Science.gov

Sample records for 3-m infrared telescope

  1. Autonomous Observing and Control Systems for PAIRITEL, a 1.3m Infrared Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.; Blake, C. H.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Falco, E. E.

    2006-07-01

    The Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) is the first meter-class telescope operating as a fully robotic IR imaging system. Dedicated in October 2004, PAIRITEL began regular observations in mid-December 2004 as part of a 1.5 year commissioning period. The system was designed to respond without human intervention to new gamma-ray burst transients: this milestone was finally reached on November 9, 2005 but the telescope had a number of semi-automated sub-10 minute responses throughout early commissioning. When not operating in Target of Opportunity mode, PAIRITEL performs a number of queue scheduled transient monitoring campaigns. To achieve this level of automation, we have developed communicating tools to connect the various sub-systems: an intelligent queue scheduling database, run-time configurable observation sequence software, a data reduction pipeline, and a master state machine which monitors and controls all functions within and affecting the observatory.

  2. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  3. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  4. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  5. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  6. The refurbished 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope at Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) announced the opportunity to "assume responsibility for operation of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope." A group of astronomers/educators from institutions across the USA successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the observatory and operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT Consortium has been established between Francis Marion University, the Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, Villanova University, and Western Kentucky University to oversee the refurbishment and automation, and operate the telescope to successfully achieve its research and education goals. The RCT was commissioned in 1964 as the Remotely Controlled Telescope and utilized that epoch's computing and communication technology to provide unattended operation from NOAO headquarters in Tucson, about 90 km distant. The original incarnation of the RCT allowed astronomers to gain experience in the remote operation of observatories in order to both develop techniques for operating space-based telescopes and to increase the productivity of ground-based telescopes (Maran 1967 Science 158, 867). While these tests worked as well as could be expected given the technology of the time, the telescope and observatory were refitted in 1969 for classical, attended operations. The second life of the 1.3-m was as a heavily subscribed KPNO visitor facility, first with photoelectric photometers and later as an important testbed for the newest infrared instrumentation. In 1996 the telescope was removed from the list of available KPNO facilities and stood idle until the RCT Consortium hired EOS Technologies, Inc. to refurbish and automate the observatory. In winter 2003 most of the observatory systems have been refurbished and the commissioning has begun. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  7. Space Infrared Telescope Facility science instruments overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will contain three cryogenically cooled infrared instruments: the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and the Multiband Infrared Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS). These instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in the 1.8-1,200 micrometer range. This paper will discuss the three instruments' functional requirements and their accommodation in the SIRTF telescope system.

  8. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  9. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  10. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  11. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  12. Spacelab 2 infrared telescope cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J. B.; Karr, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a cryogenic helium system to provide cooling to a scanning infrared telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission. The infrared optical/detector system and related electronics are being developed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona. A superfluid helium dewar and porous plug phase separator permit gas cooling of the infrared focal plane assembly to about 2.5 K, and of the two telescope sections to 8 K and 60 K. The design of the cryogenic system,including a commandable vacuum cover, and the prelaunch liquid helium servicing and maintenance approach were discussed. It is concluded that the system will satisfy the Infrared Telescope requirements, and the superfluid helium system shall be capable of satisfying cryogenic helium cooled requirements for the next several years.

  13. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  14. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  15. Concurrent engineering of an infrared telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jason; Lang, Jeffrey; Peterson, Leslie; Roybal, Francisco; Tanzillo, Jennifer; Thomas, David; Warren, David

    2011-10-01

    A concurrent engineering approach to the design and analysis of a space-borne Electro-Optical (EO) sensor is presented. A detailed design of an infrared telescope payload is developed by an interdisciplinary team of mechanical, structural, thermal, and optical engineers using a Simulation Driven Engineering (SDE) software environment. The telescope payload design is also integrated with a conceptual level design of the space segment of a mission that incorporates the payload. The flow of the concurrent design process is described, and design outputs are provided.

  16. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  17. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer / Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  18. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a candidate NASA Origins Probe Mission. SPIRIT is a two-telescope Michelson interferometer covering wavelengths from 25-400 microns, providing simultaneously high spectral resolution and high angular resolution. With comparable sensitivity to Spitzer, but two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution, SPIRIT will enable us to address a wide array of compelling scientific questions, including how planetary systems form in disks and how new planets interact with the disk. Further, SPIRIT will lay the technological groundwork for an array of future interferometry missions with ambitious scientific goals, including the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer/Darwin, and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure.

  19. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  20. LOITA: Lunar Optical/Infrared Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    LOITA (Lunar Optical/Infrared Telescope Array) is a lunar-based interferometer composed of 18 alt-azimuth telescopes arranged in a circular geometry. This geometry results in excellent uv coverage and allows baselines up to 5 km long. The angular resolution will be 25 micro-arcsec at 500 nm and the main spectral range of the array will be 200 to 1100 nm. For infrared planet detection, the spectral range may be extended to nearly 10 mu m. The telescope mirrors have a Cassegrain configuration using a 1.75 m diameter primary mirror and a 0.24 m diameter secondary mirror. A three-stage (coarse, intermediate, and fine) optical delay system, controlled by laser metrology, is used to equalize path lengths from different telescopes to within a few wavelengths. All instruments and the fine delay system are located within the instrument room. Upon exiting the fine delay system, all beams enter the beam combiner and are then directed to the various scientific instruments and detectors. The array instrumentation will consist of CCD detectors optimized for both the visible and infrared as well as specially designed cameras and spectrographs. For direct planet detection, a beam combiner employing achromatic nulling interferometry will be used to reduce star light (by several orders of magnitude) while passing the planet light. A single telescope will be capable of autonomous operation. This telescope will be equipped with four instruments: wide field and planetary camera, faint object camera, high resolution spectrograph, and faint object spectrograph. These instruments will be housed beneath the telescope. The array pointing and control system is designed to meet the fine pointing requirement of one micro-arcsec stability and to allow precise tracking of celestial objects for up to 12 days. During the lunar night, the optics and the detectors will be passively cooled to 70-80 K temperature. To maintain a continuous communication with the earth a relay satellite placed at the L4

  1. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  2. Structural design of 3m class ground based telescope elevation ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Zhu, Fuyin; Jiang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stiffness of telescope mount, the accuracy of aiming and stability of optical system, a topology optimization method based on the theory of variable density and taking maximum stiffness as objective function is studied. In the topology optimization analysis of elevation ring, one of the most important members of the telescope mount, two kinds of structural are designed: one is a traditional plate welding structure and the other is a combination of plate welding and truss welding. Furthermore, the stiffness and modal performance of the elevation ring in different performances are analyzed and compared. The results show that in meeting the strength and stiffness of the premise, the mass of elevation ring with plate welding and truss welding is 7.00T and the moment of inertia is 11.94 t•m2. What`s more, the total deformation in the horizontal direction and the zenith direction are 6.70μm and 55.86μm, respectively; the stress is within stress range of material's promise; the modal is 105.9Hz.Compared with the traditional structural with plate welding, this new structural design approached to ensure the dynamic stiffness while effectively reducing its own weight with reduction rate 10.7% and moments of inertia with reduction rate 12.3%. This new structural of plate welding and truss welding has obvious advantages in lightweight design. This new design method based on topology optimization will provide efficient help to later components design of the telescope mount.

  3. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  4. GIRL: German Infrared Laboratory. Telescope study, phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegelmilch, R.; Zeiss, C.

    1981-01-01

    The construction and mounting of mirrors for an infrared telescope are described. Tests conducted to determine the thermal and stress characteristics of various types of mounting for main and collection mirrors are also discussed.

  5. Spacewatch Astrometry of Asteroids and Comets with the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m Telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, James V.; McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes on Kitt Peak to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies in need of recovery that cannot be reached with the Spacewatch 0.9-m and 1.8-m telescopes. Targets include NEOs with potential close encounters with Earth (Virtual Impactors; VIs), future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by NEOWISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by NEOWISE, and faint Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Notable targets successfully recovered include the Earth Trojan 2010 TK7 and the faint almost-lost VI 2011 BY24 discovered by NEOWISE. Between 2010 June 6 and 2014 July 23 the MPC accepted 1316 lines of astrometry by us with these telescopes on 207 different NEOs including 84 PHAs. We made 343 observations of PHAs with V>=22. Our average arc extension on large PHAs (with H<=17.75) is 184 days, which is 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. Recently with all four telescopes Spacewatch has made 39% of all the observations of PHAs that were fainter than V=22 at the time of measurement. This count is twice that of the next most productive station in that measure. The faintest V magnitude we have observed so far is 24.4 and the smallest solar elongation angle at which we have observed is 46 degrees. Our work with the Mayall and Bok telescopes has been determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to provide "dramatic improvement" to NEO orbits (T. Spahr, 2014 private communication). Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted

  6. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  7. The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility: Instrument Upgrades and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, S. J.; Connelley, M. S.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a dedicated planetary 3-m telescope located at the summit of Mauna Kea. We discuss detector upgrades for our facility instruments, new instrument capabilities, and image quality upgrades. Detector upgrades are planned for SpeX during semester 2014A. We are also designing and constructing a new echelle spectrograph for 1-5 μm, to be commissioned starting in 2015. In terms of future capabilities, we would like input for planetary science cases needing diffraction-limited imaging at 1-5 μm and fast follow up of discoveries from sky surveys. Current instruments include: (1) SpeX, a 1-5 μm moderate-resolution spectrograph and camera, (2) MORIS, a high-speed CCD imager attached to SpeX for simultaneous visible and near-IR observations, (3) CSHELL, a 1-5 μm high-resolution spectrograph, and (4) NSFCAM, a 1-5 micron camera. MIRSI, an 8-25 μm camera, will be available after an upgrade to the array control electronics. Information on these instruments and also visitor instruments are given at: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/Facility/. The IRTF supports remote observing from any site. This eliminates the need for travel to the observatory, and therefore short observing time slots can be supported. We also welcome on-site visiting astronomers. For further information see: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of Cooperative Agreement no. NNX13AG88A with the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program.

  8. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; Kruk, J.; Kuan, G.; Melton, M.; Ruffa, J.; Underhill, M.; Buren, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  9. Blazar variability studies with the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope and the automated 0.6m Bell Observatory telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Mattox, J. R.; Walters, R.; Poteet, C.; Wills, W.; Gelderman, R.; Davis, D.; Everett, M.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; McGruder, C. H., III

    2004-10-01

    One of the key programs on the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) located at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 0.6m telescope at the Bell Observatory operated by Western Kentucky University is a study of the variability of the class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known as Blazars. Blazars are highly variable on timescales of minutes to decades and this variability is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, they display a featureless spectrum, thus continuum variability provides the only diagnostic of these objects. Variability provides information on the size of the emission region responsible for the observed variations and when observations are obtained at multiple wavelengths, it can be used to discriminate between emission models. However, traditional ground based observations are limited in a variety of ways. We will discuss how an automated facility, with time dedicated to this astrophysically interesting problem, can overcome many of these limitations, and we show results from the Bell Observatory as well as some of the first results of Blazar observations from the RCT.

  10. The Near Infrared robotic telescope REM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, P.; Rem Team

    Observations of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events are unanimously considered of paramount importance for GRB science and related cosmology. Such observations at NIR wavelengths are even more promising allowing one to monitor high-z Ly-alfa absorbed bursts as well as events occurring in dusty star-forming regions. In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z, J, H, K) camera dedicated to detecting the prompt IR afterglow. REM can discover objects at extremely high redshift and trigger large telescopes to observe them. The REM telescope will simultaneously feed ROSS (REM Optical Slitless spectrograph) via a dichroic. ROSS will intensively monitor the prompt optical continuum of GRB afterglows. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena. The REM telescope is now installed in La Silla and its Science Verification Phase has been performed in Spring 2004. Preliminary results will be presented.

  11. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  12. History of infrared telescopes and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, G. H.

    2009-08-01

    The first attempts to measure the infrared outputs of stars preceded by nearly a century the permanent establishment of infrared astronomy as an important aspect of the field. There were a number of false starts in that century, significant efforts that had little impact on the astronomical community at large. Why did these efforts fizzle out? What was different in the start that did not fizzle, in the 1960s? I suggest that the most important advances were the success of radio astronomy in demonstrating interesting phenomena outside of the optical regime, and the establishment virtually simultaneously in the United States of a number of research groups that could support each other and compete against one another in their approach to infrared astronomy.

  13. Development of the Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoh, T.; Shibai, H.; Fukagawa, M.; Matsuo, T.; Kato, E.; Itoh, Y.; Kawada, M.; Watabe, T.; Kohyama, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Morishita, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Kanoh, R.; Nakashima, A.; Tanabe, M.; Narita, M.

    2009-08-01

    We have developed the Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment (FITE). It will be the first astronomical infrared interferometer working in space. FITE is a balloon-borne telescope, and will operate in the stratosphere (at an altitude of 35 kilometers). FITE is a Michelson-type stellar interferometer, and has a long baseline of 20 meters (at maximum). The purpose of the FITE project is to achieve a high spatial resolution of 1 arcsecond at a wavelength of 100 micrometers. For its first flight, FITE has an 8-meter baseline, and the aim is to measure the interference fringes with a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcseconds. In order to achieve this aim, the two beams must be focused within 2.5 arcseconds accuracy in the imaging quality, within 10 arcseconds of accuracy in the beam alignment, and within 30 micrometers accuracy in the optical path length between the two beams. Also, the orientation of the telescope must be controlled within 2.5 arcseconds accuracy. To achieve such accuracy, the structural parts of the telescope are made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics that have very low thermal expansion coefficient and a large Young's modulus. During observation, the optical alignment is actively adjusted by the alignment mechanisms. We also adopt a three-axis attitude control system to stabilize the orientation of the telescope with high accuracy. FITE is a very unique approach, and it serves as a step in the further development of larger-scale infrared interferometry in space.

  14. Design of infrared diffractive telescope imaging optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ZhouFeng; Hu, BingLiang; Yin, QinYe; Xie, YongJun; Kang, FuZeng; Wang, YanJun

    2015-10-01

    Diffractive telescope is an updated imaging technology, it differs from conventional refractive and reflective imaging system, which is based on the principle of diffraction image. It has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight telescope. However, one of the great challenges of design this optical system is that the diffractive optical element focuses on different wavelengths of light at different point in space, thereby distorting the color characteristics of image. In this paper, we designs a long-wavelength infrared diffractive telescope imaging system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the infrared optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens, achieving broadband light(from 8μm-12μm) to a common focus with 4.6° field of view. At last, the diffuse spot size and MTF function provide diffractive-limited performance.

  15. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII),8oeight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks io young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  16. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter Michelson interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  17. Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

  18. The EXIST Infra-Red Telescope System: Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Telescope is a critical element of the EXIST (Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope) observatory. It is a passively cooled 1.lm visible/infrared telescope. The primary goal of the IRT is to obtain photometric and spectroscopic measurements of high redshift (>6) gamma ray burst afterglows to study the nature of these enigmatic events and their environments, and to use them as probes of the composition and ionization state of the intergalactic medium of the young universe. The IRT will provide a prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST with exceptional NIR sensitivity (AB=24 in 100s) surpassing HST in the infrared due to its passively cooled (- 30 C) mirror. Its optical design and spectral coverage is tailored to the high redshift transient events that require prompt pointing, identification, accurate photometry and both low and high resolution spectroscopy. Here we describe the telescope, its instrument complement, and the cooling systems which provide its remarkable sensitivity

  19. Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment : I. Interferometer Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Eri; Shibai, Hiroshi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Narita, Masanao; Matsuo, Taro; Ohkubo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Miki; Kanoh, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Koudai; Fite Team

    We have developed a far-infrared interferometer (Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment: FITE). It will be the first astronomical infrared interferometer working in space. FITE is a balloon-borne telescope, and operated in the stratosphere (the altitude of 35 km). The aim of the FITE project is to achieve a high spatial resolution of 1 arcsecond at the wavelength of 100 micrometers. FITE is a Michelson stellar interferometer, and is able to realize a long base line beyond the size of the collecting mirror by using four plane mirrors. The first flight is scheduled for November 2008 in Brazil, and the aim is to measure the interference fringes with a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcseconds. In order to achieve this, the two beams must be focused within 2.5 arcsecond accuracy in the imaging quality, within 10 arcsecond accuracy in the beam alignment and within 30 micrometers accuracy in the optical path length between the two beams. In order to archive these accuracies, the structural parts of the telescope were made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics, which have very low thermal expansion coefficient and large Young's modulus. During observation of a target, the optical alignment is actively adjusted and the orientation of the telescope is stabilized by the three-axis control.

