muscle mass include the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. The maintenance of muscle mass requires a delicate balance between catabolic factors and anabolic factors. These signals inversely modulate the activity of several key regulatory pathways including the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT and nuclear factor kappa B systems, which control the transcription of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway activity, the activity of caspase-3, and perhaps other proteolytic functions. When levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 are insufficient or inflammatory cytokine production is increased, muscle atrophy ensues.

  11. Protective pathways against colitis mediated by appendicitis and appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cheluvappa, R; Luo, A S; Palmer, C; Grimm, M C

    2011-01-01

    Appendicitis followed by appendectomy (AA) at a young age protects against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using a novel murine appendicitis model, we showed that AA protected against subsequent experimental colitis. To delineate genes/pathways involved in this protection, AA was performed and samples harvested from the most distal colon. RNA was extracted from four individual colonic samples per group (AA group and double-laparotomy control group) and each sample microarray analysed followed by gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The gene-expression study was validated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) of 14 selected genes across the immunological spectrum. Distal colonic expression of 266 gene-sets was up-regulated significantly in AA group samples (false discovery rates < 1%; P-value < 0·001). Time–course RT–PCR experiments involving the 14 genes displayed down-regulation over 28 days. The IBD-associated genes tnfsf10, SLC22A5, C3, ccr5, irgm, ptger4 and ccl20 were modulated in AA mice 3 days after surgery. Many key immunological and cellular function-associated gene-sets involved in the protective effect of AA in experimental colitis were identified. The down-regulation of 14 selected genes over 28 days after surgery indicates activation, repression or de-repression of these genes leading to downstream AA-conferred anti-colitis protection. Further analysis of these genes, profiles and biological pathways may assist in developing better therapeutic strategies in the management of intractable IBD. PMID:21707591

  12. Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2014-07-01

    The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity.

  13. Small RNA Pathways That Protect the Somatic Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seogang

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA elements that can change their position within the genome, with the potential to create mutations and destabilize the genome. As such, special molecular systems have been adopted in animals to control TE activity in order to protect the genome. PIWI proteins, in collaboration with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), are well known to play a critical role in silencing germline TEs. Although initially thought to be germline-specific, the role of PIWI–piRNA pathways in controlling TEs in somatic cells has recently begun to be explored in various organisms, together with the role of endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs). This review summarizes recent results suggesting that these small RNA pathways have been critically implicated in the silencing of somatic TEs underlying various physiological traits, with a special focus on the Drosophila model organism. PMID:28445427

  14. Noradrenaline activation of neurotrophic pathways protects against neuronal amyloid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Counts, Scott E; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-05-01

    Degeneration of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic forebrain projection neurons is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease. The physiological consequences of this phenomenon are unclear, but observations correlating LC neuron loss with increased Alzheimer's disease pathology in LC projection sites suggest that noradrenaline (NA) is neuroprotective. To investigate this hypothesis, we determined that NA protected both hNT human neuronal cultures and rat primary hippocampal neurons from amyloid-beta (Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(25-35)) toxicity. The noradrenergic co-transmitter galanin was also effective at preventing Abeta-induced cell death. NA inhibited Abeta(25-35)-mediated increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and caspase activation in hNT neurons. NA exerted its neuroprotective effects in these cells by stimulating canonical beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptor signaling pathways involving the activation of cAMP response element binding protein and the induction of endogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Treatment with functional blocking antibodies for either NGF or BDNF blocked NA's protective actions against Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(25-35) toxicity in primary hippocampal and hNT neurons, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that the neuroprotective effects of noradrenergic LC afferents result from stimulating neurotrophic NGF and BDNF autocrine or paracrine loops via beta adrenoceptor activation of the cAMP response element binding protein pathway.

  15. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor signals striatal neuroprotection via a PI3K/Akt/mTORC1/BDNF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, C; Chiarlone, A; Bellocchio, L; Resel, E; Pruunsild, P; García-Rincón, D; Sendtner, M; Timmusk, T; Lutz, B; Galve-Roperh, I; Guzmán, M

    2015-01-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor, the main molecular target of endocannabinoids and cannabis active components, is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the mammalian brain. In particular, the CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the basal ganglia, mostly on terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons, where it plays a key neuromodulatory function. The CB1 receptor also confers neuroprotection in various experimental models of striatal damage. However, the assessment of the physiological relevance and therapeutic potential of the CB1 receptor in basal ganglia-related diseases is hampered, at least in part, by the lack of knowledge of the precise mechanism of CB1 receptor neuroprotective activity. Here, by using an array of pharmacological, genetic and pharmacogenetic (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) approaches, we show that (1) CB1 receptor engagement protects striatal cells from excitotoxic death via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, which, in turn, (2) induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression through the selective activation of BDNF gene promoter IV, an effect that is mediated by multiple transcription factors. To assess the possible functional impact of the CB1/BDNF axis in a neurodegenerative-disease context in vivo, we conducted experiments in the R6/2 mouse, a well-established model of Huntington's disease, in which the CB1 receptor and BDNF are known to be severely downregulated in the dorsolateral striatum. Adeno-associated viral vector-enforced re-expression of the CB1 receptor in the dorsolateral striatum of R6/2 mice allowed the re-expression of BDNF and the concerted rescue of the neuropathological deficits in these animals. Collectively, these findings unravel a molecular link between CB1 receptor activation and BDNF expression, and support the relevance of the CB1/BDNF axis in promoting striatal neuron survival. PMID:25698444

  16. Insulin protects against damage to pulmonary endothelial tight junctions after thermal injury: relationship with zonula occludens-1, F-actin, and AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Fu; Wang, Yun-Chuan; Cai, Wei-Xia; Lv, Gen-Fa; Hu, Da-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy during critical illness protects the endothelium and thereby prevents organ failure. This study tested the hypothesis that insulin directly affects the attenuation of burn injury-induced damage to pulmonary endothelial tight junction and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats with severe burn injury were randomized to treatment with insulin dissolved in normal saline (maintenance of blood glucose at a level between 5.0 and 7.0 mmol/L) or normal saline alone (in vivo treatment). Pulmonary damage was evaluated. Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were treated with 20% burn serum or 20% burn serum + insulin (in vitro treatment). Selected cultures were pretreated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) inhibitor (LY294002). Permeability was assessed by migration of bovine serum albumin across cell monolayers. Cells were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and were examined. Cell extracts were obtained to assess zonula occludens-1, occludin, and phosphorylated AKT levels by immunoblotting. Treatment with insulin attenuated the pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration of rats with severe burn injury. Burn serum significantly enhanced monolayer permeability to albumin, whereas treatment with insulin (10(-7 ) mol/L) limited this effect. Meanwhile, insulin (10(-7 ) mol/L) reduced burn serum-induced F-actin stress fiber formation and decreased zonula occludens-1 expression. LY294002 decreased cytoplasmic AKT phosphorylation and inhibited the protection effects of insulin. Through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway, insulin independent of glucose toxicity can attenuate increased pulmonary endothelial permeability induced by burn injury. The effect is attributed to the attenuation of the architectural disruption of protein components of the endothelial tight junction. This result is useful in inhibiting multiple organ failure after burn injury. © 2014 by the

  17. Endothelial insulin resistance protects the heart against prolonged ischemia-reperfusion injury but does not prevent insulin transport across the endothelium in a mouse Langendorff model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikram; Kearney, Mark T; Davidson, Sean M; Yellon, Derek M

    2014-11-01

    The endothelium plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis in healthy individuals. Insulin resistance can lead to the development of endothelial dysfunction, which is an important step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated specifically whether the presence of vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction has any influence on the myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, using Endothelial Specific Mutant Insulin Receptor Over-expressing (ESMIRO) mice, which exhibit vascular insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction. ESMIRO or wild-type (WT) littermate mouse hearts were isolated and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. These were subjected to either 35-minute or 45-minute ischemia followed by reperfusion, after which infarct size was determined. The ability of insulin to activate its target kinase pathway, that is, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) in ESMIRO hearts was also assessed by Western blot analysis. Compared to 35-minute ischemia, the extended 45-minute ischemic protocol significantly exacerbated myocardial infarction in WT mice, (56% ± 4%, n = 6 vs 32% ± 4%, n = 9; P < .01) but not in ESMIRO littermates (34% ± 7%, n = 6 vs 32% ± 3%, n = 9; not significant), suggesting some form of protective phenotype. Insulin treatment was associated with a significant increase in AKT phosphorylation in the myocardium in both the ESMIRO mice and WT littermates, and this was attenuated in both by inhibition of PI3 kinase using LY294002. Thus, insulin was able to directly activate PI3 kinase/AKT in the myocardium despite the absence of functional endothelial insulin receptors in the ESMIRO mice. (1) Insulin at pharmacologic concentrations can be transported across the endothelium independent of vascular insulin receptors and (2) vascular insulin resistance and/or endothelial dysfunction are protective against prolonged IR injury in the Langendorff model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Photorespiration: metabolic pathways and their role in stress protection.

    PubMed Central

    Wingler, A; Lea, P J; Quick, W P; Leegood, R C

    2000-01-01

    Photorespiration results from the oxygenase reaction catalysed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In this reaction glycollate-2-phosphate is produced and subsequently metabolized in the photorespiratory pathway to form the Calvin cycle intermediate glycerate-3-phosphate. During this metabolic process, CO2 and NH3 are produced and ATP and reducing equivalents are consumed, thus making photorespiration a wasteful process. However, precisely because of this inefficiency, photorespiration could serve as an energy sink preventing the overreduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition, especially under stress conditions that lead to reduced rates of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Furthermore, photorespiration provides metabolites for other metabolic processes, e.g. glycine for the synthesis of glutathione, which is also involved in stress protection. In this review we describe the use of photorespiratory mutants to study the control and regulation of photorespiratory pathways. In addition, we discuss the possible role of photorespiration under stress conditions, such as drought, high salt concentrations and high light intensities encountered by alpine plants. PMID:11128005

  19. 3-Bromopyruvate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qian-Wen; Zhao, Su-Rong; Wu, Cheng-Zhu; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    The hexokinase inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) can inhibit glycolysis in tumor cells to reduce ATP production, resulting in apoptosis. However, as 3-BrPA is an alkylating agent, its cytotoxic action may be induced by other molecular mechanisms. The results presented here reveal that 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis is caspase independent. Further, 3-BrPA induces the generation of reactive oxygen species in MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that caspase-independent apoptosis may be induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we also demonstrated that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis through the downregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results of Mcl-1 knockdown indicate that Mcl-1 plays an important role in 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis. Further, the upregulation of Mcl-1 expression in 3-BrPA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increases cell viability. In addition, 3-BrPA treatment resulted in the downregulation of p-Akt, suggesting that 3-BrPA may downregulate Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway. These findings indicate that 3-BrPA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by downregulating Mcl-1 through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

  20. Protective effect of resveratrol against nigrostriatal pathway injury in striatum via JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Liang; Tong, Lei; Kawano, Hitoshi; Yan, Hong-Jing; Li, Hong-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Nigrostriatal pathway injury is one of the traumatic brain injury models that usually lead to neurological dysfunction or neuron necrosis. Resveratrol-induced benefits have recently been demonstrated in several models of neuronal degeneration diseases. However, the protective properties of resveratrol against neurodegeneration have not been explored definitely. Thus, we employ the nigrostriatal pathway injury model to mimic the insults on the brain. Resveratrol decreased the p-ERK expression and increased the p-JNK expression compared to the DMSO group, but not alter the p38 MAPK proteins around the lesion site by Western blot. Prior to the injury, mice were infused with resveratrol intracerebroventricularly with or without JNK-IN-8, a specific c-JNK pathway inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK4. The study assessed modified improved neurological function score (mNSS) and beam/walking test, the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, and striatal expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins associated with neuronal apoptosis. The results revealed that resveratrol exerted a neuroprotective effect as shown by the improved mNSS and beam latency, anti-inflammatory effects as indicated by the decreased level of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, resveratrol up-regulated the protein expression of p-JNK and Bcl-2, down-regulated the expression of Bax and the number of Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) positive neurons. However, these advantages of resveratrol were abolished by JNK-IN-8 treatment. Overall, we demonstrated that resveratrol treatment attenuates the nigrostriatal pathway injury-induced neuronal apoptosis and inflammation via activation of c-JNK signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist protects against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-ning; Chen, Jun; Xiao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is partially mediated by thrombin, which causes brain damage through protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). However, the role and mechanisms underlying the effects of PAR1 activation require further elucidation. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of the PAR1 antagonist SCH79797 in a rabbit model of global cerebral ischemia induced by cardiac arrest. SCH79797 was intravenously administered 10 minutes after the model was established. Forty-eight hours later, compared with those administered saline, rabbits receiving SCH79797 showed markedly decreased neuronal damage as assessed by serum neuron specific enolase levels and less neurological dysfunction as determined using cerebral performance category scores. Additionally, in the hippocampus, cell apoptosis, polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and c-Jun levels were decreased, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation levels were increased. All of these changes were inhibited by the intravenous administration of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway inhibitor LY29004 (3 mg/kg) 10 minutes before the SCH79797 intervention. These findings suggest that SCH79797 mitigates brain injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, possibly by modulating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathways. PMID:28400806

  2. The VTAC Committee: developing guidance for an alternative regulatory pathway to the anadromous salmonid protection rules

    Treesearch

    Michael Liquori; Peter Cafferata; Kevin Boston; Richard Gienger; David. Hope

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, riparian protection standards have been guided by generalized prescriptive rules. With the passage of the Anadromous Salmonid Protection rules in 2009, the Board of Forestry and Fire Protection (Board) established a regulatory pathway that provides an alternative approach for riparian protection based on site-specific criteria (14 CCR § 916....

  3. 5-Azacytidine regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and the migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells via PI3-kinase and ERK1/2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal methylation of promoter CpG islands is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, and is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases. 5-azacytidine (5-aza C), a methyltransferase inhibitor, can cause demethylation of promoter regions of diverse genes. Epigenetic processes contribute to the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. However, little is known about the mechanisms and effects of 5-aza C on the invasive and migratory capacities of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. In the present study, we found that 5-aza C induces MMP-9 activity, as determined by zymography. HT1080 cell proliferation was determined following 5-aza C administration by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. 5-aza C treatment inhibited cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, 5-aza C significantly promoted migration and invasion of HT1080 cells. 5-aza C treatment enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide (PI)3-kinase/Akt, and their inhibitors blocked MMP-9 activity induction, and cellular invasion and migration. Together, these findings suggest that promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms modulating MMP-9 levels in HT1080 cells, and that 5-aza C-induced MMP-9 production is associated with the activation of ERK and PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

  4. Apoptosis and inactivation of the PI3-kinase pathway by tetrocarcin A in breast cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Fujiwara, Ikuya; Mizuta, Mitsuhiko; Tsuruga, Mie; Magae, Junji . E-mail: jmagae@sannet.ne.jp; Mizuta, Naruhiko

    2007-04-27

    A survival kinase, Akt, is a downstream factor in the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase-dependent pathway, which mediates many biological responses including glucose uptake, protein synthesis and the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, which is assumed to contribute to acquisition of malignant properties of human cancers. Here we find that an anti-tumor antibiotic, tetrocarcin A, directly induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. The apoptosis is accompanied by the activation of a proteolytic cascade of caspases including caspase-3 and -9, and concomitantly decreases phosphorylation of Akt, PDK1, and PTEN, a tumor suppressor that regulates the activity of Akt through the dephosphorylation of polyphosphoinositides. Tetrocarcin A affected neither expression of Akt, PDK1, or PTEN, nor did it affect the expression of Bcl family members including Bcl-2, Bcl-X{sub L}, and Bax. These results suggest that tetrocarcin A could be a potent chemotherapeutic agent for human breast cancer targeting the phosphatidylinositide-3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone-induced aromatase in immature rat Sertoli cells requires an active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and is inhibited via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Claudia A; Millena, Ana C; Reddy, Sheila; Finlay, Sheila; Vizcarra, Jorge; Khan, Shafiq A; Davis, John S

    2006-03-01

    Postnatal development and function of testicular Sertoli cells are regulated primarily by FSH. During this early period of development, estrogens play a role in proliferation of somatic cells, which contributes significantly to testicular development. Growth factors like epidermal growth factor (EGF) are produced in the testis and play a role in regulation of estradiol production and male fertility. Although these divergent factors modulate gonadal function, little is known about their mechanism of action in Sertoli cells. The present study investigates the intracellular events that take place down-stream of FSH and EGF receptors in Sertoli cells isolated from immature (10-d-old) rats, and examines which intracellular signals may be involved in their effects on aromatase activity and estradiol production in immature rat Sertoli cells. Primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells were treated with FSH in combination with EGF and signaling pathway-specific inhibitors. Levels of estradiol production, aromatase mRNA (Cyp19a1), and aromatase protein (CYP19A1) were determined. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the effects of FSH and EGF on levels of activated (phosphorylated) AKT1 and p42 ERK2 and p44 ERK1, also named MAPK1 and MAPK3, respectively. The stimulatory actions of FSH on aromatase mRNA, aromatase protein, and estradiol production were blocked by inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT1 signaling pathway. In contrast, inhibition of ERK signaling augmented the stimulatory effects of FSH on estradiol production, aromatase mRNA, and protein levels. Furthermore, EGF inhibited the expression of aromatase mRNA and protein in response to FSH, and these inhibitory effects of EGF were critically dependent on the activation of the ERK signaling pathway. We conclude that an active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /AKT signaling pathway is required for the stimulatory actions of FSH, whereas an active ERK/MAPK pathway inhibits estradiol production and

  6. Moderate exercise promotes human RBC-NOS activity, NO production and deformability through Akt kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Frank; Brenig, Julian; Müller, Rebecca; Behrens, Hilke; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human red blood cells (RBCs) was shown to depend on shear stress and to exhibit important biological functions, such as inhibition of platelet activation. In the present study we hypothesized that exercise-induced shear stress stimulates RBC-NOS activation pathways, NO signaling, and deformability of human RBCs. Fifteen male subjects conducted an exercise test with venous blood sampling before and after running on a treadmill for 1 hour. Immunohistochemical staining as well as western blot analysis were used to determine phosphorylation and thus activation of Akt kinase and RBC-NOS as well as accumulation of cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP) induced by the intervention. The data revealed that activation of NO upstream located enzyme Akt kinase was significantly increased after the test. Phosphorylation of RBC-NOSSer(1177) was also significantly increased after exercise, indicating activation of RBC-NOS through Akt kinase. Total detectable RBC-NOS content and phosphorylation of RBC-NOSThr(495) were not affected by the intervention. NO production by RBCs, determined by DAF fluorometry, and RBC deformability, measured via laser-assisted-optical-rotational red cell analyzer, were also significantly increased after the exercise test. The content of the NO downstream signaling molecule cGMP increased after the test. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt kinase pathway led to a decrease in RBC-NOS activation, NO production and RBC deformability. This human in vivo study first-time provides strong evidence that exercise-induced shear stress stimuli activate RBC-NOS via the PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. Actively RBC-NOS-produced NO in human RBCs is critical to maintain RBC deformability. Our data gain insights into human RBC-NOS regulation by exercise and, therefore, will stimulate new therapeutic exercise-based approaches for patients with microvascular disorders.

  7. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  8. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  9. Reduction of Mitochondria-Endoplasmic Reticulum Interactions by Acetylcholine Protects Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells From Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Lu, Xing-Zhu; Zhao, Ming; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Sun, Lei; Xu, Man; Wier, W Gil; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-07-01

    We explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria Ca(2+) cross talk involving voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1)/glucose-regulated protein 75/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 complex and mitofusin 2 in endothelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and investigated the protective effects of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine treatment during reoxygenation prevented intracellular and mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases and alleviated ER Ca(2+) depletion during H/R in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Consequently, acetylcholine enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited proapoptotic cascades, thereby reducing cell death and preserving endothelial ultrastructure. This effect was likely mediated by the type-3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. In addition, interactions among members of the VDAC1/glucose-regulated protein 75/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 complex were increased after H/R and were associated with mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and cell death. Inhibition of the partner of the Ca(2+) channeling complex (VDAC1 siRNA) or a reduction in ER-mitochondria tethering (mitofusin 2 siRNA) prevented the increased protein interaction within the complex and reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation and subsequent endothelial cell death after H/R. Intriguingly, acetylcholine could modulate ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) cross talk by inhibiting the VDAC1/glucose-regulated protein 75/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 complex and mitofusin 2 expression. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase siRNA diminished acetylcholine-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and VDAC1/glucose-regulated protein 75/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor 1 complex formation induced by H/R. Our data suggest that ER-mitochondria interplay plays an important role in reperfusion injury in the endothelium and may be a novel molecular target for endothelial protection. Acetylcholine attenuates

  10. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency in T-ALL through activation of both the PI3K–AKT and JAK–STAT3 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Thorpe, Lauren M; Walker, Sarah R; Roberts, Thomas M; Frank, David A; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in this disease. Indeed, hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is associated with the disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to current therapies. To identify a molecular pathway capable of cooperating with PTEN deficiency to drive oncogenic transformation of leukocytes, we performed an unbiased transformation screen with a library of tyrosine kinases. We found that activation of NTRK2 is able to confer a full growth phenotype of Ba/F3 cells in an IL3-independent manner in the PTEN-null setting. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency through engaging both phosphoinositide3-kinase/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathway activation in leukocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition demonstrated that p110α and p110δ are the major isoforms mediating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling driven by NTRK2 activation in PTEN-deficient leukemia cells. Furthermore, combined inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 significantly suppressed proliferation of PTEN-mutant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia both in culture and in mouse xenografts. Together, our data suggest that a unique conjunction of PTEN deficiency and NTRK2 activation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and combined pharmacologic inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 signaling may serve as an effective and durable therapeutic strategy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27672444

  11. Lymphatic System: An Active Pathway for Immune Protection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases. PMID:25534659

  12. Lymphatic system: an active pathway for immune protection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, P Y

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which may include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The PI3 kinase, p38 SAP kinase, and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathways are involved in the survival and maturation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ardeshna, K M; Pizzey, A R; Devereux, S; Khwaja, A

    2000-08-01

    As a dendritic cell (DC) matures, it becomes more potent as an antigen-presenting cell. This functional change is accompanied by a change in DC immunophenotype. The signal transduction events underlying this process are poorly characterized. In this study, we have investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro. We show that exposure of immature MoDCs to LPS activates the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (p38SAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathways. Studies using inhibitors demonstrate that PI3 kinase/Akt but not the other pathways are important in maintaining survival of LPS-stimulated MoDCs. Inhibiting p38SAPK prevented activation of the transcription factors ATF-2 and CREB and significantly reduced the LPS-induced up-regulation of CD80, CD83, and CD86, but did not have any significant effect on the LPS-induced changes in macropinocytosis or HLA-DR, CD40, and CD1a expression. Inhibiting the NF-kappaB pathway significantly reduced the LPS-induced up-regulation of HLA-DR as well as CD80, CD83, and CD86. Inhibiting the p38SAPK and NF-kappaB pathways simultaneously had variable effects depending on the cell surface marker studied. It thus appears that different aspects of LPS-induced MoDC maturation are regulated by different and sometimes overlapping pathways.

  14. Causal Network Models for Predicting Compound Targets and Driving Pathways in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Savina; Min, Junxia; Nigsch, Florian; Camargo, Miguel; Hutz, Janna; Cornett, Allen; Cleaver, Stephen; Buckler, Alan; Jenkins, Jeremy L

    2014-06-01

    Gene-expression data are often used to infer pathways regulating transcriptional responses. For example, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by compound treatment can help characterize hits from phenotypic screens, either by correlation with known drug signatures or by pathway enrichment. Pathway enrichment is, however, typically computed with DEGs rather than "upstream" nodes that are potentially causal of "downstream" changes. Here, we present graph-based models to predict causal targets from compound-microarray data. We test several approaches to traversing network topology, and show that a consensus minimum-rank score (SigNet) beat individual methods and could highly rank compound targets among all network nodes. In addition, larger, less canonical networks outperformed linear canonical interactions. Importantly, pathway enrichment using causal nodes rather than DEGs recovers relevant pathways more often. To further validate our approach, we used integrated data sets from the Cancer Genome Atlas to identify driving pathways in triple-negative breast cancer. Critical pathways were uncovered, including the epidermal growth factor receptor 2-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-AKT-MAPK growth pathway andATR-p53-BRCA DNA damage pathway, in addition to unexpected pathways, such as TGF-WNT cytoskeleton remodeling, IL12-induced interferon gamma production, and TNFR-IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) apoptosis; the latter was validated by pooled small hairpin RNA profiling in cancer cells. Overall, our approach can bridge transcriptional profiles to compound targets and driving pathways in cancer.

  15. Prolactin-Stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases is Controlled by PI3-Kinase/Rac/PAK Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Hoek, Jan B.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  16. The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway protects the photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage in Rumex K-1 leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Meng, Xiang-Long; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-03-20

    It is known that excess reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH in chloroplasts can be transported via shuttle machineries, such as the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle, into the mitochondria, where they are efficiently oxidised by the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) respiratory pathway. Therefore, it has been speculated that the AOX pathway may protect plants from photoinhibition, but the mechanism by which this protection occurs remains to be elucidated. The observation that the malate-OAA shuttle activity and the AOX pathway capacity increased markedly after intense light treatment in Rumex K-1 leaves indicates that excess NADPH was transported from the chloroplasts and oxidised by the AOX pathway. The inhibition of the AOX pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) caused the over-reduction of the photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, as indicated by the increases in the extent of reduction of P700+. Furthermore, the photosynthetic linear electron flow was restricted, which was indicated by the decreases in the PSII electron transport rate (ETR) and the photosynthetic O₂ evolution rate. The restriction of the photosynthetic linear electron flow, which generates the thylakoid ΔpH, inevitably decreased the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle (ΔPRI). Therefore, the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was suppressed when the AOX pathway was inhibited. The effect of the inhibition of the AOX pathway on NPQ induction was less at 20 mM NaHCO₃ than at 1 mM NaHCO₃. The suppression of NPQ induction by the inhibition of the AOX pathway was also observed during the induction phase of photosynthesis. In addition, the inhibition of the AOX pathway increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), suggesting that the AOX pathway functions as an antioxidant mechanism. The inhibition of the AOX pathway resulted in the rapid accumulation of NADPH in the chloroplasts, which caused the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor side. Furthermore, the

  17. The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway protects the photosynthetic apparatus against photodamage in Rumex K-1 leaves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that excess reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH in chloroplasts can be transported via shuttle machineries, such as the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle, into the mitochondria, where they are efficiently oxidised by the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) respiratory pathway. Therefore, it has been speculated that the AOX pathway may protect plants from photoinhibition, but the mechanism by which this protection occurs remains to be elucidated. Results The observation that the malate-OAA shuttle activity and the AOX pathway capacity increased markedly after intense light treatment in Rumex K-1 leaves indicates that excess NADPH was transported from the chloroplasts and oxidised by the AOX pathway. The inhibition of the AOX pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) caused the over-reduction of the photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, as indicated by the increases in the extent of reduction of P700+. Furthermore, the photosynthetic linear electron flow was restricted, which was indicated by the decreases in the PSII electron transport rate (ETR) and the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. The restriction of the photosynthetic linear electron flow, which generates the thylakoid ΔpH, inevitably decreased the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle (ΔPRI). Therefore, the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was suppressed when the AOX pathway was inhibited. The effect of the inhibition of the AOX pathway on NPQ induction was less at 20 mM NaHCO3 than at 1 mM NaHCO3. The suppression of NPQ induction by the inhibition of the AOX pathway was also observed during the induction phase of photosynthesis. In addition, the inhibition of the AOX pathway increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), suggesting that the AOX pathway functions as an antioxidant mechanism. Conclusions The inhibition of the AOX pathway resulted in the rapid accumulation of NADPH in the chloroplasts, which caused the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor

  18. Perceived Barriers and Protective Factors of Juvenile Offenders on Their Developmental Pathway to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Povenmire-Kirk, Tiana; Yamamoto, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system face multiple challenges on their pathway to adulthood. These adolescents not only have an increased risk of committing future crimes and are further at risk of not becoming healthy, productive adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk and protective factors and associations…

  19. Perceived Barriers and Protective Factors of Juvenile Offenders on Their Developmental Pathway to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Deanne; Povenmire-Kirk, Tiana; Yamamoto, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system face multiple challenges on their pathway to adulthood. These adolescents not only have an increased risk of committing future crimes and are further at risk of not becoming healthy, productive adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk and protective factors and associations…

  20. Chronic intermittent fasting improves the survival following large myocardial ischemia by activation of BDNF/VEGF/PI3K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Katare, Rajesh G; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Arikawa, Mikihiko; Yamasaki, Fumiyasu; Sato, Takayuki

    2009-03-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the major cause of death in the developed countries. Calorie restriction is known to improve the recovery in these patients; however, the exact mechanism behind this protective effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate the activation of cell survival PI3kinase/Akt and VEGF pathway as the mechanism behind the protection induced by intermittent fasting in a rat model of established chronic myocardial ischemia (MI). Chronic MI was induced in rats by occlusion of the left coronary artery. Two weeks later, the rats were randomly assigned to a normal feeding group (MI-NF) and an alternate-day feeding group (MI-IF). After 6 weeks of observation, we evaluated the effect of intermittent fasting on cellular and ventricular remodeling and long-term survival after CHF. Compared with the normally fed group, intermittent fasting markedly improved the survival of rats with CHF (88.5% versus 23% survival, P<0.05). The heart weight body weight ratio was significantly less in the MI-IF group compared to the MI-NF group (3.4+/-0.17 versus 3.9+/-0.18, P<0.05). Isolated heart perfusion studies exhibited well preserved cardiac functions in the MI-IF group compared to the MI-NF group (P<0.05). Molecular studies revealed the upregulation of angiogenic factors such asHIF-1-alpha (3010+/-350% versus 650+/-151%), BDNF (523+/-32% versus 110+/-12%), and VEGF (450+/-21% versus 170+/-30%) in the fasted hearts. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed increased capillary density (P<0.001) in the border area of the ischemic myocardium and synthesis VEGF by cardiomyocytes. Moreover fasting also upregulated the expression of other anti-apoptotic factors such as Akt and Bcl-2 and reduced the TUNEL positive apoptotic nuclei in the border zone. Chronic intermittent fasting markedly improves the long-term survival after CHF by activation through its pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-remodeling effects.

  1. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  2. PEP-1-CAT protects hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through multiple sigaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Catalase (CAT) breaks down H2O2 into H2O and O2 to protects cells from oxidative damage. However, its translational potential is limited because exogenous CAT cannot enter living cells automatically. This study is aimed to investigate if PEP-1-CAT fusion protein can effectively protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress due to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury. Methods H9c2 cardomyocytes were pretreated with catalase (CAT) or PEP-1-CAT fusion protein followed by culturing in a hypoxia and re-oxygenation condition. Cell apoptosis were measured by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow cytometry. Intracellular superoxide anion level was determined, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, PARP, p38 and phospho-p38 was analyzed by western blotting. Results PEP-1-CAT protected H9c2 from H/R-induced morphological alteration and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde content. Superoxide anion production was also decreased. In addition, PEP-1-CAT inhibited H9c2 apoptosis and blocked the expression of apoptosis stimulator Bax while increased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT inhibited p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, resulting in blockade of Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Conclusion Our study has revealed a novel mechanism by which PEP-1-CAT protects cardiomyocyte from H/R-induced injury. PEP-1-CAT blocks Bcl2/Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by inhibiting p38 MAPK while activating PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:23642335

  3. Identification of signaling pathways associated with cancer protection in Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lapkina-Gendler, Lena; Rotem, Itai; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Gurwitz, David; Sarfstein, Rive; Laron, Zvi; Werner, Haim

    2016-05-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) pathway emerged in recent years as a critical player in cancer biology. Enhanced expression or activation of specific components of the GH-IGF1 axis, including the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), is consistently associated with a transformed phenotype. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that patients with Laron syndrome (LS), the best-characterized entity among the congenital IGF1 deficiencies, seem to be protected from cancer development. To identify IGF1-dependent genes and signaling pathways associated with cancer protection in LS, we conducted a genome-wide analysis using immortalized lymphoblastoid cells derived from LS patients and healthy controls of the same gender, age range, and ethnic origin. Our analyses identified a collection of genes that are either over- or under-represented in LS-derived lymphoblastoids. Gene differential expression occurs in several gene families, including cell cycle, metabolic control, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling, and PI3K-AKT signaling. Major differences between LS and healthy controls were also noticed in pathways associated with cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and autophagy. Our results highlight the key role of the GH-IGF1 axis in the initiation and progression of cancer. Furthermore, data are consistent with the concept that homozygous congenital IGF1 deficiency may confer protection against future tumor development.

  4. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-05-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role.Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular

  5. An endothelial TLR4-VEGFR2 pathway mediates lung protection against oxidant-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Takyar, Seyedtaghi; Zhang, Yi; Haslip, Maria; Jin, Lei; Shan, Peiying; Zhang, Xuchen; Lee, Patty J.

    2015-01-01

    TLR4 deficiency causes hypersusceptibility to oxidant-induced injury. We investigated the role of TLR4 in lung protection, using used bone marrow chimeras; cell-specific transgenic modeling; and lentiviral delivery in vivo to knock down or express TLR4 in various lung compartments; and lung-specific VEGF transgenic mice to investigate the effect of TLR4 on VEGF-mediated protection. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen in an enclosed chamber and assessed for survival and lung injury. Primary endothelial cells were stimulated with recombinant VEGF and exposed to hyperoxia or hydrogen peroxide. Endothelium-specific expression of human TLR4 (as opposed to its expression in epithelium or immune cells) increased the survival of TLR4-deficent mice in hyperoxia by 24 h and decreased LDH release and lung cell apoptosis after 72 h of exposure by 30%. TLR4 expression was necessary and sufficient for the protective effect of VEGF in the lungs and in primary endothelial cells in culture. TLR4 knockdown inhibited VEGF signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), Akt, and ERK pathways in lungs and primary endothelial cells and decreased the availability of VEGFR2 at the cell surface. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which TLR4, an innate pattern receptor, interacts with an endothelial survival pathway.—Takyar, S., Zhang, Y., Haslip, M., Jin L., Shan P., Zhang, X., Lee, P. J. An endothelial TLR4-VEGFR2 pathway mediates lung protection against oxidant-induced injury. PMID:26655705

  6. The Fanconi Anemia Pathway Protects Genome Integrity from R-loops.

    PubMed

    García-Rubio, María L; Pérez-Calero, Carmen; Barroso, Sonia I; Tumini, Emanuela; Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Rosado, Iván V; Aguilera, Andrés

    2015-11-01

    Co-transcriptional RNA-DNA hybrids (R loops) cause genome instability. To prevent harmful R loop accumulation, cells have evolved specific eukaryotic factors, one being the BRCA2 double-strand break repair protein. As BRCA2 also protects stalled replication forks and is the FANCD1 member of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway, we investigated the FA role in R loop-dependent genome instability. Using human and murine cells defective in FANCD2 or FANCA and primary bone marrow cells from FANCD2 deficient mice, we show that the FA pathway removes R loops, and that many DNA breaks accumulated in FA cells are R loop-dependent. Importantly, FANCD2 foci in untreated and MMC-treated cells are largely R loop dependent, suggesting that the FA functions at R loop-containing sites. We conclude that co-transcriptional R loops and R loop-mediated DNA damage greatly contribute to genome instability and that one major function of the FA pathway is to protect cells from R loops.