  20. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  1. Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Spitzer Science Center

    2016-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, launched on 2003 August 25, continues to produce new and exciting views of the Universe as seen in infrared light. Spitzer is the fourth and final space telescope in NASA's Great Observatory series. Originally it consisted of a liquid-helium-cooled 85-cm telescope and three imaging and spectroscopic instruments capable of observing infrared light (3-160 micron wavelength) from regions of space invisible to optical telescopes. In mid-2009 Spitzer's cryogen was exhausted, leaving the observatory with two operating imaging arrays at 3.6 and 4.5 micron wavelength. "Warm" Spitzer, as it is now called, continues to match the sensitivity achieved at these wavelengths during the cryogenic mission and remains very much in demand. The Spitzer Space Telescope has changed our view of the Universe. Spitzer's scientific results include the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies in the early Universe, star formation and evolution, exoplanets, the structure and evolution of planetary disks around nearby stars, the cosmic distance scale, clusters of galaxies, near-Earth asteroids, and comets. After a brief description of the Spitzer mission, achievements of Spitzer's extragalactic and galactic observational programs will be presented, including many of Spitzer's very spectacular images.

  2. NIFTE: The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, James J.; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eisenhardt, Peter B.; Hacking, Perry B.; Schember, Helene R.

    1994-01-01

    The high sensitivity of large format InSb arrays can be used to obtain deep images of the sky at 3-5 micrometers. In this spectral range cool or highly redshifted objects (e.g. brown dwarfs and protogalaxies) which are not visible at shorter wavelengths may be observed. Sensitivity at these wavelengths in ground-based observations is severly limited by the thermal flux from the telescope and from the earth's atmosphere. The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment (NIFTE), a 50 cm cooled rocket-borne telescope combined with large format, high performance InSb arrays, can reach a limiting flux less than 1 micro-Jy(1-sigma) over a large field-of-view in a single flight. In comparison, the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) will require days of observation to reach a sensitivity more than one order of magnitude worse over a similar area of the sky. The deep 3-5 micrometer images obtained by the rocket-borne telescope will assist in determining the nature of faint red objects detected by ground-based telescopes at 2 micrometers, and by ISO at wavelengths longer than 5 micrometers.

  3. Thermal design of a Shuttle infrared telescope facility /SIRTF/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, R.; Willen, S.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal design concept has been developed for a cryogenically-cooled infrared telescope facility which will be carried aboard the Space Shuttle for missions of 14 to 30 days. Supercitical helium at 6 K is the principal coolant. Auxiliary tanks of superfluid helium at 2 K are utilized to provide additional low-temperature cooling requirements of specific instruments. The preliminary thermal design described enables SIRTF to provide the low-temperature environment for the telescope and instruments, while maintaining thermally-induced optical degradations within acceptable limits with a cryogen utilization rate compatible with weight and volumetric constraints.

  4. Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B.; Wells, Eddie N.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The ways that the asteroids can be studied with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are examined. Spectrophotometry of asteroids and the study of asteroid surfaces, shape, spins, configuration, normal reflectance, and limb darkening of asteroids using the HST are addressed along with the detection of asteroid satellites and the discovery of small asteroids using the HST. The relation of the HST to its ground system is described, as are the spectrophotometric instruments of the HST. Imaging with the HST using the Faint Object Camera and the Wide Field and Planetary Camera is examined. Finally, the SIRTF observatory, instrumentation, and capabilities for solar system science are discussed.

  5. Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

  6. Thermal performance evaluation of the infrared telescope dewar subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal performance evaluations (TPE) were conducted with the superfluid helium dewar of the Infrared Telescope (IRT) experiment from November 1981 to August 1982. Test included measuring key operating parameters, simulating operations with an attached instrument cryostat and validating servicing, operating and safety procedures. Test activities and results are summarized. All objectives are satisfied except for those involving transfer of low pressure liquid helium (LHe) from a supply dewar into the dewar subsystem.

  7. Information processing for the infrared balloon telescope Goldener Drache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haser, L.

    1983-02-01

    The information processing system of the ground station and balloon carrying an infrared telescope is described. The ground-balloon link is achieved by telemetry and the control by a computer. The operation scheme contains programs for planning, observations, decision aids during the flight, remote control, telemetry interpretation, and data registration. The real time data are presented partly via computer and partly via direct signal coding. All data can be stored on magnetic tape.

  8. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths, a powerful tool for scientific discovery, We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers,

  9. Solar System Studies with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the final element in NASA's 'Great Observatories' program. It consists of an 85-cm cryogenically-cooled observatory for infrared astronomy from space. SIRTF is scheduled for launch in late 2001 or early 2002 on a Delta rocket into a heliocentric orbit trailing the Earth. Data from SIRTF will be processed and disseminated to the community through the SIRTF Science Center (SSC) located at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech. Some 80/% of the total observing time (estimated at a minimum of 7500 hours of integration time per year for the mission lifetime of about 4 years) will be available to the scientific community at large through a system of refereed proposals. Three basic instruments are located in the SIRTF focal plane. The Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS), the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), taken together, provide imaging and spectroscopy from 3.5 to 160 microns. Among the solar system studies suited to SIRTF are the following: 1) spectroscopy and radiometry of small bodies from the asteroid main belt, through the Trojan clouds, to the Kuiper Disk; 2) dust distribution in the zodiacal cloud and the Earth's heliocentric dust ring; 3) spectroscopy and radiometry of comets; and 4) spectroscopy and radiometry of planets and their satellites. Searches for, and studies of dust disks around other stars, brown dwarfs, and superplanets will also be conducted with SIRTF. The SORTIE web site (http://ssc.ipac.caltech.edu/sirtf) contains important details and documentation on the project, the spacecraft, the telescope, instruments, and observing procedures. A community-wide workshop for solar system studies with SIRTF is in the planning stages by the author and Martha S. Hanner for the summer of 1999.

  10. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  11. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) design and thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance characteristics of an observatory are compared with those of a storage dewar. The critical design technologies required to increase cryogen dewar lifetime are discussed. In particular, outer shell temperature, vapor cooled shields, multilayer insulation performance, and tank support systems are analyzed to assess their impact on cryogen lifetime for both the observatory and the storage dewar. The cryogen lifetime and cryogen mass loss rate of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are compared with that of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite. A 0.1 percent mass loss per day of superfluid helium dewar can be designed using current state-of-the-art dewar technology. Space-based liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks can be designed for a 5-year lifetime.

  12. System Engineering the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Tristram T.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was designed to accomplish three scientific objectives: (1) learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks and how they acquire their inhomogeneous chemical composition; (2) characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. SPIRIT will accomplish these objectives through infrared observations with a two aperture interferometric instrument. This paper gives an overview of SPIRIT design and operation, and how the three design cycle concept study was completed. The error budget for several key performance values allocates tolerances to all contributing factors, and a performance model of the spacecraft plus instrument system demonstrates meeting those allocations with margin.

  13. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverburg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double-Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral information. The spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  14. Shuttle infrared telescope facility pointing and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Matsumoto, Y. T.

    1981-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is being designed as a 0.85 m cryogenically cooled telescope capable of a three order of magnitude improvement over currently available infrared instruments. The SIRTF requires that the image at the focal plane be stabilized to better than 0.25 arcsec with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 arcsec. Current pointing-mount performance simulations indicate that neither of these requirements can be met without additional stabilization. The SIRTF pointing and control system will utilize gyro outputs, star field position measurements from a focal plane fine guidance sensor, and a steerable secondary mirror to provide the necessary stabilization and pointing control. The charge coupled device fine guidance sensor tracks multiple stars simultaneously and, through the use of multistar processing algorithms in a high performance microcomputer, generates three-axis attitude errors and gyro-drift estimates to correct the pointing-mount gyros. A high-bandwidth feedforward loop, driven directly from the pointing-mount gyro package, controls the steering mirror in order to correct disturbances not compensated for by the pointing-mount control system. A prototype design for the SIRTF pointing and control system is described in detail. Performance analyses made using a digital simulation of the pointing and control system as well as experimental data obtained in laboratory and field test measurements are presented.

  15. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Fan, X.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Traub, W.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Goullioud, R.; Grady, K.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Peddie, C.; Rioux, N.; Seiffert, M.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, NASA created a Science Definition Team (SDT) for WFIRST, the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope, recommended by the Astro 2010 Decadal Survey as the highest priority for a large space mission. The SDT was chartered to work with the WFIRST Project Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL to produce a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for WFIRST. Part of the original charge was to produce an interim design reference mission by mid-2011. That document was delivered to NASA and widely circulated within the astronomical community. In late 2011 the Astrophysics Division augmented its original charge, asking for two design reference missions. The first of these, DRM1, was to be a finalized version of the interim DRM, reducing overall mission costs where possible. The second of these, DRM2, was to identify and eliminate capabilities that overlapped with those of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (henceforth JWST), ESA's Euclid mission, and the NSF's ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (henceforth LSST), and again to reduce overall mission cost, while staying faithful to NWNH. This report presents both DRM1 and DRM2.

  16. The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF): New Observational Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, S. J.; Connelley, Michael S.; Rayner, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3.0-m infrared telescope located at an altitude of 4.2 km near the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii. The IRTF was established by NASA to support planetary science missions. Current instruments include: (1) SpeX, a 0.7-5.3 μm moderate resolution spectrograph with a slit-viewing camera that is also an imager, (2) MORIS, a high-speed CCD imager attached to SpeX for simultaneous visible and near-infrared observations, and (3) CSHELL, a 1-5 μm high-resolution spectrograph. MORIS can also be used as a visible wavelength guider for SpeX. Detector upgrades have recently been made to SpeX. We discuss new observational capabilities resulting from completion of a new echelle spectrograph for 1-5 μm with resolving power of 70,000 with a 0.375 arcsec slit. This instrument will be commissioned starting in the spring of 2016. We also plan to restore to service our 8-25 μm camera, MIRSI. It will be upgraded with a closed-cycle cooler that will eliminate the need for liquid helium and allow continuous use of MIRSI on the telescope. This will enable thermal observations of NEOs on short notice. We also plan to upgrade MIRSI to have a simultaneous visible imager for guiding and for photometry. The IRTF supports remote observing from any site. This eliminates the need for travel to the observatory and short observing time slots can be supported. We also welcome onsite visiting astronomers. In the near future we plan to implement a low-order wave-front sensor to allow real-time focus and collimation of the telescope. This will greatly improve observational efficiency. For further information on the IRTF and its instruments including visitor instruments, see: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA contract NNH14CK55B, NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  17. An Infrared Telescope for Planet Detection and General Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillie, C. F.; Atkinson, C. B.; Casement, L. S.; Flannery, M. R.; Kroening, K. V.; Moses, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA plans to launch a Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission in 2014 to detect and characterize Earth-like planets around nearby stars, perform comparative planetology studies, and obtain general astrophysics observations. During our recently completed a TPF Mission Architecture study for NASA/JPL we developed the conceptual design for a 28-meter telescope with an IR Coronagraph that meets these mission objectives. This telescope and the technology it embodies are directly applicable to future Far-IR and Submillimeter space missions. The detection of a 30th magnitude planet located within 50 milli-arc-seconds of a 5th (Visual) magnitude star is an exceptionally challenging objective. Observations in the thermal infrared (7-17 microns) are somewhat easier since the planet is "only" 15(sup m) fainter than the star at these wavelengths, but many severe challenges must still be overcome. These challenges include: 1. Designing a coronagraph for star:planet separations less than or equal to lambda/D. 2. Developing the deployment scheme for a 28m space telescope that can fit in an existing launch vehicle payload fairing. 3. Generating configuration layouts for the IR telescope, coronagraph, spacecraft bus, sunshade, solar array, and high-gain antenna. 4. Providing: Structural stability to within 10 microns to support the optics. Thermal control to achieve the necessary structural stability, as well as providing a stable (approx. 30K) thermal environment for the optics. Dynamics isolation from potential jitter sources. 5. Minimizing launch mass to provide the maximum payload for the science mission Interfacing to an EELV Heavy launch vehicle, including acoustic and stress loads for the launch environment. 6. Identifying the key technologies (which can be developed by 2009) that will enable TPF mission to be performed. 7. Generating a manufacturing plan that will permit TPF to be developed at a reasonable cost and schedule. Many of these design challenges result in

  18. Solar System Observing with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, J. Van; Meadows, V. S.; Stansberry, J.

    2003-01-01

    SIRTF is NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility. Currently planned for launch on 15 Apr 2003, it is the final element in NASA's Great Observatories Program. SIRTF has an 85 cm diameter f/12 lightweight beryllium telescope, cooled to lekss than 5.5K. It is diffraction-limited at 6.5 microns, and has wavelengthcoverage from 3-180 microns. Its estimated lifetime (limited by cryogen) is 2.5 years at minimum, with a goal of 5+ years. SIRTF has three instruments, IRAC, IRS, and MIPS. IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) provides simultaneous images at wavelengths of 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) has 4 modules providing low-resolution (R=60-120) spectra from 5.3 to 40 microns, high-resolution (R=600) spectra from 10 to 37 microns, and an autonomous target acquisition system (PeakUp) which includes small-field imaging at 15 microns. MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF)} does imaging photometry at 24, 70, and 160 m and low-resolution (R=15-25) spectroscopy (SED) between 55 and 96 microns. The SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers (GTOs) are planning to observe Outer Solar System satellites and planets, extinct comets and low-albedo asteroids, Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, cometary dust trails, and a few active short-period comets. The GTO programs are listed in detail in the SIRTF Reserved Observations Catalog (ROC). We would like to emphasize that there remain many interesting subjects for the General Observers (GO). Proposal success for the planetary observer community in the first SIRTF GO proposal cycle (GO-1) determines expectations for future GO calls and Solar System use of SIRTF, so we would like promote a strong set of planetary GO-1 proposals. Towards that end, we present this poster, and we will convene a Solar System GO workshop 3.5 months after launch.

  19. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Schechter, P.; Baltay, C.; Bean, R.; Bennett, D.; Brown, R.; Conselice, C.; Donahue, M.; Gaudi, S.; Lauer, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Rauscher, B.; Rhodes, J.; Roellig, T.; Stern, D.; Sumi, T.; Gerhels, N.; Sambruna, R.; Barry, R. K.; Content, D.; Grady, K; Jackson, C.; Kruk, J.; Melton, M.; Rioux, N.

    2011-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons (NWNH) in Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey prioritized the community consensus for ground-based and space-based observatories. Recognizing that many of the community s key questions could be answered with a wide-field infrared survey telescope in space, and that the decade would be one of budget austerity, WFIRST was top ranked in the large space mission category. In addition to the powerful new science that could be accomplished with a wide-field infrared telescope, the WFIRST mission was determined to be both technologically ready and only a small fraction of the cost of previous flagship missions, such as HST or JWST. In response to the top ranking by the community, NASA formed the WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) and Project Office. The SDT was charged with fleshing out the NWNH scientific requirements to a greater level of detail. NWNH evaluated the risk and cost of the JDEM-Omega mission design, as submitted by NASA, and stated that it should serve as the basis for the WFIRST mission. The SDT and Project Office were charged with developing a mission optimized for achieving the science goals laid out by the NWNH re-port. The SDT and Project Office opted to use the JDEM-Omega hardware configuration as an initial start-ing point for the hardware implementation. JDEM-Omega and WFIRST both have an infrared imager with a filter wheel, as well as counter-dispersed moderate resolution spectrometers. The primary advantage of space observations is being above the Earth's atmosphere, which absorbs, scatters, warps and emits light. Observing from above the atmosphere enables WFIRST to obtain precision infrared measurements of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing, infrared light-curves of supernovae and exoplanet microlensing events with low systematic errors, and infrared measurements of the H hydrogen line to be cleanly detected in the 1

  20. The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF): Future Instrumentation and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, S. J.; Connelley, Michael S.; Rayner, John T.

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3.0-m infrared telescope located at an altitude of 4.2 km near the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii. The IRTF was established by NASA to obtain solar system observations of interest to NASA. The funding for IRTF operations was renewed in May 2014 for another 5 years. We discuss new instrumentation and upgrades during this time period. Current instruments include: (1) SpeX, a 0.7-5 μm moderate-resolution spectrograph and camera, (2) MORIS, a high-speed CCD imager attached to SpeX for simultaneous visible and near-infrared observations, and (3) CSHELL, a 1-5 μm high-resolution spectrograph. Detector upgrades have recently been made to SpeX. We are also designing and constructing a new echelle spectrograph for 1-5 μm. This instrument will be commissioned starting in early 2016. We also plan to restore to service our 8-25 μm camera, MIRSI. Our 1-5 μm camera, NSFCAM, was lost due to a failure of the liquid nitrogen can that was caused by an ice plug. We can restore this instrument to service but no plans have been made yet. The IRTF supports remote observing from any site. This eliminates the need for travel to the observatory and short observing time slots can be supported. We also welcome onsite visiting astronomers. In the near future we plan to implement a low-order wave-front sensor to allow real-time focus and collimation of the telescope. This will greatly improve observational efficiency. In the longer term, we envision the construction of an adaptive optics system that is optimized for solar system observations. This instrument would use the restored NSFCAM, which has a circular variable filter allowing selection of any wavelength from 1-5 μm. We welcome input for planetary science cases needing diffraction-limited imaging at 1-5 μm. For further information on the IRTF and its instruments including visitor instruments, see: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of

  1. Far-Infrared Line Mapper (FILM) on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibai, Hiroshi; Yui, Masao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Okuda, Haruyuki

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a Far-Infrared Line Mapper (FILM) as one of the four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FILM is a grating spectrometer designed to simultaneously measure (C II) 158 microns and (O I) 63 microns line intensities and continuum emission near the (C II) line with spatial resolution of 8 arcmin. Very high sensitivity and accuracy are achieved by using stressed and unstressed Ge: Ga detectors at 1.8 K with a helium cooled telescope and by using a spectral scanner to distinguish the line emission from the continuum emission. Line intensities of the (C II) and the (O I) will be mapped over 10% of the sky with much higher sensitivity than the previous survey measurements.

  2. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Infrared telescope tracking in the presence of target motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schneider, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of charge-coupled-devices, or CCD's, has been documented by a number of sources as an effective means of providing a measurement of spacecraft attitude with respect to the stars. A method exists of defocussing and interpolation of the resulting shape of a star image over a small subsection of a large CCD array. This yields an increase in the accuracy of the device by better than an order of magnitude over the case when the star image is focussed upon a single CCD pixel. This research examines the effect that image motion has upon the overall precision of this star sensor when applied to an orbiting infrared observatory. While CCD's collect energy within the visible spectrum of light, the targets of scientific interest may well have no appreciable visible emissions. Image motion has the effect of smearing the image of the star in the direction of motion during a particular sampling interval. The presence of image motion is incorporated into a Kalman filter for the system, and it is shown that the addition of a gyro command term is adequate to compensate for the effect of image motion in the measurement. The updated gyro model is included in this analysis, but has natural frequencies faster than the projected star tracker sample rate for dim stars. The system state equations are reduced by modelling gyro drift as a white noise process. There exists a tradeoff in selected star tracker sample time between the CCD, which has improved noise characteristics as sample time increases, and the gyro, which will potentially drift further between long attitude updates. A sample time which minimizes pointing estimation error exists for the random drift gyro model as well as for a random walk gyro model.

  3. Scientific and Mission Requirements of Next-generation Space Infrared Space Telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Ichikawa, Takashi; Takami, Michihiro; Sakon, Itsuki

    SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology Astrophysics) is a next-generation space tele-scope for mid-and far-infrared astronomy, based on the heritage of AKARI, Spitzer, and Her-schel, Here we introduce Mission Requirement Document (MRD), where scientific and mission requirement of SPICA are described. The MRD clarifies the objectives of the SPICA mission. These objectives are more concretely expressed by various scientific targets, and based on these targets, the mission requirements, such as required specifications of the mission instrumenta-tions, scientific operations etc. are defined. Also the success criteria, by which the evaluation of the mission achievement will be addressed, are clearly described. The mission requirements described here will give the baseline of the study of the system requirements. In the future, The MRD will also be used to confirm the development status, system performance, and operational results on orbit etc. are well in-line with the mission requirements. To summarize, the most important mission requirement of SPICA is to realize a large, mono-lithic (not segmented) 3-m class or larger mirror cooled down below 6K, in order to perform extremely deep imaging and spectroscopy at 5-210µm.

  4. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

  5. Long life feasibility study for the shuttle infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of designing an Infrared Telescope of the 1 meter class which would operate effectively as a Shuttleborne, 14-day Spacelab payload and then be adapted with little modification to work as a 6 month Space station or free flyer payload. The optics configuration and requirements from a previous study were used without modification. In addition, an enhancement to 2 year mission lengths was studied. The cryogenic system selected was a hybrid design with an internal solid Hydrogen tank at 8 Kelvin and an internal superfluid tank at 2K. In addition to the cryogenic design, a detailed look at secondary mirror actuators for chopping, focus and decenter was conducted and analysis and cryo test reported.

  6. An Airborne Infrared Telescope and Spectrograph for Solar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Edward E.; Cheimets, Peter; Golub, Leon

    2014-06-01

    The solar infrared spectrum offers great possibilities for direct spatially resolved measurements of the solar coronal magnetic fields, via imaging of the plasma that is constrained to follow the magnetic field direction and via spectro-polarimetry that permits measurement of the field strength in the corona. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. The large scale structure of the coronal field, and the opening up of the field in a transition zone between the closed and open corona determines the speed and structure of the solar wind, providing the background environment through which CMEs propagate. At present our only direct measurements of the solar magnetic fields are in the photosphere and chromosphere. The ability to determine where and why the corona transitions from closed to open, combined with measurements of the field strength via infrared coronal spectro-polarimetry will give us a powerful new tool in our quest to develop the next generation of forecasting models.We describe a first step in achieving this goal: a proposal for a new IR telescope, image stabilization system, and spectrometer, for the NCAR HIPER GV aircraft. The telescope/spectrograph will operate in the 2-6micron wavelength region, during solar eclipses, starting with the trans-north American eclipse in August 2017. The HIAPER aircraft flying at ~35,000 ft will provide an excellent platform for IR observations. Our imaging and spectroscopy experiment will show the distribution and intensity of IR forbidden lines in the solar corona.

  7. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  8. Instrument for Achieving High Angular Resolution on the Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1998-01-01

    Aberrations in stellar images caused by the atmosphere sets a significant limit on angular resolution in ground based astronomy. The largest of these aberrations is the image motion or wavefront tilt. Since the image motion is random it causes a blurring of the image, and this causes a blurring of the image from 0.3 arcseconds to about 0.7 arcseconds. The purpose of the tip-tilt project was to devise a system for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility that would measure the image movement and correct it by rapidly tilting a mirror in two axes (tip and tilt). The system would involve building a CCD sensor package to measure the image motion, a new top end for the telescope to hold the tip-tilt mirror, a control system, and software. The system was designed to correct images for the facility camera, NSFCAM, and for the facility spectrometer, SPEX. Both of these instruments are equipped with a cold beamsplitter to feed the sensor package.

  9. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  10. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D. E-mail: michael.cushing@gmail.com

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 {mu}m spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R {identical_to} {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  11. A New Prime Focus Camera for the Wyoming Infrared Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, M. J.; Nations, H. L.

    2002-05-01

    We describe the new prime-focus, optical imaging camera for the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). A 3-element Wynne corrector produces a well-corrected field of 18 arcmin at the f/2.1 focus of the 2.3-m primary of WIRO. The camera consists of a Marconi 2k x 2k detector housed in a camera/controller from Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. The resulting scale of 0.6 arcsec per 13.5 um pixel is well-matched to the expected seeing for this site. The filter wheel, corrector position, and instrument focus are controlled using a GUI written in Visual Basic. We find this environment to be particularly efficient for simple instrumentation development. We present preliminary measures of the image quality and throughput for the camera as well as a brief description of some of the survey projects planned for this instrument.

  12. Quantitative Measurements of Daytime Near Infrared Sky Brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative measurements of daytime near infrared sky brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m telescope Michael Hart, Stuart Jefferies Douglas Hope, James...HI 96753 ABSTRACT We report daytime sky brightness measurements recorded in the near infrared from the 3.6 m AEOS telescope . Measurements were made...techniques for high-resolution imaging of satellites from the AEOS telescope . 1 MOTIVATION At first glance it would appear that imaging in the near

  13. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  14. Development of Infrared Phase Closure Capability in the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2002-01-01

    We completed all major fabrication and testing for the third telescope and phase-closure operation at the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) during this period. In particular we successfully tested the phase-closure operation, using a laboratory light source illuminating the full delay-line optical paths, and using an integrated-optic beam combiner coupled to our Picnic-detector camera. This demonstration is an important and near-final milestone achievement. As of this writing, however, several tasks yet remain, owing to development snags and weather, so the final proof of success, phase-closure observation of a star, is now expected to occur in early 2002, soon after this report has been submitted.

  15. GMTNIRS (Giant Magellan Telescope near-infrared spectrograph): design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungho; Yuk, In-Soo; Lee, Hanshin; Wang, Weisong; Park, Chan; Park, Kwi-Jong; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Strubhar, Joseph; Deen, Casey; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Rand, Jared; Seo, Haingja; Kwon, Jungmi; Oh, Heeyoung; Barnes, Stuart; Lacy, John; Goertz, John; Park, Won-Kee; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2010-07-01

    We are designing a sensitive high resolution (R=60,000-100,000) spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMTNIRS, the GMT Near-Infrared Spectrograph). Using large-format IR arrays and silicon immersion gratings, this instrument will cover all of the J (longer than 1.1 μm), H, and K atmospheric windows or all of the L and M windows in a single exposure. GMTNIRS makes use of the GMT adaptive optics system for all bands. The small slits will offer the possibility of spatially resolved spectroscopy as well as superior sensitivity and wavelength coverage. The GMTNIRS team is composed of scientists and engineers at the University of Texas, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, and Kyung Hee University. In this paper, we describe the optical and mechanical design of the instrument. The principal innovative feature of the design is the use of silicon immersion gratings which are now being produced by our team with sufficient quality to permit designs with high resolving power and broad instantaneous wavelength coverage across the near-IR.

  16. The Far-Infrared Photometer on the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, A. E.; Freund, M. M.; Sato, S.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Watabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 microns with spectral resolution wavelength/wavelength spread is approximately 3 and spatial resolution delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W per sq cm per sr per 0.5 degree pixel.

  17. A Far Infrared Photometer (FIRP) for the infrared telescope in space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, M. M.; Hirao, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sato, S.; Watabe, T.; Brubaker, G. K.; Duband, L.; Grossman, B.; Larkin, N.; Lumetta, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design and calibration of the Far-Infrared Photometer (FIRP), one of four focal plane instruments on the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS). The FIRP will provide absolute photometry in four bands centered at 150, 250, 400, and 700 micrometers with spectral resolution lambda/(Delta lambda) approx. = 3 and spatial resolution Delta theta = 0.5 degrees. High sensitivity is achieved by using bolometric detectors operated at 300 mK in an AC bridge circuit. The closed-cycle He-3 refrigerator can be recycled in orbit. A 2 K shutter provides a zero reference for each field of view. More than 10% of the sky will be surveyed during the approximately 3 week mission lifetime with a sensitivity of less than 10(exp -13) W/((sq cm)(sr)) per 0.5 degree pixel.

  18. Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: The TIM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, L.

    1998-11-01

    The scientific goals for TIM are an image quality of 0.25", consistent with the seeing at our site, optimization for the infrared as many scientific programs are going in that region of the spectrum, a M1 diameter in excess of 6.5 meters and a field of view limited to 10 arc minutes. Practical reasons, such as the limited funding available and the requirement of mexican financial agencies that the telescope should be built and installed in Mexico, lead us to decide for a segmented telescope, with a single secondary mirror, a single cassegrain focus and a light high stifness tubular structure. ALthough we are still working on the conceptual design of the telescope, there are some concepts that we are pursuing. The optical desing (M1+M2) is Ritchey-Cretien type with an hyperbolic primary 7.8 m od F/1.5 and a 0.9 m diameter f/15 secondary mirror. This will give a plate scale of 1.7 "/mm. This is 0.03 "/pix in direct mode, enough for AO goals. As for direct imaging, a factor of 5 reduction with 20 cm diam optical components would be able to produce 5' fields on a 2048, 20 microns type detector with 0.17"/pix. This implies that, with the use of auxiliary optics which is a common need for each particular instrument anyway, a wide variety of needs can be accomodated with a single secondary mirror. Choping for infrared observations would however introduce a additional cost in the secondary mirror. Alternatively the use of cold tertiary choping mirror is currently under study. The M1+M2 design currently aquires d80 of 0.17" in a 5' field without correction and 1" in a 10' field, that would require a field correcting lens. The M1 mirror will be segmented into 19 1.8 m diameter segments. There are 4 kinds of segments, the central, which we have kept to provide a reference for phasing, 6 more segments for the first ring and 12 in the outer ring, of two different kinds. The spacing between the segments is 5 mm, enough to reduce the inter-segment thermal background to half a

  19. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  20. The Development and Mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

  1. Shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) preliminary design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An overall picture of the SIRTF system is first presented, including the telescope, focal plane instruments, cryogen supply, shuttle and spacelab support subsystems, mechanical and data interfaces with the vehicles, ground support equipment, and system requirements. The optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the telescope are then evaluated, followed by a description of the SIRTF internal stabilization subsystem and its interface with the IPS. Expected performance in the shuttle environment is considered. Tradeoff studies are described, including the Gregorian versus the Cassegrain telescope, aperture diameter tradeoff, a CCD versus an image dissector for the star tracker, the large ambient telescope versus the SIRTF, and a dedicated gimbal versus the IPS. Operations from integration through launch and recovery are also discussed and cost estimates for the program are presented.

  2. High Precision Photometry of Variable Stars in Clusters of Different Ages with the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, E. F.; McCook, G. P.; DeWarf, L. E.; Gelderman, R. F.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Howell, S. B.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Mattox, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    We discuss a new program of carrying out high precision VRI CCD photometry of several star clusters of different ages. The photometry is being carried out using the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT), located at KPNO. This program focuses on the study of variable stars in mostly open clusters. Selected astrophysically important eclipsing binaries, pulsating variables, blue stragglers, and chromospherically active variable stars will be studied. Also, searches of new variable stars will be made from the expected large samples of cluster stars. For example, photometry is planned of the several W UMa eclipsing binaries and blue straggler stars in the old open cluster NGC 188. Photometry also will be carried out of the young open cluster NGC 7790. This cluster is unique because has three confirmed classical cepheid members: CE Cas A (V ˜ +10.9 mag; F8 Ib; P = 4.446 d ), CE Cep B (V ˜ +11.0 mag; F9 Ib; 5.128 d), and CF Cas (V ˜ +11.1 mag; F8 Ib; 4.875 d). NGC 7790 also contains the 10th mag eccentric B0+B0 eclipsing binary QX Cas. The observations of QX Cas are being conducted to determine the accurate distance to this star and thus to the cluster and its cepheid members. When complete these observations, combined with spectroscopy, will permit a reliable calibration of the ``zero-point'' of the galactic cepheid Period-Luminosity Law. Another possible project is the search of light variations of PMS stars and chromospherically active stars (from star spot rotational modulations) in young clusters such as the alpha Perseus Cluster, h & χ Per, M34, and the Pleiades. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG 58762. The RCT Consortium includes: Western Kentucky Univ., S. Carolina St Univ., Francis Marion Univ., Villanova Univ., and the Planetary Science Institute (PSI).