  7. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Signaling Axis Meets p53 Genome Protection Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Haim; Sarfstein, Rive; LeRoith, Derek; Bruchim, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence indicate that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important mediators in the biochemical chain of events that lead from a phenotypically normal to a neoplastic cell. The IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), which mediates the biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, exhibits potent pro-survival and antiapoptotic activities. The IGF1R is highly expressed in most types of cancer and is regarded as a promising therapeutic target in oncology. p53 is a transcription factor with tumor suppressor activity that is usually activated in response to DNA damage and other forms of cellular stress. On the basis of its protective activities, p53 is commonly regarded as the guardian of the genome. We provide evidence that the IGF signaling axis and p53 genome protection pathways are tightly interconnected. Wild-type, but not mutant, p53 suppresses IGF1R gene transcription, leading to abrogation of the IGF signaling network, with ensuing cell cycle arrest. Gain-of-function, or loss-of-function, mutations of p53 in tumor cells may disrupt its inhibitory activity, thus generating oncogenic molecules capable of transactivating the IGF1R gene. The interplay between the IGF1 and p53 pathways is also of major relevance in terms of metabolic regulation, including glucose transport and glycolysis. A better understanding of the complex physical and functional interactions between these important signaling pathways will have major basic and translational relevance. PMID:27446805

  8. The stress polarity pathway: AMPK ‘GIV’-es protection against metabolic insults

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pradipta

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cell polarity impairs organ development and function; it can also serve as one of the first triggers for oncogenesis. In 2006-2007 two groups simultaneously reported the existence of a special pathway for maintaining epithelial polarity in the face of environmental stressors. In this pathway, AMPK, a key sensor of metabolic stress stabilizes tight junctions, preserves cell polarity, and thereby, maintains epithelial barrier functions. Accumulating evidence since has shown that pharmacologic activation of AMPK by Metformin protects the epithelial barrier against multiple environmental and pathological stressful states and suppresses tumorigenesis. How AMPK protects the epithelium remained unknown until recently Aznar et al. identified GIV/Girdin as a novel effector of AMPK at the cell-cell junctions; phosphorylation of GIV at a single site by AMPK appears to be both necessary and sufficient for strengthening tight junctions and preserving cell polarity and epithelial barrier function in the face of energetic stress. Here we review the fundamentals of this specialized signaling pathway that buttresses cell-cell junctions against stress-induced collapse and discuss its pathophysiologic relevance in the context of a variety of diseases, including cancers, diabetes, aging, and the growing list of beneficial effects of the AMPK-activator, Metformin. PMID:28209925

  9. The Fanconi Anemia Pathway Protects Genome Integrity from R-loops

    PubMed Central

    García-Rubio, María L.; Pérez-Calero, Carmen; Barroso, Sonia I.; Tumini, Emanuela; Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Rosado, Iván V.; Aguilera, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Co-transcriptional RNA-DNA hybrids (R loops) cause genome instability. To prevent harmful R loop accumulation, cells have evolved specific eukaryotic factors, one being the BRCA2 double-strand break repair protein. As BRCA2 also protects stalled replication forks and is the FANCD1 member of the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway, we investigated the FA role in R loop-dependent genome instability. Using human and murine cells defective in FANCD2 or FANCA and primary bone marrow cells from FANCD2 deficient mice, we show that the FA pathway removes R loops, and that many DNA breaks accumulated in FA cells are R loop-dependent. Importantly, FANCD2 foci in untreated and MMC-treated cells are largely R loop dependent, suggesting that the FA functions at R loop-containing sites. We conclude that co-transcriptional R loops and R loop-mediated DNA damage greatly contribute to genome instability and that one major function of the FA pathway is to protect cells from R loops. PMID:26584049

  10. Curcumin protects neuronal-like cells against acrolein by restoring Akt and redox signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Doggui, Sihem; Belkacemi, Abdenour; Paka, Ghislain Djiokeng; Perrotte, Morgane; Pi, Rongbiao; Ramassamy, Charles

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against the toxicity induced by acrolein and to identify its cellular mechanisms and targets. Human neuroblastoma cells SK-N-SH were treated with acrolein. Curcumin, from 5 μM, was able to protect SK-N-SH cells against acrolein toxicity. The addition of curcumin restored the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species levels but had no effect on the decrease of glutathione (GSH) and on the elevation of protein carbonyls. Acrolein induced the activity of Nrf2, NF-κB, and Sirt1. These activations were prevented by the presence of curcumin. Acrolein also induced a decrease of the pAkt, which was counteracted by curcumin. To increase its solubility, we have encapsulated curcumin in a biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) based nanoparticulate formulation (Nps-Cur). Our results showed that 0.5 μM of Nps-Cur can protect neuronal cells challenged with acrolein while free curcumin was not able to display neuroprotection. Our results provided evidence that curcumin was able to protect SK-N-SH cells against acrolein toxicity. This protection is mediated through the antioxidant, the redox, and the survival regulated pathways by curcumin. Moreover, our results demonstrated that Nps-Cur had higher capacity than curcumin to protect SK-N-SH cells against acrolein. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis through the AMPK/P53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Lin, Xiao-Long; Guo, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Cong; Tan, Tian-Ping; Chen, Yu-Dan; Wu, Shao-Jian; Ye, Zu-Feng; He, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy; however, it has severe cardiotoxic side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/P53 pathway in mediating DOX-induced cytotoxicity. H9c2 cells were exposed to 5 µM DOX for 24 h to establish a model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. DOX administration amplified P53 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax) expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression in H9c2 cells. Resveratrol increased the cell viability and decreased the apoptotic rate. In addition, resveratrol markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. Of note, resveratrol protected against DOX-induced increases of P53 and Bax and also prevented the downregulation of Bcl-2 in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor Compound C abolished the protective effects of resveratrol. The results of the present study therefore indicated that resveratrol protected H9c2 cells from DOX-induced apoptosis via the AMPK/P53 pathway.

  12. An endothelial TLR4-VEGFR2 pathway mediates lung protection against oxidant-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Takyar, Seyedtaghi; Zhang, Yi; Haslip, Maria; Jin, Lei; Shan, Peiying; Zhang, Xuchen; Lee, Patty J

    2016-03-01

    TLR4 deficiency causes hypersusceptibility to oxidant-induced injury. We investigated the role of TLR4 in lung protection, using used bone marrow chimeras; cell-specific transgenic modeling; and lentiviral delivery in vivo to knock down or express TLR4 in various lung compartments; and lung-specific VEGF transgenic mice to investigate the effect of TLR4 on VEGF-mediated protection. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 100% oxygen in an enclosed chamber and assessed for survival and lung injury. Primary endothelial cells were stimulated with recombinant VEGF and exposed to hyperoxia or hydrogen peroxide. Endothelium-specific expression of human TLR4 (as opposed to its expression in epithelium or immune cells) increased the survival of TLR4-deficent mice in hyperoxia by 24 h and decreased LDH release and lung cell apoptosis after 72 h of exposure by 30%. TLR4 expression was necessary and sufficient for the protective effect of VEGF in the lungs and in primary endothelial cells in culture. TLR4 knockdown inhibited VEGF signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), Akt, and ERK pathways in lungs and primary endothelial cells and decreased the availability of VEGFR2 at the cell surface. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which TLR4, an innate pattern receptor, interacts with an endothelial survival pathway.

  13. The bright side of plasmonic gold nanoparticles; activation of Nrf2, the cellular protective pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Alona; Soroka, Yoram; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Lewis, Aaron; Kohen, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely investigated for cancer therapy, due to their ability to strongly absorb light and convert it to heat and thus selectively destroy tumor cells. In this study we shed light on a new aspect of AuNPs and their plasmonic excitation, wherein they can provide anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection by stimulating the cellular protective Nrf2 pathway. Our study was carried out on cells of the immune system, macrophages, and on skin cells, keratinocytes. A different response to AuNPs was noted in the two types of cells, explained by their distinct uptake profiles. In keratinocytes, the exposure to AuNPs, even at low concentrations, was sufficient to activate the Nrf2 pathway, without any irradiation, due to the presence of free AuNPs inside the cytosol. In contrast, in macrophages, the plasmonic excitation of the AuNPs by a low, non-lethal irradiation dose was required for their release from the constraining vesicles. The mechanism by which AuNPs activate the Nrf2 pathway was studied. Direct and indirect activation were suggested, based on the inherent ability of the AuNPs to react with thiol groups and to generate reactive oxygen species, in particular, under plasmonic excitation. The ability of AuNPs to directly activate the Nrf2 pathway renders them good candidates for treatment of disorders in which the up-regulation of Nrf2 is beneficial, specifically for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  14. BRCA1 and BRCA2: different roles in a common pathway of genome protection

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rohini; Chun, Jarin; Powell, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    The proteins encoded by the two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, work in a common pathway of genome protection. However, the two proteins work at different stages in the DNA damage response (DDR) and in DNA repair. BRCA1 is a pleiotropic DDR protein that functions in both checkpoint activation and DNA repair, whereas BRCA2 is a mediator of the core mechanism of homologous recombination. The links between the two proteins are not well understood, but they must exist to explain the marked similarity of human cancer susceptibility that arises with germline mutations in these genes. As discussed here, the proteins work in concert to protect the genome from double-strand DNA damage during DNA replication. PMID:22193408

  15. t-BHQ Provides Protection against Lead Neurotoxicity via Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiaoyi; Li, Lili; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of lead has been well established, and oxidative stress is strongly associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity. Nrf2 is important for protection against oxidative stress in many disease models. We applied t-BHQ, which is an Nrf2 activator, to investigate the possible role of Nrf2 in the protection against lead neurotoxicity. t-BHQ significantly attenuated the oxidative stress in developmental rats by decreasing MDA level, as well as by increasing SOD activity and GSH content, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis was detected by Nissl staining, and Bax expression was inhibited in the t-BHQ-treated group. Results showed that t-BHQ suppressed ROS production and caspase 3/7 activity but increased intracellular GSH content, in SH-SY5Y cells under lead exposure. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro, t-BHQ enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to ARE areas but did not induce Nrf2 transcription. These phenomena were confirmed using RT-PCR, EMSA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Subsequent upregulation of the expression of HO-1, NQO1, and GCLC was observed. However, knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 adversely affected the protective effects of t-BHQ against lead toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, t-BHQ can protect against lead neurotoxicity, depending on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26798413

  16. Salidroside Protects against Cadmium-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats via GJIC and MAPK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Liu, Zong-ping

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cadmium (Cd) induces cytotoxicity in hepatocytes; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) and in vivo. We observed that Cd treatment was associated with a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in the cell index (CI) of BRL 3A cells and cellular organelle ultrastructure injury in the rat liver. Meanwhile, Cd treatment resulted in the inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Gap junction blocker 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), administered in combination with Cd, exacerbated cytotoxic injury in BRL 3A cells; however, GA had a protective effect on healthy cells co-cultured with Cd-exposed cells in a co-culture system. Cd-induced cytotoxic injury could be attenuated by co-treatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (U0126) and a p38 inhibitor (SB202190) but was not affected by co-treatment with a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125). These results indicate that ERK and p38 play critical roles in Cd-induced hepatotoxicity and mediate the function of gap junctions. Moreover, MAPKs induce changes in GJIC by controlling connexin gene expression, while GJIC has little effect on the Cd-induced activation of MAPK pathways. Collectively, our study has identified a possible mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and identified the participation of GJIC and MAPK-mediated pathways in Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, we have shown that salidroside may be a functional chemopreventative agent that ameliorates the negative effects of Cd via GJIC and MAPK pathways. PMID:26070151

  17. Endoglin regulates PI3-kinase/Akt trafficking and signaling to alter endothelial capillary stability during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Y; Golzio, Christelle; Gatza, Catherine E; Sharma, Arun; Katsanis, Nicholas; Blobe, Gerard C

    2012-07-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) coreceptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Although endoglin dysfunction contributes to numerous vascular conditions, the mechanism of endoglin action remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism in which endoglin and Gα-interacting protein C-terminus-interacting protein (GIPC)-mediated trafficking of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates endothelial signaling and function. We demonstrate that endoglin interacts with the PI3K subunits p110α and p85 via GIPC to recruit and activate PI3K and Akt at the cell membrane. Opposing ligand-induced effects are observed in which TGF-β1 attenuates, whereas bone morphogenetic protein-9 enhances, endoglin/GIPC-mediated membrane scaffolding of PI3K and Akt to alter endothelial capillary tube stability in vitro. Moreover, we employ the first transgenic zebrafish model for endoglin to demonstrate that GIPC is a critical component of endoglin function during developmental angiogenesis in vivo. These studies define a novel non-Smad function for endoglin and GIPC in regulating endothelial cell function during angiogenesis.

  18. Endoglin regulates PI3-kinase/Akt trafficking and signaling to alter endothelial capillary stability during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Golzio, Christelle; Gatza, Catherine E.; Sharma, Arun; Katsanis, Nicholas; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2012-01-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) coreceptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Although endoglin dysfunction contributes to numerous vascular conditions, the mechanism of endoglin action remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism in which endoglin and Gα-interacting protein C-terminus–interacting protein (GIPC)–mediated trafficking of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates endothelial signaling and function. We demonstrate that endoglin interacts with the PI3K subunits p110α and p85 via GIPC to recruit and activate PI3K and Akt at the cell membrane. Opposing ligand-induced effects are observed in which TGF-β1 attenuates, whereas bone morphogenetic protein-9 enhances, endoglin/GIPC-mediated membrane scaffolding of PI3K and Akt to alter endothelial capillary tube stability in vitro. Moreover, we employ the first transgenic zebrafish model for endoglin to demonstrate that GIPC is a critical component of endoglin function during developmental angiogenesis in vivo. These studies define a novel non-Smad function for endoglin and GIPC in regulating endothelial cell function during angiogenesis. PMID:22593212

  19. Cytokine Stimulation Promotes Glucose Uptake via Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Regulation of Glut1 Activity and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wieman, Heather L.; Wofford, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Cells require growth factors to support glucose metabolism for survival and growth. It is unclear, however, how noninsulin growth factors may regulate glucose uptake and glucose transporters. We show that the hematopoietic growth factor interleukin (IL)3, maintained the glucose transporter Glut1 on the cell surface and promoted Rab11a-dependent recycling of intracellular Glut1. IL3 required phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity to regulate Glut1 trafficking, and activated Akt was sufficient to maintain glucose uptake and surface Glut1 in the absence of IL3. To determine how Akt may regulate Glut1, we analyzed the role of Akt activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/regulatory associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR) and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3. Although Akt did not require mTOR/RAPTOR to maintain surface Glut1 levels, inhibition of mTOR/RAPTOR by rapamycin greatly diminished glucose uptake, suggesting Akt-stimulated mTOR/RAPTOR may promote Glut1 transporter activity. In contrast, inhibition of GSK3 did not affect Glut1 internalization but nevertheless maintained surface Glut1 levels in IL3-deprived cells, possibly via enhanced recycling of internalized Glut1. In addition, Akt attenuated Glut1 internalization through a GSK3-independent mechanism. These data demonstrate that intracellular trafficking of Glut1 is a regulated component of growth factor-stimulated glucose uptake and that Akt can promote Glut1 activity and recycling as well as prevent Glut1 internalization. PMID:17301289

  20. Activation of dual apoptotic pathways in human melanocytes and protection by survivin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Biddle, Diana; Hanks, Adrianne N; Brouha, Brook; Yan, Hui; Lee, Ray M; Leachman, Sancy A; Grossman, Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis resistance in melanoma is a primary cause of treatment failure. Apoptotic pathways in melanocytes, from which melanoma arises, are poorly characterized. Human melanocytes were susceptible to apoptosis following exposure to UV radiation (UVB, 24-48 hours), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-TBP, 1-4 hours), and cisplatin (24-48 hours). These responses were associated with Bid cleavage, caspase activation (caspases 3, 8, and 9), mitochondrial depolarization and release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), but not endonuclease G. The apoptotic responses and AIF release were caspase-independent, as they were not blocked by zVal-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk). While RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AIF protected melanocytes against apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal, apoptotic responses to UVB, cisplatin, and 4-TBP were not compromised by AIF knockdown, even in the presence of zVAD-fmk. Finally, adenoviral-mediated expression of Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis expressed in melanoma but not melanocytes, protected melanocytes against UVB-induced apoptosis. Survivin expression in melanocytes partially blocked caspase activation and release of mitochondrial release of AIF, cytochrome c, and Smac induced by UVB. These data indicate that multiple stimuli can activate both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways in melanocytes, and that endogenous expression of Survivin in melanoma may contribute to apoptosis resistance by multiple mechanisms.

  1. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five ‘NEOLI’ (No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success. PMID:26644975

  2. Pathways from marine protected area design and management to ecological success.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Murray A

    2015-01-01

    Using an international dataset compiled from 121 sites in 87 marine protected areas (MPAs) globally (Edgar et al., 2014), I assessed how various configurations of design and management conditions affected MPA ecological performance, measured in terms of fish species richness and biomass. The set-theoretic approach used Boolean algebra to identify pathways that combined up to five 'NEOLI' ( No-take, Enforced, Old, Large, Isolated) conditions and that were sufficient for achieving positive, and negative, ecological outcomes. Ecological isolation was overwhelming the most important condition affecting ecological outcomes but Old and Large were also conditions important for achieving high levels of biomass among large fishes (jacks, groupers, sharks). Solution coverage was uniformly low (<0.35) for all models of positive ecological performance suggesting the presence of numerous other conditions and pathways to ecological success that did not involve the NEOLI conditions. Solution coverage was higher (>0.50) for negative results (i.e., the absence of high biomass) among the large commercially-exploited fishes, implying asymmetries in how MPAs may rebuild populations on the one hand and, on the other, protect against further decline. The results revealed complex interactions involving MPA design, implementation, and management conditions that affect MPA ecological performance. In general terms, the presence of no-take regulations and effective enforcement were insufficient to ensure MPA effectiveness on their own. Given the central role of ecological isolation in securing ecological benefits from MPAs, site selection in the design phase appears critical for success.

  3. Is resistant starch protective against colorectal cancer via modulation of the WNT signalling pathway?

    PubMed

    Malcomson, Fiona C; Willis, Naomi D; Mathers, John C

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) including resistant starch are protective against colorectal cancer. These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes. The WNT pathway is central to the maintenance of homeostasis within the large bowel through regulation of processes such as cell proliferation and migration and is frequently aberrantly hyperactivated in colorectal cancers. Abnormal WNT signalling can lead to irregular crypt cell proliferation that favours a hyperproliferative state. Butyrate has been shown to modulate the WNT pathway positively, affecting functional outcomes such as apoptosis and proliferation. Butyrate's ability to regulate gene expression results from epigenetic mechanisms, including its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and through modulating DNA methylation and the expression of microRNA. We conclude that genetic and epigenetic modulation of the WNT signalling pathway may be an important mechanism through which butyrate from fermentation of resistant starch and other NDC exert their chemoprotective effects.

  4. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as "mitochondrial dynamics" is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

  5. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as “mitochondrial dynamics” is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  6. [Protective effect of quercetin against immunological liver injury through activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Wei, Caibing; Zhou, Liandi; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Qihui; Tao, Kun

    2017-03-01

    Objective To observe the protective effect of quercetin against immunological liver injury induced by triptolide, and investigate the involvement of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in the protection. Methods Fifty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, model group, (20, 50, 80) mg/kg quercetin pre-treatment groups. Each group included 10 mice. The mice were treated with different doses of quercetin once daily for consecutive 10 days. At the end of the experiment, triptolide (500 μg/kg) was given intragastrically to induce immunological liver injury in all groups except for the control group. Twenty-two hours later, the levels of serum ALT , AST were detected. The contents of GSH, SOD and MDA in liver tissue homogenates were measured through commercial kits. HE staining was performed to observe pathologic changes of the liver. The mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NQO1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) was tested by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein expression of Nrf2 was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the model group, the serum activities of ALT and AST as well as MDA content remarkably decreased by the administration of quercetin (80 mg/kg), while GSH, SOD contents were elevated in liver tissues; pathologic changes of the liver was ameliorated evidently by quercetin; Nrf2 protein expression in the nucleus as well as mRNA expressions of HO-1, NQO1, GCLC increased. Moreover, the protective effect of 50 mg/kg quercetin was not as good as that of 80 mg/kg quercetin, and 20 mg/kg quercetin did little against the immunological liver injury. Conclusion High-dose quercetin can inhibit immunological liver injury induced by triptolide, and the mechanism may be associated with the activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  7. Roles of NAD in Protection of Axon against Degeneration via SIRT1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Wei-Hua; Qi, Xiao-Xia; Li, Gui-Bao; Hu, Yan-Lai; Wu, Qi; Ding, Zhao-Xi; Li, Hong-Yu; Hao, Jing; Sun, Jin-Hao

    2016-04-30

    Axonal degeneration is a common pathological change of neurogenical disease which often arises before the neuron death. But it had not found any effective method to protect axon from degeneration. In this study we intended to confirm the protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), investigate the optimal administration dosage and time of NAD, and identify the relationship between silence signal regulating factor 1 (SIRT1) and axonal degeneration. An axonal degeneration model was established using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons injured by vincristine to observe the protective effects of NAD to the injured axons. In addition, the potential contribution of the SIRT1 in axonal degeneration was also investigated. Through the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, immunochemistry staining, axons counting and length measuring, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, we demonstrated that NAD played an important role in preventing axonal degeneration. Further study revealed that the expression of SIRT1 and phosphorylated Akt1 (p-Akt1) was up-regulated when NAD was added into the culturing medium. Taking together, our results demonstrated that NAD might delay the axonal degeneration through SIRT1/Akt1 pathways.

  8. Resveratrol inhibits estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis through induction of NRF2-mediated protective pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupendra; Shoulson, Rivka; Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Bhat, Nimee K.; Dim, Daniel C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer is widely recognized. Estrogen-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in this carcinogenic process. Resveratrol (Res), a natural antioxidant phytoestrogen has chemopreventive effects against a variety of illnesses including cancer. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mechanism(s) of Res-mediated protection against estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. Female August Copenhagen Irish rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), Res and Res + E2 for 8 months. Cotreatment of rats with Res and E2 inhibited E2-mediated proliferative changes in mammary tissues and significantly increased tumor latency and reduced E2-induced breast tumor development. Resveratrol treatment alone or in combination with E2 significantly upregulated expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) in mammary tissues. Expression of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes NQO1, SOD3 and OGG1 that are involved in protection against oxidative DNA damage was increased in Res- and Res + E2-treated mammary tissues. Resveratrol also prevented E2-mediated inhibition of detoxification genes AOX1 and FMO1. Inhibition of E2-mediated alterations in NRF2 promoter methylation and expression of NRF2 targeting miR-93 after Res treatment indicated Res-mediated epigenetic regulation of NRF2 during E2-induced breast carcinogenesis. Resveratrol treatment also induced apoptosis and inhibited E2-mediated increase in DNA damage in mammary tissues. Increased apoptosis and decreased DNA damage, cell migration, colony and mammosphere formation in Res- and Res + E2-treated MCF-10A cells suggested a protective role of Res against E2-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of NRF2 inhibited Res-mediated preventive effects on the colony and mammosphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that Res inhibits E2-induced breast carcinogenesis via induction of NRF2-mediated protective

  9. FoxO1 regulates Tlr4 inflammatory pathway signalling in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fan, WuQiang; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Kim, Jane J; Bae, Eunju; Spann, Nathanael J; Heinz, Sven; Glass, Christopher K; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2010-01-01

    The macrophage-mediated inflammatory response is a key etiologic component of obesity-related tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. The transcriptional factor FoxO1 is a key regulator of cell metabolism, cell cycle and cell death. Its activity is tightly regulated by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-AKT (PI3K-Akt) pathway, which leads to phosphorylation, cytoplasmic retention and inactivation of FoxO1. Here, we show that FoxO1 promotes inflammation by enhancing Tlr4-mediated signalling in mature macrophages. By means of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq), we show that FoxO1 binds to multiple enhancer-like elements within the Tlr4 gene itself, as well as to sites in a number of Tlr4 signalling pathway genes. While FoxO1 potentiates Tlr4 signalling, activation of the latter induces AKT and subsequently inactivates FoxO1, establishing a self-limiting mechanism of inflammation. Given the central role of macrophage Tlr4 in transducing extrinsic proinflammatory signals, the novel functions for FoxO1 in macrophages as a transcriptional regulator of the Tlr4 gene and its inflammatory pathway, highlights FoxO1 as a key molecular adaptor integrating inflammatory responses in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:21045807

  10. Investigation of molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of pro-angiogenic nanorods†

    PubMed Central

    Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Rajendran, Saranya; Mattapally, Saidulu; Misra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process involving the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, plays a crucial role in various pathophysiological conditions. We have previously demonstrated that europium hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods (EHNs) exhibit pro-angiogenic properties through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Considering the enormous implication of angiogenesis in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancer, it is essential to understand in-depth molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in order to develop the most efficient and effective alternative treatment strategy for CVDs. However, the exact underlying mechanism and cascade signaling pathways behind the pro-angiogenic properties exhibited by EHNs still remain unclear. Herein, we report for the first time that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a redox signaling molecule, generated by these EHNs activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) that promotes the nitric oxide (NO) production in a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt dependent manner, eventually triggering angiogenesis. We intensely believe that the investigation and understanding of the in-depth molecular mechanism and signaling pathways of EHNs induced angiogenesis will help us in developing an effective alternative treatment strategy for cardiovascular related and ischemic diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. PMID:25963768

  11. Polydatin Protects Bone Marrow Stem Cells against Oxidative Injury: Involvement of Nrf 2/ARE Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meihui; Hou, Yu; Lin, Dingkun

    2016-01-01

    Polydatin, a glucoside of resveratrol, has been reported to possess potent antioxidative effects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of polydatin in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), imitating the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord in vitro. In our study, MTT results showed that polydatin effectively prevented the decrease of cell viability caused by H2O2. Hochest 33258, Annexin V-PI, and Western blot assay showed H2O2-induced apoptosis in BMSCs, which was attenuated by polydatin. Further studies indicated that polydatin significantly protects BMSCs against apoptosis due to its antioxidative effects and the regulation of Nrf 2/ARE pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury by improving the cell survival and oxidative stress microenvironments. PMID:27022401

  12. Ischemic preconditioning protects the brain against injury via inhibiting CaMKII-nNOS signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Qi, Da-Shi; Zhou, Cui; Han, Dong; Li, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Han, Meng; Di, Jie-Hui; Ye, Jun-Song; Yu, Hong-Min; Song, Yuan-Jian; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although studies have shown that cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced brain damage, but its precise mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of IPC against ischemic brain damage induced by cerebral I/R and to explore whether the Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated up-regulation of nNOS ser847-phosphorylation signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by IPC. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with 3 min of IPC alone or KN62 (selective antagonist of CaMKII) treatment before IPC, after reperfusion for 3 days, 6 min ischemia was induced. Cresyl violet staining was used to examine the survival of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Immunoblotting was performed to measure the phosphorylation of CaMKII, nNOS, c-Jun and the expression of FasL. Immunoprecipitation was used to examine the binding between PSD95 and nNOS. The results showed that IPC could significantly protect neurons against cerebral I/R injury, furthermore, the combination of PSD95 and nNOS was increased, coinstantaneously the phosphorylation of CaMKII and nNOS (ser847) were up-regulated, however the activation of c-Jun and FasL were reduced. Conversely, KN62 treatment before IPC reversed all these effects of IPC. Taken together, the results suggest that IPC could diminish ischemic brain injury through CaMKII-mediated up-regulation of nNOS ser847-phosphorylation signaling pathway.

  13. Meta-analysis of genetic and environmental Parkinson's disease models reveals a common role of mitochondrial protection pathways.

    PubMed

    Soreq, Lilach; Ben-Shaul, Yoram; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2012-03-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors trigger risks of and protection from Parkinson's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative syndrome, but possible inter-relationships between these risk and protection processes were not yet explored. By examining gene expression changes in the brains of mice under multiple treatments that increase or attenuate PD symptoms we detected underlying disease and protection-associated genes and pathways. In search for potential links between these different genes and pathways, we conducted meta-analysis on 131 brain region transcriptomes from mice over-expressing native or mutated α-synuclein (SNCA) with or without the protective HSP70 chaperone, or exposed to the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), with or without the protective acetylcholinesterase (AChE-R) variant. All these models showed shared risk-inducible and protection-suppressible transcript modifications. Self-organized map (SOM) classification revealed risk- and protection-associated alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial metal ion-regulated transcripts, respectively; Gene Ontology based analysis validated these pathways. To complement this approach, and identify potential outcome damages, we further searched for shared functional enrichments in the lists of genes detected in young SNCA mutant or in old SNCA mutants and MPTP-exposed mice. This post-hoc functional analysis identified early-onset changes in Parkinsonian, immune and alternative splicing pathways which shifted into late-onset or exposure-associated NFkB-mediated neuro-inflammation. Our study suggests metal ions-mediated cross-talk between nuclear and mitochondrial pathways by both environmental and genetic risk and protective factors involved in Parkinson's disease, which eventually culminates in neuro-inflammation. Together, these findings offer new insights and novel targets for therapeutic interference with the gene-environment interactions underlying

  14. Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress through SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-guang; Zhu, Wei; Tao, Jian-ping; Xin, Ping; Liu, Ming-ya; Li, Jing-bo; Wei, Meng

    2013-08-23

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is generated by oxidative stress and plays an important role in various cardiac pathologies. The SIRT1 signaling pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis play essential roles in mediating the production of ROS. SIRT1 activated by resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress, but the exact mechanisms by which SIRT1 prevents oxidative stress, and its relationship with mitochondrial biogenesis, remain unclear. In this study, it was observed that after stimulation with 50μMH2O2 for 6h, H9C2 cells produced excessive ROS and downregulated SIRT1. The mitochondrial protein NDUFA13 was also downregulated by ROS mediated by SIRT1. Resveratrol induced the expression of SIRT1 and mitochondrial genes NDUFA1, NDUFA2, NDUFA13 and Mn-SOD. However, the production of these genes was reversed by SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. These results suggest that resveratrol inhibits ROS generation in cardiomyocytes via SIRT1 and mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reducing canonical Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway confers protection against mutant Huntingtin toxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pascale; Besson, Marie-Thérèse; Devaux, Jérôme; Liévens, Jean-Charles

    2012-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by movement disorders, cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is caused by expanded CAG tract within the coding region of Huntingtin protein. Despite major insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to HD, no effective cure is yet available. Mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) has been reported to alter the stability and levels of β-Catenin, a key molecule in cell adhesion and signal transduction in Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway. However it remains to establish whether manipulation of Wg/Wnt signaling can impact HD pathology. We here investigated the phenotypic interactions between mHtt and Wg/Wnt signaling by using the power of Drosophila genetics. We provide compelling evidence that reducing Armadillo/β-Catenin levels confers protection and that this beneficial effect is correlated with the inactivation of the canonical Wg/Wnt signaling pathway. Knockdowns of Wnt ligands or of the downstream transcription factor Pangolin/TCF both ameliorate the survival of HD flies. Similarly, overexpression of one Armadillo/β-Catenin destruction complex component (Axin, APC2 or Shaggy/GSK-3β) increases the lifespan of HD flies. Loss of functional Armadillo/β-Catenin not only abolishes neuronal intrinsic but also glia-induced alterations in HD flies. Our findings highlight that restoring canonical Wg/Wnt signaling may be of therapeutic value.

  16. Autophagy confers DNA damage repair pathways to protect the hematopoietic system from nuclear radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiwei; Yuan, Na; Wang, Zhen; Cao, Yan; Fang, Yixuan; Li, Xin; Xu, Fei; Song, Lin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Han; Yan, Lili; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Suping; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is essentially a metabolic process, but its in vivo role in nuclear radioprotection remains unexplored. We observed that ex vivo autophagy activation reversed the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and DNA damage in irradiated hematopoietic cells. In vivo autophagy activation improved bone marrow cellularity following nuclear radiation exposure. In contrast, defective autophagy in the hematopoietic conditional mouse model worsened the hematopoietic injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and DNA damage caused by nuclear radiation exposure. Strikingly, in vivo defective autophagy caused an absence or reduction in regulatory proteins critical to both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA damage repair pathways, as well as a failure to induce these proteins in response to nuclear radiation. In contrast, in vivo autophagy activation increased most of these proteins in hematopoietic cells. DNA damage assays confirmed the role of in vivo autophagy in the resolution of double-stranded DNA breaks in total bone marrow cells as well as bone marrow stem and progenitor cells upon whole body irradiation. Hence, autophagy protects the hematopoietic system against nuclear radiation injury by conferring and intensifying the HR and NHEJ DNA damage repair pathways and by removing ROS and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:26197097

  17. Protective Role of Fucoidan in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Che, Nan; Ma, Yijie; Xin, Yinhu

    2016-11-25

    Fucoidan has been reported to exhibit various beneficial activities ranging from to antivirus and anticancer properties. However, little information is available about the effects of fucoidan on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Our study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan on cerebral IRI, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly subjected to four groups: Sham, IRI+saline (IRI+S), IRI+80 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F80), and IRI+160 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F160). Fucoidan (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7 days before the rats were induced to cerebral IRI model with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. At 24 h after reperfusion, neurological deficits and the total infarct volume were determined. The levels of inflammation-associated cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), oxidative stress-related proteins (malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the ischemic brain were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, the levels of apoptosis-related proteins (p-53, Bax, and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (phosphorylation-extracellular signalregulated kinase (p-ERK), p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-p38) were measured. Results showed that administration of fucoidan significantly reduced the neurological deficits and infarct volume compared to the IRI+S group in a dose-dependent manner. Also, fucoidan statistically decreased the levels of inflammation-associated cytokines, and oxidative stress-related proteins, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed the MAPK pathway. So, Fucoidan plays a protective role in cerebral IRI might be by inhibition of MAPK pathway.

  18. Allicin protects against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction by inhibiting the apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianmin; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, He; Li, Jianfeng; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-03-01

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes the impairment of inner ear function as side effects, including hearing loss and balance dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction in mice and to make clear the mechanism underlying the protective effects of allicin on oto-vestibulotoxicity. Mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin exhibited vestibular dysfunction in swimming test, which agreed with impairment in vestibule. However, these impairments were significantly prevented by pre-treatment with allicin. Allicin markedly reduced cisplatin-activated expression of cleaved-caspase-3 in hair cells and vascular layer cells of utricule, saccule and ampulla, but also decreased AIF nuclear translocation of hair cells in utricule, saccule and ampulla. These results showed that allicin played an effective role in protecting vestibular dysfunction induced by cisplatin via inhibiting caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, allicin may be useful in preventing oto-vestibulotoxicity mediated by cisplatin.

  19. Vitamin D receptor pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoping; Yoon, Sonia; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Lu, Rong; Xia, Yinglin; Wan, Jiandi; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C; Chen, Di; Sun, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Low expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); therefore, restoration of VDR function to control inflammation in IBD is desirable. Probiotics have been used in the treatment of IBD. However, the role of probiotics in the modulation of VDR signaling to effectively reduce inflammation is unknown. We identified a novel role of probiotics in activating VDR activity, thus inhibiting inflammation, using cell models and VDR knockout mice. We found that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) increased VDR protein expression in both mouse and human intestinal epithelial cells. Using the VDR luciferase reporter vector, we detected increased transcriptional activity of VDR after probiotic treatment. Probiotics increased the expression of the VDR target genes, such as antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the role of probiotics in regulating VDR signaling was tested in vivo using a Salmonella-colitis model in VDR knockout mice. Probiotic treatment conferred physiological and histologic protection from Salmonella-induced colitis in VDR(+/+) mice, whereas probiotics had no effects in the VDR(-/-) mice. Probiotic treatment also enhanced numbers of Paneth cells, which secrete AMPs for host defense. These data indicate that the VDR pathway is required for probiotic protection in colitis. Understanding how probiotics enhance VDR signaling and inhibit inflammation will allow probiotics to be used effectively, resulting in innovative approaches to the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation.

  20. Mangiferin protect myocardial insults through modulation of MAPK/TGF-β pathways.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Malik, Salma; Gamad, Nanda; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Goyal, Sameer N; Ojha, Shreesh; Kumari, Santosh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2016-04-05

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside isolated from leaves of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is known to modulate many biological targets in inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate whether mangiferin exerts protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and possible role of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPKs) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) pathways in its cardioprotection. Male albino Wistar rats were treated with mangiferin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days. At the end of the treatment protocol, rats were subjected to IR injury consisting of 45 min ischemia followed by 1h reperfusion. IR-control rats caused significant cardiac dysfunction, increased serum cardiac injury markers, lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in tissue antioxidants as compared to sham group. Histopathological examination of IR rats revealed myocardial necrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. However, pretreatment with mangiferin significantly restored myocardial oxidant-antioxidant status, maintained membrane integrity, and attenuated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, pro-apoptotic proteins and TGF-β. Furthermore, mangiferin significantly reduced the phosphorylation of p38, and JNK and enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These results suggest that mangiferin protects against myocardial IR injury by modulating MAPK mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epalrestat protects against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting polyol pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-rong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhou, Wei; Fan, Shou-rui; Ma, Run; Xue, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Ya-shan; Tan, Hong-li; Shao, Qing-hua; Yang, Hong-ying

    2016-01-01

    Epalrestat is a noncompetitive and reversible aldose reductase inhibitor used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This study assumed that epalrestat had a protective effect on diabetic peripheral nerve injury by suppressing the expression of aldose reductase in peripheral nerves of diabetes mellitus rats. The high-fat and high-carbohydrate model rats were established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in these rats after sustaining high blood glucose for 8 weeks. At 12 weeks after streptozotocin injection, rats were intragastrically administered epalrestat 100 mg/kg daily for 6 weeks. Transmission electron microscope revealed that the injuries to myelinated nerve fibers, non-myelinated nerve fibers and Schwann cells of rat sciatic nerves had reduced compared to rats without epalrestat administuation. Western blot assay and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after intervention with epalrestat, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase gradually increased, but aldose reductase protein expression gradually diminished. Results confirmed that epalrestat could protect against diabetic peripheral neuropathy by relieving oxidative stress and suppressing the polyol pathway. PMID:27073391

  2. Tanshinone IIA protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity via activating the Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Guan, Cuiwen; Sun, Xiaozhe; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Li, Jia; Fu, Xinlu; Qiu, Yuwen; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing; Huang, Zhiying

    2016-06-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan), the main active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant activity. Acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, can cause severe hepatotoxicity and liver failure when taken overdose. Oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in APAP-induced liver failure. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tan on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms involved. C57BL/6J mice were divided into six groups: (1) control, (2) APAP group, (3) APAP+Tan (30mg/kg) group, (4) Tan (30mg/kg) group, (5) APAP+Tan (10mg/kg) group, (6) Tan (10mg/kg) group. Mice in group 3 and 5 were pre-treated with specified dose of Tan by gavage and subsequently injected with an overdose of APAP intraperitoneally (i.p., 300mg/kg). The effect of Tan on Nrf2 pathway was investigated in HepG2 cells and mice. Plasma aspartate transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), liver glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were determined after mice were sacrificed. Lipid peroxidation and histological examination were performed. The effect of Tan on the Nrf2 pathway was detected by western blotting and qRT-PCR. Tan pretreatment reduced APAP-induced liver injury. Tan was able to activate Nrf2 and increase the expression levels of Nrf2 target genes, including glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Consistent with our observations in HepG2 cells, Tan increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and upregulated mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 target genes GCLC, NQO1 and HO-1 in C57BL/6J mice compared with mice treated with APAP alone. Our results demonstrate that Tan pretreatment could protect the liver from APAP-induced hepatic injury by activating the Nrf2 pathway. Tan may

  3. Allicin protects rat cortical neurons against mechanical trauma injury by regulating nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-fei; Li, Wen-tao; Han, Hong-cheng; Gao, Da-kuan; He, Xiao-sheng; Li, Liang; Song, Jin-ning; Fei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Allicin, a small molecule that is responsible for the typical smell and most of the functions of garlic, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of allicin in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly reduced mechanical trauma-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. These protective effects were observed even if allicin treatment was delayed to 2h after injury. Allicin significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased the phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) but had no effect on neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression. Allicin-induced protection in cortical neurons was augmented by iNOS and nNOS antagonists and was partly reversed by blocking eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, allicin treatment inhibited the TBI-induced activation of ERK and further enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt in TBI-injured neurons. The Akt inhibitor LY294002 attenuated the allicin-induced increase in eNOS expression and phosphorylation, whereas the ERK inhibitor PD98059 had opposite effects on the expression of iNOS and eNOS. Pretreatment with LY294002 or PD98059 partly prevented or further enhanced allicin-induced neuroprotection, respectively. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for traumatic neuronal injury and that the potential underlying mechanism involves Akt- and ERK-mediated regulation of NOS pathways.

  4. BAFF activation of the ERK5 MAP kinase pathway regulates B cell survival.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Emilie; Schweighoffer, Edina; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Ley, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF) stimulation of the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is essential for the homeostatic survival of mature B cells. Earlier in vitro experiments with inhibitors that block MEK 1 and 2 suggested that activation of ERK 1 and 2 MAP kinases is required for BAFF-R to promote B cell survival. However, these inhibitors are now known to also inhibit MEK5, which activates the related MAP kinase ERK5. In the present study, we demonstrated that BAFF-induced B cell survival was actually independent of ERK1/2 activation but required ERK5 activation. Consistent with this, we showed that conditional deletion of ERK5 in B cells led to a pronounced global reduction in mature B2 B cell numbers, which correlated with impaired survival of ERK5-deficient B cells after BAFF stimulation. ERK5 was required for optimal BAFF up-regulation of Mcl1 and Bcl2a1, which are prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family. However, ERK5 deficiency did not alter BAFF activation of the PI3-kinase-Akt or NF-κB signaling pathways, which are also important for BAFF to promote mature B cell survival. Our study reveals a critical role for the MEK5-ERK5 MAP kinase signaling pathway in BAFF-induced mature B cell survival and homeostatic maintenance of B2 cell numbers. © 2015 Jacque et al.

  5. Unravelling the theories of pre-eclampsia: are the protective pathways the new paradigm?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asif; Ramma, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a vascular disorder of pregnancy where anti-angiogenic factors, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress predominate, but none can claim to cause pre-eclampsia. This review provides an alternative to the ‘two-stage model’ of pre-eclampsia in which abnormal spiral arteries modification leads to placental hypoxia, oxidative stress and aberrant maternal systemic inflammation. Very high maternal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 also known as sVEGFR) and very low placenta growth factor (PlGF) are unique to pre-eclampsia; however, abnormal spiral arteries and excessive inflammation are also prevalent in other placental disorders. Metaphorically speaking, pregnancy can be viewed as a car with an accelerator and brakes, where inflammation, oxidative stress and an imbalance in the angiogenic milieu act as the ‘accelerator’. The ‘braking system’ includes the protective pathways of haem oxygenase 1 (also referred as Hmox1 or HO-1) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (also known as CSE or Cth), which generate carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) respectively. The failure in these pathways (brakes) results in the pregnancy going out of control and the system crashing. Put simply, pre-eclampsia is an accelerator–brake defect disorder. CO and H2S hold great promise because of their unique ability to suppress the anti-angiogenic factors sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin as well as to promote PlGF and endothelial NOS activity. The key to finding a cure lies in the identification of cheap, safe and effective drugs that induce the braking system to keep the pregnancy vehicle on track past the finishing line. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:25303561

  6. ATM may be a protective factor in endometrial carcinogenesis with the progesterone pathway.

    PubMed

    Shan, Weiwei; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Zhenbo; Luo, Xuezhen; Ning, Chengcheng; Yu, Yinhua; Feng, Youji; Gu, Chao; Chen, Xiaojun

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the role and mechanism of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein in endometrial carcinogenesis. A reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) was used to analyze the expression of ATM signal pathway proteins in Ishikawa and progesterone-insensitive Ishikawa. ATM expression was detected in endometrium specimens by immunohistochemistry, including 8 cases with proliferative endometrium, 6 cases with secretory endometrium, 10 cases with simple hyperplasia (SH), 13 cases of complex hyperplasia (CH), 11 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia (EAH), and 83 cases with type I endometrial cancer. The relationship between ATM expression and other clinicopathological indicators was also examined in type I endometrial cancer patients. The mechanisms of ATM were explored in vitro with the endometrial cell lines Ishikawa and RL95-2. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test and Western blot analysis were performed to test proliferation and protein expression. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS19.0. The significance level was set at 0.05. ATM was increased with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) stimulation in Ishikawa in RPPA. ATM expression gradually decreased in endometrial hyperplasic lesions compared with the normal proliferative and secretory endometrium and was the lowest in type I endometrial cancer. ATM expression was negatively correlated with pathological grades in type I endometrial cancer. In vitro, ATM silencing retarded proliferation inhibition in Ishikawa and RL95-2 treated with MPA. ATM silencing could down-regulate the MPA-stimulated signal proteins, including Chk2, P53, and caspase-3 in vitro. MPA might exert its role through activating the ATM-associated pathway, ATM-Chk2-P53-caspase-3 (active), preserving normal endometrium and protecting it from malignancies. ATM might be a promising indicator for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer.

  7. Unravelling the theories of pre-eclampsia: are the protective pathways the new paradigm?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asif; Ramma, Wenda

    2015-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a vascular disorder of pregnancy where anti-angiogenic factors, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress predominate, but none can claim to cause pre-eclampsia. This review provides an alternative to the 'two-stage model' of pre-eclampsia in which abnormal spiral arteries modification leads to placental hypoxia, oxidative stress and aberrant maternal systemic inflammation. Very high maternal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 also known as sVEGFR) and very low placenta growth factor (PlGF) are unique to pre-eclampsia; however, abnormal spiral arteries and excessive inflammation are also prevalent in other placental disorders. Metaphorically speaking, pregnancy can be viewed as a car with an accelerator and brakes, where inflammation, oxidative stress and an imbalance in the angiogenic milieu act as the 'accelerator'. The 'braking system' includes the protective pathways of haem oxygenase 1 (also referred as Hmox1 or HO-1) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (also known as CSE or Cth), which generate carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) respectively. The failure in these pathways (brakes) results in the pregnancy going out of control and the system crashing. Put simply, pre-eclampsia is an accelerator-brake defect disorder. CO and H2S hold great promise because of their unique ability to suppress the anti-angiogenic factors sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin as well as to promote PlGF and endothelial NOS activity. The key to finding a cure lies in the identification of cheap, safe and effective drugs that induce the braking system to keep the pregnancy vehicle on track past the finishing line. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley &. Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Polyphenol-enriched cocoa protects the diabetic retina from glial reaction through the sirtuin pathway.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Diego A; Rosales, Mariana Ap B; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Amancio, Vitor Hugo O; Mendonça, Jacqueline N; Lopes, Norberto P; de Faria, José B Lopes; de Faria, Jacqueline M Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa is rich in flavonoids, which are potent antioxidants with established benefits for cardiovascular health but unproven effects on neurodegeneration. Sirtuins (SIRTs), which make up a family of deacetylases, are thought to be sensitive to oxidation. In this study, the possible protective effects of cocoa in the diabetic retina were assessed. Rat Müller cells (rMCs) exposed to normal or high glucose (HG) or H2O2 were submitted to cocoa treatment in the presence or absence of SIRT-1 inhibitor and small interfering RNA The experimental animal study was conducted in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats randomized to receive low-, intermediate-, or high-polyphenol cocoa treatments via daily gavage for 16 weeks (i.e., 0.12, 2.9 or 22.9 mg/kg/day of polyphenols). The rMCs exposed to HG or H2O2 exhibited increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and acetyl-RelA/p65 and decreased SIRT1 activity/expression. These effects were cancelled out by cocoa, which decreased reactive oxygen species production and PARP-1 activity, augmented the intracellular pool of NAD(+), and improved SIRT1 activity. The rat diabetic retinas displayed the early markers of retinopathy accompanied by markedly impaired electroretinogram. The presence of diabetes activated PARP-1 and lowered NAD(+) levels, resulting in SIRT1 impairment. This augmented acetyl RelA/p65 had the effect of up-regulated GFAP. Oral administration of polyphenol cocoa restored the above alterations in a dose-dependent manner. This study reveals that cocoa enriched with polyphenol improves the retinal SIRT-1 pathway, thereby protecting the retina from diabetic milieu insult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EPO protects Müller cell under high glucose state through BDNF/TrkB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Xia, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophic factor decreased in the early stage of diabetic retinal nerve cells. Neurons damage brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB expression reduced. Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in protecting early diabetic retinopathy. The rats were euthanized at 24 h after EPO vitreous injection and the retina was separated. HE staining was applied to observe the pathological tissue morphology. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to detect BDNF, TrkB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) expression. Retinal structure was clear in group C, while the retinal thickness and RGCs number decreased in group B at 24 w. Retinal thickness in group E was greater than in group B but lower than in group C. GFAP and ERK expression increased in both group B and E, whereas the latter was significantly lower than the former. TrkB protein level was in group E > B > C at 4 w, while it was in group C > group E > group B at 24 w. BDNF expression in group B was higher than in group C at 4 w, whereas it was opposite at 24 w. BDNF expression increased in group E at 4 w, and it was similar in group E compared with group C at 24 w. EPO vitreous injection can increase BDNF and TrkB expression, while reduce GFAP and ERK expression in diabetes rat retina. It could protect Müller cells through BDNF/TrkB pathway to play a role of nerve nutrition.

  10. Glucosamine protects nucleus pulposus cells and induces autophagy via the mTOR-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, LiBo; Jin, YongLong; Wang, HuiRen; Jiang, YunQi; Dong, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Although glucosamine has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, its effect on disc degeneration remains unclear. We sought to explore whether glucosamine can activate autophagy in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and protect cells treated with IL-1β or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Autophagy in cells was examined by detecting for LC3, Beclin-1, m-TOR, and p70S6K, as well as by analyzing autophagosomes. To inhibit autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used. In the cells treated with IL-1β, the levels of Adamts-4, Mmp-13, aggrecan, and Col2a1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL. Cell senescence under H2 O2 was revealed by SA-β-Gal staining. Glucosamine could activate autophagy in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h and inhibit the phosphorylation of m-TOR and p70S6K. Autophagy in IL-1β or H2 O2 -treated cells was increased by glucosamine. Glucosamine attenuated the decrease of aggrecan and prevented the apoptosis of the NP cells induced by IL-1β, whereas 3-MA partly reversed these effects. The percentage of SA-β-Gal-positive cells induced by H2 O2 treatment was decreased by glucosamine, accompanied by the decline of p70S6K phosphorylation. Glucosamine protects NP cells and up-regulates autophagy by inhibiting the m-TOR pathway, which might point a potential therapeutic agent for disc degeneration.

  11. EPO protects Müller cell under high glucose state through BDNF/TrkB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xia, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophic factor decreased in the early stage of diabetic retinal nerve cells. Neurons damage brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB expression reduced. Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in protecting early diabetic retinopathy. The rats were euthanized at 24 h after EPO vitreous injection and the retina was separated. HE staining was applied to observe the pathological tissue morphology. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to detect BDNF, TrkB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and glial fibrillary acidic portein (GFAP) expression. Retinal structure was clear in group C, while the retinal thickness and RGCs number decreased in group B at 24 w. Retinal thickness in group E was greater than in group B but lower than in group C. GFAP and ERK expression increased in both group B and E, whereas the latter was significantly lower than the former. TrkB protein level was in group E > B > C at 4 w, while it was in group C > group E > group B at 24 w. BDNF expression in group B was higher than in group C at 4 w, whereas it was opposite at 24 w. BDNF expression increased in group E at 4 w, and it was similar in group E compared with group C at 24 w. EPO vitreous injection can increase BDNF and TrkB expression, while reduce GFAP and ERK expression in diabetes rat retina. It could protect Müller cells through BDNF/TrkB pathway to play a role of nerve nutrition. PMID:26339375

  12. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanzhen; Zhou, Aidong; Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-05-10

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis.

  13. Potential Mechanisms underlying the Protective Effect of Pregnancy against Breast Cancer: A Focus on the IGF Pathway.

    PubMed

    Katz, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    A first full-term birth at an early age protects women against breast cancer by reducing lifetime risk by up to 50%. The underlying mechanism resulting in this protective effect remains unclear, but many avenues have been investigated, including lobular differentiation, cell fate, and stromal composition. A single pregnancy at an early age protects women for 30-40 years, and this long-term protection is likely regulated by a relatively stable yet still modifiable method, such as epigenetic reprograming. Long-lasting epigenetic modifications have been shown to be induced by pregnancy and to target the IGF pathway. Understanding how an early first full-term pregnancy protects against breast cancer and the role of epigenetic reprograming of the IGF system may aid in developing new preventative strategies for young healthy women in the future.

  14. Potential Mechanisms underlying the Protective Effect of Pregnancy against Breast Cancer: A Focus on the IGF Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    A first full-term birth at an early age protects women against breast cancer by reducing lifetime risk by up to 50%. The underlying mechanism resulting in this protective effect remains unclear, but many avenues have been investigated, including lobular differentiation, cell fate, and stromal composition. A single pregnancy at an early age protects women for 30–40 years, and this long-term protection is likely regulated by a relatively stable yet still modifiable method, such as epigenetic reprograming. Long-lasting epigenetic modifications have been shown to be induced by pregnancy and to target the IGF pathway. Understanding how an early first full-term pregnancy protects against breast cancer and the role of epigenetic reprograming of the IGF system may aid in developing new preventative strategies for young healthy women in the future. PMID:27833901

  15. Sub-seismic Deformation Prediction of Potential Pathways and Seismic Validation - The Joint Project PROTECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    The joint project PROTECT (PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps) aims to determine the existence and characteristics of sub-seismic structures that can potentially link deep reservoirs with the surface in the framework of CO2 underground storage. The research provides a new approach of assessing the long-term integrity of storage reservoirs. The objective is predicting and quantifying the distribution and the amount of sub-/seismic strain caused by fault movement in the proximity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The study is developing tools and workflows which will be tested at the CO2CRC Otway Project Site in the Otway Basin in south-western Victoria, Australia. For this purpose, we are building a geometrical kinematic 3-D model based on 2-D and 3-D seismic data that are provided by the Australian project partner, the CO2CRC Consortium. By retro-deforming the modeled subsurface faults in the inspected subsurface volume we can determine the accumulated sub-seismic deformation and thus the strain variation around the faults. Depending on lithology, the calculated strain magnitude and its orientation can be used as an indicator for fracture density. Furthermore, from the complete 3D strain tensor we can predict the orientation of fractures at sub-seismic scale. In areas where we have preliminary predicted critical deformation, we will acquire in November this year new near- surface, high resolution P- and S-wave 2-D seismic data in order to verify and calibrate our model results. Here, novel and parameter-based model building will especially benefit from extracting velocities and elastic parameters from VSP and other seismic data. Our goal is to obtain a better overview of possible fluid migration pathways and communication between reservoir and overburden. Thereby, we will provide a tool for prediction and adapted time-dependent monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general including scientific visualization capabilities. Acknowledgement This work

  16. FUT-175, a synthetic inhibitor of the complement pathway, protects against the inactivation of infectious retroviruses by human serum.

    PubMed

    Miyao, Y; Ikenaka, K; Kishima, H; Tamura, M; Nakamura, K; Kurumi, M; Hayakawa, T; Shimizu, K

    1997-09-01

    Serum-induced inactivation of retroviruses is the most critical limitation for in vivo gene transfer therapy. To solve this problem, we searched for reagents that protect retroviruses from inactivation. The effects of the protease inhibitors FOY-007 and FOY-305 and of an inhibitor of the complement pathway FUT-175, all of which have been used clinically, were investigated. All of these agents protected against the inactivation of retroviruses by human serum, with 1 microM FUT-175 providing the most effective protection. Thus, the co-administration of FUT-175 with retroviruses may make retrovirus-mediated in vivo gene transfer feasible for the treatment of patients. FUT-175 dose-dependently inhibited the classical pathway of complement in a hemolysis protection assay of sensitized sheep erythrocytes with guinea pig serum or by cell-lysis assay of mouse fibroblasts with human serum. However, increasing the FUT-175 concentration by 10-fold (10 microM) did not produce further protection against retroviral inactivation in most human sera. There was also no correlation between the serum-induced inactivation of retroviruses and either the amount of anti-alpha-galactosyl (anti-alpha-Gal) antibody or the complement activity in human serum. These results suggest that retroviruses are not inactivated by utilizing the same pathway leading to cell lysis by the classical complement system.

  17. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes

    DOE PAGES

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj K.; Khamaisi, Mogher; ...

    2015-08-04

    The mechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D (disease duration ≥ 50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist -C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist -C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated inmore » Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage. Lastly, we propose miR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.« less

  18. The Protective Effect of Gangliosides on Lead (Pb)-Induced Neurotoxicity Is Mediated by Autophagic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hongtao; Wang, Lan; He, Junhong; Wang, Zhufeng

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant and can affect intelligence development and the learning ability and memory of children. Therefore, necessary measures should be taken to protect the central nervous system (CNS) from Pb toxicity. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids that are constituents of mammalian cell membranes and are more abundantly expressed in the CNS. Studies have shown that gangliosides constitute a useful tool in the attempt to promote functional recovery of CNS and can reverse Pb-induced impairments of synaptic plasticity in rats. However, the detailed mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. In our present study, we tried to investigate the role of gangliosides in Pb-induced injury in hippocampus neurons and to further confirm the detailed mechanism. Our results show that Pb-induced injuries in the spatial reference memory were associated with a reduction of cell viability and cell apoptosis, and treatment with gangliosides markedly ameliorated the Pb-induced injury by inhibition of apoptosis action. Gangliosides further attenuated Pb-induced the abnormal autophagic process by regulation of mTOR pathways. In summary, our study establishes the efficacy of gangliosides as neuroprotective agents and provides a strong rationale for further studies on the underlying mechanisms of their neuroprotective functions. PMID:27023584

  19. Autophagy protects intestinal epithelial cells against deoxynivalenol toxicity by alleviating oxidative stress via IKK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Jianjun; Li, Fengna; Hu, Chien-An A; Liao, Peng; Tan, Kunrong; Tan, Bie; Xiong, Xia; Liu, Gang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular process of homeostatic degradation that promotes cell survival under various stressors. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungal toxin, often causes diarrhea and disturbs the homeostasis of the intestinal system. To investigate the function of intestinal autophagy in response to DON and associated mechanisms, we firstly knocked out ATG5 (autophagy-related gene 5) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. When treated with DON, autophagy was induced in IPEC-J2 cells but not in IPEC-J2.Atg5ko cells. The deficiency in autophagy increased DON-induced apoptosis in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells, in part, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cellular stress response can be restored in IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells by overexpressing proteins involved in protein folding. Interestingly, we found that autophagy deficiency downregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum folding proteins BiP and PDI when IPEC-J2.atg5ko cells were treated with DON. In addition, we investigated the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in the IKK, AMPK, and mTOR signaling pathway and found that Bay-117082 and Compound C, specific inhibitors for IKK and AMPK, respectively, inhibited the induction of autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is pivotal for protection against DON in pig intestinal cells.

  20. The Protective Effect of Gangliosides on Lead (Pb)-Induced Neurotoxicity Is Mediated by Autophagic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongtao; Wang, Lan; He, Junhong; Wang, Zhufeng

    2016-03-25

    Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant and can affect intelligence development and the learning ability and memory of children. Therefore, necessary measures should be taken to protect the central nervous system (CNS) from Pb toxicity. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids that are constituents of mammalian cell membranes and are more abundantly expressed in the CNS. Studies have shown that gangliosides constitute a useful tool in the attempt to promote functional recovery of CNS and can reverse Pb-induced impairments of synaptic plasticity in rats. However, the detailed mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. In our present study, we tried to investigate the role of gangliosides in Pb-induced injury in hippocampus neurons and to further confirm the detailed mechanism. Our results show that Pb-induced injuries in the spatial reference memory were associated with a reduction of cell viability and cell apoptosis, and treatment with gangliosides markedly ameliorated the Pb-induced injury by inhibition of apoptosis action. Gangliosides further attenuated Pb-induced the abnormal autophagic process by regulation of mTOR pathways. In summary, our study establishes the efficacy of gangliosides as neuroprotective agents and provides a strong rationale for further studies on the underlying mechanisms of their neuroprotective functions.

  1. Rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiheng; Tai, Wenlin; Qu, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, ZhenKun; Deng, Shuhao; Vongphouttha, Chanthasone; Dong, Zhaoxing

    2017-08-19

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide indeveloping countries worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity especially how to treat PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still largely unknown. In animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, we used HE staining, western blotting assay and Real-time PCR assay to analyze the effects of rapamycin on the PQ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that PQ induced the pulmonary fibrosis using HE staining and Masson's staining, and up-regulated the activity of HYP and the mRNA expressions of Collagen I and III (COL-1and COL-3) in pulmonary tissues. We also found that rapamycin down-regulated the mesenchymal cell marker Vimentin and up-regulated the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin both in mRNA and protein levels compared with PQ group. And the EMT associated transcription factor Snail was decreased by rapamycin treatment compared with PQ group. And PQ decreased the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels, and rapamycin inhibited these effects of PQ. SFN, a activator of Nrf2, could inhibit the EMT and the expression of Snail. And knockdowon of Nrf2 could abolish the inhibitory effects of rapamycin of PQ-induced EMT. In conclusion, rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bifunctional apoptosis inhibitor (BAR) protects neurons from diverse cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Roth, W; Kermer, P; Krajewska, M; Welsh, K; Davis, S; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C

    2003-10-01

    The bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) is a multidomain protein that was originally identified as an inhibitor of Bax-induced apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis of normal human tissues demonstrated high BAR expression in the brain, compared to low or absent expression in other organs. Immunohistochemical staining of human adult tissues revealed that the BAR protein is predominantly expressed by neurons in the central nervous system. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that BAR localizes mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells. Overexpression of BAR in CSM 14.1 neuronal cells resulted in significant protection from a broad range of cell death stimuli, including agents that activate apoptotic pathways involving mitochondria, TNF-family death receptors, and ER stress. Downregulation of BAR by antisense oligonucleotides sensitized neuronal cells to induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the search for novel interaction partners of BAR identified several candidate proteins that might contribute to the regulation of neuronal apoptosis (HIP1, Hippi, and Bap31). Taken together, the expression pattern and functional data suggest that the BAR protein is involved in the regulation of neuronal survival.

  3. Host cell-induced components of the sulfate assimilation pathway are major protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R; West, Nicholas P; Leyh, Thomas S; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A

    2013-03-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans.

  4. Host Cell–Induced Components of the Sulfate Assimilation Pathway Are Major Protective Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R.; West, Nicholas P.; Leyh, Thomas S.; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A.

    2013-01-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5′-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans. PMID:23225904

  5. Davunetide (NAP) protects the retina against early diabetic injury by reducing apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Soraya; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Castorina, Alessandro; Federico, Concetta; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio; D'Agata, Velia

    2014-11-01

    Davunetide (NAP) is an eight amino acid peptide that has been shown to provide potent neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of NAP in diabetic retinopathy using an in vivo streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. A single intraocular injection of NAP (100 μg/mL) or vehicle was administered 1 week after STZ injection. Three weeks after diabetes induction, we assessed the retinal expression and distribution of apoptosis markers, cleaved caspase-3, and Bcl2, by Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. Furthermore, we evaluated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) and/or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathways by measuring the protein levels of p-ERK and p-AKT with or without NAP treatment. Results demonstrated that NAP treatment reduced apoptotic event in diabetic retina, and it restored cleaved caspase-3 expression levels in the retina of STZ-injected rats as well as the decreased Bcl2. NAP treatment improved cellular survival through the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Taken together, these findings suggested that NAP might be useful to treat retinal degenerative diseases.

  6. Citrulline Protects Streptococcus pyogenes from Acid Stress Using the Arginine Deiminase Pathway and the F1Fo-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A common stress encountered by both pathogenic and environmental bacteria is exposure to a low-pH environment, which can inhibit cell growth and lead to cell death. One major defense mechanism against this stress is the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, which catabolizes arginine to generate two ammonia molecules and one molecule of ATP. While this pathway typically relies on the utilization of arginine, citrulline has also been shown to enter into the pathway and contribute to protection against acid stress. In the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, the utilization of citrulline has been demonstrated to contribute to pathogenesis in a murine model of soft tissue infection, although the mechanism underlying its role in infection is unknown. To gain insight into this question, we analyzed a panel of mutants defective in different steps in the ADI pathway to dissect how arginine and citrulline protect S. pyogenes in a low-pH environment. While protection provided by arginine utilization occurred through the buffering of the extracellular environment, citrulline catabolism protection was pH independent, requiring the generation of ATP via the ADI pathway and a functional F1Fo-ATP synthase. This work demonstrates that arginine and citrulline catabolism protect against acid stress through distinct mechanisms and have unique contributions to virulence during an infection. IMPORTANCE An important aspect of bacterial pathogenesis is the utilization of host-derived nutrients during an infection for growth and virulence. Previously published work from our lab identified a unique role for citrulline catabolism in Streptococcus pyogenes during a soft tissue infection. The present article probes the role of citrulline utilization during this infection and its contribution to protection against acid stress. This work reveals a unique and concerted action between the catabolism of citrulline and the F1Fo-ATPase that function together to provide protection for

  7. The protective effect of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway against septic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Min; Li, Jian-Guo; Wang, Yan-Lin; Hu, Zheng-Fang; Zhou, Qing; Du, Zhao-Hui; Jia, Bao-Hui

    2008-10-01

    hepatic NF-kappaB activation. Our results showed that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway might produce a potential protective effect on polymicrobial sepsis in rats.

  8. Moderate-Intensity Physical Exercise Protects Against Experimental 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Hemiparkinsonism Through Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element Pathway.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Aderbal Silva; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Remor, Aline Pertile; Tristão, Fabrine Sales Massafera; Matheus, Filipe C; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Latini, Alexandra; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Exercise improves the motor symptoms of patients with Parkinson disease in a palliative manner. Existing evidence demonstrates that exercise induces neuroprotection based on the neurotrophic properties. We investigated the effect of exercise on mitochondrial physiology and oxidative stress in an animal model of hemiparkinsonism. C57BL/6 mice completed a 6-week exercise program on a treadmill. We injected 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 4 μg/2 μl) into the midstriatum. The animals progressively developed bradykinesia and R(-)-apomorphine-induced rotations that were attenuated by exercise. Transcriptional activation of protective genes is mediated by the antioxidant response element (ARE). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) binds to ARE. We investigated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in the striatum of animals. Exercise protected 6-OHDA-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunolabeling and activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in the nigrostriatal pathway. Exercise stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in the striatum of animals that was more resistant to oxidant 6-OHDA and nitric oxide donor (±)-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. In mice, exercise activated Nrf2-ARE signaling in the nigrostriatal pathway that was protective against the development of hemiparkinsonism.

  9. LTB4 stimulates growth of human pancreatic cancer cells via MAPK and PI-3 kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.-G.; Ding, X.-Z.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Adrian, Thomas E. . E-mail: tadrian@northwestern.edu

    2005-09-30

    We have previously shown the importance of LTB4 in human pancreatic cancer. LTB4 receptor antagonists block growth and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LTB4 on proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. LTB4 stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of both PANC-1 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by thymidine incorporation and cell number. LTB4 stimulated rapid and transient activation of MEK and ERK1/2 kinases. The MEK inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, blocked LTB4-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. LTB4 also stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK; however, the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, failed to block LTB4-stimulated growth. The activity of JNK/SAPK was not affected by LTB4 treatment. Phosphorylation of Akt was also induced by LTB4 and this effect was blocked by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which also partially blocked LTB4-stimulated cell proliferation. In conclusion, LTB4 stimulates proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells through MEK/ERK and PI-3 kinase/Akt pathways, while p38 MPAK and JNK/SAPK are not involved.

  10. Exercise-induced muscle damage impairs insulin signaling pathway associated with IRS-1 oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Aoi, W; Naito, Y; Tokuda, H; Tanimura, Y; Oya-Ito, T; Yoshikawa, T

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces delayed-onset muscle damage including oxidative damage of cellular components. Oxidative stress to muscle cells impairs glucose uptake via disturbance of insulin signaling pathway. We investigated glucose uptake and insulin signaling in relation to oxidative protein modification in muscle after acute strenuous exercise. ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed downhill running exercise at 30 m/min for 30 min. At 24 hr after exercise, metabolic performance and insulin-signaling proteins in muscle tissues were examined. In whole body indirect calorimetry, carbohydrate utilization was decreased in the exercised mice along with reduction of the respiratory exchange ratio compared to the rested control mice. Insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose in damaged muscle was decreased after acute exercise. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidyl-3-kinase/Akt signaling were impaired by exercise, leading to inhibition of the membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4. We also found that acute exercise caused 4-hydroxy-nonenal modification of IRS-1 along with elevation of oxidative stress in muscle tissue. Impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake into damaged muscle after strenuous exercise would be related to disturbance of insulin signal transduction by oxidative modification of IRS-1.

  11. Lin28a protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy via the PKA/ROCK2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuhong; Zhang, Mingming; Lin, Jie; Hu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Rongqing; Li, Congye; Wei, Tianlu; Sun, Dongdong; Wei, Jianqin; Wang, Haichang

    2016-01-01

    Lin28a enhances glucose uptake and insulin-sensitivity. However, the role of Lin28a on experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is not well understood. We investigated the potential role and mechanism ofLin28a in diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in mice. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of Streptozocin (STZ) in mice. Animals were randomized to be treated with lentivirus carrying Lin28a siRNA or Lin28a cDNA. Cardiac function, cardiomyocyte autophagy, apoptosis and mitochondria morphology in diabetic mice were compared between groups. The target proteins of Lin28a were examined by western blot analysis. Lin28a levels were markedly reduced in the cardiac tissue compared to the control mice. Lin28a overexpression significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), promoted autophagy, decreased myocardial apoptotic index and alleviated mitochondria cristae destruction in diabetic mice. Lin28a knockdown exacerbated diabetic injury as evidenced by decreased LVEF, increased apoptotic index and aggravated mitochondria cristae destruction. Interestingly, pretreatment with a PKA inhibitor, N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide], di-HCl Salt (H89) abolished the beneficial effects of Lin28a overexpression. RhoA-expression and ROCK2-expression were decreased in vivo after Lin28a overexpression, while Lin28a knockdown increased the expression of RhoA and ROCK2 in diabetic mice. Lin28a protects against DCM through PKA/ROCK2 dependent pathway. Lin28a might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of the patients with DCM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ERK Signaling Pathway Plays a Key Role in Baicalin Protection Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Chih; Day, Yuan-Ji; Lee, Hung-Chen; Liou, Jiin-Tarng; Chou, An-Hsun; Liu, Fu-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes hepatocytes necrosis and acute liver failure. Baicalin (BA), a major flavonoid of Scutellariae radix, has potent hepatoprotective properties in traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of BA on a APAP-induced liver injury in a mouse model. The mice received an intraperitoneal hepatotoxic dose of APAP (300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and after 30[Formula: see text]min, were treated with BA at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, or 60[Formula: see text]mg/kg. After 16[Formula: see text]h of treatment, the mice were sacrificed for further analysis. APAP administration significantly elevated the serum alanine transferase (ALT) enzyme levels and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity when compared with control animals. Baicalin treatment significantly attenuated the elevation of liver ALT levels, as well as hepatic MPO activity in a dose- dependent manner (15-60[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in APAP-treated mice. The strongest beneficial effects of BA were seen at a dose of 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg. BA treatment at 30[Formula: see text]mg/kg after APAP overdose reduced elevated hepatic cytokine (TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6) levels, and macrophage recruitment around the area of hepatotoxicity in immunohistochemical staining. Significantly, BA treatment can also decrease hepatic phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, which is induced by APAP overdose. Our data suggests that baicalin treatment can effectively attenuate APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulating the ERK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors of inflammatory responses. These results support that baicalin is a potential hepatoprotective agent.