  3. Conceptual design of a cryogenic system for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Sugita, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Okamoto, A.; Yamawaki, T.; Komatsu, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Murakami, H.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, M.; Takada, M.; Takai, S.; Okabayashi, A.; Kanao, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Otsuka, K.; Narasaki, K.

    2010-07-01

    The conceptual design of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) has been studied as a pre-project of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with ESA to be launched in 2018. The SPICA is transferred into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, where radiant cooling is available effectively. The SPICA has a large IR telescope 3 m in diameter, which is cooled without cryogen to below 6 K by the radiant and mechanical cooling system. Therefore, the SPICA mission will cover mid- and far-IR astronomy with high sensitivity and spatial resolution during a long period of over 5 years for goal. Most heat radiation from the sun and spacecraft is blocked by the Sun Shield and thermal radiation shields covered with Multi-Layer Insulator (MLI) to limit heat radiation to the Scientific Instrument Assembly (SIA). The SIA, which is composed of the primary mirrors and optical benches equipped with Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs), is refrigerated to below 6 K by two sets of 4K-class Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler with a cooling power of 40 mW at 4.5 K. The Far-IR detector is refrigerated to 1.7 K by two sets of 1K-class JT coolers with a cooling power of 10 mW at 1.7 K. Improvements for the higher reliability and sufficient cooling performance are required in the development of SPICA mechanical cryocoolers. Thermal analysis indicates that the SPICA cryogenic system works effectively to limit the total heat load on the SIA to 41.2 mW. This paper describes the conceptual design of the SPICA cryogenic system, which was established with thermal feasibility for nominal operation mode.

  4. Imaging telescope-spectrometer for infrared sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, Igor A.; Sholomitskii, Gennadii B.; Kuznetsov, Arkadii E.; Patrashin, Michail A.; Olejnikov, Leonid S.

    1995-06-01

    A new type of imaging telescope-spectrometer for surviving the sky aboard a satellite is described. A static Michelson interferometer in front of an objective with 2D-arrays in its focal plane is capable of providing interferograms both for point and extended sources. As an example, the telescope-spectrometer based on the 15-cm telescope of the IKON project and a plane-parallel Ge plate as a beamsplitter may have approximately equals 30 cm(superscript -1 spectral resolution in the range 3 - 20 micrometers . For higher resolution, such an objective interferometer has advantage over a dispersion spectrometer in the signal-to-noise ratio and is free from the disadvantage of an objective prism not providing spectra of extended sources.

  5. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): Optical System Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Leisawitz, David; Martino, Anthony J.; Budinoff, Jason; Quijada, Manuel; Hyde, Tupper

    2007-01-01

    SPIRIT is a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. It is a spatial and spectral interferometer operating at 4 K with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. This paper describes the various components of the candidate optical system, including telescopes, pointing and tracking optics, along with their functions. Some of the tradeoffs involved in selecting various components, with their particular characteristics, are described.

  6. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  7. Infrared Observations with the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Origins of Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    COVERED (From - To)      01-04-2012 to 31-03-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Infrared Observations with the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope in Big Bear : Origins...utilized the 1.6 m clear aperture solar telescope in Big Bear Lake, CA. This telescope is the largest aperture and most powerful solar telescope ever...solar telescope in Big Bear Lake, CA. This telescope is the largest aperture and most powerful solar telescope ever built, which enable the high

  8. Submillimeter astronomy at the NASA/University of Hawaii 3-meter infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Problems encountered in the design of a submillimeter photometer for the infrared telescope facility and some of the solutions already provided are described. Observations of Saturn's rings and the determination of the brightness temperature of Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus are summarized. Significant findings during solar, galactic, and extragalactic observations include the discovery of low luminosity star formation in the Bok Globule B335 and determination of the far infrared properties of dust in the reflection nebula NGC 7023.

  9. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: Telescope Design and Simulated Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey proposed multiple missions with NIR focal planes and 3 mirror wide field telescopes in the 1.5m aperture range. None of them would have won as standalone missions WFIRST is a combination of these missions, created by Astro 2010 committee. WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) tasked to examine the design. Project team is a GSFC-JPL-Caltech collaboration. This interim mission design is a result of combined work by the project team with the SDT.

  10. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.; Peters, Carlton V.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan E.; McDonald, Carson S.; Content, David A.; Jackson, Clifton E.

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  11. Design Evolution of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Peters, Carlton; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Content, David A.; Jackson, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    The design of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) continues to evolve as each design cycle is analyzed. In 2012, two Hubble sized (2.4 m diameter) telescopes were donated to NASA from elsewhere in the Federal Government. NASA began investigating potential uses for these telescopes and identified WFIRST as a mission to benefit from these assets. With an updated, deeper, and sharper field of view than previous design iterations with a smaller telescope, the optical designs of the WFIRST instruments were updated and the mechanical and thermal designs evolved around the new optical layout. Beginning with Design Cycle 3, significant analysis efforts yielded a design and model that could be evaluated for Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) purposes for the Wide Field Imager (WFI) and provided the basis for evaluating the high level observatory requirements. Development of the Cycle 3 thermal model provided some valuable analysis lessons learned and established best practices for future design cycles. However, the Cycle 3 design did include some major liens and evolving requirements which were addressed in the Cycle 4 Design. Some of the design changes are driven by requirements changes, while others are optimizations or solutions to liens from previous cycles. Again in Cycle 4, STOP analysis was performed and further insights into the overall design were gained leading to the Cycle 5 design effort currently underway. This paper seeks to capture the thermal design evolution, with focus on major design drivers, key decisions and their rationale, and lessons learned as the design evolved.

  12. Infra-red lamp panel study and assessment application to thermal vacuum testing of sigma telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauduyt, Jacques; Merlet, Joseph; Poux, Christiane

    1986-01-01

    A research and development program of the Infra-Red Test has been conducted by the French Space Agency (CNES). A choice, after characterization, among several possibilities has been made on the type of methods and facilities for the I.R. test. An application to the Thermal Vacuum Test of the SIGMA Telescope is described.

  13. Postupgrade performance of the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Rees, Nicholas P.; Chuter, Timothy C.; Chrysostomou, Antonio C.; Cavedoni, Charles P.; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Pitz, Eckhart; Pettie, Donald G.; Bennett, Richard J.; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli

    1999-10-01

    The upgraded 3.8 m UK Infrared Telescope is now provided with: (1) tip-tilt image stabilization by a light-weighted secondary mirror on piezo-electric actuators, controlled by a fast guider sampling at >= 40 Hz on guide stars V

  14. Collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter observed by the NASA infrared telescope facility.

    PubMed

    Orton, G; A'Hearn, M; Baines, K; Deming, D; Dowling, T; Goguen, J; Griffith, C; Hammel, H; Hoffmann, W; Hunten, D

    1995-03-03

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Infrared Telescope Facility was used to investigate the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter from 12 July to 7 August 1994. Strong thermal infrared emission lasting several minutes was observed after the impacts of fragments C, G, and R. All impacts warmed the stratosphere and some the troposphere up to several degrees. The abundance of stratospheric ammonia increased by more than 50 times. Impact-related particles extended up to a level where the atmospheric pressure measured several millibars. The north polar near-infrared aurora brightened by nearly a factor of 5 a week after the impacts.

  15. Collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter observed by the NASA infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G.; A'Hearn, M.; Baines, K.; Deming, D.; Dowling, T.; Goguen, J.; Griffith, C.; Hammel, H.; Hoffmann, W.; Hunten, D.; Zahnle, K. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Infrared Telescope Facility was used to investigate the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter from 12 July to 7 August 1994. Strong thermal infrared emission lasting several minutes was observed after the impacts of fragments C, G, and R. All impacts warmed the stratosphere and some the troposphere up to several degrees. The abundance of stratospheric ammonia increased by more than 50 times. Impact-related particles extended up to a level where the atmospheric pressure measured several millibars. The north polar near-infrared aurora brightened by nearly a factor of 5 a week after the impacts.

  16. Small helium-cooled infrared telescope experiment for Spacelab-2 (IRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) experiment, flown on Spacelab-2, was used to make infrared measurements between 2 and 120 microns. The objectives were multidisciplinary in nature with astrophysical goals of mapping the diffuse cosmic emission and extended infrared sources and technical goals of measuring the induced Shuttle environment, studying properties of superfluid helium in space, and testing various infrared telescope system designs. Astrophysically, new data were obtained on the structure of the Galaxy at near-infrared wavelengths. A summary of the large scale diffuse near-infrared observations of the Galaxy by the IRT is presented, as well as a summary of the preliminary results obtained from this data on the structure of the galactic disk and bulge. The importance of combining CO and near-infrared maps of similar resolution to determine a 3-D model of galactic extinction is demonstrated. The IRT data are used, in conjunction with a proposed galactic model, to make preliminary measurements of the global scale parameters of the Galaxy. During the mission substantial amounts of data were obtained concerning the induced Shuttle environment. An experiment was also performed to measure spacecraft glow in the IR.

  17. A project for an infrared synoptic survey from Antarctica with the Polar Large Telescope (PLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epchtein, N.; Abe, L.; Ansorge, W.; Langlois, M.; Vauglin, I.; Argentini, S.; Esau, I.; David, C.; Bryson, I.; Dalton, G.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Lawrence, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Polar Large Telescope (PLT) aims at performing a new generation of astronomical Infrared Synoptic Survey from Antarctica (ISSA). It would carry out for the first time large scale periodic imaging surveys at ˜ 0.3 arcsec angular resolution in the short thermal infrared (2-5 micron) range benefiting from the extremely dry, cold, and stable polar atmosphere. The PLT consists of a 2.5 m class telescope equipped with a 250-Mpixel infrared camera. The survey would produce diffraction limited images at 2 micron covering a total of ˜ 5000 square degrees, explore the time domain from seconds to years down to mab =25.5 in Kd, generate alerts of transients and react quickly to alerts from other ground based or space borne facilities.

  18. Optical and infrared backgrounds from the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy

    The sum total of the energy released by the earliest era of star formation should show up today within the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL), its signature peaking in the near-infrared. There is considerable controversy over estimates of the average EBL per steradian at optical and infrared wavelengths, over measurements of background fluctuations, and over the interpretation of the measurements. Resolving this controversy is important because the EBL constrains the history of galaxy evolution. The fluctuations and their colors may also contain important information about Population III stars and the earliest era of star formation. We compare number counts from recent galaxy surveys, correcting for their differing passbands. With some assumptions about galaxy sizes and surface-brightness profiles, we account for the light missed in standard photometric estimates, integrating the resulting corrected counts to estimate the total EBL due to resolved galaxies as well as undetected galaxies. We then present an analysis of background fluctuations in observations of the HUDF, the GOODS field, and the CANDELS fields obtained with WFC3. The fluctuation signal provides a constraint on the slope of galaxy counts fainter than the levels of individual detection, as well as their typical angular sizes. The color dependence of the fluctuations provides a constraint on the redshift distribution of these very faint sources. The spatial and spectral information from these anisotropies, even in their non-detection, provide valuable information about the era of reionization, when the first stars and galaxies formed. Via various analysis tools such as power spectra and P(D) fitting, best-fit models to faint sources can be obtained.

  19. Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The NGST wavefront sensing and control system will be developed to TRL6 over the next few years, including testing in a cryogenic vacuum environment with traceable hardware. Doing this in the far-infrared and submillimeter is probably easier, as some aspects of the problem scale with wavelength, and the telescope is likely to have a more stable environment; however, detectors may present small complications. Since this is a new system approach, it warrants a new look. For instance, a large space telescope based on the DART membrane mirror design requires a new actuation approach. Other mirror and actuation technologies may prove useful as well.

  20. A CCD camera for guidance of 100-cm balloon-borne far-infrared telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, S. L.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tandon, S. N.

    1991-08-01

    A charge coupled device (CCD) camera using the 488 x 380 element Fairchild CCD 222 imaging device has been developed for guidance of the 100 cm balloonborne far infrared telescope. The hardware consists of an imaging device along with its associated optics, a clock generating circuitry, the clock drivers, an 8086 microprocessor-based system, and the power supplies. The software processes the CCD image data and uses a selected star in its field of view as the guide star for pointing the telescope with an accuracy of around 4 arc s.

  1. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UKIRT 1-5 micron Imager Spectrometer (UIST) cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Two of the objects are controlled spacecraft, twelve are non-controlled spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and three are cataloged as debris. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft, both the controlled and non-controlled, show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels whereas the rocket bodies do not. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give well-correlated indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and different times. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft

  2. Spartan Infrared Camera, a High-Resolution Imager for the SOAR Telescope: Design, Tests, and On-Telescope Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Edwin D.; Biel, Jason D.; Davis, Michael W.; Laporte, René; Loh, Owen Y.; Verhanovitz, Nathan J.

    2012-04-01

    The Spartan Infrared Camera provides tip-tilt corrected imaging for the SOAR Telescope in the 900–2500 nm spectral range with four 2048 × 2048 HAWAII-2 detectors. The camera has two plate scales: high-resolution () for future diffraction-limited sampling in the H and K bands and wide-field () to cover a 5‧ × 5‧ field, over which tip-tilt correction is substantial. The design is described in detail. Except for CaF2 field-flattening lenses, the optics are aluminum mirrors to thermally match the aluminum cryogenic-optical box in which the optics mount. The design minimizes the tilt of the optics as the instrument rotates on the Nasmyth port of the telescope. Two components of the gravitational torque on an optic are eliminated by symmetry, and the third component is minimized by balancing the optic. The optics (including the off-axis aspherical mirrors) were aligned with precise metrology. For the detector assembly, Henein pivots are used to provide frictionless, thermally compliant, lubricant-free, and thermally conducting rotation of the detectors. The heat load is 14 W for an ambient temperature of 10°C. Cooling down takes 40 hr. An activated-charcoal getter controls permeation through the large Viton O-ring for at least nine months. We present maps of the image distortion, which amount to tens of pixels at the greatest. The wavelength of the narrowband filters shift with position in the sky. The measured Strehl ratio of the camera itself is 0.81–0.84 at λ1650 nm. The width of the best K-band image was 260 mas in unexceptional seeing measured after tuning the telescope and before moving the telescope. Since images are normally taken after pointing the telescope to a different field, this supports the idea that the image quality could be improved by better control of the focus and the shape of the primary mirror. The instrument has proved to be capable of producing images that can be stitched together to measure faint, extended features and to produce

  3. Thermal study of payload module for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA in risk mitigation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Ando, Makiko; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Toshihiro; Mizutani, Tadahiro; Komatsu, Keiji; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takada, Makoto; Takai, Shigeki; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Kanao, Kenichi; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched around 2020. The SPICA is transferred into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2) in the Sun-Earth system, which enables us to use effective radiant cooling in combination with mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 3 m large IR telescope below 6 K. At a present, a conceptional study of SPICA is underway to assess and mitigate mission's risks; the thermal study for the risk mitigation sets a goal of a 25% margin on cooling power of 4 K/1 K temperature regions, a 25% margin on the heat load from Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs) at intermediated temperature region, to enhance the reliability of the mechanical cooler system, and to enhance feasibility of ground tests. Thermal property measurements of FRP materials are also important. This paper introduces details of the thermal design study for risk mitigation, including development of the truss separation mechanism, the cryogenic radiator, mechanical cooler system, and thermal property measurements of materials.

  4. Prediction of the Vibroacoustic Response of the Equipment Mounted on the Infrared Space Telescope "SPICA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Hiroki; Ando, Shigemasa; Shi, Qinzhong; Yamawaki, Toshiko

    2014-06-01

    The infrared space telescope "SPICA" (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is a structurally-complex spacecraft, which requires the less conservative prediction of the random vibration at interface in order to reduce the over-margin issue for designing the strength on critical structure of optical instrument in the early stage of development, and to relieve the risk of overweight designing. This paper proposes Combination of FEA and SEA Methods to predict the vibroacoustic response of the equipment mounted on SPICA, and less conservative specification of the random vibration environments. Furthermore, a method of force-limiting to notch the specification over a certain frequency range during designing and a random vibration test is shown. Force-limiting specification is calculated using a simplified approach by multiplying the article's apparent mass to the equivalent of vibroacoustic response at interface.

  5. Optical and near infrared observations of the blazar 3C 279 with the REM telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impiombato, D.; Tosti, G.; Ciprini, C.; REM Collaboration.