  13. A Distinct Replication Fork Protection Pathway Connects Fanconi Anemia Tumor Suppressors to RAD51-BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    Schlacher, Katharina; Wu, Hong; Jasin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Genes mutated in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) interact with the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2/FANCD1 to suppress tumorigenesis, but the molecular functions ascribed to them cannot fully explain all of their cellular roles. Here, we show a repair-independent requirement for FA genes, including FANCD2, and BRCA1 in protecting stalled replication forks from degradation. Fork protection is surprisingly rescued in FANCD2-deficient cells by elevated RAD51 levels or stabilized RAD51 filaments. Moreover, FANCD2-mediated fork protection is epistatic with RAD51 functions, revealing an unanticipated fork protection pathway that connects FA genes to RAD51 and the BRCA1/2 breast cancer suppressors. Collective results imply a unified molecular mechanism for repair-independent functions of FA, RAD51, and BRCA1/2 proteins in preventing genomic instability and suppressing tumorigenesis. PMID:22789542

  14. A distinct replication fork protection pathway connects Fanconi anemia tumor suppressors to RAD51-BRCA1/2.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Katharina; Wu, Hong; Jasin, Maria

    2012-07-10

    Genes mutated in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) interact with the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2/FANCD1 to suppress tumorigenesis, but the molecular functions ascribed to them cannot fully explain all of their cellular roles. Here, we show a repair-independent requirement for FA genes, including FANCD2, and BRCA1 in protecting stalled replication forks from degradation. Fork protection is surprisingly rescued in FANCD2-deficient cells by elevated RAD51 levels or stabilized RAD51 filaments. Moreover, FANCD2-mediated fork protection is epistatic with RAD51 functions, revealing an unanticipated fork protection pathway that connects FA genes to RAD51 and the BRCA1/2 breast cancer suppressors. Collective results imply a unified molecular mechanism for repair-independent functions of FA, RAD51, and BRCA1/2 proteins in preventing genomic instability and suppressing tumorigenesis.

  15. The small-molecule BGP-15 protects against heart failure and atrial fibrillation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Geeta; Tham, Yow Keat; Cemerlang, Nelly; Matsumoto, Aya; Kiriazis, Helen; Bernardo, Bianca C; Henstridge, Darren C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Pretorius, Lynette; Boey, Esther J H; Lim, Lydia; Sadoshima, Junichi; Meikle, Peter J; Mellet, Natalie A; Woodcock, Elizabeth A; Marasco, Silvana; Ueyama, Tomomi; Du, Xiao-Jun; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2014-12-09

    Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) share common risk factors, frequently coexist and are associated with high mortality. Treatment of HF with AF represents a major unmet need. Here we show that a small molecule, BGP-15, improves cardiac function and reduces arrhythmic episodes in two independent mouse models, which progressively develop HF and AF. In these models, BGP-15 treatment is associated with increased phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), which is depressed in atrial tissue samples from patients with AF. Cardiac-specific IGF1R transgenic overexpression in mice with HF and AF recapitulates the protection observed with BGP-15. We further demonstrate that BGP-15 and IGF1R can provide protection independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and heat-shock protein 70; signalling mediators often defective in the aged and diseased heart. As BGP-15 is safe and well tolerated in humans, this study uncovers a potential therapeutic approach for HF and AF.

  16. Flavonoids of Korean Citrus aurantium L. Induce Apoptosis via Intrinsic Pathway in Human Hepatoblastoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Yumnam, Silvia; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Raha, Suchismita; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Lee, Ho Jeong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-12-01

    Korean Citrus aurantium L. has long been used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. The present study investigates the anticancer role of flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium on human hepatoblastoma cell, HepG2. The Citrus flavonoids inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This result was consistent with the in vivo xenograft results. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphology, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblot. Flavonoids decreased the level of pAkt and other downstream targets of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway - P-4EBP1 and P-p70S6K. The expressions of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and Bak were increased, while those of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were decreased with an increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in treated cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in flavonoid-treated HepG2 cells. It was also observed that the P-p38 protein level was increased both dose and time dependently in flavonoid-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggest that flavonoid extracted from Citrus inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via an intrinsic pathway. These findings suggest that flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium L. are potential chemotherapeutic agents against liver cancer.

  17. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses adipocyte differentiation through the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2012-02-01

    EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate], tea catechin, is one of the compounds that has been reported to act against obesity and diabetes. To determine the effect of EGCG on adipocyte differentiation, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with different catechins. Oil Red O staining showed significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, especially with EGCG. Cell cycle analysis showed that EGCG inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing the cell cycle during the clonal expansion of 3T3-L1. RT-PCR (real-time PCR) demonstrated that EGCG noticeably reduced mRNA expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ), C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and FoxO1 (forkhead box class O1). EGCG also caused a significant decrease in the transcription of FoxO1 - the forkhead transcription factor class O1 involved in adipocyte differentiation - via the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase] pathways. These results suggest that EGCG suppresses the clonal expansion of adipocytes by inactivating FoxO1 via insulin signalling and stress-dependent MAPK pathways.

  18. Effects of cannabidiol interactions with Wnt/β-catenin pathway and PPARγ on oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves; Guillevin, Rémy; Vallée, Jean-Noël

    2017-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which the primary etiology remains unknown. AD presents amyloid beta (Aβ) protein aggregation and neurofibrillary plaque deposits. AD shows oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. In AD, canonical Wingless-Int (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway is downregulated, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is increased. Downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin, through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) by Aβ, and inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling involve oxidative stress in AD. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid from Cannabis sativa plant. In PC12 cells, Aβ-induced tau protein hyperphosphorylation is inhibited by CBD. This inhibition is associated with a downregulation of p-GSK-3β, an inhibitor of Wnt pathway. CBD may also increase Wnt/β-catenin by stimulation of PPARγ, inhibition of Aβ and ubiquitination of amyloid precursor protein. CBD attenuates oxidative stress and diminishes mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation. CBD suppresses, through activation of PPARγ, pro-inflammatory signaling and may be a potential new candidate for AD therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling pathway contributes to the protective effects of ischemic postconditioning against stroke.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Michelle; Sapolsky, Robert; Ji, Xunming; Zhao, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Whether the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is protective against brain injury from stroke or is detrimental is controversial, and whether it is involved in the protective effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) against stroke is unreported. Our study focuses on the protective role of mTOR against neuronal injury after stroke with and without IPC. We used both an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation model with a mixed neuronal culture and hypoxic postconditioning, as well as an in vivo stroke model with IPC. Rapamycin, a specific pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR, and mTOR short hairpin RNA lentiviral vectors were used to inhibit mTOR activity. A lentiviral vector expressing S6K1, a downstream molecule of mTOR, was used to confirm the protective effects of mTOR. Infarct sizes were measured and protein levels were examined by Western blot. We report that stroke resulted in reduced levels of phosphorylated proteins in the mTOR pathway, including S6K1, S6, and 4EBP1, and that IPC increased these proteins. mTOR inhibition, both by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and by mTOR short hairpin RNA, worsened ischemic outcomes in vitro and in vivo and abolished the protective effects of hypoxic postconditioning and IPC on neuronal death in vitro and brain injury size in vivo. Overexpression of S6K1 mediated by lentiviral vectors significantly attenuated brain infarction. mTOR plays a crucial protective role in brain damage after stroke and contributes to the protective effects of IPC. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Diets involved in PPAR and PI3K/AKT/PTEN pathway may contribute to neuroprotection in a traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic encephalopathy has emerged as a significant public health problem. It is believed that traumatic encephalopathy is caused by exposure to repetitive brain trauma prior to the initial symptoms of neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, prevention is important for the disease. The PI3K/AKT/PTEN (phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in neuroprotection, enhancing cell survival by stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. PTEN negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT pathways through its lipid phosphatase activity. Although PTEN has been discovered as a tumor suppressor, PTEN is also involved in several other diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. Dietary fish oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids may induce the PTEN expression by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Supplementation of these natural compounds may provide a new therapeutic approach to the brain disorder. We review recent studies on the features of several diets and the signaling pathways involved in traumatic encephalopathy. PMID:24074163

  1. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate inhibits inflammatory response through STAT3 pathway to protect remnant liver function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guang-Hua; Yang, Hua-Yu; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Ren, Jin-Jun; Sang, Xin-Ting; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Shou-Xian; Mao, Yi-Lei

    2015-11-21

    To investigate the protective effect of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on excessive hepatectomy animal model and its possible mechanism. We used the standard 90% hepatectomy model in Sprague-Dawley rats developed using the modified Emond's method, in which the left, middle, right upper, and right lower lobes of the liver were removed. Rats with 90% liver resection were divided into three groups, and were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mL saline (control group), 30 mg/kg (low-dose group) and 60 mg/kg (high-dose group) of MgIG, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at various time points and blood was drawn from the vena cava. Biochemical tests were performed with an automatic biochemical analyzer for the following items: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamyl endopeptidase, total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), total protein, albumin, blood glucose (Glu), hyper-sensitivity C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). Postoperative survival time was observed hourly until death. Hepatocyte regeneration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and iNOS) was analyzed by ELISA. STAT3 protein and mRNA were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, respectively. The high-dose group demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival time, compared with both the control and the low-dose groups (22.0 ± 4.7 h vs 8.9 ± 2.0 vs 10.3 ± 3.3 h, P = 0.018). There were significant differences among the groups in ALT, Glu and PT levels starting from 6 h after surgery. The ALT levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. Both Glu and PT levels were significantly higher in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. At 12 h, ALT, AST, TBil, DBil and TT levels showed significant differences between the MgIG treated groups and the control group. No significant differences in hepatocyte

  2. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted.

  3. Hyperoside protects human primary melanocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BIN; YANG, QIN; YANG, XIN; YAN, HONG-BO; LU, QI-PING

    2016-01-01

    Cuscutae semen has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of vitiligo, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, whereas the effects of its constituent compounds remains to be elucidated. Using a tetrazolium bromide assay, the present study found that hyperoside (0.5–200 µg/ml) significantly increased the viability of human melanocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The present study used a cell model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to examine the effect of hyperoside on human primary melanocytes. The results demonstrated that hyperoside pretreatment for 2 h decreased cell apoptosis from 54.03±9.11 to 17.46±3.10% in the H2O2-injured melanocytes. The levels of oxidative stress in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the melanocytes increased following hyperoside pretreatment. The mRNA and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase 3 were regulated by hyperoside, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were also mediated by hyperoside. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that hyperoside protected the human primary melanocytes against oxidative damage. PMID:27082158

  4. Developing Pathways to Assist Parents to Exit the Child Protection System in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Paul; Day, Crispin

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of child abuse and neglect is an international concern that justifies the existence of child protection systems. An important first principle for all such statutory child protection systems is to ensure that the system itself does no further harm. It can be argued that there are specific circumstances within which well-meaning…

  5. Catalpol Protects Pre-Myelinating Oligodendrocytes against Ischemia-induced Oxidative Injury through ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiyan; Ma, Teng; Li, Chengren; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability of pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes (PreOLs) to ischemic injury plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of perinatal white matter injury. Although oxidative stress is thought to be a major pathogenic mechanism predisposing the PreOLs to injury, no effective therapies have been identified to date. The present study aimed to investigate the direct protective effects of catalpol, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, on ischemia-induced oxidative damage in PreOLs and to explore whether the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by catalpol. Primary cultures of PreOLs exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reperfusion were used as an in vitro model of ischemia. Pretreatment with 0.5 mM catalpol for 1 h prior to OGD treatment significantly reversed ischemia-induced apoptosis in PreOLs and myelination deficits by inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ increase, reducing mitochondrial damage, and ameliorating overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and activated poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were also markedly decreased by catalpol treatment. Blocking the ERK1/2 signaling pathway with the MEK inhibitor U0126 and catalpol significantly protected PreOLs from ROS-mediated apoptosis under OGD. Taken together, these results suggest that catalpol protects PreOLs against ischemia-induced oxidative injury through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Catalpol may be a candidate for treating ischemic white matter damage. PMID:27994507

  6. H2S protects PC12 cells against toxicity of corticosterone by modulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shenglan; Li, Wenting; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Tian, Ying; Xiao, Fan; Gu, Hongfeng; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    Corticosterone, one of the glucocorticoids, is toxic to neurons and plays an important role in depressive-like behavior and depression. We previously showed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel physiological mediator, plays an inhibitory role in depression. However, the mechanism underlying H2S-triggered antidepressant-like role is not clearly known. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophic factor, plays a neuroprotective role that is mediated by its high-affinity tropomysin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor. In this study, to investigate the underlying mechanism of H2S-induced antidepressant-like role, we explored whether H2S could protect neurons against corticosterone-mediated cyctotoxicity and whether this protective role of H2S was involved in the regulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. Our data demonstrated that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), the donor of H2S, could prevent corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in PC12 cells. NaHS not only induced the up-regulation of BDNF but also prevented the down-regulation of BDNF by corticosterone. It was also found that blocking BDNF-TrkB pathway by K252a, an inhibitor of TrkB, abolished the protection of H2S against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, accumulation of ROS, and loss of MMP. These results suggest that H2S protects against the neurotoxicity of corticosterone by modulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Autophagy protects gastric mucosal epithelial cells from ethanol-induced oxidative damage via mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weilong; Bai, Jie; Tian, Shaobo; Ma, Muyuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Yuping; Deng, Rui; Cui, Jinyuan; Li, Jinjin; Wang, Guobin; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Kaixiong

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important cause of gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury and gastric ulcers. A number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism, has a protective effect on cell survival. However, it is not known whether autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against the toxic effects of ethanol. In the present study, gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) and Wistar rats were treated with ethanol to detect the adaptive response of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that ethanol exposure induced gastric mucosal epithelial cell damage, which was accompanied by the downregulation of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of autophagy. Suppression of autophagy with pharmacological agents resulted in a significant increase of GES-1 cell apoptosis and gastric mucosa injury, suggesting that autophagy could protect cells from ethanol toxicity. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular oxidative stress response following ethanol treatment and found that autophagy induced by ethanol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and degradation of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate oxidative damage induced by ethanol in gastric mucosal epithelial cells. Therefore, modifying autophagy may provide a therapeutic strategy against alcoholic gastric mucosa injury. Impact statement The effect and mechanism of autophagy on ethanol-induced cell damage remain controversial. In this manuscript, we report the results of our study demonstrating that autophagy can protect gastric mucosal epithelial cells against ethanol toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that ethanol can activate autophagy via downregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, serving as an adaptive mechanism to ameliorate ethanol-induced oxidative damage in

  8. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitric oxide pathway activity modulation alters the protective effects of (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on reserpine-induced impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Neng; Chang, Kuo-Chi; Lin, Rui-Feng; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Shih, Ruoh-Lan; Tseng, Hsiang-Chien; Soung, Hung-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Chia

    2016-05-15

    Reserpine (RES) has been reported to increase the brain's neural oxidative stress and cause cognitive dysfunction. Having powerful antioxidative properties, green tea catechins, especially (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are able to protect against many oxidative injuries. In this study, we examined the protecting properties of EGCG on RES-induced impairment of short-term memory in three-month-old male Wistar rats. RES (1mg/kg i.p.) induced memory impairment (p<0.001) as evaluated by the social recognition task. EGCG treatment (100mg/kg i.p. for 7days, starting 6days before RES injection) was able to improve the impaired memory caused by RES. RES treatment increased the nitric oxide (NO) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) production, and decreased the antioxidation power in hippocampi. EGCG treatment was able to counteract the RES-induced NO level and LPO production, as well as enhanced the hippocampal antioxidation power in RES-treated rats. In order to examine the implication of NO pathway activity in RES treatment, either NO precursor (L-arginine; L-A) or NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME; L-N) was co-pretreated with EGCG; NO precursor treatment eliminated the protective effect of EGCG, in contrast to that NO synthase inhibitor treatment significantly increased the EGCG effects on cognitive and biochemical protection in RES-treated rats. These results suggested that the NO pathway was implicated, at least in part, in the RES-induced impairment, as well as in the protective effect of EGCG in treating RES-induced impairment of memory. The above evidence provides a clinically relevant value for EGCG in preventing RES-induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog protects pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from apoptosis via ROCK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Shulin; Ma, Cui; Li, Weiyang; Falck, J.R.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Reddy, D. Sudarshan; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Zhu, Daling

    2010-08-15

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP), have many essential biologic roles in the cardiovascular system including inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we tested the potential of 8,9-EET and derivatives to protect pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from starvation induced apoptosis. We found 8,9-epoxy-eicos-11(Z)-enoic acid (8,9-EET analog (214)), but not 8,9-EET, increased cell viability, decreased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased TUNEL-positive cells or nuclear condensation induced by serum deprivation (SD) in PASMCs. These effects were reversed after blocking the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway with Y-27632 or HA-1077. Therefore, 8,9-EET analog (214) protects PASMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, mediated at least in part via the ROCK pathway. Serum deprivation of PASMCs resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of Bax, all effects were reversed by 8,9-EET analog (214) in a ROCK dependent manner. Because 8,9-EET and not the 8,9-EET analog (214) protects pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), these observations suggest the potential to differentially promote apoptosis or survival with 8,9-EET or analogs in pulmonary arteries.

  11. 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog protects pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from apoptosis via ROCK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Shulin; Ma, Cui; Li, Weiyang; Falck, J.R.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Reddy, D. Sudarshan; Medhora, Meetha; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Zhu, Daling

    2010-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP), have many essential biologic roles in the cardiovascular system including inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we tested the potential of 8,9-EET and derivatives to protect pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from starvation induced apoptosis. We found 8,9-epoxy-eicos-11(Z)-enoic acid (8,9-EET analog(214)), but not 8,9-EET, increased cell viability, decreased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased TUNEL-positive cells or nuclear condensation induced by serum deprivation (SD) in PASMCs. These effects were reversed after blocking the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway with Y-27632 or HA-1077. Therefore, 8,9-EET analog(214) protects PASMC from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, mediated at least in part via the ROCK pathway. Serum deprivation of PASMCs resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of Bax, all effects were reversed by 8,9-EET analog(214) in a ROCK dependent manner. Because 8,9-EET and not the 8,9-EET analog(214) protects pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), these observations suggest the potential to differentially promote apoptosis or survival with 8,9-EET or analogs in pulmonary arteries. PMID:20493836

  12. Hypoxic preconditioning protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury through AMPK/eNOS/PGC-1α signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Zhou, Lu; Wu, Xiaowei; Liu, Chao; Fan, Yue; Li, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of multiple cellular pathways in the setting of energetic stress. Whether AMPK plays a critical role in hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), protecting cardiomyocytes against hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains uncertain. Methods: H9c2 cells were preconditioned by exposing to 10 min of hypoxia and 30 min of reoxygenation. Then, the preconditioned and non-preconditioned cardiomyocytes were exposed to 90 min of hypoxia followed by 120 min of reoxygenation. Results: HPC protected H9c2 cells against H/R injury, the AMPK inhibitor or eNOS inhibitor abolished the effect of HPC. Compared with H/R group, HPC significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK (Thr172). HPC also markedly increased p-eNOS (Ser1177) expression, which was abolished by AMPK inhibition. HPC significantly increased PGC-1α expression, which were nullified by AMPK inhibition or eNOS inhibition. HPC attenuated the oxidative stress by increasing the SOD activity and decreasing the MDA and ROS level, which were abolished by AMPK inhibition or eNOS inhibition. Interestingly, the AMPK activator metformin mimicked the effects of HPC in part. Conclusions: These results indicated that HPC protects H9c2 cells against H/R injury by reducing oxidative stress partly via AMPK/eNOS/PGC-1α signaling pathway. PMID:25550773

  13. EGb 761 Protects Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury and Exerts Inhibitory Effect on the ATM Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Zhuang; Han, Dong; Yang, Kan

    2017-03-28

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) has been widely used clinically to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) may be a proper cellular model in vitro for the effect and mechanism study against MIRI. However, the protective effect of EGb 761 on MVECs resisting hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is little reported. In this study, H/R-injured MVECs were treated with EGb 761, and then the cell viability, apoptosis, ROS production, SOD activity, caspase-3 activity, and protein level of ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax were measured. ATM siRNA was transfected to study the changes of protein in the ATM pathway. EGb 761 presented protective effect on H/R-injured MVECs, with decreasing cell death, apoptosis, and ROS, and elevated SOD activity. Next, EGb 761 could inhibit H/R-induced ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ATM siRNA also could inhibit H/R-induced ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax. Overall, these findings verify that EGb 761 protects cardiac MVECs from H/R injury, and for the first time, illustrate the influence on the ATM pathway and apoptosis by EGb 761 via dampening ROS.

  14. Numb Protects Human Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells From Bovine Serum Albumin-Induced Apoptosis Through Antagonizing CHOP/PERK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuebing; Ma, Mingming; Teng, Junfang; Shao, Fengmin; Wu, Erxi; Wang, Xuejing

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies, we found that Numb is involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of renal proximal tubular cells; however, its function on ER stress-induced apoptosis in proteinuric kidney disease remains unknown. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of Numb in urinary albumin-induced apoptosis of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). In this study, we demonstrate that incubation of HKCs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in caspase three-dependent cell death. Numb expression was down-regulated by BSA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Numb by siRNA sensitized HKCs to BSA-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of Numb protected HKCs from BSA-induced apoptosis. Moreover, BSA activated CHOP/PERK signaling pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner as indicated by increased expression of CHOP, PERK, and P-PERK. Furthermore, knockdown of CHOP or PERK significantly attenuated the promoting effect of Numb on BSA-induced apoptosis, while overexpression of CHOP impaired the protective effect of Numb on BSA-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Numb plays a protective role on BSA-induced apoptosis through inhibiting CHOP/PERK signaling pathway in human renal tubular epithelial cells. Therefore, the results from this study provides evidence that Numb is a new target of ER-associated apoptotic signaling networks and Numb may serve as a promising therapeutic target for proteinuric diseases.

  15. Sinularin Induces Apoptosis through Mitochondria Dysfunction and Inactivation of the pI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in Gastric Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Jen; Wong, Bing-Sang; Yea, Shu-Hao; Lu, Chi-I; Weng, Shun-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Sinularin is an active compound isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis. In this study, we investigated the effects of sinularin on two human gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. Our results demonstrated that sinularin suppressed the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome C, the activation of Bax, Bad and caspase-3/9, and the suppression of p-Bad, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 were observed in the cells treated with sinularin. This finding suggests that sinularin-induced apoptosis is associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and occurs through caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, sinularin inhibited the phosphoinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of the rapamycin signaling pathway. Taken together, our results show that sinularin-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of the caspase cascade and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that sinularin merits further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for human gastric cancer. PMID:27472346

  16. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  17. Pathway of protection: Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and substance use among multiracial youth.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sycarah; Zapolski, Tamika C B; Sheehan, Chelsea; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2017-03-09

    Fifty percent of adolescents have tried an illicit drug and 70% have tried alcohol by the end of high school, with even higher rates among multiracial youth. Ethnic identity is a protective factor against substance use for minority groups. However, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate its protective effects, and even less is known about this relationship for multiracial youth. The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective effect of ethnic identity on substance use and to determine whether this relationship operated indirectly through self-esteem, a strong predictor of substance use for among adolescent populations. Participants included 468 multiracial youth in grades six through 12 (53% female). The results found that ethnic identity was indeed related to substance use, partially through changes in self-esteem. Findings from this study contribute to our understanding and development of models of risk and protection for an understudied population.

  18. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis

    2015-11-27

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world's poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented.

  19. PRAS40 plays a pivotal role in protecting against stroke by linking the Akt and mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoxing; Xie, Rong; Zhang, Hongfei; Gu, Lijuan; Xie, Weiying; Cheng, Michelle; Jian, Zhihong; Kovacina, Kristina; Zhao, Heng

    2014-06-01

    The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40kDa (PRAS40) protein is not only a substrate of the protein kinase Akt but also a component of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), thus it links the Akt and the mTOR pathways. We investigated the potential protective role of PRAS40 in cerebral ischemia and its underlying mechanisms by using rats with lentiviral over-expression of PRAS40 and mice with PRAS40 gene knockout (PRAS40 KO). Our results show that gene transfer of PRAS40 reduced infarction size in rats by promoting phosphorylation of Akt, FKHR (FOXO1), PRAS40, and mTOR. In contrast, PRAS40 KO increased infarction size. Although the PRAS40 KO under normal condition did not alter baseline levels of phosphorylated proteins in the Akt and mTOR pathways, PRAS40 KO that underwent stroke exhibited reduced protein levels of p-S6K and p-S6 in the mTOR pathway but not p-Akt, or p-PTEN in the Akt pathway. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation suggests that there were less interactive effects between Akt and mTOR in the PRAS40 KO. In conclusion, PRAS40 appears to reduce brain injury by converting cell signaling from Akt to mTOR. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Baclofen Protects Primary Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis Through the Akt and PERK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Pingping; Wu, Qiang; Hu, Jianyan; Li, Tingting; Gao, Fengjuan

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) consume large quantities of energy to convert light information into a neuronal signal, which makes them highly susceptible to hypoxic injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection by baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist of RGCs against hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was applied to mimic hypoxia. Primary rat RGCs were subjected to CoCl2 with or without baclofen treatment, and RNA interference techniques were used to knock down the GABAB2 gene in the primary RGCs. The viability and apoptosis of RGCs were assessed using cell viability and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays, Hoechst staining, and flow cytometry. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, bcl-2, bax, Akt, phospho-Akt, protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), phospho-PERK, eIF2α, phospho-eIF2α, ATF-4 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were measured using western blotting. GABAB2 mRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Our study revealed that CoCl2 significantly induced RGC apoptosis and that baclofen reversed these effects. CoCl2-induced reduction of Akt activity was also reversed by baclofen. Baclofen prevented the activation of the PERK pathway and the increase in CHOP expression induced by CoCl2. Knockdown of GABAB2 and the inactivation of the Akt pathway by inhibitors reduced the protective effect of baclofen on CoCl2-treated RGCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that baclofen protects RGCs from CoCl2-induced apoptosis by increasing Akt activity and by suppressing the PERK pathway and CHOP activation. PMID:27867349

  1. Erythropoietin-mediated protection of insect brain neurons involves JAK and STAT but not PI3K transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Miljus, N; Heibeck, S; Jarrar, M; Micke, M; Ostrowski, D; Ehrenreich, H; Heinrich, R

    2014-01-31

    The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) initiates adaptive cellular responses to both moderate environmental challenges and tissue damaging insults in various non-hematopoietic mammalian tissues including the nervous system. Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative functions of Epo in mammals are mediated through receptor-associated Janus kinase 2 and intracellular signaling cascades that modify the transcription of Epo-regulated genes. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) represent key components of two important Epo-induced transduction pathways. Our previous study on insects revealed neuroprotective and regenerative functions of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) similar to those in mammalian nervous tissues. Here we demonstrate that rhEpo effectively rescues primary cultured locust brain neurons from apoptotic cell death induced by hypoxia or the chemical compound H-7. The Janus kinase inhibitor AG-490 and the STAT inhibitor sc-355797 abolished protective effects of rhEpo on locust brain neurons. In contrast, inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 had no effect on rhEpo-mediated neuroprotection. The results indicate that rhEpo mediates the protection of locust brain neurons through interference with apoptotic pathways by the activation of a Janus kinase-associated receptor and STAT transcription factor(s). The involvement of similar transduction pathways in mammals and insects for the mediation of neuroprotection and support of neural regeneration by Epo indicates that an Epo/Epo receptor-like signaling system with high structural and functional similarity exists in both groups of animals. Epo-like signaling involved in tissue protection appears to be an ancient beneficial function shared by vertebrates and invertebrates.

  2. Retraction: Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    RETRACTION: The following article from Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways by Wanghui Ding and Yuehua Liu, posted online on May 19, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Gary S. Stein and Wiley-Liss, Inc. The retraction has been made as authorization to publish was not granted by one of the funding bodies.

  3. Membrane insertion of anthrax protective antigen and cytoplasmic delivery of lethal factor occur at different stages of the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Abrami, Laurence; Lindsay, Margaret; Parton, Robert G; Leppla, Stephen H; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2004-08-30

    The protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin binds to a cell surface receptor, undergoes heptamerization, and binds the enzymatic subunits, the lethal factor (LF) and the edema factor (EF). The resulting complex is then endocytosed. Via mechanisms that depend on the vacuolar ATPase and require membrane insertion of PA, LF and EF are ultimately delivered to the cytoplasm where their targets reside. Here, we show that membrane insertion of PA already occurs in early endosomes, possibly only in the multivesicular regions, but that subsequent delivery of LF to the cytoplasm occurs preferentially later in the endocytic pathway and relies on the dynamics of internal vesicles of multivesicular late endosomes.

  4. Development of Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways Using Health-Protective Assumptions to Fill Data Gaps

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), the target site dose participates in a molecular initiating event (MIE), which in turn triggers a sequence of key events leading to an adverse outcome (AO). Quantitative AOPs (QAOP) are needed if AOP characterization is to address risk as well...

  5. The p38 MAPK and JNK Pathways Protect Host Cells against Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K+ from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K+-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K+-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival. PMID:23876806

  6. Public or Private Religiosity: Which Is Protective for Adolescent Substance Use and by What Pathways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Clark, Trenette T.; Snyder, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    While it is well understood that adolescent religiosity is associated with the use and abuse of licit and illicit substances, few studies have revealed the pathways through which religiosity buffers youth against involvement in such behavior. The aim of this study is to examine the complexity of the relationships between religiosity, sensation…

  7. Development of Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathways Using Health-Protective Assumptions to Fill Data Gaps

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), the target site dose participates in a molecular initiating event (MIE), which in turn triggers a sequence of key events leading to an adverse outcome (AO). Quantitative AOPs (QAOP) are needed if AOP characterization is to address risk as well...

  8. Public or Private Religiosity: Which Is Protective for Adolescent Substance Use and by What Pathways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Clark, Trenette T.; Snyder, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    While it is well understood that adolescent religiosity is associated with the use and abuse of licit and illicit substances, few studies have revealed the pathways through which religiosity buffers youth against involvement in such behavior. The aim of this study is to examine the complexity of the relationships between religiosity, sensation…

  9. Carvedilol protects bone marrow stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death via PI3K-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meihui; Chen, Shudong; Lin, Dingkun

    2016-03-01

    Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker, has been reported to exert potent anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death, which imitate the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord in vitro. Carvedilol significantly reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis and subsequent cell death. LY294002, the PI3K inhibitor, blocked the protective effects and up-regulation of Akt phosphorylation of carvedilol. Together, our results showed that carvedilol protects H2O2-induced BMSCs cell death partly through PI3K-Akt pathway, suggesting carvedilol could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury by improving the cell survival and oxidative stress microenvironments.

  10. Progestins Activate the AKT Pathway in Leiomyoma Cells and Promote Survival

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Anna V.; Sefton, Elizabeth C.; Berry, Emily; Lu, Zhenxiao; Hardt, Jennifer; Marsh, Erica; Yin, Ping; Clardy, Jon; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Bulun, Serdar; Kim, J. Julie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Progesterone has been associated with promoting growth of uterine leiomyomas. The mechanisms involved remain unclear. Objective: In this study we investigated the activation of the AKT pathway and its downstream effectors, glycogen synthase kinase-3b and Forkhead box O (FOXO)-1 by progesterone as a mechanism of proliferation and survival of leiomyoma cells. Inhibitors of the AKT pathway were used to demonstrate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and FOXO1 in contributing to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results: Treatment of leiomyoma cells with R5020 over a period of 72 h resulted in higher cell numbers compared with untreated cells. When cells were treated with 100 nm R5020 for 1 and 24 h, the levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT increased. This increase was inhibited when cells were cotreated with RU486. Treatment of leiomyoma cells with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294 dramatically decreased levels of phospho(Ser 473)-AKT, despite R5020 treatment. In addition to increased phospho(Ser 473)-AKT levels, R5020 treatment resulted in an increase in phospho(Ser 256)-FOXO1 and phosphoglycogen synthase kinase-3b. Inhibition of AKT using API-59 decreased proliferation and cell viability even in the presence of R5020. Higher concentrations of API-59-induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells, even in the presence of R5020. Psammaplysene A increased nuclear FOXO1 levels and did not affect cell proliferation but induced apoptosis of leiomyoma cells. Conclusions: The progestin, R5020, can rapidly activate the AKT pathway. Inhibition of the AKT pathway inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of leiomyoma cells. PMID:19240153

  11. Helium preconditioning protects mouse liver against ischemia and reperfusion injury through the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongjia; Zhang, Ling; Manaenko, Anatol; Ye, Zhouheng; Liu, Wenwu; Sun, Xuejun

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major complication of liver transplantation, hepatic resection and trauma. Helium preconditioning (HPC) exerts protection against ischemic stress. We investigated potential beneficial effects of HPC on I/R-induced liver injury and investigated mechanisms underlying HPC-induced protection. We employed a model of segmental warm hepatic I/R on BALB/c mice. Serum ALT was measured and livers were analysed by histology, RT-PCR and western blot. HPC was induced by inhalation of a 70% helium/30% oxygen mixture for three 5-min periods, interspersed with three 5-min washout periods by room air. We tested which component of HPC (the helium/air mixture inhalation, the air room gap, or the interaction between these two factors) is protective. We found that HPC caused a significant increase in Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes. The HPC-induced Akt phosphorylation resulted in decreased hepatocellular injury and improved survival rate of the treated animals. PI3K inhibitors abolished HPC induced effects. HPC-induced Akt phosphorylation affected expression of its downstream molecules. The effects of HPC on the PI3K/Akt pathway were attenuated by adenosine A2A receptor blockade, but could be re-established by PTEN inhibition. We demonstrated that the interaction of helium/air breathing and air gaps is responsible for the observed effects of HPC. HPC may be a promising strategy leading to a decrease in I/R induced liver injury in clinical settings. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the protective effects of HPC in hepatic I/R injury. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  12. Exogenous H2S Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Activating Autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Linxue; Gao, Zhaopeng; Sun, Xiaojiao; Yu, Miao; Dong, Shiyun; Wu, Jichao; Zhao, Yajun; Xu, Changqing; Zhang, Weihua; Lu, Fanghao

    2017-10-05

    Autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis through the disposal and recycling of cellular components. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is the third endogenous gas that has been shown to confer cardiac protective effects. Given the regulation of autophagy in cardioprotection, this study aimed to investigate the protective effects of H2S via autophagy during high glucose treatment. This study investigated the content of H2S in the plasma as well as myocardial, ultrastructural changes in mitochondria and autophagosomes. This study also investigated the apoptotic rate using Hoechst/PI as well as expression of autophagy-associated proteins and mitochondrial apoptotic proteins in H9C2 cells treated with or without GYY4137. Mitochondria of cardiac tissues were isolated and RCR and ADP/O were also detected. AMPK knockdown was performed with siRNA transfection. In a STZ-induced diabetic model, NaHS treatment not only increased the expression of p-AMPK in diabetic group but further activated cell autophagy. Following 48h high glucose, autophagosomes and cell viability were reduced. The present results showed that autophagy could be induced by H2S, which was verified by autophagic ultrastructural observation and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was significantly decreased. The expressions levels of autophagic-related proteins were significantly elevated. Moreover, H2S activated the AMPK/rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that H2S decreases oxidative stress and protects against mitochondria injury, activates autophagy, and eventually leads to cardiac protection via the AMPK/mTOR pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Chlorogenic acid protects MSCs against oxidative stress by altering FOXO family genes and activating intrinsic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyong; Bian, Hetao; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Ye; Dai, Jianghua; He, Wenfeng; Liao, Xingen; Liu, Rongrong; Luo, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant exists widely in edible and medicinal plants, and can protect cell against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Chlorogenic acid suppressed reactive oxygen species increase by activation of Akt phosphorylation,and increased FOXO family genes and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in MSCs culturing under oxidative stress. In addition, PI-3Kinase Inhibitor (2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002) could suppress the Chlorogenic acid-induced: (1) the cellular protective role, (2) the increase of the FOXO family genes expression, (3) increased expression of Bcl-2. These results suggested that Chlorogenic acid protected MSCs against apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signal and FOXO family genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tat-NOL3 protects against hippocampal neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress through the regulation of apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Yong, Ji In; Ryu, Eun Ji; Park, Jung Hwan; Cho, Su Bin; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Im, Seung Kwon; Kweon, Hae Young; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Meeyoung; Park, Jinseu; Cho, Yong-Jun; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is associated with neuronal cell death and ischemia. The NOL3 [nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain)] protein protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, the protective mechanism responsible for this effect as well as the effects of NOL3 against oxidative stress in ischemia remain unclear. Thus, we examined the protective effects of NOL3 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and the mechanism responsible for these effects in hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells and in an animal model of forebrain ischemia using Tat-fused NOL3 protein (Tat-NOL3). Purified Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the H2O2-exposed HT22 cells and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In addition, Tat-NOL3 prevented neuronal cell death through the regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-2, -3 and -8, PARP and p53. In addition, Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the animal brains and significantly protected against neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus by regulating the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Tat-NOL3 protein protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death by regulating oxidative stress and by acting as an anti-apoptotic protein. Thus, we suggest that Tat-NOL3 represents a potential therapeutic agent for protection against ischemic brain injury.

  15. NaHS Protects Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin-Induced Ototoxicity by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yaodong; Liu, Dongliang; Hu, Yue; Ma, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin could cause ototoxicity in mammalians, by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in sensory hair cells of the cochlea. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) is reported to alleviate oxidative stress and apoptosis, but its role in protecting aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis effect of NaHS in in vitro cultured House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and isolated mouse cochlea. Results from cultured HEI-OC1 cells and cochlea consistently indicated that NaHS exhibited protective effects from gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, evident by maintained cell viability, hair cell number and cochlear morphology, reduced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, as well as apoptosis activation of the intrinsic pathway. Moreover, in the isolated cochlear culture, NaHS was also demonstrated to protect the explant from gentamicin-induced mechanotransduction loss. Our study using multiple in vitro models revealed for the first time, the potential of NaHS as a therapeutic agent in protecting against aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. PMID:26295804

  16. Lycopene protects pancreatic acinar cells against severe acute pancreatitis by abating the oxidative stress through JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, J C; Wang, G; Pan, S H; Bai, X W; Sun, B

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in both in vivo and in vitro models. Utilizing a rat model, we found that lycopene administration protected against SAP, as indicated by the decreased levels of serum amylase and C-reactive protein. Pathological changes were alleviated by pretreatment with lycopene. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were decreased by lycopene. The decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in the pancreatic tissues of the lycopene-treated group were indirectly evaluated by measuring the levels of myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Lycopene protected acinar cells against necrosis and apoptosis by relieving the mitochondrial and endoplasmic stress caused by ROS which was shown in electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry staining of active nuclear factor-κB p65. The protective effect was also observed in a simulated SAP model in a rat acinar cell line. ROS and apoptotic staining were compared between groups. Lycopene exerts protective effects against SAP in rats that may be related to its anti-inflammatory property through inhibiting the expression of damage-associated molecular patterns, and anti-oxidative property which can thus maintain cellular homeostasis and prevent the phosphorylation of JNK pathway.

  17. Alfa-lipoic acid protects testosterone secretion pathway and sperm quality against 4-tert-octylphenol induced reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Othman, Azza I; El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Koriem, Khaled M; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2012-07-01

    The protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) (50 mg/kg bw) against 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) (50 mg/kg bw) induced reproductive toxicity in male rats was studied. LA was injected 1h prior to OP administration three times a week. OP caused significant increase in oxidative stress in hypothalamus and epididymal sperm, disturbed hormonal levels in serum, decreased sperm quality, increased DNA fragmentation and loss of 35 and 95 kDa proteins in sperm, as well as elevated proliferating index in testis. LA protected against oxidative stress through promoting the levels of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase in hypothalamus and sperm. In addition, LA prevented the decrease in testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and inhibited the elevations in sex-hormone-binding globulin levels and showed normal sperm quality. LA modulated proliferation of germ cell, protected against DNA fragmentation and maintained membrane protein organization in the sperm. In conclusion, LA normalized oxidative stress and protected testosterone synthesis pathway across hypothalamus-testicular axis and sperm quality indicating its defensive influence against OP-induced oxidative reproductive dysfunction in male rats.

  18. Delivering sustainable crop protection systems via the seed: exploiting natural constitutive and inducible defence pathways.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Aradottír, Gudbjorg I; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A; Hooper, Antony M; Midega, Charles A O; Jones, Huw D; Matthes, Michaela C; Napier, Johnathan A; Pittchar, Jimmy O; Smart, Lesley E; Woodcock, Christine M; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-05

    To reduce the need for seasonal inputs, crop protection will have to be delivered via the seed and other planting material. Plant secondary metabolism can be harnessed for this purpose by new breeding technologies, genetic modification and companion cropping, the latter already on-farm in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary metabolites offer the prospect of pest management as robust as that provided by current pesticides, for which many lead compounds were, or are currently deployed as, natural products. Evidence of success and promise is given for pest management in industrial and developing agriculture. Additionally, opportunities for solving wider problems of sustainable crop protection, and also production, are discussed.

  19. Delivering sustainable crop protection systems via the seed: exploiting natural constitutive and inducible defence pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, John A.; Aradottír, Gudbjorg I.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Hooper, Antony M.; Midega, Charles A. O.; Jones, Huw D.; Matthes, Michaela C.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Pittchar, Jimmy O.; Smart, Lesley E.; Woodcock, Christine M.; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the need for seasonal inputs, crop protection will have to be delivered via the seed and other planting material. Plant secondary metabolism can be harnessed for this purpose by new breeding technologies, genetic modification and companion cropping, the latter already on-farm in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary metabolites offer the prospect of pest management as robust as that provided by current pesticides, for which many lead compounds were, or are currently deployed as, natural products. Evidence of success and promise is given for pest management in industrial and developing agriculture. Additionally, opportunities for solving wider problems of sustainable crop protection, and also production, are discussed. PMID:24535389

  20. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response activator ATFS-1 protects cells from inhibition of the mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rauthan, Manish; Ranji, Parmida; Aguilera Pradenas, Nataly; Pitot, Christophe; Pilon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol via the mevalonate pathway. This pathway also produces coenzyme Q (a component of the respiratory chain), dolichols (important for protein glycosylation), and isoprenoids (lipid moieties responsible for the membrane association of small GTPases). We previously showed that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is useful to study the noncholesterol effects of statins because its mevalonate pathway lacks the sterol synthesis branch but retains all other branches. Here, from a screen of 150,000 mutagenized genomes, we isolated four C. elegans mutants resistant to statins by virtue of gain-of-function mutations within the first six amino acids of the protein ATFS-1, the key regulator of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response that includes activation of the chaperones HSP-6 and HSP-60. The atfs-1 gain-of-function mutants are also resistant to ibandronate, an inhibitor of an enzyme downstream of HMG-CoA reductase, and to gliotoxin, an inhibitor acting on a subbranch of the pathway important for protein prenylation, and showed improved mitochondrial function and protein prenylation in the presence of statins. Additionally, preinduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in wild-type worms using ethidium bromide or paraquat triggered statin resistance, and similar observations were made in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in a mammalian cell line. We conclude that statin resistance through maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis is conserved across species, and that the cell-lethal effects of statins are caused primarily through impaired protein prenylation that results in mitochondria dysfunction. PMID:23530189

  1. Lead toxicity induces autophagy to protect against cell death through mTORC1 pathway in cardiofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sui, Li; Zhang, Rui-Hong; Zhang, Ping; Yun, Ke-Li; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Li; Hu, Ming-Xu

    2015-03-31

    Heavy metals, such as lead (Pb(2+)), are usually accumulated in human bodies and impair human's health. Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. In the present study, we proposed to investigate the effects of lead toxicity in cultured cardiofibroblasts. After lead treatment, cultured cardiofibroblasts showed severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, the lead-treated cardiofibroblasts were not dramatically apoptotic. Further, we found that these cells determined to undergo autophagy through inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) may dramatically enhance lead toxicity in cardiofibroblasts and cause cell death. Our data establish that lead toxicity induces cell stress in cardiofibroblasts and protective autophagy is activated by inhibition of mTORC1 pathway. These findings describe a mechanism by which lead toxicity may promote the autophagy of cardiofibroblasts cells, which protects cells from cell stress. Our findings provide evidence that autophagy may help cells to survive under ER stress conditions in cardiofibroblasts and may set up an effective therapeutic strategy for heavy metal toxicity.

  2. Apigenin exhibits protective effects in a mouse model of d-galactose-induced aging via activating the Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ying; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Heng; Yao, Jianqiao; Chen, Ruichuan; Zhou, Zhengdao; Yang, Kun; Xie, Yan; Wan, Tianfeng; Ding, Hong

    2017-06-21

    The aim of the present research was to study the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of apigenin on d-galactose-induced aging mice. Firstly, apigenin exhibited a potent antioxidant activity in vitro. Secondly, d-galactose was administered by subcutaneous injection once daily for 8 weeks to establish an aging mouse model to investigate the protective effect of apigenin. We found that apigenin supplementation significantly ameliorated aging-related changes such as behavioral impairment, decreased organic index, histopathological injury, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) activity and advanced glycation end product (AGE) level. Further data showed that apigenin facilitated Nrf2 nuclear translocation both in aging mice and normal young mice, and the Nrf2 expression of normal young mice was higher than that of natural senile mice. In addition, the expressions of Nrf2 downstream gene targets, including HO-1 and NQO1, were also promoted by apigenin administration. Moreover, apigenin also decreased the MDA level and elevated SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, focusing on the Nrf2 pathway is a suitable strategy to delay the aging process, and apigenin may exert an anti-senescent effect process via activating the Nrf2 pathway.

  3. The sigma-1 receptor-Zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. PMID:26792191

  4. The sigma-1 receptor-zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury.

    PubMed

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-01-01

    Background The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03) had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. Methods Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58) or never had a drinking problem (n = 43). This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs) and non-problem drinkers (NPs). Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. Results Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a) individual, family, and community characteristics; (b) trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c) experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d) reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more socially

  6. "Tied together like a woven hat:" Protective pathways to Alaska native sobriety.

    PubMed

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Rasmus, S Michelle; Thomas, Lisa; Allen, James; Hazel, Kelly; Hensel, Chase

    2004-11-17

    BACKGROUND: The People Awakening Project (1RO1 AA 11446-03) had two purposes, completed in Phase I and Phase II of the project. The purpose of Phase I was to complete a qualitative study; the research objective was discovery oriented with the specific aim of identification of protective and recovery factors in Alaska Native sobriety. Results were used to develop a heuristic model of protective and recovery factors, and measures based on these factors. The research objective of Phase II was to pilot these measures and provide initial validity data. METHODS: Phase I utilized a life history methodology. People Awakening interviewed a convenience sample of 101 Alaska Natives who had either recovered from alcoholism (n = 58) or never had a drinking problem (n = 43). This later group included both lifetime abstainers (LAs) and non-problem drinkers (NPs). Life histories were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and consensual data analytic procedures within a participatory action research framework. Analyses were utilized to generate heuristic models of protection and recovery from alcohol abuse among Alaska Natives. RESULTS: Analyses generated a heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol abuse. The resulting multilevel and multi-factorial model describes interactive and reciprocal influences of (a) individual, family, and community characteristics; (b) trauma and the individual and contextual response to trauma, (c) experimental substance use and the person's social environment; and (d) reflective processes associated with a turning point, or a life decision regarding sobriety. The importance of cultural factors mediating all these protective processes is emphasized. For NPs, the resilience process drew from personal stores of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and self-mastery that derived from ability to successfully maneuver within stressful or potentially traumatizing environments. In contrast, for many LAs, efficacy was instead described in more

  7. Pathway Aggregation in the Risk Assessment of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) of Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Yilmaz, Alper; Yue, Meng; Cheng, Lap-Yan

    2015-01-23

    The framework for Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR & PP) evaluation is to define a set of challenges, to obtain the system responses, and to assess the outcomes. The assessment of outcomes heavily relies on pathways, defined as sequences of events or actions that could potentially be followed by a State or a group of individuals in order to achieve a proliferation objective, with the defined threats as initiating events. There may be large number of segments connecting pathway stages (e.g. acquisition, processing, and fabrication for PR) which can lead to even larger number of pathways or scenarios through possible different combinations of segment connections, each with associated probabilities contributing to the overall risk. Clustering of these scenarios in specified stage attribute intervals is important for their tractable analysis and outcome assessment. A software tool for scenario generation and clustering (OSUPR) is developed that utilizes the PRCALC code developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for scenario generation and the K- means, mean shift and adaptive mean shift algorithms as possible clustering schemes. The results of the study using the Example Sodium Fast Breeder as an example system show that clustering facilitates the probabilistic or deterministic analysis of scenarios to identify system vulnerabilities and communication of the major risk contributors to stakeholders. The results of the study also show that the mean shift algorithm has the most potential for assisting the analysis of the scenarios generated by PRCALC.

  8. Protective function of SLC30A10 induced via PERK-ATF4 pathway against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium.

    PubMed

    Go, Suzuna; Kurita, Hisaka; Yokoo, Kazuki; Inden, Masatoshi; Kambe, Taiho; Hozumi, Isao

    2017-09-02

    Solute carrier family 30 member 10 (SLC30A10) has been known as manganese transporter. It has been suggested that neurodegenerative diseases are related with cellular stress such as oxidative stress or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it remains unknown whether SLC30A10 is actually involved in several intracellular stress. We found that the level of Slc30a10 was increased in midbrain of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Therefore, we further investigated the role of SLC30A10 in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpiridium ion (MPP(+))-induced intracellular stress, and the molecular mechanism underlying SLC30A10 induction by MPP(+) treatment. In human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) treated with MPP(+) (1 mM), the SLC30A10 mRNA level was significantly increased, and in addition, the expression of CHOP, which is known as one of ER stress markers, was significantly increased by MPP(+). Interestingly, the level of SLC30A10 mRNA was significantly increased by tunicamycin as an ER stressor, suggesting that the induction of SLC30A10 by MPP(+) was caused via ER stress. Considering that PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway is activated under ER stress induced by MPP(+), we investigated whether the expression of SLC30A10 is increased through ATF4, which is major transcription factor in PERK pathway. The increase of SLC30A10 expression in MPP(+)-treated cells was eliminated by ATF4 knockdown. And the protective role of SLC30A10 against MPP(+)-induced ER stress was confirmed by measuring cell viability in SLC30A10 knockdown cells. In conclusion, SLC30A10 is thought to have protective role for MPP(+)-induced toxicity via PERK-ATF4 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interleukin-18 directly protects cortical neurons by activating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB/CREB pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Ping, Feng-feng; Lv, Wen-ting; Feng, Jun-yi; Shang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, was initially identified as an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducing factor. IL-18 is expressed in both immune and non-immune cells and participates in the adjustment of multitude cellular functions. Nonetheless, the effects of IL-18 on cortical neurons have not been explored. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of IL-18 on rat primary cortical neurons and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We proved that rrIL-18 increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with rrIL-18 (50 ng/ml) deactivated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) by facilitating its phosphorylation, enhanced the expression of Phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) and p-Akt, standing for the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. As its pivotal downstream pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)/Bcl-2 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined in further steps. Our data revealed that rrIL-18 stimulated NF-κB activation, improved p-CREB and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression levels. But rrIL-18 had little or no effect on GSK-3β pathway. Besides, rrIL-18 increased levels of BDNF and Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression to protect cortical neurons from damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). These results in vitro showed the protection of IL-18 on cortical neurons. And this direct neuroprotective effect of IL-18 is crippled by PI3K inhibitor wortmannin.

  10. A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jeffrey M.; Maillet, Marjorie; Vanhoutte, Davy; Schloemer, Aryn; Sargent, Michelle A.; Blair, N. Scott; Lynch, Kaari A.; Okada, Tetsuya; Aronow, Bruce J.; Osinska, Hanna; Prywes, Ron; Lorenz, John N.; Mori, Kazutoshi; Lawler, Jack; Robbins, Jeffrey; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Thrombospondin (Thbs) proteins are induced in sites of tissue damage or active remodeling. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is also prominently induced with disease where it regulates protein production and resolution of misfolded proteins. Here we describe a novel function for Thbs’ as ER resident effectors of an adaptive ER stress response. Thbs4 cardiac-specific transgenic mice were protected from myocardial injury while Thbs4−/− mice were sensitized to cardiac maladaptation. Thbs induction produced a unique profile of adaptive ER stress response factors and expansion of the ER and downstream vesicles. The type-3 repeat domain in Thbs’ bind the ER luminal domain of activating transcription factor 6α (Atf6α) to promote its nuclear shuttling. Thbs4−/−mice failed to show activation of Atf6α and other ER stress response factors with injury, and Thbs4-mediated protection was lost when Atf6α was deleted. Hence, Thbs’ can function inside the cell during disease/remodeling to augment ER function and protect through a mechanism involving regulation of Atf6α. PMID:22682248

  11. Blueberry Component Pterostilbene Protects Corneal Epithelial Cells from Inflammation via Anti-oxidative Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Ruzhi Deng; Hua, Xia; Zhang, Lili; Lu, Fan; Coursey, Terry G.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries have been recognized to possess protective properties from inflammation and various diseases, but not for eye and ocular disorders. This study explores potential benefits of pterostilbene (PS), a natural component of blueberries, in preventing ocular surface inflammation using an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic medium at 450 mOsM. Gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR, and protein production or activity was determined by ELISA, zymography, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using DCFDA kit. The addition of PS significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HCECs exposed to hyperosmotic medium. Pre-treatment with PS (5 to 20 μM) suppressed ROS overproduction in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PS significantly decreased the levels of oxidative damage biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), aconitase-2 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Importantly, PS was found to rebalance homeostasis between oxygenases and anti-oxidative enzymes by decreasing cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and restoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4) during hyperosmotic stress. Our findings demonstrate that PS protects human cornea from hyperosmolarity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting protective effects of PS on dry eye. PMID:26762881

  12. Thrombin-induced neuronal protection: role of the mitogen activated protein kinase/ribosomal protein S6 kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haitao; Yamashita, Shiro; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Liu, Wenquan; Xi, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have found that intracerebral pretreatment with a low dose of thrombin (thrombin preconditioning, TPC) reduces infarct volume and attenuates brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia. In this study, we examined whether TPC protects against the neuronal death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and whether the protection is through thrombin receptors and the p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ribosomal protein S6 kinases (p70 S6K) pathway. Expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) mRNA was detected in cultured primary rat neurons and thrombin upregulated PAR-1 and PAR-4 mRNA expression. TPC reduced OGD-induced neuronal death (e.g. dead cells: 52.5±5.4% vs. 72.3±7.2% in the control group, n=6, p<0.01). Agonists of PAR-1 and PAR-4 mimicked the effects of thrombin and reduced OGD-induced neuronal death. Pretreatment with thrombin or PAR agonists induced the upregulation of activated p44/42 MAPK and p70S6K (Thr 421/Ser 424). PD98059, an inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK kinase, blocked thrombin-induced upregulation of activated p44/42 MAPK and p70S6K. It also reduced TPC-induced neuronal protection (e.g. dead cells: 68.2±5.2% vs. 56.9±4.6% in vehicle+TPC group, n=6, p<0.05). These results suggest that TPC-induced ischemic tolerance is through activation of thrombin receptors and the p44/42 MAPK/p70S6K pathway. PMID:20846511

  13. Autophagy activation protects shock wave induced renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis may through modulation of Akt/ GSK-3β pathway.

    PubMed

    Long, Qingzhi; Li, Xiang; He, Hui; He, Dalin

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is well documented to exert destructive effect to renal cells and its mechanism is not clear. Autophagy is one of cell basic response for stressful conditions and it is important to determine cell's fate. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of autophagy in the process of shock wave-induced renal cells injury. NRK-52E cell, a rat renal tubular epithelial cell, was exposed to shock wave at the voltage of 14KV. GFP-LC3 puncta was used to monitor Autophagy flux in the process of shock wave injury. Autophagic relative proteins, such as light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1 and p62, were also examined. Cell variability and apoptosis were detected when inhibition autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) or stimulating its activity with rapamycin during the process of shock wave injury. The role of Akt/ GSK-3β and its connection with autophagy in the process of shock wave injury were also investigated. Shock wave was confirmed to activate autophagy in renal cells, which was manifested in LC3-II turnover, beclin-1 induction and degradation of p62. Inhibition autophagy enhanced cell damage or apoptosis, whereas its stimulating was able to exert protection from shock wave injury. Akt/ GSK-3β, a cell-survival signaling pathway, can also be activated during the process. And its activation could be suppressed by blockade autophagy. Autophagy is a self-protective response for renal cells from shock wave injury. The cyto-protection of autophagy may be connected with modulation Akt/ GSK-3β pathway.

  14. Autophagy activation protects shock wave induced renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis may through modulation of Akt/ GSK-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qingzhi; Li, Xiang; He, Hui; He, Dalin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is well documented to exert destructive effect to renal cells and its mechanism is not clear. Autophagy is one of cell basic response for stressful conditions and it is important to determine cell's fate. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of autophagy in the process of shock wave-induced renal cells injury. Methods: NRK-52E cell, a rat renal tubular epithelial cell, was exposed to shock wave at the voltage of 14KV. GFP-LC3 puncta was used to monitor Autophagy flux in the process of shock wave injury. Autophagic relative proteins, such as light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1 and p62, were also examined. Cell variability and apoptosis were detected when inhibition autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) or stimulating its activity with rapamycin during the process of shock wave injury. The role of Akt/ GSK-3β and its connection with autophagy in the process of shock wave injury were also investigated. Results: Shock wave was confirmed to activate autophagy in renal cells, which was manifested in LC3-II turnover, beclin-1 induction and degradation of p62. Inhibition autophagy enhanced cell damage or apoptosis, whereas its stimulating was able to exert protection from shock wave injury. Akt/ GSK-3β, a cell-survival signaling pathway, can also be activated during the process. And its activation could be suppressed by blockade autophagy. Conclusion: Autophagy is a self-protective response for renal cells from shock wave injury. The cyto-protection of autophagy may be connected with modulation Akt/ GSK-3β pathway. PMID:27994511

  15. Schisandrol B protects against acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice via activation of the NRF2/ARE signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi-ming; Wang, Ying; Tan, Hua-sen; Yu, Tao; Fan, Xiao-mei; Chen, Pan; Zeng, Hang; Huang, Min; Bi, Hui-chang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) acts through the antioxidant response element (ARE) to regulate the expression of many detoxifying and antioxidant genes responsible for cytoprotective processes. We previously reported that Schisandrol B (SolB) isolated from Schisandra sphenanthera produced a protective effect against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. In this study we investigated whether the NRF2/ARE signaling pathway was involved in this hepato-protective effect. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with SolB (200 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 3 d before injection of APAP (400 mg/kg, ip). Serum and liver tissue samples were collected 6 h later. The mRNA and protein expression were measured using qRT-PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. The activation of NRF2 was examined in HepG2 cells using luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: SolB pretreatment significantly alleviated the hepatic injury (large patchy necrosis and hyperemia of the hepatic sinus), the increase of serum AST, ALT levels and hepatic MDA contents, and the decrease of liver and mitochondrial glutathione levels in APAP-treated mice. Furthermore, SolB pretreatment significantly increased nuclear accumulation of NRF2 and increased hepatic expression of NRF2 downstream proteins, including GCLC, GSR, NQO1, GSTs, MRP2, MRP3 and MRP4 in APAP-treated mice. Moreover, treatment with SolB (2.5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the activity of NRF2 reporter gene in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: SolB exhibits a remarkable protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, partially via activation of the NRF2/ARE pathway and regulation of NRF2 target genes, which induce detoxification and increase antioxidant capacity. PMID:26806302

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 dependant pathway contributes to protection by tetramethylpyrazine against chronic hypoxic injury on medulla oblongata in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Gong, Yanju; Dai, Liqun; Zheng, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii (Chuan Xiong) has been proved to protect the medulla oblongata from chronic hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of TMP are associated with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) dependant pathway in adult rats. The morphological changes of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (12N), the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) were investigated by Nissl staining; the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect; some apoptosis parameters, Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA, were tested; and the double immunochemistry staining of active caspase-3/NeuN was performed. Meanwhile, the HO-1 protein expression and heme oxygenase (HO) activity were examined. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to further confirm the effect of HO-1. We found that TMP ameliorated the neuron loss in 12N, Amb and NTS, the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content, the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA of medulla oblongata (P<0.05), and the increase in percentage of apoptotic neurons in Amb (P<0.05) induced by chronic hypoxia. Co-administration with SnPP abolished the beneficial effects above of TMP to some extent (P<0.05). Moreover, TMP significantly increased HO activity and HO-1 protein expression, which was most likely enhanced in the neurons (P<0.05), and co-administration of SnPP reduced these up-regulated effects (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that HO-1 dependant pathway may be involved in the protective action of TMP against chronic hypoxic damage on medulla oblongata in the rats.

  17. Resveratrol Protects SAMP8 Brain Under Metabolic Stress: Focus on Mitochondrial Function and Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Palomera-Avalos, V; Griñán-Ferré, C; Puigoriol-Ilamola, D; Camins, A; Sanfeliu, C; Canudas, A M; Pallàs, M

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic stress induced by high-fat (HF) diet leads to cognitive dysfunction and aging, but the physiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Senescence-accelerated prone mouse (SAMP8) models were conducted under metabolic stress conditions by feeding HF for 15 weeks, and the preventive effect of resveratrol was studied. This dietary strategy demonstrates cognitive impairment in SAMP8-HF and significant preventive effect by resveratrol-treated animals. Hippocampal changes in the proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics optic atrophy-1 protein (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) comprised a differential feature found in SAMP8-HF that was prevented by resveratrol. Electronic microscopy showed a larger mitochondria in SAMP8-HF + resveratrol (SAMP8-HF + RV) than in SAMP8-HF, indicating increases in fusion processes in resveratrol-treated mice. According to the mitochondrial morphology, significant increases in the I-NDUFB8, II-SDNB, III-UQCRC2, and V-ATPase complexes, in addition to that of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)/porin, were found in resveratrol-treated animals with regard to SAMP8-HF, reaching control-animal levels. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) were increased after HF, and resveratrol prevents its increase. Moreover, we found that the HF diet affected the Wnt pathway, as demonstrated by β-catenin inactivation and modification in the expression of several components of this pathway. Resveratrol induced strong activation of β-catenin. The metabolic stress rendered in the cognitive and cellular pathways altered in SAMP8 focus on different targets in order to act on preventing cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration, and resveratrol can offer therapeutic possibilities for preventive strategies in aging or neurodegenerative conditions.

  18. Role of IL-17 Pathways in Immune Privilege: A RNA Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Mice Testis Exposure to Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Meijun; Han, Haijun; Sun, Zilong; Lu, Zhaojing; Yao, Xinglei; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced RNA transcripts from the testicles of healthy male mice, divided into a control group with distilled water and two experimental groups with 50 and 100 mg/l NaF in drinking water for 56 days. Bowtie/Tophat were used to align 50-bp paired-end reads into transcripts, Cufflinks to measure the relative abundance of each transcript and IPA to analyze RNA-Sequencing data. In the 100 mg/l NaF-treated group, four pathways related to IL-17, TGF-β and other cellular growth factor pathways were overexpressed. The mRNA expression of IL-17RA, IL-17RC, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MAP2K3 and MAPKAPK2, monitored by qRT-PCR, increased remarkably in the 100 mg/L NaF group and coincided with the result of RNA-Sequencing. Fluoride exposure could disrupt spermatogenesis and testicles in male mice by influencing many signaling pathways and genes, which work on the immune signal transduction and cellular metabolism. The high expression of the IL-17 signal pathway was a response to the invasion of the testicular immune system due to extracellular fluoride. The PI3-kinase/AKT, MAPKs and the cytokines in TGF-β family were contributed to control the IL-17 pathway activation and maintain the immune privilege and spermatogenesis. All the findings provided new ideas for further molecular researches of fluorosis on the reproduction and immune response mechanism. PMID:27572304

  19. The protection of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) towards acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity partially through fatty acids metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Jiang, Tingshu; Li, Ping; Mao, Qishan

    2015-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver toxicity remains the key factor limiting the clinical application of APAP, and herbs are the important sources for isolation of compounds preventing APAP-induced toxicity. To investigate the protection mechanism of glycyrrhetinic acid towards APAP-induced liver damage using metabolomics method. APAP-induced liver toxicity model was made through intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of APAP (400 mg/kg). Glycyrrhetinic acid was dissolved in corn oil, and intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of glycyrrhetinic acid (500 mg/kg body weight) was performed for 20 days before the injection of APAP. UPLC-ESI-QTOF MS was employed to analyze the metabolomic profile of serum samples. The pre-treatment of glycyrrhetinic acid significantly protected APAP-induced toxicity, indicated by the histology of liver, the activity of ALT and AST. Metabolomics showed that the level of palmtioylcarnitine and oleoylcarnitine significantly increased in serum of APAP-treated mice, and the pre-treatment with GA can prevent this elevation of these two fatty acid-carnitines. Reversing the metabolism pathway of fatty acid is an important mechanism for the protection of glycyrrhetinic acid towards acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity.

  20. A novel inhibitor of the insulin/IGF signaling pathway protects from age-onset, neurodegeneration-linked proteotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Ami, Tayir; Moll, Lorna; Carvalhal Marques, Filipa; Volovik, Yuli; Reuveni, Hadas; Cohen, Ehud

    2014-02-01

    Aging manipulation is an emerging strategy aimed to postpone the manifestation of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Huntington's diseases (HD) and to slow their progression once emerged. Reducing the activity of the insulin/IGF signaling cascade (IIS), a prominent aging-regulating pathway, protects worms from proteotoxicity of various aggregative proteins, including the AD-associated peptide, Aβ- and the HD-linked peptide, polyQ40. Similarly, IGF1 signaling reduction protects mice from AD-like disease. These discoveries suggest that IIS inhibitors can serve as new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative maladies including AD and HD. Here, we report that NT219, a novel IIS inhibitor, mediates a long-lasting, highly efficient inhibition of this signaling cascade by a dual mechanism; it reduces the autophosphorylation of the IGF1 receptor and directs the insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS 1/2) for degradation. NT219 treatment promotes stress resistance and protects nematodes from AD- and HD-associated proteotoxicity without affecting lifespan. Our discoveries strengthen the theme that IIS inhibition has a therapeutic potential as a cure for neurodegenerative maladies and point at NT219 as a promising compound for the treatment of these disorders through a selective manipulation of aging.

  1. Alpha-chaconine-reduced metastasis involves a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of NF-kappaB in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Shern; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Jeng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2007-12-26

    Alpha-chaconine, isolated from Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts. Some reports demonstrated that alpha-chaconine had various anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of alpha-chaconine on lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro. We chose the highly metastatic A549 cells, which were treated with various concentrations of alpha-chaconine to clarify the potential of inhibiting A549 cells invasion and migration. Data showed that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell invasion/migration according to wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Our results also showed that alpha-chaconine could inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, whereas it did not affected phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the binding ability of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell metastasis by a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities involving suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB (PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Inhibiting metastasis by alpha-chaconine might offer a pivotal mechanism for its effective chemotherapeutic action.

  2. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces human dental pulp stem cell migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingwei; Sun, Xuefei; Ma, Liang; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Wenfei; Xiao, Min; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-09

    SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) has been found to be widely expressed during dental pulp inflammation, while hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) contribute to the repair of dental pulp. We showed that the migration of hDPSCs was induced by SDF-1 in a concentration-dependent manner and could be inhibited with siCXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) and siCDC42 (cell division control protein 42), as well as drug inhibitors such as AMD3100 (antagonist of CXCR4), LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K) and PF573228 (inhibitor of FAK). It was also confirmed that SDF-1 regulated the phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinases) on cell membranes and the translocation of β-catenin into the cell nucleus. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the expression of CXCR4 and β-catenin and the phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) were altered significantly with SDF-1 stimulation. FAK and PI3K worked in coordination during this process. Our findings provide direct evidence that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces hDPSCs migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, implicating a novel mechanism of dental pulp repair and a possible application of SDF-1 for the treatment of pulpitis.

  3. Baicalein Inhibits the Migration and Invasion of B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells through Inactivation of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Cho, Eun-Ju; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Cheol; Hong, Su-Hyun; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Son, Chang Gue; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Baicalein, a natural flavonoid obtained from the rhizome of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anticancer activities in several human cancer cell lines. However, its antimetastatic effects and associated mechanisms in melanoma cells have not been extensively studied. The current study examined the effects of baicalein on cell motility and anti-invasive activity using mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Within the noncytotoxic concentration range, baicalein significantly inhibited the cell motility and invasiveness of B16F10 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Baicalein also reduced the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9; however, the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 were concomitantly increased. The inhibitory effects of baicalein on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with its tightening of tight junction (TJ), which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and downregulation of the claudin family of proteins. Additionally, treatment with baicalein markedly reduced the expression levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylated Akt and the invasive activity in B16F10 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that baicalein inhibits B16F10 melanoma cell migration and invasion by reducing the expression of MMPs and tightening TJ through the suppression of claudin expression, possibly in association with a suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27530117

  4. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces human dental pulp stem cell migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingwei; Sun, Xuefei; Ma, Liang; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Wenfei; Xiao, Min; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) has been found to be widely expressed during dental pulp inflammation, while hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) contribute to the repair of dental pulp. We showed that the migration of hDPSCs was induced by SDF-1 in a concentration-dependent manner and could be inhibited with siCXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) and siCDC42 (cell division control protein 42), as well as drug inhibitors such as AMD3100 (antagonist of CXCR4), LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K) and PF573228 (inhibitor of FAK). It was also confirmed that SDF-1 regulated the phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinases) on cell membranes and the translocation of β-catenin into the cell nucleus. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the expression of CXCR4 and β-catenin and the phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) were altered significantly with SDF-1 stimulation. FAK and PI3K worked in coordination during this process. Our findings provide direct evidence that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces hDPSCs migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, implicating a novel mechanism of dental pulp repair and a possible application of SDF-1 for the treatment of pulpitis. PMID:28067275

  5. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin stimulates proliferation of HAPI microglia by affecting the Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangfei; Li, Yuanye; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Wu, Qiyun; Chen, Gang; Iwata, Takeo; Mizusawa, Noriko; Wan, Chunhua; Nie, Xiaoke

    2014-01-30

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental toxin that induces apoptosis of neurons and a pro-inflammatory response in microglial cells. First, we found that TCDD induced proliferation of HAPI microglial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that this proliferation by TCDD was due to mainly enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. Next, it was found that TCDD treatment led to up-regulation of cyclin D1, which induces cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, in a time-dependent manner. As for molecular mechanism, we revealed that TCDD was capable of inducing Akt phosphorylation and activation, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Inactivated GSK-3β attenuated proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 by reducing Thr(286)-phosphorylated cyclin D1 levels. Moreover, inactivated GSK-3β increased cyclin D1 gene transcription by increasing its transcription factor β-catenin in the nucleus. Further, blockage of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt kinase with their specific inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt 1/2 kinase inhibitor, significantly reduced TCDD-enhanced proliferation of HAPI microglial cells. In conclusion, TCDD stimulates proliferation of HAPI microglial cells by affecting the Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway.