    The Rapid Eye Mount (REM) telescope installed at La Silla (Cile) on June 2003, is a robotic telescope able the capability to observe in optical and infrared bands. Since the late commissioning phase a optical and infrared monitoring program of a sample of blazars, most emitting also in the gamma-ray band, was started. Such program is still on going and it make part of an observational activity aimed to the multiwavelength characterization possible blazars candidate to be observed also in gamma-ray by the instruments on board of AGILE satellites(launched on 23 April 2007) and Glast (that will be launched at the end of the 2007). In this poster we present the optical/near-IR data obtained during the January 2007, outburst of 3C279 (the prototype of the gamma-ray loud).

  6. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  7. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  8. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    Presented are scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, and results of technology development for a Three-Meter Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope. The scientific rationale is based on two crucial instrumental capabilities: high angular resolution which approaches eight arcseconds at one hundred micron wavelength, and high resolving power spectroscopy with good sensitivity throughout the telescope's 30-micron to 1-mm wavelength range. The high angular resolution will allow us to resolve and study in detail such objects as collapsing protostellar condensations in our own galaxy, clusters of protostars in the Magellanic clouds, giant molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and spiral arms in distant galaxies. The large aperture of the telescope will permit sensitive spectral line measurements of molecules, atoms, and ions, which can be used to probe the physical, chemical, and dynamical conditions in a wide variety of objects.

  9. Pointing and control system design study for the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J. N.; Sridhar, B.; Cochran, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The design and performance of pointing and control systems for two space infrared telescope facility vehicles were examined. The need for active compensation of image jitter using the secondary mirror or other optical elements was determined. In addition, a control system to allow the telescope to perform small angle slews, and to accomplish large angle slews at the rate of 15 deg per minute was designed. Both the 98 deg and the 28 deg inclination orbits were examined, and spacecraft designs were developed for each. The results indicate that active optical compensation of line-of-sight errors is not necessary if the system is allowed to settle for roughly ten seconds after a slew maneuver. The results are contingent on the assumption of rigid body dynamics, and a single structural mode between spacecraft and telescope. Helium slosh for a half full 4000 liter tank was analyzed, and did not represent a major control problem.

  10. Design and performance of transfer assembly for the infrared telescope for Space Lab 2. [cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The cryogenic design features employed in the case of the Infrared Telescope (IRT) for Spacelab 2 are unique. They involve the delivery of helium gas at a temperature of 2 K to the IR detectors from a superfluid supply dewar which is separate from the telescope/detector unit. This design has the advantage that thermal and mechanical vibration disturbances in the liquid helium bath are decoupled from the IR detector. The interfacing of the storage dewar with the IRT telescope/detector unit (called cryostat) is the function of the subsystem which is called the transfer assembly (TA). The TA design is discussed, taking into account the porous plug module, the plumbing module, the helix module, and the dewar heat exchanger units. Aspects of transfer assembly performance are also considered.

  11. MegaMIR: The Megapixel Mid-Infrared Instrument for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick; Hong, John; Werner, Mike; Hinz, Phil; Gorjan, Varoujan; Ressler, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The Megapixel Mid-infrared Instrument (MegaMIR) is a proposed Fizeau-mode camera for the Large Binocular Telescope operating at wavelengths between 5 and 28 micrometers. The camera will be used in conjunction with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), a cryogenic optical system that combines the beams from twin 8.4-m telescopes in a phase coherent manner. Unlike other interferometric systems, the co-mounted telescopes on the LBT satisfy the sine condition, providing diffraction-limited resolution over the 40" field of view of the camera. With a 22.8-m baseline, MegaMIR will yield 0.1" angular resolution, making it the highest resolution wide field imager in the thermal infrared for at least the next decade. MegaMIR will utilize a newly developed 1024 x 1024 pixel Si:As detector array that has been optimized for use at high backgrounds. This new detector is a derivative of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) low-background detector. The combination of high angular resolution and wide field imaging will be a unique scientific capability for astronomy. Key benefits will be realized in planetary science, galactic, and extra-galactic astronomy. High angular resolution is essential to disentangle highly complex sources, particularly in star formation regions and external galaxies, and MegaMIR provides this performance over a full field of view. Because of the great impact being made by space observatories like the Spitzer Space Telescope, the number of available targets for study has greatly increased in recent years, and MegaMIR will allow efficient follow up science.

  12. Infrared View of Comet Fragment G from W. M. Keck Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This view of Jupiter shows the plume from the impact of fragment G of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The image was made at infrared wavelenths (2.2 microns) using the 10-meter W. M. Keck Telescope in Hawaii. Credit: Dr. Imke de Pater, Dr. James Graham, Michael Brown, and Michael Liu, University of California, and Dr. Marina Fomenkova, University of California at San Diego, W. M. Keck Observatory.

  13. A conceptual design study for the secondary mirror drive of the shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, R. E.; Cox, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    Various conceptual designs for the secondary mirror actuator system to be used in the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) were evaluated. In addition, a set of design concepts was developed to assist in the solution of problems crucial for optimum performance of the secondary mirror actuator system. A specific conceptual approach was presented along with a plan for developing that approach and identifying issues of critical importance in the developmental effort.

  14. A space telescope for infrared spectroscopy of earth-like planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Cheng, A. Y. S.; Woolf, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown here that a space telescope of 16 m diameter, apodized in a new way, could image and measure oxygen n in the thermal infrared spectral of earthlike planets up to 4 pc away. The problems of visible light imaging for this case are discussed, and it is argued that imaging the thermal emission, with greatly reduced requirements for gain and hence surface accuracy, is preferable. The requirements for such imaging are discussed, including the apodization solution.

  15. Mechanical cooler system for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Keisuke; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Sato, Yoichi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tadahito; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched in the 2020s. The SPICA mission is to be launched into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, which allows us to use effective radiant cooling in combination with a mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 2.5m-class large IR telescope below 8K. Recently, a new system design in particular thermal structure of the payload module has been studied by considering the technical feasibility of a cryogenic cooled telescope within current constraints of the mission in the CDF (Concurrent Design Facility) study of ESA/ESTEC. Then, the thermal design of the mechanical cooler system, for which the Japanese side is responsible, has been examined based on the CDF study and the feasible solution giving a proper margin has been obtained. As a baseline, 4K / 1K-class Joule-Thomson coolers are used to cool the telescope and thermal interface for Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs). Additionally, two sets of double stirling coolers (2STs) are used to cool the Telescope shield. In this design, nominal operation of FPIs can be kept when one mechanical cooler is in failure.

  16. The balloon experimental twin telescope for infrared interferometry (BETTII): optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veach, Todd J.; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Mentzell, John E.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Dhabal, Arnab; Gibbons, Caitlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the optical and limited cryogenic design for The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an 8-meter far-infrared interferometer designed to fly on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The optical design is separated into warm and cold optics with the cold optics further separated into the far-infrared (FIR) (30-90 microns) and near-infrared (NIR) (1-3 microns). The warm optics are comprised of the twin siderostats, twin telescopes, K-mirror, and warm delay line. The cold optics are comprised of the cold delay line and the transfer optics to the FIR science detector array and the NIR steering array. The field of view of the interferometer is 2', with a wavelength range of 30-90 microns, 0.5" spectral resolution at 40 microns, R~200 spectral resolution, and 1.5" pointing stability. We also present the design of the cryogenic system necessary for operation of the NIR and FIR detectors. The cryogenic system consists of a `Buffered He-7' type cryogenic cooler providing a cold stage base temperature of < 280mK and 10 micro-Watts of heat lift and a custom in-house designed dewar that nominally provides sufficient hold time for the duration of the BETTII flight (24 hours).

  17. Long wavelength infrared camera (LWIRC): a 10 micron camera for the Keck Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E.H.; Danchi, W.C.; Tuthill, P.; Wurtz, R.; Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Long Wavelength Infrared Camera (LWIRC) is a facility instrument for the Keck Observatory designed to operate at the f/25 forward Cassegrain focus of the Keck I telescope. The camera operates over the wavelength band 7-13 {micro}m using ZnSe transmissive optics. A set of filters, a circular variable filter (CVF), and a mid-infrared polarizer are available, as are three plate scales: 0.05``, 0.10``, 0.21`` per pixel. The camera focal plane array and optics are cooled using liquid helium. The system has been refurbished with a 128 x 128 pixel Si:As detector array. The electronics readout system used to clock the array is compatible with both the hardware and software of the other Keck infrared instruments NIRC and LWS. A new pre-amplifier/A-D converter has been designed and constructed which decreases greatly the system susceptibility to noise.

  18. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission. and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however. is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (-0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double- Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral informatioT. he spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  19. Infrared Telescope Facility's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, K.; Buckalew, B.; Abell, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2006 to 2008. The data collected using the SpeX infrared spectrograph cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 20 different orbiting objects at or near the geosynchronous (GEO) regime. Four of the objects were controlled spacecraft, seven were non-controlled spacecraft, five were rocket bodies, and the final four were cataloged as debris pieces. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials, thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons, silicon, and thermal emission. The spacecraft, both the controlled and non-controlled, show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels, whereas the rocket bodies do not. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give excellent indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. However, based on the current state of the comparison between the observations and the laboratory data, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft, rocket bodies, or debris.

  20. Technology gap assessment for a future large-aperture ultraviolet-optical-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl M.; Thronson, Harley

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team identified five key technology areas to enable candidate architectures for a future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technology areas are internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescope systems, detectors, and mirror coatings. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current technology readiness level (TRL), thus identifying the current technology gap. We also report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  2. Development of a Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility /SIRTF/ fine guidance sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Glavich, T. A.; Goss, W. C.; Lorell, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    Fine guidance technology development for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) centers upon the use of a single multiple-star-tracking sensor to provide the position information necessary to produce three-axis attitude control signals for precision payload pointing. The effort described in this paper is concerned with the development of a fine guidance sensor that employs a high-density charge-coupled imaging device for producing position information signals by using star fields. Multiple star position information produces three-axis position error signals that are used to update inertial reference gyros. The sensor employs advanced position interpolation algorithms to enhance field-of-view resolution and to correct for optical aberrations inherent in spatially chopped star images resulting from the telescope's movable secondary mirror. Operation of the sensor is under the control of a high-performance microcomputer that provides both autonomy and flexibility in a guidance application.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Neptune's Hazes and Storms at the Keck Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, H.; Graham, J. R.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Macintosh, B.; Max, C.; Baines, K.; Gilbert, A. M.; McLean, I. S.; Becklin, E. E.; Figer, D. F.; Larkin, J. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Teplitz, H. I.; Wilcox, M. K.; NIRSPEC Team

    1999-09-01

    We present observations of Neptune in the near-infrared (1-5 mu m) obtained with the newly commissioned Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the 10-m W.M. Keck Telescope. The infrared spectrum of Neptune is useful for determining the structure and nature of haze layers and bright 'storm' features in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Significant variations in atmospheric opacity due to methane and H_2 pressure-induced absorption as a function of wavelength allow selective probing of the atmosphere to different depths. Most infrared filters used in imaging cover too wide a spectral range to precisely determine the vertical distribution of hazes and 'storm' particles. Our observations provide both the spatial resolution necessary to separate infrared bright 'storm' features from Neptune's background hazy atmosphere as well as the spectral resolution (R=2000 low-resolution mode, R=25000 high-resolution mode) to selectively probe the atmosphere as a function of altitude. We compare our observed spectra with radiative transfer models to derive haze and 'storm' particle number density and their vertical distribution.

  4. A balloon-borne 102-cm telescope for far-infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-12-01

    In the early 1970's, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona engaged in a cooperative program to develop a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope capable of carrying out far infrared (40 to 250 micron) observations of astronomical interest above the earth's atmosphere. Since 1972, the telescope has flown and successfully recovered a total of nineteen times. Thirteen of the flights produced high-quality astronomical data, resulting in more than 92.5 hours of photometric and spectroscopic observations of numerous objects, such as H 2 regions, dark clouds, molecular clouds, a planetary nebula, a galaxy, the galactic center, the planets, and an asteroid. From the launch site in Palestine, Texas, sources as far south as -50 degrees declination were observed. The balloon-borne telescope was one of the most sensitive instruments ever used for observation in the far infrared region of the spectrum. It was most productive in producing high resolution maps of large areas (typically square degrees) centered on known H 2 regions, molecular clouds, and dark cloud complexes. In many cases, these scans produced the first far infrared maps of these regions, and many new sources were discovered. The results have led to a better understanding of the distribution of gas and dust in these regions, the evolution of H 2 regions, and the processes of star formation in giant molecular clouds. The following topics are presented: (1) the focal plane instrumentation; (2) the history and flight record; (3) scientific results and publications; (4) eduational aspects; and (5) future planes.

  5. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hsu, Oscar; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to ad-dress the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the GNC subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  6. Precision Pointing for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope(WFIRST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Welter, Gary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, scheduled for a mid-2020's launch, is currently in its definition phase. The mission is designed to investigate essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. WFIRST will use a 2.4-meter primary telescope (same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror) and two instruments: the Wide Field Instrument (WFI) and the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). In order to address the critical science requirements, the WFIRST mission will conduct large-scale surveys of the infrared sky, requiring both agility and precision pointing (11.6 milli-arcsec stability, 14 milli-arcsec jitter). This paper describes some of the challenges this mission profile presents to the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) subsystem, and some of the design elements chosen to accommodate those challenges. The high-galactic-latitude survey is characterized by 3-minute observations separated by slews ranging from 0.025 deg to 0.8 deg. The need for observation efficiency drives the slew and settle process to be as rapid as possible. A description of the shaped slew profile chosen to minimize excitation of structural oscillation, and the handoff from star tracker-gyro control to fine guidance sensor control is detailed. Also presented is the fine guidance sensor (FGS), which is integral with the primary instrument (WFI). The FGS is capable of tracking up to 18 guide stars, enabling robust FGS acquisition and precision pointing. To avoid excitation of observatory structural jitter, reaction wheel speeds are operationally maintained within set limits. In addition, the wheel balance law is designed to maintain 1-Hz separation between the wheel speeds to avoid reinforcing jitter excitation at any particular frequency. The wheel balance law and operational implications are described. Finally, the candidate GNC hardware suite needed to meet the requirements of the mission is presented.

  7. A balloon-borne 102-cm telescope for far-infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1970's, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona engaged in a cooperative program to develop a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope capable of carrying out far infrared (40 to 250 micron) observations of astronomical interest above the earth's atmosphere. Since 1972, the telescope has flown and successfully recovered a total of nineteen times. Thirteen of the flights produced high-quality astronomical data, resulting in more than 92.5 hours of photometric and spectroscopic observations of numerous objects, such as H 2 regions, dark clouds, molecular clouds, a planetary nebula, a galaxy, the galactic center, the planets, and an asteroid. From the launch site in Palestine, Texas, sources as far south as -50 degrees declination were observed. The balloon-borne telescope was one of the most sensitive instruments ever used for observation in the far infrared region of the spectrum. It was most productive in producing high resolution maps of large areas (typically square degrees) centered on known H 2 regions, molecular clouds, and dark cloud complexes. In many cases, these scans produced the first far infrared maps of these regions, and many new sources were discovered. The results have led to a better understanding of the distribution of gas and dust in these regions, the evolution of H 2 regions, and the processes of star formation in giant molecular clouds. The following topics are presented: (1) the focal plane instrumentation; (2) the history and flight record; (3) scientific results and publications; (4) eduational aspects; and (5) future planes.

  8. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths - a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers and for suborbital programs optimized for studying extrasolar planets.

  9. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hoffmann, William F.; Harper, Doyal A.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, results of technology development, and focal-plane instrumentation for a two-meter balloon-borne telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy are presented. The unique capabilities of balloon-borne observations are discussed. A program summary emphasizes the development of the two-meter design. The relationship of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is also discussed. Detailed treatment is given to scientific objectives, gondola design, the mirror development program, experiment accommodations, ground support equipment requirements, NSBF design drivers and payload support requirements, the implementation phase summary development plan, and a comparison of three-meter and two-meter gondola concepts.