  6. Asperosaponin VI promotes bone marrow stromal cell osteogenic differentiation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in an osteoporosis model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Ke; Li, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xie, Zhijian; Wang, Yu; Shi, Jue; Chi, Linfeng; Xu, Weijian; Hu, Lingling; Shi, Huali

    2016-01-01

    Asperosaponin VI (ASA VI), a natural compound isolated from the well-known traditional Chinese herb Radix Dipsaci, has an important role in promoting osteoblast formation. However, its effects on osteoblasts in the context of osteoporosis is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of ASA VI action on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells isolated from the ovariectomized rats (OVX rBMSCs). The toxicity of ASA VI and its effects on the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs were measured using a CCK-8 assay. Various osteogenic differentiation markers were also analyzed, such as ALP activity, calcified nodule formation, and the expression of osteogenic genes, i.e., ALP, OCN, COL 1 and RUNX2. The results indicated that ASA VI promoted the proliferation of OVX rBMSCs and enhanced ALP activity and calcified nodule formation. In addition, while ASA VI enhanced the expression of ALP, OCN, Col 1 and RUNX2, treatment with LY294002 reduced all of these osteogenic effects and reduced the p-AKT levels induced by ASA VI. These results suggest that ASA VI promotes the osteogenic differentiation of OVX rBMSCs by acting on the phosphatidylinositol—3 kinase/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27756897

  7. Apelin-13 protects against apoptosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in ischemia stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Li, Li-Tao; Cui, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Miao, Jiang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Apelin has been proved to be protective against apoptosis induced by ischemic reperfusion. However, mechanisms whereby apelin produces neuroprotection remain to be elucidated. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master energy sensor that monitors levels of key energy metabolites. It is activated via AMPKαThr172 phosphorylation during cerebral ischemia and appears to be neuroprotective. In this study, we investigated the effect of apelin on AMPKα and tested whether apelin protecting against apoptosis was associated with AMPK signals. Focal transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in male ICR mice was induced by 60 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion. Apelin-13 was injected intracerebroventricularly 15 min before reperfusion. AMPK inhibitor, compound C, was injected to mice intraperitoneally at the onset of ischemia. In experiment 1, the effect of apelin-13 on AMPKα was measured. In experiment 2, the relevance of AMPKα and apelin-13' effect on apoptosis was measured. Data showed that apelin-13 significantly increased AMPKα phosphorylation level after cerebral I/R. Apelin-13, with the co-administration of saline, reduced apoptosis cells, down-regulated Bax and cleaved-caspase3 and up-regulated Bcl2. However, with the co-administration of compound C, apelin-13 was inefficient in affecting apoptosis and Bax, Bcl2 and cleaved-caspase3. The study provided the evidence that apelin-13 up-regulated AMPKα phosphorylation level in cerebral ischemia insults and AMPK signals participated in the mechanism of apelin-mediated neuroprotection.

  8. Hearing protection: Surpassing the limits to attenuation imposed by the bone-conduction pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Elliott H.; Kieper, Ronald W.; Gauger, Dan

    2003-10-01

    With louder and louder weapon systems being developed and military personnel being exposed to steady noise levels approaching and sometimes exceeding 150 dB, a growing interest in greater amounts of hearing protection is evident. When the need for communications is included in the equation, the situation is even more extreme. New initiatives are underway to design improved hearing protection, including active noise reduction (ANR) earplugs and perhaps even active cancellation of head-borne vibration. With that in mind it may be useful to explore the limits to attenuation, and whether they can be approached with existing technology. Data on the noise reduction achievable with high-attenuation foam earplugs, as a function of insertion depth, will be reported. Previous studies will be reviewed that provide indications of the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation that, in terms of mean values, range from 40 to 60 dB across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. Additionally, new research on the effects of a flight helmet on the BC limits, as well as the potential attenuation from deeply inserted passive foam earplugs, worn with passive earmuffs, or with active-noise reduction (ANR) earmuffs, will be examined. The data demonstrate that gains in attenuation exceeding 10 dB above the head-not-covered limits can be achieved if the head is effectively shielded from acoustical stimulation.

  9. Hearing protection: surpassing the limits to attenuation imposed by the bone-conduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Berger, Elliott H; Kieper, Ronald W; Gauger, Dan

    2003-10-01

    With louder and louder weapon systems being developed and military personnel being exposed to steady noise levels approaching and sometimes exceeding 150 dB, a growing interest in greater amounts of hearing protection is evident. When the need for communications is included in the equation, the situation is even more extreme. New initiatives are underway to design improved hearing protection, including active noise reduction (ANR) earplugs and perhaps even active cancellation of head-borne vibration. With that in mind it may be useful to explore the limits to attenuation, and whether they can be approached with existing technology. Data on the noise reduction achievable with high-attenuation foam earplugs, as a function of insertion depth, will be reported. Previous studies will be reviewed that provide indications of the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation that, in terms of mean values, range from 40 to 60 dB across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. Additionally, new research on the effects of a flight helmet on the BC limits, as well as the potential attenuation from deeply inserted passive foam earplugs, worn with passive earmuffs, or with active-noise reduction (ANR) earmuffs, will be examined. The data demonstrate that gains in attenuation exceeding 10 dB above the head-not-covered limits can be achieved if the head is effectively shielded from acoustical stimulation.

  10. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology. PMID:18569183

  11. Coenzyme Q10 Protects Astrocytes from ROS-Induced Damage through Inhibition of Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Li; He, Mao-Tao; Chang, Yue; Mehta, Suresh L.; He, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, P. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species to protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to examine whether CoQ10 was capable of protecting astrocytes from reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage. For this purpose, ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation was used as a tool to induce ROS stress to cultured astrocytes. The cells were treated with 10 and 25 μg/ml of CoQ10 for 3 or 24 h prior to the cells being exposed to UVB irradiation and maintained for 24 h post UVB exposure. Cell viability was assessed by MTT conversion assay. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by respirometer. While superoxide production and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using fluorescent probes, levels of cytochrome C (cyto-c), cleaved caspase-9, and caspase-8 were detected using Western blotting and/or immunocytochemistry. The results showed that UVB irradiation decreased cell viability and this damaging effect was associated with superoxide accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, mitochondrial respiration suppression, cyto-c release, and the activation of both caspase-9 and -8. Treatment with CoQ10 at two different concentrations started 24 h before UVB exposure significantly increased the cell viability. The protective effect of CoQ10 was associated with reduction in superoxide, normalization of mitochondrial membrane potential, improvement of mitochondrial respiration, inhibition of cyto-c release, suppression of caspase-9. Furthermore, CoQ10 enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. It is concluded that CoQ10 may protect astrocytes through suppression of oxidative stress, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, blockade of mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway, and enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25552930

  12. Topiramate protects against glutamate excitotoxicity via activating BDNF/TrkB-dependent ERK pathway in rodent hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Cao, Yong-Gang; Ji, Zhong; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Sun, Hong-Li

    2015-07-03

    Topiramate (TPM) was previously found to have neuroprotection against neuronal injury in epileptic and ischemic models. However, whether TPM protects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal neurons is elusive. Our present work aimed to evaluate the protective effect of TPM against glutamate toxicity in hippocampal neurons and further figure out the potential molecular mechanisms. The in vitro glutamate excitotoxic model was prepared with 125μM glutamate for 20min. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis and Hoechst 33342 staining were conducted to detect neuronal survival. The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), Bcl-2, Bax and β-actin were detected via Western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that TPM protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate toxicity. Meanwhile, the pretreatment of TPM for 10min significantly prevented the down-regulation of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB. Furthermore, the elevation of phosphorylated EKR expression was significantly inhibited after blockade of TrkB by TrkB IgG, while no alterations of phosphorylated JNK and p38 MAPK were found in the cultured hippocampal neurons. Besides, it was also found that the enhanced phosphorylation of CREB was evidently reversed under excitotoxic conditions after treating with U0126 (the selective inhibitor of ERK). The protein level of Bcl-2 was also observed to be remarkably increased after TPM treatment. In conclusion, these findings implicate that TPM exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate excitotoxicity in hippocampal neurons and its protection may be modulated through BDNF/TrkB-dependent ERK pathway.

  13. Enhancing Nrf2 Pathway by Disruption of Keap1 in Myeloid Leukocytes Protects against Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoni; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Craciun, Florin; Harvey, Christopher; Singh, Anju; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Remick, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Sepsis syndrome is characterized by inappropriate amplified systemic inflammatory response and bacteremia that promote multiorgan failure and mortality. Nuclear factor–erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates a pleiotropic cytoprotective defense program including antioxidants and protects against several inflammatory disorders by inhibiting oxidative tissue injuries. However, the role of enhanced Nrf2 activity in modulating innate immune responses to microbial infection and pathogenesis of sepsis is unclear. Objectives: To determine whether Nrf2 in myeloid leukocytes alters inflammatory response and protects against sepsis. Methods: Mice with deletion of Nrf2 or kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1) in myeloid leukocyte cells and respective floxed controls were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture–induced sepsis and were assessed for survival, organ injury, systemic inflammation, and bacteremia. Using LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 surface trafficking and downstream signaling events were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results: Mortality, organ injury, circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, and bacteremia were markedly reduced in LysM-Keap1−/− compared with respective floxed controls (Keap1f/f or Nrf2f/f) and significantly elevated in LysM-Nrf2−/− mice after cecal ligation and puncture. Peritoneal macrophages from septic LysM-Keap1−/− mice showed a greater bacterial phagocytic activity compared with LysM-Nrf2−/− and floxed controls. LPS stimulation resulted in greater reactive oxygen species–induced cell surface transport of TLR4 from trans-Golgi network and subsequent TLR4 downstream signaling (recruitment of MYD88 and TRIF, phosphorylation of IkB and IRF3, and cytokine expression) in macrophages of LysM-Nrf2−/− compared with LysM-Keap1−/− mice and floxed controls. Conclusions: Our study shows that Nrf2 acts as a critical immunomodulator in leukocytes, controls host

  14. Sulforaphane Protects Rodent Retinas against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through the Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixing; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF), which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil) once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL), and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. PMID:25470382

  15. Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy- induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 288-292].

  16. TWEAK protects cardiomyocyte against apoptosis in a PI3K/AKT pathway dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Yan, Ping; Gong, Hui; Zuo, Lin; Shi, Ying; Guo, Jian; Guo, Rui; Xie, Jun; Li, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Myocyte apoptosis is a key determinant of cardiac recovery and prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of TNF superfamily, is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair and is closely related to cardiac remodeling, dysfunction and fibrosis. However, the role of TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 in the cardiomyocyte apoptosis is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether the TWEAK enhanced the cardiomyocyte apoptosis in AMI. The apoptosis of the cardiomyocyte cell line H9C2 was induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The apoptosis of H9C2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay under treatment with TWEAK at different concentrations. The phosphorylated signaling molecules and the expression involved in the surprising protection of TWEAK against the apoptosis with a dose-dependent manner (≥50 ng/ml). Furthermore, a rat myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) model was established by TWEAK preconditioning through injecting the TWEAK into the scar and border after ischemia immediately induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 50 min and followed by different reperfusion times. The heart function was significantly improved in TWEAK preconditioning rats compared with controls as well as the infarct size was significantly reduced 21 days after reperfusion. Meanwhile, TWEAK protected the cardiac apoptosis by activation of cardioprotective signaling PI3K/AKT during I/R. Our findings suggest that TWEAK may represent a cardioprotective factor that inhibits the myocyte death of myocardial IRI. PMID:27725864

  17. Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells via Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jintao; Zhu, Dexiao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-09-25

    Methamphetamine (MA) is neurotoxic, especially in dopaminergic neurons. Long-lasting exposure to MA causes psychosis and increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Lithium (Li) is a known mood stabilizer and has neuroprotective effects. Previous studies suggest that MA exposure decreases the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway in vivo, whereas Li facilitates the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β pathway. Moreover, GSK3β and mTOR are implicated in the locomotor sensitization induced by psychostimulants and mTOR plays a critical role in MA induced toxicity. However, the effect of MA on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway has not been fully investigated in vitro. Here, we found that MA exposure significantly dephosphorylated Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in PC12 cells. In addition, Li remarkably attenuated the dephosphorylation effect of MA exposure on Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, Li showed obvious protective effects against MA toxicity and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed the protective effects of Li. Together, MA exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway in vitro, while lithium protects against MA-induced neurotoxicity via phosphorylation of Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. - Highlights: • Lithium protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. • Methamphetamine exposure dephosphorylates Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway. • Lithium attenuates methamphetamine-induced toxicity via phosphorylating Akt/GSK3β/mTOR pathway.

  18. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Li, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Su-Hua, Qi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

  19. Sulforaphane protects liver injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion through Nrf2-ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Feng; Shen, Gang; Li, Yu-Bing; Li, Ying-Hua; Jing, Hui-Rong; Ma, Ling-Fei; Yao, Ji-Hong; Tian, Xiao-Feng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on regulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in liver injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: Rats were divided randomly into four experimental groups: control, SFN control, intestinal I/R and SFN pretreatment groups (n = 8 in each group). The intestinal I/R model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 1 h and 2 h reperfusion. In the SFN pretreatment group, surgery was performed as in the intestinal I/R group, with intraperitoneal administration of 3 mg/kg SFN 1 h before the operation. Intestine and liver histology was investigated. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Liver tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were assayed. The liver transcription factor Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R induced intestinal and liver injury, characterized by histological changes as well as a significant increase in serum AST and ALT levels (AST: 260.13 ± 40.17 U/L vs 186.00 ± 24.21 U/L, P < 0.01; ALT: 139.63 ± 11.35 U/L vs 48.38 ± 10.73 U/L, P < 0.01), all of which were reduced by pretreatment with SFN, respectively (AST: 260.13 ± 40.17 U/L vs 216.63 ± 22.65 U/L, P < 0.05; ALT: 139.63 ± 11.35 U/L vs 97.63 ± 15.56 U/L, P < 0.01). The activity of SOD in the liver tissue decreased after intestinal I/R (P < 0.01), which was enhanced by SFN pretreatment (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with the control group, SFN markedly reduced liver tissue MPO activity (P < 0.05) and elevated liver tissue GSH and GSH-Px activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.05), which was in parallel with the increased level of liver Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. CONCLUSION: SFN pretreatment attenuates liver injury induced by

  20. Characterisation of sources and pathways of microbiological pollutants to protect remote private water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Aaron; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval; Hough, Rupert; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    In order to comply with legislation such as the Water Framework Directive and to safeguard public health, there is a critical need to maintain the quality of water sources that are used to supply drinking water. Private water supplies (PWS) are still common in many rural areas in the UK, and are especially vulnerable to poor water quality, owing to the limited treatment they often receive and variable raw water quality in groundwater and surface water sources. A significant issue affecting PWS quality is contamination by faecal pathogens derived from grazing animals or agricultural practices. In Scotland, approximately 20,000 PWS serve around 200,000 people, with a number of these PWS consistently failing to meet water quality targets relating to coliform bacteria and E. coli, both of which can be indicative of faecal contamination (faecal indicator organisms - FIOs). The purpose of our study was to employ integrated empirical and modelling approaches from hydrology and microbiology to elucidate the nature of the still poorly-understood interplay between hydrological flow pathways which connect sources of pathogens to PWS sources, antecedent conditions, seasonality and pathogen transfer risk, for two catchments with contrasting land uses in Scotland: an agricultural catchment (Tarland Burn) and a montane catchment (Bruntland Burn). In the Tarland Burn, 15 years of spatially-distributed samples collected at the catchment-scale of FIO counts were analysed alongside hydrometric data to identify "hot spots" of faecal pathogen transfer risk and possible spatial and temporal controls. We also used a combination of tracer-based and numerical modelling approaches to identify the relationship between hydrological connectivity, flow pathways, and the mobilisation of faecal pathogens from different sources. In the Bruntland Burn, we coupled a pathogen storage, mobilisation and transport scheme to a previously developed tracer-informed hydrological model for the catchment to

  1. Involvement of Bcl-2 Signal Pathway in the Protective Effects of Apigenin on Anoxia/Reoxygenation-induced Myocardium Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanjun; He, Huan; Luo, Yong; Zhou, Min; Yin, Dong; He, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Apigenin is a type of flavonoids, which has been demonstrated to protect myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism is still unclear. We hypothesized that the mechanism of cardioprotective action of apigenin on the I/R-induced injury might be caused via B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) signaling pathway. In this study, an in vitro I/R model was replicated on Langendorff-perfused heart and H9c2 cardiomyocytes by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) treatment. The recovery of cardiac contractile function, infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) in the perfusate, the expression and activity of Bcl-2 and caspase-3, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured in the Langendorff heart undergoing A/R injury. In addition, the cell viability, LDH release, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), expression of cytochrome c in the cytosol, and cell apoptosis were examined in the culture of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after the A/R. The results showed that apigenin significantly improved rat heart contractile function, reduced LDH release, infarct size and apoptotic rate, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3, and downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 after the A/R. Moreover, apigenin increased the cell viability and decreased the release of LDH, production of reactive oxygen species, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, and cell apoptosis in the culture of H9c2 cardiomyocytes after the A/R. In addition, inhibition of Bcl-2 activity by ABT-737 markedly attenuated the protective effect of apigenin on the A/R-induced myocardium injury. Taken together, we firstly demonstrated that the effect of apigenin against A/R injury in cardiomyocytes involves Bcl-2 signal pathway and at least partly depends on its effect of upregulating the expression of Bcl-2.

  2. Nitric oxide enhances plant ultraviolet-B protection up-regulating gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Tossi, Vanesa; Amenta, Melina; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Cassia, Raúl

    2011-06-01

    The link between ultraviolet (UV)-B, nitric oxide (NO) and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway (PPBP) was studied in maize and Arabidopsis. The transcription factor (TF) ZmP regulates PPBP in maize. A genetic approach using P-rr (ZmP+) and P-ww (ZmP⁻) maize lines demonstrate that: (1) NO protects P-rr leaves but not P-ww from UV-B-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell damage; (2) NO increases flavonoid and anthocyanin content and prevents chlorophyll loss in P-rr but not in P-ww and (3) the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) blocks the UV-B-induced expression of ZmP and their targets CHS and CHI suggesting that NO plays a key role in the UV-B-regulated PPBP. Involvement of endogenous NO was studied in Arabidopsis nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) plants that express a NO dioxygenase gene under the control of a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. Expression of HY5 and MYB12, TFs involved in PPBP regulation, was induced by UV-B, reduced by DEX in NOD plants and recovered by subsequent NO treatment. C4H regulates synapate esters synthesis and is UV-B-induced in a NO-independent pathway. Data indicate that UV-B perception increases NO concentration, which protects plant against UV-B by two ways: (1) scavenging ROS; and (2) up-regulating the expression of HY5, MYB12 and ZmP, resulting in the PPBP activation.

  3. Activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway protects endothelial cells from oxidant injury and inhibits inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Lin; Dodd, Geraldine; Thomas, Suzanne; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wasserman, Martin A; Rovin, Brad H; Kunsch, Charles

    2006-05-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a transcriptional control element that mediates expression of a set of antioxidant proteins. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that activates ARE-containing genes. In endothelial cells, the ARE-mediated genes are upregulated by atheroprotective laminar flow through a Nrf2-dependent mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that activation of ARE-regulated genes via adenovirus-mediated expression of Nrf2 may suppress redox-sensitive inflammatory gene expression. Expression of Nrf2 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) resulted in a marked increase in ARE-driven transcriptional activity and protected HAECs from H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity. Nrf2 suppressed TNF-alpha-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced monocytic U937 cell adhesion to HAECs. Nrf2 also inhibited IL-1beta-induced MCP-1 gene expression in human mesangial cells. Expression of Nrf2 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, expression of a constitutively active form of MKK6 (an upstream kinase for p38 MAP kinase) partially reversed Nrf2-mediated inhibition of VCAM-1 expression, suggesting that p38 MAP kinase, at least in part, mediates Nrf2's anti-inflammatory action. In contrast, Nrf2 did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. These data identify the Nrf2/ARE pathway as an endogenous atheroprotective system for antioxidant protection and suppression of redox-sensitive inflammatory genes, suggesting that targeting the Nrf2/ARE pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  4. Exocyst Sec10 protects epithelial barrier integrity and enhances recovery following oxidative stress, by activation of the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwon Moo; Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Kim, Jinu; Chung, Daniel C; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2010-03-01

    Cell-cell contacts are essential for epithelial cell function, and disruption is associated with pathological conditions including ischemic kidney injury. We hypothesize that the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex that targets secretory vesicles carrying membrane proteins, is involved in maintaining renal epithelial barrier integrity. Accordingly, increasing exocyst expression in renal tubule cells may protect barrier function from oxidative stress resulting from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When cultured on plastic, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing Sec10, a central exocyst component, formed domes showing increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) of Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters was higher than in control MDCK cells, and the rate of TER decrease following H2O2 treatment was less in Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells compared with control MDCK cells. After removal of H2O2, TER returned to normal more rapidly in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. In collagen culture MDCK cells form cysts, and H2O2 treatment damaged Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cell cysts less than control MDCK cell cysts. The MAPK pathway has been shown to protect animals from I/R injury. Levels of active ERK, the final MAPK pathway step, were higher in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. U0126 inhibited ERK activation, exacerbated the H2O2-induced decrease in TER and cyst disruption, and delayed recovery of TER following H2O2 removal. Finally, in mice with renal I/R injury, exocyst expression decreased early and returned to normal concomitant with functional recovery, suggesting that the exocyst may be involved in the recovery following I/R injury.

  5. Exocyst Sec10 protects epithelial barrier integrity and enhances recovery following oxidative stress, by activation of the MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwon Moo; Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Kim, Jinu; Chung, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Cell-cell contacts are essential for epithelial cell function, and disruption is associated with pathological conditions including ischemic kidney injury. We hypothesize that the exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex that targets secretory vesicles carrying membrane proteins, is involved in maintaining renal epithelial barrier integrity. Accordingly, increasing exocyst expression in renal tubule cells may protect barrier function from oxidative stress resulting from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When cultured on plastic, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing Sec10, a central exocyst component, formed domes showing increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) of Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters was higher than in control MDCK cells, and the rate of TER decrease following H2O2 treatment was less in Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cells compared with control MDCK cells. After removal of H2O2, TER returned to normal more rapidly in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. In collagen culture MDCK cells form cysts, and H2O2 treatment damaged Sec10-overexpressing MDCK cell cysts less than control MDCK cell cysts. The MAPK pathway has been shown to protect animals from I/R injury. Levels of active ERK, the final MAPK pathway step, were higher in Sec10-overexpressing compared with control MDCK cells. U0126 inhibited ERK activation, exacerbated the H2O2-induced decrease in TER and cyst disruption, and delayed recovery of TER following H2O2 removal. Finally, in mice with renal I/R injury, exocyst expression decreased early and returned to normal concomitant with functional recovery, suggesting that the exocyst may be involved in the recovery following I/R injury. PMID:20053792

  6. Interferon Gamma Induces Protective Non-Canonical Signaling Pathways in Primary Neurons

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Lauren A.; Henkins, Kristen M.; Kulkarni, Apurva; Matullo, Christine M.; Balachandran, Siddharth; Pattisapu, Anil K.; Rall, Glenn F.

    2016-01-01

    The signal transduction molecule, Stat1, is critical for the expression of type I and II interferon (IFN)-responsive genes in most cells; however, we previously showed that primary hippocampal mouse neurons express low basal Stat1, with delayed and attenuated expression of IFN-responsive genes. Moreover, IFNγ-dependent resolution of a neurotropic viral challenge in permissive mice is Stat1-independent. Here, we show that exogenous INFγ has no deleterious impact on neuronal viability, and staurosporine-induced apoptosis in neurons is significantly blunted by the addition of INFγ, suggesting that INFγ confers a pro-survival signal in neurons. To identify the pathways induced by INFγ in neurons, the activation of alternative signal transducers associated with INFγ signaling was assessed. Rapid and pronounced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk1/2) was observed in neurons, compared to a modest response in fibroblasts. Moreover, the absence of Stat1 in primary fibroblasts led to enhanced Erk activation following IFNγ addition, implying that the cell-specific availability of signal transducers can diversify the cellular response following IFN engagement. PMID:26190522

  7. Trimetazidine protects retinal ganglion cells from acute glaucoma via the Nrf2/Ho-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wan, Peixing; Su, Wenru; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Zhidong; Deng, Caibin; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-09-15

    Acute glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision impairment characterized by the rapid elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and consequent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been considered critical for the pathogenesis of RGC death in acute glaucoma. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to its therapeutic potential in tissue damage. However, the role of TMZ in acute glaucoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that treatment with TMZ significantly attenuated retinal damage and RGC death in mice with acute glaucoma, with a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina. Furthermore, TMZ treatment directly decreased ROS production and rebalanced the intracellular redox state, thus contributing to the survival of RGCs in vitro TMZ treatment also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro Mechanistically, the TMZ-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production in RGCs occurred via the regulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1/caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, the TMZ-mediated neuroprotection in acute glaucoma was abrogated when an HO-1 inhibitor, SnPP, was used. Our findings identify potential mechanisms of RGC apoptosis and propose a novel therapeutic agent, TMZ, which exerts a precise neuroprotective effect against acute glaucoma. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Early Brain Injury after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage by Affecting Mitochondrial-Dependent Caspase-3 Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    This study was to test the hypothesis that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) protected against early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by affecting the mitochondrial-dependent caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. TMP was administrated after the rats' prechiasmatic SAH mode. Animal neurobehavioral functions were assessed and the mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic calcium, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes (Δψm) of the brain tissues were measured. The expressions of cytoplasmic cytochrome c (cyt c), second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac), and cleaved caspase-3 B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) in cells were determined and cellular apoptosis was detected. The treatment of TMP resulted in less apoptotic cells and milder mitochondrial injury and potentially performed better in the neurobehavioral outcome compared to those with saline. Also, TMP ameliorated calcium overload in mitochondria and cytoplasm and alleviated the decrease of Δψm. In addition, TMP inhibited the expression of cytoplasmic cyt c, Smac, and cleaved caspase-3, yet it upregulated the expression of bcl-2. These findings suggest that TMP exerts an antiapoptosis property in the SAH rat model and this is probably mediated by the caspase-3 apoptotic pathway triggered by mitochondrial calcium overload. The finding offers a new therapeutic candidate for early brain injury after SAH. PMID:28337226

  9. Triptolide induces protective autophagy through activation of the CaMKKβ-AMPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Mao, Lin; Han, Yangyang; Yan, Jun; Lei, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Triptolide, an active compound extracted from the Chinese herb thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), has potent anti-tumor activity. Recently, triptolide was found to induce autophagy in cancer cells. However, the effects of triptolide on autophagy in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that triptolide induces autophagy in three PCa cell lines, PC-3, LNCaP and C4–2. Furthermore, we found that triptolide mediates intracellular accumulation of free calcium by stimulating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. This activates the CaMKKβ-AMPK signaling pathway, which in turn inhibits mTOR and activates both ULK1 and Beclin 1, finally resulting in autophagy. Moreover, we found that treatment with autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) enhances triptolide-induced PCa cell death and growth inhibition. Using a PC-3-xenografted mouse model, we showed that blocking autophagy with CQ significantly promoted triptolide-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Overall, our results show that triptolide induces protective autophagy through the CaMKKβ-AMPK pathway in PCa cells, implying that a combination of triptolide with autophagy inhibitors may potentially be an effective therapeutic strategy for PCa. PMID:26734992

  10. Allicin protects traumatic spinal cord injury through regulating the HSP70/Akt/iNOS pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shunyi; Ren, Dongliang

    2016-10-01

    Allicin is a major component of garlic, extracted as an oily liquid. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of allicin on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in mice, and whether the effects are mediated via regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), v‑akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. Adult BALB/c mice (30‑40 g) received a laminectomy at the T9 vertebral level as a model of TSCI. In the present study, treatment of the TSCI mice with allicin significantly increased their Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores (P<0.01) and reduced the spinal cord water content (P<0.01). This protective effect was associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in TSCI mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that allicin increased the protein levels of HSP70, increased the phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the iNOS protein expression levels in TSCI mice. Additionally, treatment with allicin significantly reduced the levels of ROS and enhanced the NADH levels in TSCI mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the effects of allicin on TSCI are mediated via regulation of the HSP70, Akt and iNOS pathways in mice.

  11. Allicin protects traumatic spinal cord injury through regulating the HSP70/Akt/iNOS pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shunyi; Ren, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    Allicin is a major component of garlic, extracted as an oily liquid. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of allicin on traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in mice, and whether the effects are mediated via regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. Adult BALB/c mice (30–40 g) received a laminectomy at the T9 vertebral level as a model of TSCI. In the present study, treatment of the TSCI mice with allicin significantly increased their Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores (P<0.01) and reduced the spinal cord water content (P<0.01). This protective effect was associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in TSCI mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that allicin increased the protein levels of HSP70, increased the phosphorylation of Akt and reduced the iNOS protein expression levels in TSCI mice. Additionally, treatment with allicin significantly reduced the levels of ROS and enhanced the NADH levels in TSCI mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the effects of allicin on TSCI are mediated via regulation of the HSP70, Akt and iNOS pathways in mice. PMID:27573340

  12. Salidroside exerts protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via AMPKα1-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mayun; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wu, Peiliang; Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaomei; Fan, Rong; Xu, Cunlai; Chen, Yanfan; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has shown to exert protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms were not well known. Based on our recent reports, we predicted the involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects in salidroside regulation of PAH. Firstly, to prove the hypothesis, rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia and treated with increasing concentrations of salidroside or a selective AMPK activator-5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) for 4 weeks. After salidroside or AICAR treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling were attenuated. Then the effects of salidroside or AICAR on hypoxia-induced excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which contributed to pulmonary arterial remodeling, were investigated. Our results suggested salidroside, as well as AICAR, reversed hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance while AMPK inhibitor Compound C enhanced the effects of hypoxia. To reveal the potential cellular mechanisms, activation of AMPKα1 and expression of the genes related to proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions. The results demonstrated salidroside as well as AICAR might inhibit chronic hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation via AMPKα1-P53-P27/P21 pathway and reverse apoptosis resistance via AMPKα1-P53-Bax/Bcl-2-caspase 9-caspase 3 pathway. PMID:27069536

  13. Salidroside exerts protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension via AMPKα1-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mayun; Cai, Hui; Yu, Chang; Wu, Peiliang; Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaomei; Fan, Rong; Xu, Cunlai; Chen, Yanfan; Wang, Liangxing; Huang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has shown to exert protective effects against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms were not well known. Based on our recent reports, we predicted the involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects in salidroside regulation of PAH. Firstly, to prove the hypothesis, rats were exposed to chronic hypoxia and treated with increasing concentrations of salidroside or a selective AMPK activator-5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) for 4 weeks. After salidroside or AICAR treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery remodeling were attenuated. Then the effects of salidroside or AICAR on hypoxia-induced excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which contributed to pulmonary arterial remodeling, were investigated. Our results suggested salidroside, as well as AICAR, reversed hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation and apoptosis resistance while AMPK inhibitor Compound C enhanced the effects of hypoxia. To reveal the potential cellular mechanisms, activation of AMPKα1 and expression of the genes related to proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions. The results demonstrated salidroside as well as AICAR might inhibit chronic hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation via AMPKα1-P53-P27/P21 pathway and reverse apoptosis resistance via AMPKα1-P53-Bax/Bcl-2-caspase 9-caspase 3 pathway.

  14. Triptolide induces protective autophagy through activation of the CaMKKβ-AMPK signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhe; Mao, Lin; Han, Yangyang; Yan, Jun; Lei, Ming

    2016-02-02

    Triptolide, an active compound extracted from the Chinese herb thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), has potent anti-tumor activity. Recently, triptolide was found to induce autophagy in cancer cells. However, the effects of triptolide on autophagy in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that triptolide induces autophagy in three PCa cell lines, PC-3, LNCaP and C4-2. Furthermore, we found that triptolide mediates intracellular accumulation of free calcium by stimulating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. This activates the CaMKKβ-AMPK signaling pathway, which in turn inhibits mTOR and activates both ULK1 and Beclin 1, finally resulting in autophagy. Moreover, we found that treatment with autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) enhances triptolide-induced PCa cell death and growth inhibition. Using a PC-3-xenografted mouse model, we showed that blocking autophagy with CQ significantly promoted triptolide-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Overall, our results show that triptolide induces protective autophagy through the CaMKKβ-AMPK pathway in PCa cells, implying that a combination of triptolide with autophagy inhibitors may potentially be an effective therapeutic strategy for PCa.

  15. Adiponectin protects the rats liver against chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury through AMP-activated protein kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Dong, Yanbin; Ding, Ning; Huang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Xianji; Hutchinson, Sean; Gao, Xingya; Zhang, Xilong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on the liver, the associated mechanisms and the potential therapeutic roles of adiponectin (Ad). Sixty rats were randomly assigned to four groups: the normal control (NC), NC and Ad supplement (NC + Ad), CIH, and CIH and Ad supplement (CIH + Ad) groups. The rats in the CIH and CIH + Ad groups were exposed to a hypoxic environment for 4 months. Rats in the NC + Ad and CIH + Ad groups were also treated with an intravenous injection of Ad (10 ug), twice a week. The plasma levels of hepatic enzymes, serum triglyceride, liver triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and hepatic cell apoptosis in hepatic tissue, were higher in the CIH group than in the NC and NC + Ad groups. However, the Ad supplementation in the CIH + Ad group rescued the hepatic tissue insult by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. In conclusion, Ad could protect against CIH-induced hepatic injury partly through the AMPK pathway. PMID:27678302

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin protects neurons against amyloid beta-peptide toxicity and ischemic stroke by attenuating multiple cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Widiapradja, Alexander; Vegh, Viktor; Lok, Ker Zhing; Manzanero, Silvia; Thundyil, John; Gelderblom, Mathias; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Pavlovski, Dale; Tang, Sung-Chun; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Magnus, Tim; Chan, Sic L; Sobey, Christopher G; Reutens, David; Basta, Milan; Mattson, Mark P; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2012-07-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations obtained by fractionating blood plasma, are increasingly being used increasingly as an effective therapeutic agent in treatment of several inflammatory diseases. Its use as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of stroke and Alzheimer's disease has been proposed, but little is known about the neuroprotective mechanisms of IVIg. In this study, we investigated the effect of IVIg on downstream signaling pathways that are involved in neuronal cell death in experimental models of stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of cultured neurons with IVIg reduced simulated ischemia- and amyloid βpeptide (Aβ)-induced caspase 3 cleavage, and phosphorylation of the cell death-associated kinases p38MAPK, c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase and p65, in vitro. Additionally, Aβ-induced accumulation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal was attenuated in neurons treated with IVIg. IVIg treatment also up-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2 in cortical neurons under ischemia-like conditions and exposure to Aβ. Treatment of mice with IVIg reduced neuronal cell loss, apoptosis and infarct size, and improved functional outcome in a model of focal ischemic stroke. Together, these results indicate that IVIg acts directly on neurons to protect them against ischemic stroke and Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting cell death pathways and by elevating levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2.