  10. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Marshall, Ceryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Smith, Miles; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna; Xia-Serafino, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  11. CISCO: Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS on the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohara, Kentaro; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Oya, Shin; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Iwai, Jun'ichi; Tanabe, Hirohisa; Hata, Ryuji; Taguchi, Tomoyuki; Harashima, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024 × 1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1'.8 × 1'.8 field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 μm. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5 mag and K' = 22.4 mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N = 5, 1hr exposure).

  12. Infrared photometry with 'wall-eyed' pointing at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Eckhart; Skemer, Andrew; Hinz, Philip M.; Hill, John M.

    2016-08-01

    The brightness and variability of the atmosphere in the thermal infrared poses obstacles to precision photometry measurements. The need to remove atmospheric effects calls for the use of a comparison star, but it is usually impossible to fit both science and comparison targets on current long-wavelength (>2 μm) detectors. We present a new pointing mode at the Large Binocular Telescope, which has twin 8.4-m primary mirrors that can be pointed up to 2 arcminutes apart and allow the placement of both targets on a small-field infrared detector. We present an observation of the primary transit of an exoplanet in front of its host star, and use it to provide preliminary constraints on the attainable photometric precision.

  13. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Figer, Donald F.; Regan, Michael W.; Boeker, Torsten; Garnett, James; Hill, Robert J.; Bagnasco, Georgio; Balleza, Jesus; Barney, Richard; Bergeron, Louis E.

    2004-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the James Webb Space Telescope's primary near-infrared spectrograph. NASA is providing the NIRSpec detector subsystem, which consists of the focal plane array, focal plane electronics, cable harnesses, and software. The focal plane array comprises two closely-butted lambda (sub co) approximately 5 micrometer Rockwell HAWAII- 2RG sensor chip assemblies. After briefly describing the NIRSpec instrument, we summarize some of the driving requirements for the detector subsystem, discuss the baseline architecture (and alternatives), and presents some recent detector test results including a description of a newly identified noise component that we have found in some archival JWST test data. We dub this new noise component, which appears to be similar to classical two-state popcorn noise in many aspects, "popcorn mesa noise." We close with the current status of the detector subsystem development effort.

  14. A Compact Infrared Space Telescope MIRIS and its Preliminary Observational Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wonyong; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Joong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Youngsik; Park, Sung-Joon; Lee, Dukhang; Park, Won-Kee; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Kim, Min Gyu; Nam, Uk-Won; Park, Hong-Young; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-08-01

    The first Korean infrared space telescope MIRIS (Milti-purpose InfraRed Imaging System) was successfully launched in November 2013, as the main payload of Korean STSAT-3 (Science and Technology Satellite-3). After the initial on-orbit operation for verification, the observations are made with MIRIS for the fluctuation of Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and the Galactic Plane survey. For the study of near-infrared background, MIRIS surveyed large areas (> 10° x 10°) around the pole regions: the north ecliptic pole (NEP), the north and south Galactic poles (NGP, SGP), while the NEP region is continually monitored for the instrumental calibration and the zodiacal light study. In addition, the Paschen-α Galactic plane survey has been made with two narrow-band filters (at 1.88 μm and 1.84+1.92 μm) for the study of warm interstellar medium. We plan to continue surveying the entire galactic plane with the latitude of ±3°, and expect to be completed by 2015. The data are still under the stage of reduction and analysis, and guest observations are on-going. We present some of the preliminary results.

  15. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  16. Near-infrared imaging of FSC 10214+4724 with the W. M. Keck Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Nelson, J.; Boesgaard, H.; Graham, J. R.; Harrison, W.; Irace, W.; Jernigan, G.; Larkin, J. E.; Lewis, H.

    1994-01-01

    Near-infrared observations of the z = 2.286 IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, made with the near-infrared camera on the W. M. Keck Telescope, are reported. Deep broad-band images at 2.15 and 1.27 micrometers, and narrow-band images at 2.165 and 2.125 micrometers with 0.6 sec to 0.9 sec seeing show that FSC 10214+4724 consists of at least three distinct components in a compact group of galaxies. The source of the infrared luminosity appears to be in a strongly interacting galaxy that has a luminosity of approximately 100 times that of a present-day L* galaxy. The interaction suggests and 'age' of this galaxy of approximately equal to 10(exp 9) yr. The H-alpha emission is resolved as a source of diameter approximately equal to 5 kpc, suggesting that a starburst contributes to the observed H-alpha emission. There is an excess of objects in the FSC 10214+4724 field that could represent galaxies in an associated cluster.

  17. High-performance wobbling subreflector for the Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainella, Gianni; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; Mandiello, Alfonso; Perciballi, Maurizio; Romeo, Gianni

    1996-05-01

    The Millimetre and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory 2.6-m Cassegrain telescope has been designed to allow high-sensitivity observations in the millimeter spectral range. For this purpose, in order to reduce unwanted contributions from local foregrounds, we adopted a sky-chopping technique, by wobbling the telescope subreflector. We describe the design and performance of the wobbling system, which can endure external forced two and three fields square-wave modulation and includes features such as high frequency, high amplitude, high duty cycle, low microphonics, and high stability. millimeter-wave telescope.

  18. ESA switches its infrared space telescope off and will clean its orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    Controllers at the ESA ground station at Villafranca (Madrid, Spain) witnessed the definitive end for the telescope but they didn't have to press any 'red button' or the like. The instructions for the switch off had already been introduced into ISO's computer earlier. ISO's last month of life was used to gather as much technical data as possible. Various software and hardware systems that, due to the superb performance of the spacecraft, did not have to be used during the operational phase were subjected to detailed tests. Results from these tests will benefit future ESA missions, such as XMM and Integral, which use some of the same components, such as the Star Trackers guiding the spacecraft. Also, ISO's farewell included a further last gift for the astronomers. A few of the detectors in the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), one of the four instruments on-board the satellite, could still be used after exhaustion of the liquid helium. In anticipation of this opportunity, a special scientific programme has been prepared and was interleaved with the technology tests. Some 150 extra hours were used to measure nearly 300 stars at wavelengths between 2.4 and 4 microns enabling astronomers to make a detailed spectral classification. In fact, ISO continued to give scientific surprises to the very sad end. ISO's 'last light' observation - taken with the SWS instrument just before midnight on May 10 - was of emission lined from hydrogen in hot supergiant star (eta Canis Majoris). The preliminary results show that this star, supposed to be ordinary, is probably surrounded by a disk of matter. Commenting on the satellite switch off, ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet, said "ISO has allowed us to gain the first clear view of the universe at infrared wavelengths. A great amount of work still awaits us to interpret all ISO's exciting discoveries. We will miss ISO, of course - new answers always bring new questions and the wish for yet more knowledge; that is why ESA is

  19. Optical characterisation and analysis of multi-mode pixels for use in future far infrared telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; van der Vorst, Maarten

    2016-07-01

    , to be proposed as an ESA M5 mission. It is planned for this mission to be launched on board the proposed SPICA (SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission, in collaboration with JAXA. SAFARI is planned to operate in the 1.5-10 THz band, focussing on the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. The pixel that drove the development of the techniques presented in this paper is typical of one option that could be implemented in the SAFARI focal plane, and so the ability to accurately understand and characterise such pixels is critical in the design phase of the next generation of far IR telescopes.

  20. A dc-coupled, high sensitivity bolometric detector system for the Infrared Telescope in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M.; Lange, A. E.; Wilbanks, T.; Sato, S.

    1993-01-01

    We report the performance of an ac bridge readout system that has been developed for use on the Infrared Telescope in Space which is scheduled for launch in 1994. The ac bridge readout provides excellent dc stability enabling observing strategies well-suited to space-borne observations. The ability to modulate the optical signal slowly allows the use of new, highly sensitive, long time-constant bolometers. At 300 mK, the bolometers have an electrical noise equivalent power of 3 x 10 exp -17 W/sq rt Hz. The total noise of the differential signal, including amplifier noise, is less than 8 x 10 exp -17 W/sq rt Hz at frequencies as low as 35 mHz.

  1. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second Semiannual Report submitted under Grant NAGW-509 for the development of a Balloon-Borne Three-Meter Telescope for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy. It covers the period 1 March 1984 through 31 August 1984. This grant covers work at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), University of Arizona (UA) and the University of Chicago (UC). SAO is responsible for program management, the gondola structure including the attitude control and aspect systems, mechanical systems, and telemetry and command systems; the UA is responsible for optics design and fabrication; the UC is responsible for determining provisions for focal-plane instrumentation. SAO and the UA share responsibility for the ground support data and control computer.

  2. Science yield estimate with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Breckinridge, James; Greene, Thomas P.; Guyon, Olivier; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument (CGI) on the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will directly image and spectrally characterize planets and circumstellar disks around nearby stars. Here we estimate the expected science yield of the CGI for known radial-velocity (RV) planets and potential circumstellar disks. The science return is estimated for three types of coronagraphs: the hybrid Lyot and shaped pupil are the currently planned designs, and the phase-induced amplitude apodizing complex mask coronagraph is the backup design. We compare the potential performance of each type for imaging as well as spectroscopy. We find that the RV targets can be imaged in sufficient numbers to produce substantial advances in the science of nearby exoplanets. To illustrate the potential for circumstellar disk detections, we estimate the brightness of zodiacal-type disks, which could be detected simultaneously during RV planet observations.

  3. Robust determination of optical path difference: fringe tracking at the infrared optical telescope array interferometer.

    PubMed

    Pedretti, Ettore; Traub, Wesley A; Monnier, John D; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Carleton, Nathaniel P; Schloerb, F Peter; Brewer, Michael K; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Lacasse, Marc G; Ragland, Sam

    2005-09-01

    We describe the fringe-packet tracking system used to equalize the optical path lengths at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array interferometer. The measurement of closure phases requires obtaining fringes on three baselines simultaneously. This is accomplished by use of an algorithm based on double Fourier interferometry for obtaining the wavelength-dependent phase of the fringes and a group-delay tracking algorithm for determining the position of the fringe packet. A comparison of data acquired with and without the fringe-packet tracker shows a factor of approximately 3 reduction of the error in the closure-phase measurement. The fringe-packet tracker has been able so far to track fringes with signal-to-noise ratios as low as 1.8 for stars as faint as mH = 7.0.

  4. AGE SPREAD IN W3 MAIN: LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE/LUCI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE MASSIVE STELLAR CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Brandner, W.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Gennaro, M.; Rochau, B.; Beuther, H.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Stolte, A.; Pasquali, A.; Ageorges, N.; Seifert, W.; Wang, Y.

    2012-01-10

    We present near-infrared multi-object spectroscopy and JHK{sub s} imaging of the massive stellar content of the Galactic star-forming region W3 Main, obtained with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope. We confirm 15 OB stars in W3 Main and derive spectral types between O5V and B4V from their absorption line spectra. Three massive young stellar objects are identified by their emission line spectra and near-infrared excess. The color-color diagram of the detected sources allows a detailed investigation of the slope of the near-infrared extinction law toward W3 Main. Analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the Nishiyama extinction law fits the stellar population of W3 Main best (E(J - H)/E(H - K{sub s}) = 1.76 and R{sub K{sub s}} = 1.44). From our spectrophotometric analysis of the massive stars and the nature of their surrounding H II regions, we derive the evolutionary sequence of W3 Main and we find evidence of an age spread of at least 2-3 Myr. While the most massive star (IRS2) is already evolved, indications for high-mass pre-main-sequence evolution are found for another star (IRS N1), deeply embedded in an ultracompact H II (UCH II) region, in line with the different evolutionary phases observed in the corresponding H II regions. We derive a stellar mass of W3 Main of (4 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} by extrapolating from the number of OB stars using a Kroupa initial mass function and correcting for our spectroscopic incompleteness. We have detected the photospheres of OB stars from the more evolved diffuse H II region to the much younger UCH II regions, suggesting that these stars have finished their formation and cleared away their circumstellar disks very fast. Only in the hyper-compact H II region (IRS5) do the early-type stars seem to be still surrounded by circumstellar material.

  5. First Light Infrared Observations with the 1.6 Meter Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Origins of Space Weather Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    later transported toward the corona . 2)We investigated properties of magnetic fields in nearly 400 solar active regions. Time profiles of...1.6 Meter Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Origins of Space Weather Telescope. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0655 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In early 2009 at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), first light science observations were made

  6. Optics of Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): delay lines and alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabal, Arnab; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Rizzo, Maxime J.; Mundy, Lee

    2016-07-01

    We present the optics of Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) as it gets ready for launch. BETTII is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared (30-90 μm) interferometer mission with capabilities of spatially resolved spectroscopy aimed at studying star formation and galaxy evolution. The instrument collects light from its two arms, makes them interfere, divides them into two science channels (30-50 μm and 60-90 μm), and focuses them onto the detectors. It also separates out the NIR light (1-2.5 μm) and uses it for tip-tilt corrections of the telescope pointing. Currently, all the optical elements have been fabricated, heat treated, coated appropriately and are mounted on their respective assemblies. We are presenting the optical design challenges for such a balloon borne spatio- spectral interferometer, and discuss how they have been mitigated. The warm and cold delay lines are an important part of this optics train. The warm delay line corrects for path length differences between the left and the right arm due to balloon pendulation, while the cold delay line is aimed at introducing a systematic path length difference, thereby generating our interferograms from where we can derive information about the spectra. The details of their design and the results of the testing of these opto-mechanical parts are also discussed. The sensitivities of different optical elements on the interferograms produced have been determined with the help of simulations using FRED software package. Accordingly, an alignment plan is drawn up which makes use of a laser tracker, a CMM, theodolites and a LUPI interferometer.

  7. Near-infrared detection of WD 0806-661 B with the Hubble space telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.; Morley, C. V.; Burgasser, A. J.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2014-10-10

    WD 0806-661 B is one of the coldest known brown dwarfs (T {sub eff} = 300-345 K) based on previous mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition, it is a benchmark for testing theoretical models of brown dwarfs because its age and distance are well constrained via its primary star (2 ± 0.5 Gyr, 19.2 ± 0.6 pc). We present the first near-infrared detection of this object, which has been achieved through F110W imaging (∼Y + J) with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure a Vega magnitude of m {sub 110} = 25.70 ± 0.08, which implies J ∼ 25.0. When combined with the Spitzer photometry, our estimate of J helps to better define the empirical sequence of the coldest brown dwarfs in M {sub 4.5} versus J – [4.5]. The positions of WD 0806-661 B and other Y dwarfs in that diagram are best matched by the cloudy models of Burrows et al. and the cloudless models of Saumon et al., both of which employ chemical equilibrium. The calculations by Morley et al. for 50% cloud coverage differ only modestly from the data. Spectroscopy would enable a more stringent test of the models, but based on our F110W measurement, such observations are currently possible only with Hubble, and would require at least ∼10 orbits to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼5.

  8. KASINICS: Near Infrared Camera System for the BOAO 1.8m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Bongkon; Jin, Ho; Yuk, In-Soo; Lee, Sungho; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Cho, Seoung-Hyun; Kyeong, Jae-Mann; Park, Youngsik; Mock, Seungwon; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Dea-Hee; Park, Jang-Hyun; Han, Wonyong; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Geon-Hee; Kim, Yong Ha

    2008-08-01

    We developed Korea Astronomy and Space science Institute (KASI) Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) to be installed on the 1.8m telescope of Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) in Korea. We use a 512×512 InSb array (Aladdin III Quadrant, Raytheon Co.) to enable L band observations as well as J, H, and KS bands. The field-of-view of the array is 3.3'× 3.3' with a resolution of 0.39''/ pixel. We adopt an Offner relay optical system, which provides a cold stop to eliminate thermal background emission from the telescope structures. Most parts of the camera, including the mirrors, were manufactured from the same ingot of aluminum alloy to ensure a homologous contraction from room temperature to 80K. We also developed a readout electronics system for the array detector. Based on preliminary results from test observations, the limiting magnitudes are J = 17.6, H = 17.5, KS = 16.1, and L(narrow) = 10.0mag at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for an integration time of 100s.

  9. From Single Pixels to Many Megapixels: Progress in Astronomical Infrared Imaging from Space-borne Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipher, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the 1960s, rocket infrared astronomy was in its infancy. The Cornell group planned a succession of rocket launches of a small cryogenically cooled telescope above much of the atmosphere. Cornell graduate students were tasked with hand-making single pixel detectors for the focal plane at wavelengths ranging from ~5 microns to just short of 1 mm. “Images” could only be constructed from scans of objects such as HII regions/giant molecular clouds, the galactic center, and of diffuse radiation from the various IR backgrounds. IRAS and COBE, followed by the KAO utilized ever more sensitive single IR detectors, and revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. The first IR arrays came onto the scene in the early 1970s - and in 1983 several experiments for the space mission SIRTF (later named Spitzer Space Telescope following launch 20 years later) were selected, all boasting (relatively small) arrays. Europe’s ISO and Herschel also employed arrays to good advantage, as has SOFIA, and now, many-megapixel IR arrays are sufficiently well-developed for upcoming space missions.

  10. New phase compensating secondary mirrors for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    2010-07-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is engaged in a long-term program to improve the image quality of the telescope. One element of the program is to minimize the static aberrations. The largest static aberration is spherical aberration, although aberrations caused by zonal polishing rings and support-pad print-through on the primary mirror are also significant. To correct these static wave front errors, a new secondary mirror is being fabricated with a custom, phase compensating surface. Since the as-built optical specifications for the IRTF mirrors have been lost, a configurable multimode instrument was fabricated for use at both the prime and Cassegrain foci to characterize the primary mirror and to measure the wave front errors at both foci. The instrument modes include a focal plane camera, a knife-edge tester, a pupil viewer, a Hartmann wave front sensor, a calibrator, and an on-axis guider. Test results from the prime focus show that the primary mirror has an incorrect conic surface and is poorly supported, which results in a fixed amount of spherical aberration and variable amounts of astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. Cassegrain focal plane results show that the original secondary mirror mount system also induces aberrations. Two new secondary mirrors have been made and at least one of the mirrors will have a custom surface, using ion beam polishing methods, to correct these static aberrations. An analysis is presently underway to determine the optimum compensating surface to be applied by ion beam polishing.

  11. Alignment and evaluation of the cryogenic corrected infrared astronomical satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harned, N.; Harned, R.; Melugin, R.

    1980-01-01

    Room temperature alignment and evaluation techniques for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) telescope, which has a primary mirror figured to correct for surface distortions and the 2 K operating temperature are discussed. Interferometric cryogenic testing of the 0.6 m, f/1.5 lightweighted beryllium primary mirror at its intended operating temperature reveals surface distortions that can be modeled with Zernike polynomials. With this model, it becomes possible to derive the 'inverse' of the cryowavefront error (ideal cryo mirror) and to figure the cryo correction into the primary mirror using Perkin-Elmer's Computer Controlled Polisher. It is recognized that during room temperature assembly of the system, misalignment of the secondary mirror can introduce additional unwanted aberrations that may cancel or distort the wavefront errors purposely introduced by the cryo figuring. To avoid this possible degradation and to ensure optimum telescope performance, the system Zernike polynomial coefficients and wavefront maps generated from the in-process alignment interferograms are monitored and compared to Zernike coefficients and wavefront maps for the cryo corrected primary mirror.

  12. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under developement for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide highly precise two-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. The PSMA design uses a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexture-pivoted mass, enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to those of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six-degree-of-freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  13. Design of a prototype secondary mirror assembly for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Mark T.; Bolin, Kenneth N.; Duffy, Michael A.; Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Krim, Michael H.; Rockwell, Richard A.; Sileo, Francis R.

    1990-01-01

    The design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under development for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program is described. The SIRTF assembly must operate below 4 K and provide the functions of highly precise two-axis periodic tilting ('chopping') in addition to the conventional functions of focus and collimation adjustment. The PSMA design employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminum cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using an aluminum flexure pivot of unique design and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass to enhance servosystem stability and isolate the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose position relative to the outer housing is controlled by a six-degree-of-freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  14. DM/LCWFC based adaptive optics system for large aperture telescopes imaging from visible to infrared waveband.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Caihua; Zhang, Xingyun; Liu, Yong; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2016-11-28

    Almost all the deformable mirror (DM) based adaptive optics systems (AOSs) used on large aperture telescopes work at the infrared waveband due to the limitation of the number of actuators. To extend the imaging waveband to the visible, we propose a DM and Liquid crystal wavefront corrector (DM/LCWFC) combination AOS. The LCWFC is used to correct the high frequency aberration corresponding to the visible waveband and the aberrations of the infrared are corrected by the DM. The calculated results show that, to a 10 m telescope, DM/LCWFC AOS which contains a 1538 actuators DM and a 404 × 404 pixels LCWFC is equivalent to a DM based AOS with 4057 actuators. It indicates that the DM/LCWFC AOS is possible to work from visible to infrared for larger aperture telescopes. The simulations and laboratory experiment are performed for a 2 m telescope. The experimental results show that, after correction, near diffraction limited resolution USAF target images are obtained at the wavebands of 0.7-0.9 μm, 0.9-1.5 μm and 1.5-1.7 μm respectively. Therefore, the DM/LCWFC AOS may be used to extend imaging waveband of larger aperture telescope to the visible. It is very appropriate for the observation of spatial objects and the scientific research in astronomy.

  15. New high spectral resolution spectrograph and mid-IR camera for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelley, Michael; Rayner, John

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3.0 m infrared telescope located at an altitude of 4.2 km near the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii. The IRTF was established by NASA to support planetary science missions. We show new observational capabilities resulting from the completion of iSHELL, a 1-5 μm echelle spectrograph with resolving power of 70,000 using a 0.375 arcsec slit. This instrument will be commissioned starting in August 2016. The spectral grasp of iSHELL is enormous due to the cross-dispersed design and use of a 2Kx2K HgCdTe array. Raw fits files will be publicly archived, allowing for more effective use of the large amount of spectral data that will be collected. The preliminary observing manual for iSHELL, containing the instrument description, observing procedures and estimates of sensitivity can be downloaded at http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/~ishell/iSHELL_observing_manual.pdf. This manual and instrument description papers can be downloaded at http://bit.ly/28NFiMj. We are also working to restore to service our 8-25 μm camera, MIRSI. It will be upgraded with a closed cycle cooler that will eliminate the need for liquid helium and allow continuous use of MIRSI on the telescope. This will enable a wider range of Solar System studies at mid-IR wavelengths, with particular focus on thermal observations of NEOs. The MIRSI upgrade includes plans to integrate a visible CCD camera that will provide simultaneous imaging and guiding capabilities. This visible imager will utilize similar hardware and software as the MORIS system on SpeX. The MIRSI upgrade is being done in collaboration with David Trilling (NAU) and Joseph Hora (CfA). For further information on the IRTF and its instruments including visitor instruments, see: http:// irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA contract NNH14CK55B, NASA Science Mission Directorate, and NASA grant NNX15AF81G (Trilling, Hora) for the upgrade of MIRSI.

  16. The dusty AGB star RS CrB: first mid-infrared interferometric observations with the Keck telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennesson, B.; Koresko, C.; Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M; Akeson, R.; Appleby, E.; Bell, J.; Booth, A.; Crawford, S.; Dahl, W.; Fanson, J.; Felizardo, C.; Garcia, J.; Gathright, J.; Herstein, J.; Hovland, E.; Hrynevych, M.; Johansson, E.; Le Mignant, D.; Ligon, R.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Moore, J.; Neyman, C.; Palmer, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report interferometric observations of the semiregular variable star RS CrB, a red giant with strong silicate emission features. The data were among the first long-baseline mid-infrared stellar fringes obtained between the Keck telescopes, using parts of the new nulling beam combiner.

  17. Infrared observations of the solar system in support of Large-Aperture Infrared Telescope (LARITS): Calibration. Final technical report, 1 July 1985-28 February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shorthill, R.W.

    1990-05-02

    The Purpose of this project was to improve the infrared calibration base for infrared detectors. Groundbased infrared measurements of solid-surfaced planetary bodies, such as asteroids, are being used for the calibration of spacecraft detectors. A limitation has been the relatively poor theoretical understanding of thermal emission from these objects. The goal was to: (1) develop a database of sources and, (2) improve or modify the thermal models for these sources to provide a calibration data base for spacecraft infrared detector systems. The technique consisted of five phases: (1) design and construct infrared detector system to be used with and without collecting optics, (2) acquire whole-disk infrared lunar data relative to a laboratory blackbody and tie them to Mars (Venus or Mercury) and Vega, (3) compare with thermophysical model of the mood and modify, (4) acquire infrared asteroid photometry, (5) compare the lunar disk photometry the asteroid calibrators using photometry and thermophysical models. The Si bolometer is calibrated without optics, attached to the portable telescope drive and Lunar disk measurement made. Next the bolometer is attached to the 90 inch telescope, Lunar scans are made and the remaining objects (planets, stars, asteroids) are measured.

  18. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  19. Mid-Infrared Imaging of Orion BN/KL With Keck I Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Danchi, William C.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Varosi, Frank

    2003-01-01

    We present new images of the Orion BN/KL infrared complex at 4.8, 8.0, 8.9,9.9, 10.4, 11.7, 12.5, 17.6, 18.1,20.0 and 22.0 um obtained with the 10-meter Keck I telescope, with typically 0.3 arcsec resolution at 12.5 um. The multi-wavelength observational image data is registered in a stack and a dust emission/extinction model is fitted to the resulting spectrum of each pixel to create a diffraction-limited "image" of the temperature, opacity and luminosity of the emitting dust, as well as the circumstellar and line-of-sight dust extinction. New source structure, temperature, opacity and luminosity detail is seen in the vicinity of IRc2-IRc7. The model results are used to develop a more complete picture of the structure and energetics of the BN/KL, infrared complex.

  20. Mid-Infrared Imaging of Orion BN/KL With Keck I Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor); Gezari, Daniel; Danchi, William

    2003-01-01

    We present new images of the Orion BN/KL infrared complex at 4.8, 8.0, 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, 11.7, 12.5, 17.6, 18.1, 20.0 and 22.0 microns obtained with the 10-meter Keck I telescope, with typically 0.3 arcsec resolution at 12.5 microns. The multi-wavelength observational image data is registered in a stack and a dust emission/extinction model is fitted to the resulting spectrum of each pixel to create a diffraction-limited "image" of the temperature, opacity and luminosity of the emitting dust, as well as the circumstellar and line-of-sight dust extinction. New source structure, temperature, opacity and luminosity detail is seen in the vicinity of IRc2-IRc7. The model results are used to develop a more complete picture of the structure and energetics of the BN/KL infrared complex.

  1. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  2. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of Neptune from the Keck Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Macintosh, B.; Gavel, D.; Max, C. E.; Baines, K. H.; Ghez, A.

    2002-03-01

    We present results of infrared observations of Neptune from the 10-m W. M. Keck I Telescope, using both high-resolution (0.04 arcsecond) broadband speckle imaging and conventional imaging with narrowband filters (0.6 arcsec resolution). The speckle data enable us to track the size and shape of infrared-bright features ("storms") as they move across the disk and to determine rotation periods for latitudes -30 and -45°. The narrowband data are input to a model that allows us to make estimates of Neptune's stratospheric haze abundance and the size of storm features. We find a haze column density of ˜10 6 cm -2 for a haze layer located in the stratosphere, and a lower limit of 10 7 cm -2 and an upper limit of 10 9 cm -2 for a layer of 0.2 μm particles in the troposphere. We also calculate a lower limit of 7×10 6 km 2 for the size of a "storm" feature observed on 13 October 1997.

  3. Study of advanced InSb arrays for SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan; Feitt, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Research Center has completed a study leading to the development of advanced Indium Antimonide detector arrays for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Focal Plane Array Detector (FPAD) Subsystem of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Band 1. The overall goal of the study was to perform design tradeoff studies, analysis and research to develop a Direct Readout Integrated Circuit to be hybridized to an advanced, high performance InSb detector array that would satisfy the technical requirements for Band 1 as specified in the IRAC Instrument Requirements Document (IRD), IRAC-202. The overall goal of the study was divided into both a near-term goal and a far-term goal. The near-term goal identifies current technology available that approaches, and in some cases meets the program technological goals as specified in IRAC-202. The far-term goal identifies technology development required to completely achieve SIRTF program goals. Analyses of potential detector materials indicates that InSb presently meets all Band 1 requirements and is considered to be the baseline approach due to technical maturity. The major issue with regard to photovoltaic detectors such as InSb and HgCdTe is to achieve a reduction in detector capacitance.

  4. Design and Status of the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): An Interferometer at the Edge of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Barclay, Richard B.; Barry, R. K.; Benford, D. J.; Calhoun, P. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gorman, E. T.; Jackson, M. L.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Maher, S. F.; Mentzell, J. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Rizzo, M. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infraredinterferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer tosimultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  5. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  6. Prime Focus Spectrograph for the Subaru telescope: massively multiplexed optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Tamura, Naoyuki; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Takato, Naruhisa; Kimura, Masahiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Aghazarian, Hrand; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bickerton, Steve; Bozier, Alexandre; Braun, David F.; Bui, Khanh; Capocasale, Christopher M.; Carr, Michael A.; Castilho, Bruno; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Dawson, Olivia R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ek, Eric M.; Ellis, Richard S.; English, Robin J.; Ferrand, Didier; Ferreira, Décio; Fisher, Charles D.; Golebiowski, Mirek; Gunn, James E.; Hart, Murdock; Heckman, Timothy M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hope, Stephen; Hovland, Larry E.; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Hu, Yen-Shan; Huang, Pin Jie; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer E.; Kempenaar, Jason G.; King, Matthew E.; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Mignant, David Le; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H.; Madec, Fabrice; Mao, Peter; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Ménard, Brice; Morantz, Chaz; Murayama, Hitoshi; Murray, Graham J.; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Orndorff, Joe D.; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Partos, Eamon J.; Pascal, Sandrine; Pegot-Ogier, Thomas; Reiley, Daniel J.; Riddle, Reed; Santos, Leandro; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; Schwochert, Mark A.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Smee, Stephen A.; Smith, Roger M.; Steinkraus, Ronald E.; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N.; Surace, Christian; Tresse, Laurence; Vidal, Clément; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wu, Amy C.; Wyse, Rosie; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2015-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is an optical/near-infrared multifiber spectrograph with 2394 science fibers distributed across a 1.3-deg diameter field of view at the Subaru 8.2-m telescope. The wide wavelength coverage from 0.38 μm to 1.26 μm, with a resolving power of 3000, simultaneously strengthens its ability to target three main survey programs: cosmology, galactic archaeology and galaxy/AGN evolution. A medium resolution mode with a resolving power of 5000 for 0.71 μm to 0.89 μm will also be available by simply exchanging dispersers. We highlight some of the technological aspects of the design. To transform the telescope focal ratio, a broad-band coated microlens is glued to each fiber tip. A higher transmission fiber is selected for the longest part of the cable system, optimizing overall throughput; a fiber with low focal ratio degradation is selected for the fiber-positioner and fiber-slit components, minimizing the effects of fiber movements and fiber bending. Fiber positioning will be performed by a positioner consisting of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors. The positions of these motors are measured by taking an image of artificially back-illuminated fibers with the metrology camera located in the Cassegrain container; the fibers are placed in the proper location by iteratively measuring and then adjusting the positions of the motors. Target light reaches one of the four identical fast-Schmidt spectrograph modules, each with three arms. The PFS project has passed several project-wide design reviews and is now in the construction phase.