  17. rSj16 Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting the PPAR-α Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Lian; Liao, Qi; Wan, Shuo; Yu, Zilong; Lin, Datao; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies and animal model experiments have shown that parasites have significant modulatory effects on autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recombinant Sj16 (rSj16), a 16-kDa secreted protein of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of rSj16 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: DSS-induced colitis mice were treated with rSj16. Body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity levels, colon lengths, macroscopic scores, histopathology findings, inflammatory cytokine levels and regulatory T cell (Treg) subset levels were examined. Moreover, the differential genes expression after treated with rSj16 were sequenced, analyzed and identified. Results: rSj16 attenuated clinical activity of DSS-induced colitis mice, diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production, up-regulated immunoregulatory cytokine production and increased Treg percentages in DSS-induced colitis mice. Moreover, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with rSj16 displayed changes in the expression levels of specific genes in the colon and show the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) signaling pathway. PPAR-α activation diminished the therapeutic effects of rSj16 in DSS-induced colitis mice, indicating that the PPAR-α signaling pathway plays a crucial role in DSS-induced colitis development. Conclusions: rSj16 has protective effects on DSS-induced colitis, effects mediated mainly by PPAR-α signaling pathway inhibition. The findings of this study suggest that rSj16 may be useful as a therapeutic agent and that PPAR-α may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IBD.

  18. rSj16 Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting the PPAR-α Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifu; Xie, Hui; Xu, Lian; Liao, Qi; Wan, Shuo; Yu, Zilong; Lin, Datao; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies and animal model experiments have shown that parasites have significant modulatory effects on autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recombinant Sj16 (rSj16), a 16-kDa secreted protein of Schistosoma japonicum (S.japonicum) produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli), has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of rSj16 on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: DSS-induced colitis mice were treated with rSj16. Body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity levels, colon lengths, macroscopic scores, histopathology findings, inflammatory cytokine levels and regulatory T cell (Treg) subset levels were examined. Moreover, the differential genes expression after treated with rSj16 were sequenced, analyzed and identified. Results: rSj16 attenuated clinical activity of DSS-induced colitis mice, diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine production, up-regulated immunoregulatory cytokine production and increased Treg percentages in DSS-induced colitis mice. Moreover, DSS-induced colitis mice treated with rSj16 displayed changes in the expression levels of specific genes in the colon and show the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) signaling pathway. PPAR-α activation diminished the therapeutic effects of rSj16 in DSS-induced colitis mice, indicating that the PPAR-α signaling pathway plays a crucial role in DSS-induced colitis development. Conclusions: rSj16 has protective effects on DSS-induced colitis, effects mediated mainly by PPAR-α signaling pathway inhibition. The findings of this study suggest that rSj16 may be useful as a therapeutic agent and that PPAR-α may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of IBD. PMID:28912887

  19. Antenatal corticosteroids alter insulin signaling pathways in fetal baboon skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Cynthia L; Moreira, Alvaro G; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Anzueto, Diana G; Nathanielsz, Peter; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) negatively alters the insulin signal transduction pathway and has differing effects on the fetus according to gestational age (GA) at exposure. Twenty-three fetal baboons were delivered from 23 healthy, nondiabetic mothers. Twelve preterm (0.67 GA) and 11 near-term (0.95 GA) baboons were killed immediately after delivery. Half of the pregnant baboons at each gestation received two doses of i.m. betamethasone 24 h apart (170 μg/kg) before delivery, while the other half received no intervention. Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained from postnatal animals to measure the protein content and gene expression of insulin receptor β (IRβ; INSR), IRβ Tyr 1361 phosphorylation (pIRβ), IR substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation (pIRS1), p85 subunit of PI3-kinase, AKT (protein kinase B), phospho-AKT Ser473 (pAKT), AKT1, AKT2, and glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4). Skeletal muscle from preterm baboons exposed to GCs had markedly reduced protein content of AKT and AKT1 (respectively, 73 and 72% from 0.67 GA control, P<0.001); IRβ and pIRβ were also decreased (respectively, 94 and 85%, P<0.01) in the muscle of premature GC-exposed fetuses but not in term fetuses. GLUT1 and GLUT4 tended to increase with GC exposure in preterm animals (P=0.09), while GLUT4 increased sixfold in term animals after exposure to GC (P<0.05). In conclusion, exposure to a single course of antenatal GCs during fetal life alters the insulin signaling pathway in fetal muscle in a manner dependent on the stage of gestation.

  20. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  1. Molecular pathways: the role of NR4A orphan nuclear receptors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Helen M; Aherne, Carol M; Rogers, Ailin C; Baird, Alan W; Winter, Des C; Murphy, Evelyn P

    2012-06-15

    Nuclear receptors are of integral importance in carcinogenesis. Manipulation of classic ligand-activated nuclear receptors, such as estrogen receptor blockade in breast cancer, is an important established cancer therapy. Orphan nuclear receptors, such as nuclear family 4 subgroup A (NR4A) receptors, have no known natural ligand(s). These elusive receptors are increasingly recognized as molecular switches in cell survival and a molecular link between inflammation and cancer. NR4A receptors act as transcription factors, altering expression of downstream genes in apoptosis (Fas-ligand, TRAIL), proliferation, DNA repair, metabolism, cell migration, inflammation (interleukin-8), and angiogenesis (VEGF). NR4A receptors are modulated by multiple cell-signaling pathways, including protein kinase A/CREB, NF-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT, c-jun-NH(2)-kinase, Wnt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. NR4A receptor effects are context and tissue specific, influenced by their levels of expression, posttranslational modification, and interaction with other transcription factors (RXR, PPAR-Υ). The subcellular location of NR4A "nuclear receptors" is also important functionally; novel roles have been described in the cytoplasm where NR4A proteins act both indirectly and directly on the mitochondria to promote apoptosis via Bcl-2. NR4A receptors are implicated in a wide variety of malignancies, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, and prostate cancer; glioblastoma multiforme; sarcoma; and acute and/or chronic myeloid leukemia. NR4A receptors modulate response to conventional chemotherapy and represent an exciting frontier for chemotherapeutic intervention, as novel agents targeting NR4A receptors have now been developed. This review provides a concise clinical overview of current knowledge of NR4A signaling in cancer and the potential for therapeutic manipulation. ©2012 AACR.

  2. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    PubMed

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise mediated protection of diabetic heart through modulation of microRNA mediated molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Lew, Jason Kar Sheng; Pearson, James T; Schwenke, Daryl O; Katare, Rajesh

    2017-01-13

    Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction. Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the term used to describe the presence of heart disease specifically in diabetic patients. Despite significant advances in medical research and long clinical history of anti-diabetic medications, the risk of heart failure in people with diabetes never declines. Interestingly, sustainable and long-term exercise regimen has emerged as an effective synergistic therapy to combat the cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism(s) underlying this protection remain unclear. This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms of hyperglycaemia- and insulin resistance-mediated DHD with a detailed discussion on the role of different intensities of exercise in mitigating these molecular alterations in diabetic heart. In particular, we provide the possible role of exercise on microRNAs, the key molecular regulators of several pathophysiological processes.

  4. AID-expressing epithelium is protected from oncogenic transformation by an NKG2D surveillance pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Arantxa; Pérez-Durán, Pablo; Wossning, Thomas; Sernandez, Isora V; Mur, Sonia M; Cañamero, Marta; Real, Francisco X; Ramiro, Almudena R

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates secondary antibody diversification in germinal center B cells, giving rise to higher affinity antibodies through somatic hypermutation (SHM) or to isotype-switched antibodies through class switch recombination (CSR). SHM and CSR are triggered by AID-mediated deamination of cytosines in immunoglobulin genes. Importantly, AID activity in B cells is not restricted to Ig loci and can promote mutations and pro-lymphomagenic translocations, establishing a direct oncogenic mechanism for germinal center-derived neoplasias. AID is also expressed in response to inflammatory cues in epithelial cells, raising the possibility that AID mutagenic activity might drive carcinoma development. We directly tested this hypothesis by generating conditional knock-in mouse models for AID overexpression in colon and pancreas epithelium. AID overexpression alone was not sufficient to promote epithelial cell neoplasia in these tissues, in spite of displaying mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Instead, we found that heterologous AID expression in pancreas promotes the expression of NKG2D ligands, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells, and the induction of epithelial cell death. Our results indicate that AID oncogenic potential in epithelial cells can be neutralized by immunosurveillance protective mechanisms. PMID:26282919

  5. Rutin Protects against Pirarubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity through TGF-β1-p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Bo; Tong, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the potential protective effect of rutinum (RUT) against pirarubicin- (THP-) induced cardiotoxicity. THP was used to induce toxicity in rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Positive control cells were pretreated with a cardioprotective agent dexrazoxane (DZR) prior to treatment with THP. Some of the cells were preincubated with RUT and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, both individually and in combination, prior to THP exposure. At a dose range of 30–70 μM, RUT significantly prevented THP-induced reduction in cell viability; the best cardioprotective effect was observed at a dose of 50 μM. Administration of RUT and SB203580, both individually as well as in combination, suppressed the elevation of intracellular ROS, inhibited cell apoptosis, and reversed the THP-induced upregulation of TGF-β1, p-p38 MAPK, cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-7, and Caspase-3. A synergistic effect was observed on coadministration of RUT and SB203580. RUT protected against THP-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibition of ROS generation and suppression of cell apoptosis. The cardioprotective effect of RUT appears to be associated with the modulation of the TGF-β1-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:28367221

  6. Protective effect of Schizandrin B against damage of UVB irradiated skin cells depend on inhibition of inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chenguang; Chen, Hong; Niu, Cong; Hu, Jie; Cao, Bo

    2017-01-02

    Schizandrin B is extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study evaluated the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B on oxidative stress injury of the skin caused by UVB-irradiation and the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B, and we firstly found that Schizandrin B could block Cox-2, IL-6 and IL-18 signal pathway to protect damage of skin cells given by UVB-irradiation. In the research, we found that Schizandrin B can attenuate the UVB-induced toxicity on keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in human body, and can outstandingly eliminated intracellular ROS produced by UVB-irradiation. These results demonstrate that Schizandrin B can regulate the function of decreasing intracellular SOD's activity and increasing the expression level of MDA in HaCaT cells result from the guidance of UVB, and it markedly reduced the production of inflammatory factors such as Cox-2, IL-6 or IL-18, decreased the expression level of MMP-1, and interdicted degradation process of collagens in UVB-radiated cells. Therefore, skin keratinocytes can be effectively protected from UVB-radiated damage by Schizandrin B, and UVB-irradiation caused inflammatory responses can be inhibited by attenuating process of ROS generating.

  7. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, modulates death receptor pathway proteins, and protects the rat cerebrum against bisphenol-A-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I; Al-Abdan, Monera A; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2014-12-15

    Epidemiological reports have indicated a correlation between the increasing of bisphenol-A (BPA) levels in the environment and the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the protective effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and the death receptor apoptotic proteins in the cerebrum of the bisphenol-A-treated rats were examined. Adult male rats were orally administered melatonin (10mg/kg bw) concurrently with BPA (50mg/kg bw) 3 days a week for 6 weeks. BPA exposure resulted in significant elevations of oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in the cerebrum. BPA caused an upregulation of p53 and CD95-Fas and activation of capsases-3 and 8, resulting in cerebral cell apoptosis. Melatonin significantly attenuated the BPA-evoked brain oxidative stress, modulated apoptotic-regulating proteins and protected against apoptosis. These data suggest that melatonin modulated important steps in the death receptor apoptotic pathway which likely related to its redox control properties. Melatonin is a promising pharmacological agent for preventing the potential neurotoxicity of BPA following occupational or environmental exposures.

  8. Sulforaphane protects against cytokine- and streptozotocin-induced {beta}-cell damage by suppressing the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Woo-Sung; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Kwon, Kang-Beom Park, Byung-Hyun

    2009-02-15

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an indirect antioxidant that protects animal tissues from chemical or biological insults by stimulating the expression of several NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)-regulated phase 2 enzymes. Treatment of RINm5F insulinoma cells with SFN increases Nrf2 nuclear translocation and expression of phase 2 enzymes. In this study, we investigated whether the activation of Nrf2 by SFN treatment or ectopic overexpression of Nrf2 inhibited cytokine-induced {beta}-cell damage. Treatment of RIN cells with IL-1{beta} and IFN-{gamma} induced {beta}-cell damage through a NF-{kappa}B-dependent signaling pathway. Activation of Nrf2 by treatment with SFN and induction of Nrf2 overexpression by transfection with Nrf2 prevented cytokine toxicity. The mechanism by which Nrf2 activation inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent cell death signals appeared to involve the reduction of oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytokine-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The protective effect of SFN was further demonstrated by the restoration of normal insulin secreting responses to glucose in cytokine-treated rat pancreatic islets. Furthermore, pretreatment with SFN blocked the development of type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-treated mice.

  9. Oleanolic acid protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy via modulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 and insulin signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Fang; Wang, Peng; Li, Hua; Li, Tian-Yi; Feng, Ming; Chen, Su-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OL) is a pentacyclic triterpene compound used for the treatment of hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. In China, there is no published research on the effect or biological utilization of OL on liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of OL against diabetic cardiomyopathy and its possible mechanism. A rat model of diabetes was established using streptozotocin and the effect of OL on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was evaluated. The results demonstrated that OL significantly reversed the DCM-induced changes to body weight, heart rate, echocardiography and hemodynamics, phosphorylated-glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity in diabetic rats (all P<0.01). Treatment of diabetic rats with OL significantly inhibited oxidative stress and activated heme oxygenase (HO)-1/nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2) signaling in a rat model of diabetes (both P<0.01). The results of the present study indicate that OL protects against DCM through the HO-1/Nrf2 and insulin modulating GS/GP signaling pathways. PMID:28673009

  10. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway.

  11. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway. PMID:27347331

  12. Protective effect of zerumbone reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai-Shing; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Kuo, Chi-Wen; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Huang-Liu, Rosa; Lin, Hui-Wen; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Although there are effective strategies for treatment of ALI; a widely accepted specific pharmacotherapy has not yet established. Zerumbone, the major active phytochemical compound from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, exhibits various beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-cancer. We aimed to study the potential protective effects and mechanisms of zerumbone in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Pretreatment with zerumbone inhibited the histopatholgical changes such as neutrophils infiltration, increased in alveolar barrier thickness, hemorrhage, and hyaline membrane formation occurred in lungs in LPS-induced ALI. In addition, not only LPS-induced activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed by zerumbone, but also lipid peroxidation in lungs was inhibited as well. Moreover, pretreatment with zerumbone reversed the antioxidative enzymes activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, decreased by LPS and enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) induced by LPS. These results from present study suggested that the protective mechanisms of zerumbone on LPS-induced ALI were via up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  13. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury via the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism of these effects in a weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administrated 30 min after TBI. In this experiment, ICR mice were divided into four groups: A sham group, TBI group, TBI + vehicle group, and TBI + quercetin group. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment resulted in an upregulation of Nrf2 expression and cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were restored by quercetin treatment. Quercetin markedly promoted the translocation of Nrf2 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These observations suggest that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in TBI models, possibly by activating the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:27780244

  14. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury via the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Handong; Gao, Yongyue; Li, Liwen; Tang, Chao; Wen, Guodao; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Mengliang; Mao, Lei; Fan, Youwu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the potential mechanism of these effects in a weight-drop model of TBI in male mice that were treated with quercetin or vehicle via intraperitoneal injection administrated 30 min after TBI. In this experiment, ICR mice were divided into four groups: A sham group, TBI group, TBI + vehicle group, and TBI + quercetin group. Brain samples were collected 24 h later for analysis. Quercetin treatment resulted in an upregulation of Nrf2 expression and cytochrome c, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were restored by quercetin treatment. Quercetin markedly promoted the translocation of Nrf2 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These observations suggest that quercetin improves mitochondrial function in TBI models, possibly by activating the Nrf2 pathway.

  15. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Hypoxic Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A Possible Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yaqi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhong, Liangjie; Zhu, Yizhun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, against hypoxia-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and also to look into the possible mechanisms by which H2S exerts this protective effect. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scratch wound healing assay were chosen to measure the cell viability and migration-promoting effects. The fluorescent probe, DCFH-DA and 5,5′,6,6′-Tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) were applied to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Furthermore, western blots were used to measure the expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins. Under hypoxic conditions, 300 μM and 600 μM of H2S could protect HUVECs against hypoxia-induced injury, as determined by MTT assay. Following the treatment of 60 μM NaHS for 18 h, scratch wound healing assays indicated that the scratch became much narrower than control group. After treatment with 60 μM, 120 μM, and 600 μM NaHS, and hypoxia for 30 min, flow cytometry demonstrated that the ROS concentrations decreased to 95.08% ± 5.52%, 73.14% ± 3.36%, and 73.51% ± 3.05%, respectively, compared with the control group. In addition, the JC-1 assay showed NaHS had a protective effect on mitochondria damage. Additionally, NaHS increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in a dose-dependent way. Our results suggest that H2S can protect endothelial cells and promote migration under hypoxic condition in HUVECs. These effects are partially associated with the preservation of mitochondrial function mediated by regulating the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:23799362

  16. All‐trans retinoic acid protects against doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity by activating the ERK2 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Luo, Cheng; Chen, Cong; Wang, Xun; Shi, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin is a powerful antineoplastic agent for treating a wide range of cancers. However, doxorubicin cardiotoxicity of the heart has largely limited its clinical use. All‐trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays an important role in many cardiac biological processes, but its protective effects on doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity remain unknown. Here, we studied the effect of ATRA on doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Approaches Cellular viability assays, Western blotting and mitochondrial respiration analyses were employed to evaluate the cellular response to ATRA in H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes. Quantitative PCR and gene knockdown were performed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ATRA's effects on doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Key Results ATRA significantly inhibited doxorubicin‐induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes. ATRA was more effective against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity than resveratrol and dexrazoxane. ATRA also suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and restored expression levels of mRNA and proteins in the phase II detoxifying enzyme system: nuclear factor‐E2‐related factor 2, manganese superoxide dismutase, haem oxygenase‐1, and mitochondrial function (mitochondrial membrane integrity, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and mitochondrial respiration capacity, biogenesis and dynamics). Both a ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and ERK2 siRNA, but not ERK1 siRNA, abolished the protective effect of ATRA against doxorubicin‐induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Remarkably, ATRA did not compromise the anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in gastric carcinoma cells. Conclusions and Implications ATRA protected cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin‐induced toxicity, by activating the ERK2 pathway, without compromising its anticancer efficacy. Therefore, ATRA is a promising candidate as a cardioprotective agent against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. PMID:26507774

  17. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg-1 of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway. PMID:28377718

  18. Sophocarpine Protects Mice from ConA-Induced Hepatitis via Inhibition of the IFN-Gamma/STAT1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiu-Xiu; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Cong-En; Liu, Shi-Jing; Shen, Hong-Hui; Guo, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-01-01

    Sophocarpine is the major pharmacologically active compound of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae Subprostratae which has been used in treating hepatitis for years in China. It has been demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts an activity in immune modulation and significantly decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines. However, the protective effects of Sophocarpine in T cell-dependent immune hepatitis remained unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of Sophocarpine on Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, an experimental model of T cell-mediated liver injury. BALB/C mice were pretreated with Sophocarpine or Bicyclol for five consecutive days. Thirty minutes after the final administration, the mice were injected with 15 mg⋅kg(-1) of ConA intravenously. The results indicated that pretreatment with Sophocarpine significantly ameliorated liver inflammation and injury as evidenced by both biochemical and histopathological observations. Moreover, in Sophocarpine-pretreated mice, liver messenger RNA expression levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, CXC chemokine ligand 10, and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were markedly reduced. Further studies revealed that Sophocarpine significantly downregulated the expression of T-bet via inhibition of signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) activation and overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling1, inhibiting the activation of Th1 cells and the expression of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Altogether, these results suggest new opportunities to use Sophocarpine in the treatment of T cell-mediated liver disease. In summary, Sophocarpine could attenuate ConA-induced liver injury, and the protective effect of Sophocarpine was associated with its inhibition effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway.

  19. Curcumin inhibits prosurvival pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and may overcome their stromal protection in combination with EGCG.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asish K; Kay, Neil E; Secreto, Charla R; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-02-15

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is incurable with current chemotherapy treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an active ingredient in the spice turmeric, inhibits tumor metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumor cell lines. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the viability of primary CLL B cells and its ability to overcome stromal mediated protection. The in vitro effect of curcumin on primary CLL B cells was evaluated using fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis and Western blotting. For some experiments, CLL B cells were cocultured with human stromal cells to evaluate the effects of curcumin on leukemia cells cultured in their microenvironment. Finally, the effect of curcumin in combination with the green tea extract epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) was evaluated. Curcumin induced apoptosis in CLL B cells in a dose-dependent (5-20 micromol/L) manner and inhibited constitutively active prosurvival pathways, including signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), AKT, and nuclear factor kappaB. Moreover, curcumin suppressed expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. Coculture of CLL B cells with stromal cells resulted in elevated levels of STAT3, increased expression of Mcl-1 and XIAP, and decreased sensitivity to curcumin. When curcumin was administered simultaneously with EGCG, antagonism was observed for most patient samples. In contrast, sequential administration of these agents led to substantial increases in CLL B-cell death and could overcome stromal protection. Curcumin treatment was able to overcome stromal protection of CLL B cells on in vitro testing and to synergize with EGCG when administered in a sequential fashion. Additional evaluation of curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of CLL seems warranted.

  20. Hypoxic preconditioning protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell apoptosis via sphingosine kinase 2 and FAK/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruxin; Li, Ling; Yuan, Li; Zhao, Min

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. However, the impact and mechanism involved were not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of HPC on H/R injury in cardiomyocytes and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In our study, primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. We established H/R models in vitro to mimic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo. Primary cardiomyocytes were exposed to HPC and then subjected to H/R. SphK2 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst staining. H9c2 cells were transfected with SphK2 siRNA or pcDNA3.1-SphK2 plasmid. The transfection efficiency was evaluated 48h post-transfection. After H/R, cell apoptosis rate was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI and caspase-3/-9 activity was measured. The activation of FAK/AKT pathway was evaluated by Western blotting. Our results showed that HPC significantly increased SphK2 expression in primary cardiomyocytes under normal or H/R condition and protected against H/R-induced cell apoptosis, whereas SphK2 inhibitor K145 abolished the cardioprotective effect of HPC. HPC markedly reduced the cell apoptosis rate of H9c2, decreased the activities of caspase-3 and -9 and increased p-FAK and p-AKT levels, which were reversed by SphK2 knockdown. Additionally, SphK2 overexpression exerted a similar effect with HPC on cell apoptosis and FAK/AKT. Inhibition of H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by HPC and SphK2 overexpression was abolished by PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002. These results indicate that HPC may protect cardiomyocytes against H/R injury via SphK2 and the downstream FAK/AKT signaling pathway. Our findings provided important evidences for the protective role of HPC in ameliorating myocardial H/R injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unique sex- and age-dependent effects in protective pathways in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Ravindra; Fan, Chunlan; Rangarajan, Sunil; Sunil, Bhuvana; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Curtis, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Sex and age influence susceptibility to acute kidney injury (AKI), with young females exhibiting lowest incidence. In these studies, we investigated mechanisms which may underlie the sex/age-based dissimilarities. Cisplatin (Cp)-induced AKI resulted in morphological evidence of injury in all groups. A minimal rise in plasma creatinine (PCr) was seen in Young Females, whereas in Aged Females, PCr rose precipitously. Relative to Young Males, Aged Males showed significantly, but temporally, comparably elevated PCr. Notably, Aged Females showed significantly greater mortality, whereas Young Females exhibited none. Tissue KIM-1 and plasma NGAL were significantly lower in Young Females than all others. IGFBP7 levels were modestly increased in both Young groups. IGFBP7 levels in Aged Females were significantly elevated at baseline relative to Aged Males, and increased linearly through day 3, when these levels were comparable in both Aged groups. Plasma cytokine levels similarly showed a pattern of protective effects preferentially in Young Females. Expression of the drug transporter MATE2 did not explain the sex/age distinctions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels (~28-kDa species) showed elevation at day 1 in all groups with highest levels seen in Young Males. Exclusively in Young Females, these levels returned to baseline on day 3, suggestive of a more efficient recovery. In aggregate, we demonstrate, for the first time, a distinctive pattern of response to AKI in Young Females relative to males which appears to be significantly altered in aging. These distinctions may offer novel targets to exploit therapeutically in both females and males in the treatment of AKI.

  2. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Qiong; He, Hao; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.

  3. Protective Effect of Tempol on Acute Kidney Injury Through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gensheng; Wang, Qiaoling; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Renjun; Xu, Minze; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Lei; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Liu, Ruisheng; Lai, En Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Tempol is a protective antioxidant against ischemic injury in many animal models. The molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor during oxidative stress, which is enhanced by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Another factor, tubular epithelial apoptosis, is mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) signaling pathway during renal ischemic injury. We tested the hypothesis that tempol activates PKC or PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathways to transcribe many genes that coordinate endogenous antioxidant defense. Methods The right renal pedicle was clamped for 45 minutes and the left kidney was removed to study renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in C57BL/6 mice. The response was assessed from serum parameters, renal morphology and renal expression of PKC, phosphorylated-PKC (p-PKC), Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in groups of sham and I/R mice given vehicle, or tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). Results The serum malondialdehyde (MDA, marker of reactive oxygen species) doubled and the BUN and creatinine increased 5- to 10-fold after I/R injury. Tempol (50 or 100 mg/kg) prevented the increases in MDA but only tempol (50 mg/kg) lessened the increases in BUN and creatinine and moderated the acute tubular necrosis. I/R did not change expression of PKC or p-PKC but reduced renal expression of Nrf2, p-Akt, HO-1 and pro-caspase-3 and increased cleaved caspase-3. Tempol (50 mg/kg) prevented these changes produced by I/R whereas tempol (100 mg/kg) had lesser or inconsistent effects. Conclusion Tempol (50 mg/kg) prevents lipid peroxidation and attenuates renal damage after I/R injury. The beneficial pathway apparently is not dependent on upregulation or phosphorylation of PKC, at lower tempol doses, does implicate upregulation of Akt with expression

  4. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  5. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  6. Role of PI3-K/Akt pathway and its effect on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in midbrain dopamine cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-jun; Cao, Jun-ping; Yu, Jing-kao; Gao, Dian-shuai

    2007-02-01

    To explore the intracellular mechanisms underlying the survival/differentiation effect of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on dopamine (DA) cells. Midbrain slice culture and primary cell culture were established, and the cultures were divided into 3 groups: control group, GDNF group, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3-K/Akt) pathway-inhibited group. Then the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was detected by immunostaining as well as Western blotting. GDNF treatment induced an increase in the number of TH-immunoreactive (ir) cells and the neurite number of TH-ir cells, as well as in the level of TH expression in cultures (Number of TH-ir cells in the slice culture: control group, 8.76+/-0.75; GDNF group, 18.63+/-0.95. Number of TH-ir cells and neurite number of TH-ir cells in cell culture: control group, 3.65+/-0.88 and 2.49+/-0.42; GDNF group, 6.01+/-0.43 and 4.89+/-0.46). Meanwhile, the stimulation of cultured cells with GDNF increased the phosphorylation of Akt, which is a downstream effector of PI3-K/Akt. The effects of GDNF were specifically blocked by the inhibitor of the PI3-K/Akt pathway, wortmannin (Number of TH-ir cells in slice culture: PI3-K/Akt pathway-inhibited group, 6.98+/-0.58. Number of TH-ir cells and neurite number of TH-ir cells in cell culture: PI3-K/Akt pathway-inhibited group, 3.79+/-0.62 and 2.50+/-0.25, respectively). The PI3-K/Akt pathway mediates the survival/differentiation effect of GDNF on DA cells.

  7. Flavonoids Isolated from Flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Inhibit Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing TNF-α and IL-β Through PI3K/Akt/NF-kb Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Su Hyun; Jung, Ji Hyun; Park, Cheol; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, GonSup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Decoctions of the dried flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Indongcho) have been utilized in folk remedies against various inflammatory diseases, and it is reported neuroprotective effects. The cytokines release from microglia is closely linked to various chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It is still unknown whether the neuroprotective effects are associated with the antiinflammatory effects. Here, we determined whether polyphenols extracted from lyophilized Lonicera japonica Thunb. (PELJ) would inhibit inflammatory cytokines and mediators. We stimulated microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce inflammatory cytokines, and then assessed the effects of PELJ on these cytokines. PELJ significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expressions and LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 expressions by down-regulating inducible enzyme NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. All the suppression of these mediators did not cause any significant cytotoxicity. PELJ also inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B and phosphorylated Akt. These findings suggest that PELJ may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibiting phosphoinositol 3-kinase /Akt/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Tumour-associated macrophages correlate with poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma and promote cell motility and invasion via the HB-EGF-EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, A; Matsumoto, Y; Fukushi, J; Iura, K; Matsunobu, T; Endo, M; Fujiwara, T; Iida, K; Fujiwara, Y; Hatano, M; Yokoyama, N; Fukushima, S; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    2015-02-03

    Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, and metastasis occurs in up to one-third of cases. However, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in tumour invasion, metastasis, and/or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TAMs and MLS. Using 78 primary MLS samples, the association between clinical prognosis and macrophage infiltration was evaluated by immunochemistry. The effects of macrophages on cell growth, cell motility, and invasion of MLS cell lines were investigated in vitro. In addition, clinicopathological factors were analysed to assess their prognostic implications in MLS. Higher levels of CD68-positive macrophages were associated with poorer overall survival in MLS samples. Macrophage-conditioned medium enhanced MLS cell motility and invasion by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the key ligand suggested to be heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was mostly involved in HB-EGF-induced cell motility and invasion of MLS. The expression of phosphorylated EGFR in MLS clinical samples was associated with macrophage infiltration. In addition, more significant macrophage infiltration was associated with poor prognosis even in multivariate analysis. Macrophage infiltration in MLS predicts poor prognosis, and the relationship between TAMs and MLS may be a new candidate for therapeutic targets of MLS.

  9. Tumour-associated macrophages correlate with poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma and promote cell motility and invasion via the HB-EGF-EGFR-PI3K/Akt pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, A; Matsumoto, Y; Fukushi, J; Iura, K; Matsunobu, T; Endo, M; Fujiwara, T; Iida, K; Fujiwara, Y; Hatano, M; Yokoyama, N; Fukushima, S; Oda, Y; Iwamoto, Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma, and metastasis occurs in up to one-third of cases. However, the mechanisms of invasion and metastasis remain unclear. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in tumour invasion, metastasis, and/or poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TAMs and MLS. Methods: Using 78 primary MLS samples, the association between clinical prognosis and macrophage infiltration was evaluated by immunochemistry. The effects of macrophages on cell growth, cell motility, and invasion of MLS cell lines were investigated in vitro. In addition, clinicopathological factors were analysed to assess their prognostic implications in MLS. Results: Higher levels of CD68-positive macrophages were associated with poorer overall survival in MLS samples. Macrophage-conditioned medium enhanced MLS cell motility and invasion by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with the key ligand suggested to be heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway was mostly involved in HB-EGF-induced cell motility and invasion of MLS. The expression of phosphorylated EGFR in MLS clinical samples was associated with macrophage infiltration. In addition, more significant macrophage infiltration was associated with poor prognosis even in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Macrophage infiltration in MLS predicts poor prognosis, and the relationship between TAMs and MLS may be a new candidate for therapeutic targets of MLS. PMID:25562433

  10. Pilocarpine protects cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis of RGC-5 cells: involvement of muscarinic receptors and HIF-1 alpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Zhu, Liang; Li, Juan; Feng, Xuemei; Shao, Biyun; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hao; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2010-04-01

    The retina is the most metabolically active tissue in the human body and hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been implicated in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to determine whether muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine, a classic antiglaucoma drug, possesses neuroprotection against cobalt chloride (CoCl(2))-mimetic hypoxia-induced apoptosis of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cells) and its underlying mechanisms. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assays. Expressions of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), p53, and BNIP3 were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. After treatment of 200 microM CoCl(2) for 24 h, RGC-5 cells showed a marked decrease of cell viability by approximately 30%, increased apoptosis rate and obvious decline in MMP, which could largely be reversed by the pretreatment of 1 microM pilocarpine mainly via the activation of muscarinic receptors. Meanwhile, pretreatment of 1 microM pilocarpine could significantly prevent CoCl(2)-induced HIF-1 alpha translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus and down-regulate the expression of HIF-1 alpha, p53, and BNIP3. These studies demonstrated that pilocarpine had effective protection against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in RGCs via muscarinic receptors and HIF-1 alpha pathway. The findings suggest that HIF-1 alpha pathway as a "master switch" may be used as a therapeutic target in the cholinergic treatment of glaucoma.

  11. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser727 (but not Tyr701) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  12. Adenosine A1 Receptor Protects Against Cisplatin Ototoxicity by Suppressing the NOX3/STAT1 Inflammatory Pathway in the Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Borse, Vikrant; Sheth, Sandeep; Sheehan, Kelly; Ghosh, Sumana; Tupal, Srinivasan; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2016-04-06

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that produces ototoxicity that is mediated in part by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the NOX3 NADPH oxidase pathway in the cochlea. Recent studies implicate ROS generation in mediating inflammatory and apoptotic processes and hearing loss by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1). In this study, we show that the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) protects against cisplatin ototoxicity by suppressing an inflammatory response initiated by ROS generation via NOX3 NADPH oxidase, leading to inhibition of STAT1. Trans-tympanic administration of the A1AR agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) inhibited cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, as measured by auditory brainstem responses and scanning electron microscopy in male Wistar rats. This was associated with reduced NOX3 expression, STAT1 activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis in the cochlea. In vitro studies in UB/OC-1 cells, an organ of Corti immortalized cell line, showed that R-PIA reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 Ser(727) (but not Tyr(701)) and STAT1 luciferase activity by suppressing the ERK1/2, p38, and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.R-PIA also decreased the expression of STAT1 target genes, such as TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and reduced cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that the A1AR provides otoprotection by suppressing NOX3 and inflammation in the cochlea and could serve as an ideal target for otoprotective drug therapy. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of solid tumors. Its use results in significant and permanent hearing loss, for which no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment is currently available. In this study, we targeted the cochlear adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) by trans-tympanic injections of the agonist R

  13. TRAM1 protects AR42J cells from caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis through ER stress-apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongxia; Shen, Yanbo; Xu, Guangling; Tao, Ran; Yuan, Weiyan; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-05-01

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic acinar cells has emerged as a major contributor to the recovery of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the molecular mechanisms linking AP and ER stress remain not fully understood. In this study, we employed caerulein to induce AP-like inflammation in the AR42J rat pancreatic acinar cells to mimic the AP-like acinar cell injury. Caerulein can activate ER stress in AR42J cells, but the molecular link between AP and ER stress remains to be identified. We here reported that translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an ER-resident multispanning membrane protein, was involved in the onset of AP-like injury on AR42J cells. TRAM1 was significantly elevated in caerulein-treated AR42J cells. Furthermore, we showed that knockdown of TRAM1 led to hyperactivation of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and the activation of downstream apoptosis pathway. Given the fact that the activation of ER stress played a protection role in AP, the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6 and the marker of cell injury LDH were also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAM1 markedly increased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and LDH in the cells. Moreover, flow cytometry indicated that treatment with caerulein induced a significant decrease of apoptotic index and increase of necrosis index in TRAM1-siRNA cells, compared with control groups, as indicated by downregulated expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 mRNA expression activity in TRAM1-siRNA cells. These data implicated that TRAM1 might protect AR42J cells against caerulein-induced AP in AR42J cells through alleviating ER stress.

  14. Protocatechualdehyde Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Oxidative Injury Via Protein Kinase Cε/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Shiquan; Duan, Jialin; Jia, Na; Zhu, Yanrong; Ding, Yi; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a phenolic acid compound that has the putative antioxidant activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the antioxidative effect of PCA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The experiment stroke model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To model ischemia-like conditions in vitro, differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment with PCA significantly improved neurologic score, reduced infarct volume and necrotic neurons, and also decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents at 24 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, PCA significantly increased the transcription nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions in the ischemic cerebral cortex as shown by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. In vitro experiment showed that PCA protected differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against OGD-induced injury. Likewise, PCA also increased markedly the Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotection effect of PCA was abolished by knockdown of Nrf2 and HO-1. Moreover, knockdown of protein kinase Cε (PKCε) also blocked PCA-induced Nfr2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression, and neuroprotection. Taken together, these results provide evidences that PCA can protect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative injury, and the neuroprotective effect involves the PKCε/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  15. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Hexarelin Protects Rat Cardiomyocytes From in vivo Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Interleukin-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiannan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yusheng; Lu, Qinghua

    2017-04-06

    Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. The rats were then treated subcutaneously twice daily with hexarelin [100 μg/kg·day], ghrelin [400 μg/ kg·day], or saline for 7 days. Echocardiography, malondialdehyde detection, and histochemical staining were performed after treatment. In addition, Western blot was used to examine the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-1RI. Our study showed that hexarelin treatment improved cardiac systolic function, decreased malondialdehyde production, and increased the number of surviving cardiomyocytes. The beneficial effects of hexarelin treatment were slightly superior to those of equimolar ghrelin treatment. We meanwhile confirmed that hexarelin induced down-regulation of IL-1β expression and up-regulation of IL-1Ra expression in I/R myocardium, which could be neutralized by the GHSR antagonist [D-Lys3]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6). These findings suggest that hexarelin protects in vivo cardiomyocytes from I/R injury partly by modification of the IL-1 signaling pathway through the activation of cardiac GHSR1a receptors.

  16. Oleanolic Acid Alters Multiple Cell Signaling Pathways: Implication in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Žiberna, Lovro; Šamec, Dunja; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bishayee, Anupam; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-03-16

    Nowadays, much attention has been paid to diet and dietary supplements as a cost-effective therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of a myriad of chronic and degenerative diseases. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence achieved through high-throughput technologies has greatly expanded the understanding about the multifaceted nature of cancer. Increasingly, it is being realized that deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled intracellular signaling cascades plays a contributory role in the onset and progression of cancer. Therefore, targeting regulators of oncogenic signaling cascades is essential to prevent and treat cancer. A plethora of preclinical and epidemiological evidences showed promising role of phytochemicals against several types of cancer. Oleanolic acid, a common pentacyclic triterpenoid, is mainly found in olive oil, as well as several plant species. It is a potent inhibitor of cellular inflammatory process and a well-known inducer of phase 2 xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. Main molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer effects of oleanolic acid are mediated by caspases, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, pro-apoptotic Bax and bid, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt1/mechanistic target of rapamycin, reactive oxygen species/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, cluster of differentiation 1, CKD4, s6k, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, as well as aforementioned signaling pathways . In this work, we critically review the scientific literature on the molecular targets of oleanolic acid implicated in the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. We also discuss chemical aspects, natural sources, bioavailability, and safety of this bioactive phytochemical.

  17. Oleanolic Acid Alters Multiple Cell Signaling Pathways: Implication in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Žiberna, Lovro; Šamec, Dunja; Mocan, Andrei; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bishayee, Anupam; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, much attention has been paid to diet and dietary supplements as a cost-effective therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of a myriad of chronic and degenerative diseases. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence achieved through high-throughput technologies has greatly expanded the understanding about the multifaceted nature of cancer. Increasingly, it is being realized that deregulation of spatio-temporally controlled intracellular signaling cascades plays a contributory role in the onset and progression of cancer. Therefore, targeting regulators of oncogenic signaling cascades is essential to prevent and treat cancer. A plethora of preclinical and epidemiological evidences showed promising role of phytochemicals against several types of cancer. Oleanolic acid, a common pentacyclic triterpenoid, is mainly found in olive oil, as well as several plant species. It is a potent inhibitor of cellular inflammatory process and a well-known inducer of phase 2 xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. Main molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer effects of oleanolic acid are mediated by caspases, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, pro-apoptotic Bax and bid, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt1/mechanistic target of rapamycin, reactive oxygen species/apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, cluster of differentiation 1, CKD4, s6k, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, as well as aforementioned signaling pathways . In this work, we critically review the scientific literature on the molecular targets of oleanolic acid implicated in the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. We also discuss chemical aspects, natural sources, bioavailability, and safety of this bioactive phytochemical. PMID:28300756

  18. Presenilin 1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor turnover and signaling in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Emanuela; Yoon, Il-Sang; Zheng, Hui; Kang, David E

    2007-10-26

    Mutations in the gene encoding presenilin 1 (PS1) cause the most aggressive form of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. In addition to its well established role in Abeta production and Notch proteolysis, PS1 has been shown to mediate other physiological activities, such as regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling, and trafficking of select membrane proteins and/or intracellular vesicles. In this study, we present evidence that PS1 is a critical regulator of a key signaling receptor tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Specifically, EGFR levels were robustly increased in fibroblasts deficient in both PS1 and PS2 (PS(-/-)) due to delayed turnover of EGFR protein. Stable transfection of wild-type PS1 but not PS2 corrected EGFR to levels comparable to PS(+/+) cells, while FAD PS1 mutations showed partial loss of activity. The C-terminal fragment of PS1 was sufficient to fully reduce EGFR levels. In addition, the rapid ligand-induced degradation of EGFR was markedly delayed in PS(-/-) cells, resulting in prolonged signal activation. Despite the defective turnover of EGFR, ligand-induced autophosphorylation, ubiquitination, and endocytosis of EGFR were not affected by the lack of PS1. Instead, the trafficking of EGFR from early endosomes to lysosomes was severely delayed by PS1 deficiency. Elevation of EGFR was also seen in brains of adult mice conditionally ablated in PS1 and in skin tumors associated with the loss of PS1. These findings demonstrate a critical role of PS1 in the trafficking and turnover of EGFR and suggest potential pathogenic effects of elevated EGFR as well as perturbed endosomal-lysosomal trafficking in cell cycle control and Alzheimer disease.

  19. PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hossini, Amir M.; Quast, Annika S.; Plötz, Michael; Grauel, Katharina; Exner, Tarik; Küchler, Judit; Stachelscheid, Harald; Eberle, Jürgen; Rabien, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly conserved biochemical mechanism which is tightly controlled in cells. It contributes to maintenance of tissue homeostasis and normally eliminates highly proliferative cells with malignant properties. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have recently been described with significant functional and morphological similarities to embryonic stem cells. Human iPSCs are of great hope for regenerative medicine due to their broad potential to differentiate into specialized cell types in culture. They may be useful for exploring disease mechanisms and may provide the basis for future cell-based replacement therapies. However, there is only poor insight into iPSCs cell signaling as the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we focused our attention on the apoptotic response of Alzheimer fibroblast-derived iPSCs and two other Alzheimer free iPSCs to five biologically relevant kinase inhibitors as well as to the death ligand TRAIL. To our knowledge, we are the first to report that the relatively high basal apoptotic rate of iPSCs is strongly suppressed by the pancaspase inhibitor QVD-Oph, thus underlining the dependency on proapoptotic caspase cascades. Furthermore, wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositid-3 kinase / Akt signaling (PI3K-AKT), dramatically and rapidly induced apoptosis in iPSCs. In contrast, parental fibroblasts as well as iPSC-derived neuronal cells were not responsive. The resulting condensation and fragmentation of DNA and decrease of the membrane potential are typical features of apoptosis. Comparable effects were observed with an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206). Wortmannin resulted in disappearance of phosphorylated AKT and activation of the main effector caspase-3 in iPSCs. These results clearly demonstrate for the first time that PI3K-AKT represents a highly essential survival signaling pathway in iPSCs. The findings provide improved understanding on the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis regulation in iPSCs. PMID:27138223

  20. AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy mediated the protective effect of sonic hedgehog pathway on oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing; Yang, Ya; Qin, Yuan; He, Yan-Hua; Chen, Kui-Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Gui-Ping; Luo, Jian-Dong

    2015-02-13

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has been reported to protect cardiomyocytes in myocardial infarction (MI), but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we provide evidence that Shh pathway induces cardiomyocytes survival through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy. Shh pathway agonist SAG increased the expression of LC3-II, and induced the formation of autophagosomes in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) 1 h and 4 h. Moreover, SAG induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, and then directly phosphorylated and activated the downstream autophagy initiator Ulk1, independent of the autophagy suppressor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1. Taken together, our results have shown that Shh activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in cardiomyocytes under OGD, suggesting a role of autophagy in Shh-induced cellular protection.

  1. TGFβ1 protects cells from γ-IR by enhancing the activity of the NHEJ repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Jeeyong; An, You Sun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Park, In-Chul; Chung, Eunkyung; Shin, Incheol; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yi, Jae Youn

    2015-02-01

    Several groups have reported that TGFβ1 regulates cellular responses to γ-irradiation; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the role of TGFβ1 in cellular responses to γ-irradiation was investigated in detail. The data indicate that TGFβ1 pretreatment decreased the aftermath of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage in a SMAD-dependent manner. To determine the underlying mechanism for these effects, the extent of IR-induced DNA repair activity in the presence or absence of TGFβ1 was examined. Studies reveal that TGFβ1 upregulated DNA ligase IV (Lig4), augmented IR-induced nuclear retention of the DNA ligase, and enhanced nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair activity. In addition, knockdown of Lig4 reduced the TGFβ1-induced protection against IR. Overall, these data indicate that TGFβ1 facilitates the NHEJ repair process upon γ-irradiation and thereby enhances long-term survival. These findings provide new insight and a possible approach to controlling genotoxic stress by the TGFβ signaling pathway. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in livers of rat offsprings through PPARγ pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Zhang, Qiaoting; Guan, Huai; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Tianming; Gao, Ni; Yang, Lei; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposures to arsenic had been associated with metabolism diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was found in the liver, regulated metabolism. Here, we found that the expression of PPARγ was decreased, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy were increased after treatment with As2O3 in offsprings’ livers. Taurine (Tau), a sulfur-containing β–amino acid could reverse As2O3-inhibited PPARγ. Tau also inhibit the generation of ROS and autophagy. We also found that As2O3 caused autophagic cell death and ROS accelerated in HepG2 cells. Before incubation with As2O3, the cells were pretreated with PPARγ activator Rosiglitazone (RGS), we found that autophagy and ROS was inhibited in HepG2 cells, suggesting that inhibition of PPARγ contributed to As2O3-induced autophagy and the generation of ROS. After pretreatment with Tau, the level of PPARγ was improved and the autophagy and ROS was inhibited in As2O3-treated cells, suggesting that Tau could protect hepatocytes against As2O3 through modulating PPARγ pathway. PMID:27291853

  3. The Polyphenol Fisetin Protects Bone by Repressing NF-κB and MKP-1-Dependent Signaling Pathways in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Guicheux, Jérôme; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increase fractures risk and challenging quality of life. Since current treatments could exhibit deleterious side effects, the use of food compounds derived from plants represents a promising innovative alternative due to their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against human diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polyphenol fisetin to counter osteoporosis and analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. In vivo, fisetin consumption significantly prevented bone loss in estrogen deficiency and inflammation mice osteoporosis models. Indeed, bone mineral density, micro-architecture parameters and bone markers were positively modulated by fisetin. Consistent with in vivo results, we showed that fisetin represses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity as demonstrated by an inhibition of multinucleated cells formation, TRAP activity and differentiation genes expression. The signaling pathways NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and the key transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions induced by RANKL, were negatively regulated by fisetin. We further showed that fisetin inhibits the constitutive proteasomal degradation of MKP-1, the phosphatase that deactivates p38 and JNK. Consistently, using shRNA stable cell lines, we demonstrated that impairment of MKP-1 decreases fisetin potency. Taken together, these results strongly support that fisetin should be further considered as a bone protective agent. PMID:23861901

  4. The polyphenol fisetin protects bone by repressing NF-κB and MKP-1-dependent signaling pathways in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Guicheux, Jérôme; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone pathology leading to increase fractures risk and challenging quality of life. Since current treatments could exhibit deleterious side effects, the use of food compounds derived from plants represents a promising innovative alternative due to their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against human diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of the polyphenol fisetin to counter osteoporosis and analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. In vivo, fisetin consumption significantly prevented bone loss in estrogen deficiency and inflammation mice osteoporosis models. Indeed, bone mineral density, micro-architecture parameters and bone markers were positively modulated by fisetin. Consistent with in vivo results, we showed that fisetin represses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity as demonstrated by an inhibition of multinucleated cells formation, TRAP activity and differentiation genes expression. The signaling pathways NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and the key transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions induced by RANKL, were negatively regulated by fisetin. We further showed that fisetin inhibits the constitutive proteasomal degradation of MKP-1, the phosphatase that deactivates p38 and JNK. Consistently, using shRNA stable cell lines, we demonstrated that impairment of MKP-1 decreases fisetin potency. Taken together, these results strongly support that fisetin should be further considered as a bone protective agent.

  5. Sanggenon C protects against pressure overload‑induced cardiac hypertrophy via the calcineurin/NFAT2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lili; Gu, Yulei; Gao, Lu; Shangguan, Jiahong; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yanzhou; Li, Ling

    2017-10-01

    The effects of Sanggenon C on oxidative stress and inflammation have previously been reported; however, little is currently known regarding the effects of Sanggenon C on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In the present study, aortic banding (AB) was performed on mice to induce cardiac hypertrophy. After 1 week AB surgery, mice were treated daily with 10 or 20 mg/kg Sanggenon C for 3 weeks. Subsequently, cardiac function was detected using echocardiography and catheter‑based measurements of hemodynamic parameters. In addition, the extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by pathological staining and molecular analysis of heart tissue in each group. After 4 weeks of AB, vehicle‑treated mice exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and deteriorated systolic and diastolic function, whereas treatment with 10 and 20 mg/kg Sanggenon C treatment ameliorated these alterations, as evidenced by attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and preserved cardiac function. Furthermore, AB‑induced activation of calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFAT2) was reduced following Sanggenon C treatment. These results suggest that Sanggenon C may exert protective effects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via suppression of the calcineurin/NFAT2 pathway.

  6. Deep hypothermia-enhanced autophagy protects PC12 cells against oxygen glucose deprivation via a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dang; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yongjun; Pu, Jun; Long, Jiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-10-06

    Deep hypothermia is known for its organ-preservation properties, which is introduced into surgical operations on the brain and heart, providing both safety in stopping circulation as well as an attractive bloodless operative field. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been clearly identified. This study was undertaken to determine the influence of deep hypothermia on neural apoptosis and the potential mechanism of these effects in PC12 cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation. Deep hypothermia (18°C) was given to PC12 cells while the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induction for 1h. After 24h of reperfusion, the results showed that deep hypothermia decreased the neural apoptosis, and significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase 3, Caspase 9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. While deep hypothermia increased the LC3II/LC3I and Beclin 1, an autophagy marker, which can be inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), indicating that deep hypothermia-enhanced autophagy ameliorated apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells subjected to OGD. Based on these findings we propose that deep hypothermia protects against neural apoptosis after the induction of OGD by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, moreover, the mechanism of these antiapoptosis effects is related to the enhancement of autophagy, which autophagy might provide a means of neuroprotection against OGD.

  7. Quetiapine Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors and Protects Myelin Integrity in Cuprizone Intoxicated Mice: The Involvement of Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-ning; Liu, Gao-hua; Zhang, Rui-guo; Xue, Fen; Wu, Di; Chen, Yun-chun; Peng, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Background: White matter disturbances and myelin impairment are key features of schizophrenia. The antipsychotic drug quetiapine can promote the maturation of oligodendrocytes, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Methods: The schizophrenia-like behaviors, degrees of demyelination, and levels of Notch signaling molecules in forebrains of adult male C57BL/6 mice were examined after fed with cuprizone (0.2% wt/wt) in the presence or absence of 10mg/kg/d quetiapine for 6 weeks. These parameters were also observed after the transcranial injection of Notch signaling inhibitor MW167 (1mM) daily during the last week of the treatment period. Results: Quetiapine ameliorated the schizophrenia-like behaviors and decreased expression of myelin basic protein and inhibition of Notch signaling molecules, such as Notch1, Hes1, and Hes5, in the forebrain that induced by cuprizone. These beneficial effects of quetiapine were abolished by MW167. Conclusions: The antipsychotic and myelin protective effects of quetiapine are mediated by Notch signaling in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors. The Notch pathway might therefore be a novel target for the development of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:26232790

  8. Quetiapine Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors and Protects Myelin Integrity in Cuprizone Intoxicated Mice: The Involvement of Notch Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-ning; Liu, Gao-hua; Zhang, Rui-guo; Xue, Fen; Wu, Di; Chen, Yun-chun; Peng, Ye; Peng, Zheng-wu; Tan, Qing-rong

    2015-08-01

    White matter disturbances and myelin impairment are key features of schizophrenia. The antipsychotic drug quetiapine can promote the maturation of oligodendrocytes, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The schizophrenia-like behaviors, degrees of demyelination, and levels of Notch signaling molecules in forebrains of adult male C57BL/6 mice were examined after fed with cuprizone (0.2% wt/wt) in the presence or absence of 10mg/kg/d quetiapine for 6 weeks. These parameters were also observed after the transcranial injection of Notch signaling inhibitor MW167 (1mM) daily during the last week of the treatment period. Quetiapine ameliorated the schizophrenia-like behaviors and decreased expression of myelin basic protein and inhibition of Notch signaling molecules, such as Notch1, Hes1, and Hes5, in the forebrain that induced by cuprizone. These beneficial effects of quetiapine were abolished by MW167. The antipsychotic and myelin protective effects of quetiapine are mediated by Notch signaling in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors. The Notch pathway might therefore be a novel target for the development of antipsychotic drugs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Sulforaphane protects against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in vivo: Involvement of the mTOR, Nrf2, and autophagy pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Xindong; Wu, Lixin; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Xiaolan; Hu, Zhengli; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wuguang; Yan, Huaijiang; Chen, Jiao; Ye, Juan; Shen, Jianping; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to be neuroprotective in several neurological disorders. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of sulforaphane in an in vivo Parkinson’s disease (PD) model, based on rotenone-mediated neurotoxicity. Our results showed that sulforaphane inhibited rotenone-induced locomotor activity deficiency and dopaminergic neuronal loss. Additionally, sulforaphane treatment inhibited the rotenone-induced reactive oxygen species production, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and resulted in an increased level of total glutathione and reduced glutathione (GSH): oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the brain. Western blot analysis illustrated that sulforaphane increased the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), the latter two of which are anti-oxidative enzymes. Moreover, sulforaphane treatment significantly attenuated rotenone-inhibited mTOR-mediated p70S6K and 4E-BP1 signalling pathway, as well as neuronal apoptosis. In addition, sulforaphane rescued rotenone-inhibited autophagy, as detected by LC3-II. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that sulforaphane exert neuroprotective effect involving Nrf2-dependent reductions in oxidative stress, mTOR-dependent inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the restoration of normal autophagy. Sulforaphane appears to be a promising compound with neuroprotective properties that may play an important role in preventing PD. PMID:27553905

  10. Emodin protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy by regulating the AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqin; Chen, Qingwei; Ke, Dazhi; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei

    2014-09-17

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been recognized as a major health problem. Emodin (Emo) has been reported to exhibit protective effects against diabetic nephropathy. However, little has been known about the effect of Emo on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). A type 2 DM model was induced in rats by low dose streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high energy intake. We found that Emo-treated groups displayed significantly higher body weight (BW) and lower heart weight (HW)/BW. Furthermore, Emo could significantly decrease blood glucose, total cholesterol (TG) levels, and triglyceride (TC) levels in diabetic rats. Moreover, the Emo-treated group showed a marked increase in heart rate (HR) and showed lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LWPWT), and interventricular septal diastolic wall thickness (IVSD). Emo induced a significant increase in phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β in myocardium. These results suggest that Emo may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DCM by Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  11. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in livers of rat offsprings through PPARγ pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Zhang, Qiaoting; Guan, Huai; Liu, Shuang; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Tianming; Gao, Ni; Yang, Lei; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-06-13

    Chronic exposures to arsenic had been associated with metabolism diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was found in the liver, regulated metabolism. Here, we found that the expression of PPARγ was decreased, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy were increased after treatment with As2O3 in offsprings' livers. Taurine (Tau), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid could reverse As2O3-inhibited PPARγ. Tau also inhibit the generation of ROS and autophagy. We also found that As2O3 caused autophagic cell death and ROS accelerated in HepG2 cells. Before incubation with As2O3, the cells were pretreated with PPARγ activator Rosiglitazone (RGS), we found that autophagy and ROS was inhibited in HepG2 cells, suggesting that inhibition of PPARγ contributed to As2O3-induced autophagy and the generation of ROS. After pretreatment with Tau, the level of PPARγ was improved and the autophagy and ROS was inhibited in As2O3-treated cells, suggesting that Tau could protect hepatocytes against As2O3 through modulating PPARγ pathway.

  12. Betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shujie; Zhu, Hongcan; He, Ping; Teng, Junfang

    2016-12-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a naturally occurring pentacyclic lupane group triterpenoid, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage. However, the effects of BA on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unclear. Hence, this study was to investigate the effects of BA on oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons. Our results showed that BA pretreatment greatly attenuated OGD/R-induced neuronal injury. BA also inhibited OGD/R-induced intracellular ROS production and MDA level in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and the consequent activation of caspase-3 induced by OGD/R were reversed by BA pretreatment. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that BA pretreatment up-regulated the expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt in hippocampal neurons induced by OGD/R. Taken together, these data suggested that BA inhibits OGD/R-induced neuronal injury in rat hippocampal neurons through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  13. Sulforaphane Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury by Modulating Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress and NLRP3 Inflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaojun; Shang, Haixiao; Chen, Yong Q.; Pan, Li-Long

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by early activation of intra-acinar proteases followed by acinar cell death and inflammation. Cellular oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying these pathological events. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur antioxidant with undescribed effects on AP. Here we investigated modulatory effects of SFN on cellular oxidation and inflammation in AP. AP was induced by cerulean hyperstimulation in BALB/c mice. Treatment group received a single dose of 5 mg/kg SFN for 3 consecutive days before AP. We found that SFN administration attenuated pancreatic injury as evidenced by serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and myeloperoxidase, as well as by histological examination. SFN administration reverted AP-associated dysregulation of oxidative stress markers including pancreatic malondialdehyde and redox enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In acinar cells, SFN treatment upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and Nrf2-regulated redox genes including quinoneoxidoreductase-1, heme oxidase-1, SOD1, and GPx1. In addition, SFN selectively suppressed cerulein-induced activation of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, in parallel with reduced nuclear factor- (NF-) κB activation and modulated NF-κB-responsive cytokine expression. Together, our data suggested that SFN modulates Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and NLRP3/NF-κB inflammatory pathways in acinar cells, thereby protecting against AP. PMID:27847555

  14. miR-138 protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis via MLK3/JNK/c-jun pathway

    SciTech Connect

    He, Siyi; Liu, Peng; Jian, Zhao; Li, Jingwei; Zhu, Yun; Feng, Zezhou; Xiao, Yingbin

    2013-11-29

    a protective role in myocardial adaptation to chronic hypoxia, which is mediated mainly by MLK3/JNK/c-jun signaling pathway.

  15. Puerarin protects rat kidney from lead-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chan-Min; Ma, Jie-Qiong; Sun, Yun-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead (Pb) induced injury in kidney have not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats exposed to Pb. Wistar rats were exposed to lead acetate in the drinking water (500 mg Pb/l) with or without puerarin co-administration (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg PU/kg intragastrically once daily) for 75 days. Our data showed that puerarin significantly prevented Pb-induced nephrotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of kidney damage (serum urea, uric acid and creatinine) and histopathological analysis. Moreover, Pb-induced profound elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing of lipid peroxidation level and depleting of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney, were suppressed by treatment with puerarin. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that Pb-induced apoptosis in rat kidney was significantly inhibited by puerarin. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of puerarin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were markedly inhibited by the treatment of puerarin in the kidney of Pb-treated rats. Puerarin increased phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated eNOS and NO levels in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events including inhibition of mitochondria cytochrome c release and restoration of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in kidney of Pb-treated rats. In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of Pb-induced apoptosis by puerarin is due at least in part to its antioxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. Highlights: ► Puerarin prevented lead-induced nephrototoxicity. ► Puerarin reduced lead-induced increase in ROS and TBARS production

  16. Certain Diet and Lifestyle May Contribute to Islet β-cells Protection in Type-2 Diabetes via the Modulation of Cellular PI3K/AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Minami, Akari; Asai, Yurina; Yasui, Mai; Iwaizako, Akiko; Suzuki, Miho; Ono, Yuna; Ogura, Yasunori; Matsuda, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    PI3K/AKT pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role on islet β-cell protection, enhancing β-cell survival by stimulating cell proliferation and inhibiting cell apoptosis. Accordingly, this pathway appears to be crucial in type-2 diabetes. Understanding the regulations of this pathway may provide a better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we summarize advances on the involvement of the PI3K/AKT pathway in hypothetical intra-cellular signaling of islet β-cells. As recent findings may show the nutritional regulation of the survival pathway in the islet β-cells through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, we also review studies on the features of several diets, correlated lifestyle, and its signaling pathway involved in type-2 diabetes. The molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease are the subject of considerable investigation, as a better understanding of the pathogenesis will lead to novel therapies against a condition of the disease. PMID:25400709

  17. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense.

  18. TRAM1 protect HepG2 cells from palmitate induced insulin resistance through ER stress-JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhuqi; Zhang, Wanlu; Wan, Chunhua; Xu, Guangfei; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhu, Xiaohui; Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Cui, Shiwei; Wang, Cuifang

    2015-02-20

    Excess serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are fundamental to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to obesity-induced insulin resistance in the liver. With high-fat feeding (HFD), FFAs can activate chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in target tissues, initiating negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between insulin resistance and ER stress remains to be identified. We here reported that translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an ER-resident membrane protein, was involved in the onset of insulin resistance in hepatocytes. TRAM1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAM1 led to hyperactivation of CHOP and GRP78, and the activation of downstream JNK pathway. Given the fact that the activation of ER stress played a facilitating role in insulin resistance, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAM1 markedly attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β in the cells. Moreover, application with JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of TRAM1 interference on Akt phosphorylation. The accumulation of lipid droplets and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAM1 augmented PA-induced down-regulation of glucose uptake, and inhibition of JNK using SP600125 could block the effect of TRAM1 on glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAM1 might protect HepG2 cells against PA-induced insulin resistance through alleviating ER stress.

  19. Tetramethyl Pyrazine Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Anoxia/Reoxygenation Injury Through Inhibiting Apoptosis Mediated by JNK/MARK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming; Ma, Wuhua; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Yong; Gao, Xiaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) is a typical biologically active alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Ligusticum walliichi. It has been reported that TMP shows neuroprotective and stroke injury reductive properties in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal models. In the present study we sought to investigate the effect and potential intervention mechanism of TMP in anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) rat hippocampal neurons. Material/Methods After being cultured for 7 days, primary hippocampal neurons were randomly assigned into a normal control group (N), a TMP group (C: 0 ug/ml, L: 60 ug/ml, M: 200ug/ml and H: 800 ug/ml), and a JNK inhibitor group (S: SP600125, 10 μmol/L). A hypoxia/reoxygenation model were prepared 1 h after incubation. Hippocampal neurons were incubated in 90% N2 and 10% CO2 for 2 h, and then reoxygenated for 24 h in an incubator with 5%CO2 at the temperature of 37°C. The apoptosis rate, MKK4 and MKK7 mRNA and JNK kinase protein levels (C-fos, c-jun, and P-JNK) of hippocampal neurons were detected. Results The apoptosis rates of hippocampal neurons induced by A/R showed significant reduction after being pre-treated with JNK inhibitor, TMP 60 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml, and 800 μg/ml. The JNK kinase MKK4mRNA and MKK7mRNA levels, as well as the expressions of C-fos, C-jun, and P-JNK protein levels, were also be reduced. Conclusions TMP may produce a protective effect in anoxia/reoxygenation-induced primary hippocampal neuronal injury by inhibiting the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons; the possible mechanism may be inhibition of the JNK signal pathway. PMID:28009855

  20. αvβ5 Integrin/FAK/PGC-1α Pathway Confers Protective Effects on Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Roggia, Murilo F.; Ueta, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the mechanism of the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) by photoreceptor outer segments (POS) and its effects on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Methods PGC-1α upregulation by POS was confirmed in ARPE-19 cells and in RPE ex vivo. To elucidate the mechanism, siRNAs against β5 integrin, CD36, Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK), and Atg5, blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK, and a specific inhibitor for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were used. We examined the effect of POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial biogenesis, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) after H2O2 treatment, and lysosomal activity. Lysosomal activity was evaluated through transcriptional factor EB and its target genes, and the activity of cathepsin D. Lipid metabolism after POS treatment was assessed using Oil Red O and BODIPY C11. RPE phenotypes of PGC-1α-deficient mice were examined. Results POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation was suppressed by siRNA against β5 integrin and a FAK inhibitor. siRNAs and blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK enhanced the effect of POS on PGC-1α. The upregulation of PGC-1α increased the levels of mRNA for antioxidant enzymes and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ROS levels, and reduced SA-β-gal staining in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells. PGC-1α was critical for lysosomal activity and lipid metabolism after POS treatment. PGC-1α-deficient mice demonstrated an accumulation of type 2 lysosomes in RPE, thickening of Bruch’s membrane, and poor choriocapillaris vasculature. Conclusions The binding, but not the internalization of POS confers protective effects on RPE cells through the αvβ5 integrin/FAK/PGC-1α pathway. PMID:26244551

  1. Melanocortin 4 Receptor Activation Protects Against Testicular Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Triggering the Cholinergic Antiinflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Minutoli, Letteria; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Magno, Carlo; Marini, Herbert; Spaccapelo, Luca; Ottani, Alessandra; Giuliani, Daniela; Romeo, Carmelo; Guarini, Salvatore; Antonuccio, Pietro; Altavilla, Domenica

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortins (MC) trigger a vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic-antiinflammatory pathway projecting to the testis. We tested whether pharmacological activation of brain MC receptors might protect the testis from the damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Adult male rats were subjected to 1-h testicular ischemia, followed by 24-h reperfusion [testicular ischemia-reperfusion (TI/R)]. Before TI/R, groups of animals were subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy, or pretreated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine or the selective MC4 receptor antagonist HS024. Immediately after reperfusion, rats were ip treated with saline or the MC analog [Nle4,D-Phe7]α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-α-MSH) (340 μg/kg). We evaluated testicular IL-6 and TNF-α by Western blot analysis and organ damage by light microscopy. Some experimental groups were prepared for neural efferent activity recording along the vagus nerve starting 30 min after treatment with NDP-α-MSH or saline, and for a 30-min period. Additional groups of TI/R rats were treated for 30 d with saline, NDP-α-MSH, chlorisondamine plus NDP-α-MSH, or HS024 plus NDP-α-MSH to evaluate spermatogenesis, organ damage, and the apoptosis machinery. After a 24-h reperfusion, in TI/R saline-treated rats, there was an increase in IL-6 and TNF-α expression and a marked damage in both testes. NDP-α-MSH inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α expression, decreased histological damage, and increased neural efferent activity. Furthermore, NDP-α-MSH administration for 30 d greatly improved spermatogenesis, reduced organ damage, and inhibited apoptosis. All positive NDP-α-MSH effects were abrogated by vagotomy, chlorisondamine, or HS024. Our data suggest that selective MC4 receptor agonists might be therapeutic candidates for the management of testicular torsion. PMID:21828180

  2. Melanocortin 4 receptor activation protects against testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury by triggering the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Irrera, Natasha; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Magno, Carlo; Marini, Herbert; Spaccapelo, Luca; Ottani, Alessandra; Giuliani, Daniela; Romeo, Carmelo; Guarini, Salvatore; Antonuccio, Pietro; Altavilla, Domenica

    2011-10-01

    Melanocortins (MC) trigger a vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic-antiinflammatory pathway projecting to the testis. We tested whether pharmacological activation of brain MC receptors might protect the testis from the damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Adult male rats were subjected to 1-h testicular ischemia, followed by 24-h reperfusion [testicular ischemia-reperfusion (TI/R)]. Before TI/R, groups of animals were subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy, or pretreated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine or the selective MC(4) receptor antagonist HS024. Immediately after reperfusion, rats were ip treated with saline or the MC analog [Nle(4),D-Phe(7)]α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-α-MSH) (340 μg/kg). We evaluated testicular IL-6 and TNF-α by Western blot analysis and organ damage by light microscopy. Some experimental groups were prepared for neural efferent activity recording along the vagus nerve starting 30 min after treatment with NDP-α-MSH or saline, and for a 30-min period. Additional groups of TI/R rats were treated for 30 d with saline, NDP-α-MSH, chlorisondamine plus NDP-α-MSH, or HS024 plus NDP-α-MSH to evaluate spermatogenesis, organ damage, and the apoptosis machinery. After a 24-h reperfusion, in TI/R saline-treated rats, there was an increase in IL-6 and TNF-α expression and a marked damage in both testes. NDP-α-MSH inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α expression, decreased histological damage, and increased neural efferent activity. Furthermore, NDP-α-MSH administration for 30 d greatly improved spermatogenesis, reduced organ damage, and inhibited apoptosis. All positive NDP-α-MSH effects were abrogated by vagotomy, chlorisondamine, or HS024. Our data suggest that selective MC(4) receptor agonists might be therapeutic candidates for the management of testicular torsion.

  3. Tetramethyl Pyrazine Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Anoxia/Reoxygenation Injury Through Inhibiting Apoptosis Mediated by JNK/MARK Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Ma, Wuhua; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Yong; Gao, Xiaoqiu

    2016-12-23

    BACKGROUND Tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) is a typical biologically active alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Ligusticum walliichi. It has been reported that TMP shows neuroprotective and stroke injury reductive properties in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal models. In the present study we sought to investigate the effect and potential intervention mechanism of TMP in anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) rat hippocampal neurons. MATERIAL AND METHODS After being cultured for 7 days, primary hippocampal neurons were randomly assigned into a normal control group (N), a TMP group (C: 0 ug/ml, L: 60 ug/ml, M: 200ug/ml and H: 800 ug/ml), and a JNK inhibitor group (S: SP600125, 10 μmol/L). A hypoxia/reoxygenation model were prepared 1 h after incubation. Hippocampal neurons were incubated in 90% N2 and