  7. Mid-infrared observations of sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, T.; Usui, F.; Takita, S.; Watanabe, J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Honda, M.; Kawakita, H.; Furusho, R.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are the frozen reservoirs of the early solar nebula and are made of ice and dust. The determination of the properties for cometary dust provides us insight into both the early-solar-nebula environment and the formation process of the planetary system. A silicate feature is often observed in comet spectra in the mid-infrared region and may be used for probing the early history of the solar system. In most cases, the feature shows the existence of crystalline silicate (for example, 11.3 microns) together with amorphous silicate [1,2]. Since the crystallization of silicates from amorphous ones generally requires high-temperature annealing above 800 K (e.g., [3,4]), it is believed that the crystalline silicate grains produced at the inner part of the disk were transported to the outer cold regions where the comet nuclei formed. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a long-period Oort Cloud comet, discovered in September 2012. In particular, comet ISON is a sungrazing comet, which was predicted to pass close by the Sun and the Earth and becoming a bright object. Mid-infrared observations of this new comet and investigation of the 10-micron silicate feature help us understand the formation of crystalline silicate grains in the early solar nebula. We conducted observations of comet ISON in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii [5,6,7]. The observation of comet ISON was carried out on 2013 October 19 and 21 UT. Since the weather conditions were not so good when we observed, we carried out N-band imaging observations (8.8 and 12.4 microns) and N-band low-resolution spectroscopy. The spectrum of comet ISON can be fit with the 260--265-K blackbody spectrum when we use the regions of 7.8--8.2 and 12.4--13.0 microns as the continuum. The spectrum has only a weak silicate excess feature, which may be able to attribute to small amorphous olivine grains. We could not detect a clear

  8. The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and Pending US Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Charles; SPICA Consortium; SAFARI Consortium

    2017-01-01

    SPICA is a cryogenic space-borne observatory designed for optimal sensitivity in the mid-infrared through submillimeter range: 17-250 microns. The mission is an ESA / JAXA collaboration, now under review in the ESA Cosmic Visions M5 opportunity, which has final approval in 2019, and launch in the late 2020 decade. SPICA will feature a 2.5-meter telescope cooled to below 8K, this offers the potential for 100-1000-fold advances in sensitivity beyond that obtained with Herschel and SOFIA in the far-IR. With a line sensitivity of ~5x10^-20 W/m^2 (1 h, 5 sigma), SPICA will be a complement to JWST and ALMA for deep spectroscopic observations. Integrated over cosmic history, star formation has occurred predominantly in dust-obscured regions which are inaccessible in the rest-frame UV and optical. Both the luminosity history and the detailed physics that govern it can only be directly measured in the mid-IR-submillimeter. Similarly, forming stars and planetary systems cool primarily through the far-IR. By taking advantage of the low-background platform, the SPICA instruments are designed for these investigations. The SPICA mid-IR instrument (SMI) will provide R~50 imaging spectroscopy and R~1,000 full-band slit-fed spectroscopy from 17 to 36 microns, with a high-resolution (R=25,000) capability from 12-18 microns. The SPICA far-IR instrument (SAFARI) will cover 34 to at least 250 microns with multiple R~300 wide-band grating spectrometer modules coupling to high-sensitivity far-IR detectors. A R~3,000 scanned-etalon module will also be available for Galactic targets with bright continua and/or dense line spectra. In the current SPICA division of responsibilities, ESA will take the lead role, provide the telescope, the fine-attitude sensor, and the spacecraft bus. JAXA will provide the cryogenic system, the SMI instrument, integrate the telescope and instruments, and provide the launch vehicle. The SAFARI instrument will be provided by a consortium funded by the European

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  10. Mid-infrared imaging of 18 planetary nebulae using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Ramos-Larios, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present 3.6-, 4.5-, 5.8- and 8.0-μm photometric mapping of 18 galactic planetary nebulae, based on observations taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These are shown to have morphologies which are sometimes quite different from those observed in the visible, with much of the emission arising outside the ionized shells. There is also evidence for a change in nebular sizes between the differing photometric bands. An analysis of mid-infrared (MIR) colours suggests that many nebulae have dust/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission components, and it seems likely that longer wave MIR fluxes (in particular) are associated with PAH emission features. Such features are likely to be associated, in addition, with photodissociative regimes, where shock fragmentation of dust may lead to the replenishment of smaller PAH grains. Finally, we note that the source Ap 2-1 possesses a particularly interesting structure, and may represent a case in which the nebular shell is ploughing through an enveloping HII region. Similarly, it appears that central emission in M 2-48 may arise from a warm and dusty collimating disc.

  11. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  12. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    An updated analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 Infrared Telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process considered as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths. It was previously assumed that the burst diaphragms in the dewar relief paths would rupture at a pressure of 65 psi differential or 4.4 atmospheres. In fact, it has proved necessary to use burst diaphragms in the dewar which rupture at 115 psid or 7.8 atmospheres. An analysis of this case was carried out and shows that when the high pressure diaphragm rupture occurs, the dewar pressure falls within 8 s to below the 4.4 atmospheres for which the original analysis was performed, and thereafter it remains below that level.

  13. Optimal Out-Of-Ecliptic Orbits for Short-Term Space-Borne Infrared Telescope Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Gali; Gurfil, Pini

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for designing orbits for infrared (IR) space-borne observatories using multiple gravity assists. A large displacement normal to the ecliptic plane mitigates the noise generated by the local zodiacal dust, thereby reducing the size, weight, and complexity of the telescope. Although previous works focused on long-term missions, allowing very long transfer times to out-of-ecliptic orbits, this paper considers short-duration missions, for which the transfer times are tightly constrained. To reduce the transfer time, the flyby sequence includes the inner planets only: Venus, Earth, and Mars. Moreover, in order to reduce energy requirements, a fuel-optimal multiple gravity-assisted trajectory is designed. The problem is modeled using the patched-conic approximation and solved using a hybrid genetic algorithm coupled to a pattern search. Efficient trajectories requiring a minimum velocity addition, although providing a maximum observation time, are found and validated using an N-body simulation. The TPF-I mission is used as a benchmark in order to quantify the benefits of an out-of-ecliptic orbit. It is shown that the newly found orbits allow a reduction in the collector area compared to halo orbits.

  14. MEASURING HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-15

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively.

  15. Primary mirror and mount technology for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K.; Chang, L. S.; Mansfield, J. A.; Howard, Steven D.

    1989-01-01

    Candidate technologies for a lightweight primary mirror for the SOFIA telescope are evaluated for both mirror blank fabrication and polishing. Two leading candidates for the type mirror blank are considered: the frit-bonded, structured form, and the thin meniscus form. The feasible mirror is required to be very lightweight with an areal density of approximately 100 kg/sq m, have an f/ratio near 1.0, and have surface quality that permits imaging in the visible as well as the infrared. Also considered are the results of a study conducted to assess the feasibility of designing a suitable mounting system for the primary mirror. The requirements for the mount design are given both in terms of the environmental conditions and the expected optical performance. PATRAN and NASTRAN programs are used to model mirror and mounting. The sandwich-type mirror made of ultra low expansion silica with square cells in the core, is modeled using equivalent solid elements for the core. The design study produces primary mirror surface deflections in 1g as a function of mirror elevation angles. The surface is analyzed using an optical analysis program, FRINGE, to give a prediction of the mirror optical performance. Results from this analysis are included.

  16. Thirty Meter Telescope narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system real-time controller prototyping results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-07-01

    Prototyping and benchmarking was performed for the Real-Time Controller (RTC) of the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). To perform wavefront correction, NFIRAOS utilizes two deformable mirrors (DM) and one tip/tilt stage (TTS). The RTC receives wavefront information from six Laser Guide Star (LGS) Shack- Hartmann WaveFront Sensors (WFS), one high-order Natural Guide Star Pyramid WaveFront Sensor (PWFS) and multiple low-order instrument detectors. The RTC uses this information to determine the commands to send to the wavefront correctors. NFIRAOS is the first light AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The prototyping was performed using dual-socket high performance Linux servers with the real-time (PREEMPT_RT) patch and demonstrated the viability of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware approach to large scale AO reconstruction. In particular, a large custom matrix vector multiplication (MVM) was benchmarked which met the required latency requirements. In addition all major inter-machine communication was verified to be adequate using 10Gb and 40Gb Ethernet. The results of this prototyping has enabled a CPU-based NFIRAOS RTC design to proceed with confidence and that COTS hardware can be used to meet the demanding performance requirements.

  17. Cryogenic near infrared spectropolarimeter for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlmann, Andre; Giebink, Cynthia; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Messersmith, Ernesto J.; Mickey, Donald L.; Scholl, Isabelle F.; James, Don; Hnat, Kirby; Schickling, Greg; Schickling, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The Cryogenic Near Infrared Spectropolarimeter for the Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope is designed to measure polarized light from 0.5 to 5 μm. It uses an almost all reflective design for high throughput and an R2 echelle grating to achieve the required resolution of up to R = 100,000. The optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures reduce the thermal background allowing for IR observations of the faint solar corona. Both the spectrograph and its context imager use H2RG detector arrays with a newly designed controller to allow synchronized exposures at frame rates up to 10 Hz. All hardware has been built and tested and the key components met their design goals. 1) The cryogenic system uses mechanical closed cycle coolers which introduce vibrations. Our design uses a two stage approach with a floating mounting disk and flexible cold links to reduce these. The vibration amplitudes on all critical stages were measured and are smaller than 1μm. 2) The grating stage of the spectrograph uses a double stack of harmonic drives and an optical encoder to provide sub-arcsecond resolution and a measured repeatability of better than 0.5 arcsec.

  18. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Artist's impression of the JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 1601 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Artist's impression of the JWST Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Observing the first light, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will help to solve outstanding questions about our place in the evolving Universe. MIRI, the Mid-Infrared Instrument, is one of the four instruments on board the JWST, the mission scheduled to follow on the heritage of Hubble in 2011. MIRI will be built in cooperation between Europe and the United States (NASA), both equally contributing to its funding. MIRI’s optics, core of the instrument, will be provided by a consortium of European institutes. According to this formal agreement, ESA will manage and co-ordinate the whole development of the European part of MIRI and act as the sole interface with NASA, which is leading the JWST project. This marks a difference with respect to the previous ESA scientific missions. In the past the funding and the development of the scientific instruments was agreed by the participating ESA Member States on the basis of purely informal arrangements with ESA. In this case, the Member States involved in MIRI have agreed on formally guaranteeing the required level of funding on the basis of a multi-lateral international agreement, which still keeps scientists in key roles. Over the past years, missions have become more complex and demanding, and more costly within an ever tighter budget. They also require a more and more specific expertise which is spread throughout the vast European scientific community. As a result, a new management procedure for co-ordination of payload development has become a necessity to

  19. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  20. Selection of infrared black(s) for the Space Infra-Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF): a surface-by-surface performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Ann S.

    1994-10-01

    SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, is planned to be the final one of NASA's four great observatories. It is a cryogenically cooled telescope designed to perform background- limited observations at all wavelengths between 2 and 220 micrometers . This stringent straylight requirement necessitates the use of infrared black coatings on all non-optical telescope surfaces. In order to make an informed decision, the SIRTF Study Office supported a long- range program to characterize the performance of a variety of black coatings over the full SIRTF wavelength range. Measurements of both specular reflectance and BRDF made by Sheldon Smith were incorporated into a model that predicts the blacks' BRDF coefficients at other wavelengths. The restrahlen reflectance peaks of Martin Black and Martin Infrablack at 2.2 and 5.4 micrometers are included in the model. An APART analysis of the current SIRTF telescope design was performed at wavelengths of 2.2, 3.5, 12.5, 60, and 200 micrometers . Evaluation of the relative performances of Martin Optical Black and Ames 24E2 on several critical surfaces led to the conclusion that the SIRTF straylight rejection could be enhanced by selecting different coatings for different surfaces. A very diffuse black is best on the mirror stops and secondary support struts, while a specular black could be a better choice for the vaned telescope barrel. Many coatings that are black and diffusely scattering at short wavelengths become quite bright and specular at long wavelengths. Extreme caution must be taken when using a black that becomes specular on any surface that can be seen from the telescope plane.

  1. Simultaneous seeing measurement through the Subaru Telescope in the visible and near-infrared bands for the wavelength dependence evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shin; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Minowa, Yosuke

    2016-08-01

    Stellar images have been obtained under natural seeing at visible and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously through the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea. The image quality is evaluated by the full-width at the half-maximum (FWHM) of the stellar images. The observed ratio of FWHM in the V-band to the K-band is 1.54 ± 0.17 on average. The ratio shows tendency to decrease toward bad seeing as expected from the outer scale influence, though the number of the samples is still limited. The ratio is important for simulations to evaluate the performance of a ground-layer adaptive optics system at near-infrared wavelengths based on optical seeing statistics. The observed optical seeing is also compared with outside seeing to estimate the dome seeing of the Subaru Telescope.

  2. Development of infrared Echelle spectrograph and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer on a small telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii for planetary observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kagitani, Masato; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kuhn, Jeff; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of infrared Echelle spectrograph covering 1 - 4 micron and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer around 10 micron installed on the 60-cm telescope at the summit of Haleakala, Hawaii (alt.=3000m). It is essential to carry out continuous measurement of planetary atmosphere, such as the Jovian infrared aurora and the volcanoes on Jovian satellite Io, to understand its time and spatial variations. A compact and easy-to-use high resolution infrared spectrometer provide the good opportunity to investigate these objects continuously. We are developing an Echelle spectrograph called ESPRIT: Echelle Spectrograph for Planetary Research In Tohoku university. The main target of ESPRIT is to measure the Jovian H3+ fundamental line at 3.9 micron, and H2 nu=1 at 2.1 micron. The 256x256 pixel CRC463 InSb array is used. An appropriate Echelle grating is selected to optimize at 3.9 micron and 2.1 micron for the Jovian infrared auroral observations. The pixel scale corresponds to the atmospheric seeing (0.3 arcsec/pixel). This spectrograph is characterized by a long slit field-of-view of ~ 50 arcsec with a spectral resolution is over 20,000. In addition, we recently developed a heterodyne spectrometer called MILAHI on the 60 cm telescope. MILAHI is characterized by super high-resolving power (more than 1,500,000) covering from 7 - 13 microns. Its sensitivity is 2400 K at 9.6 micron with a MCT photo diode detector of which bandwidth of 3000 MHz. ESPRIT and MILAHI is planned to be installed on 60 cm telescope is planned in 2014.

  3. Feasibility of using Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) reaction wheels to satisfy Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) maneuver requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightsey, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    A digital computer simulation is used to determine if the extreme ultraviolet explorer (EUVE) reaction wheels can provide sufficient torque and momentum storage capability to meet the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) maneuver requirements. A brief description of the pointing control system (PCS) and the sensor and actuator dynamic models used in the simulation is presented. A model to represent a disturbance such as fluid sloshing is developed. Results developed with the simulation, and a discussion of these results are presented.

  4. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sivarani, T.; Simard, Luc; Anupama, G. C.; Gillies, Kim; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Reddy, B. Eswar

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in JVega band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of JVega 16-22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

  5. Cryogenic Optical Performance of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) Flight Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The CIRS half-meter diameter beryllium flight telescope's optical performance was tested at the instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. The telescope components were designed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) but fabricated out of house and then assembled, aligned and tested upon receipt at GSFC. A 24 inch aperture cryogenic test facility utilizing a 1024 x 1024 CCD array was developed at GSFC specifically for this test. The telescope,s image quality (measured as encircled energy), boresight stability and focus stability were measured. The gold coated beryllium design exceeded the cold image performance requirement of 80% encircled energy within a 460 micron diameter circle.

  6. Infrared Doppler instrument (IRD) for the Subaru telescope to search for Earth-like planets around nearby M-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Takayuki; Tamura, Motohide; Suto, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sato, Bun'ei; Aoki, Wako; Usuda, Tomonori; Kurokawa, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Ken; Nishiyama, Shogo; Ikeda, Yuji; Hall, Donald B.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Hashimoto, Jun; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Okuyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Suzuki, Shota; Inoue, Sadahiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Suenaga, Takuya; Oh, Dehyun; Baba, Haruka; Narita, Norio; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Hayano, Yutaka; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Kambe, Eiji; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hori, Yasunori; Omiya, Masashi; Genda, Hidenori; Fukui, Akihiko; Fujii, Yuka; Guyon, Olivier; Harakawa, Hiroki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hidai, Masahide; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Machida, Masahiro; Matsuo, Taro; Nagata, Tetsuya; Onuki, Hirohi; Ogihara, Masahiro; Takami, Hideki; Takato, Naruhisa; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Tachinami, Chihiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2014-07-01

    We report the current status of the Infrared Doppler (IRD) instrument for the Subaru telescope, which aims at detecting Earth-like planets around nearby M darwfs via the radial velocity (RV) measurements. IRD is a fiber-fed, near infrared spectrometer which enables us to obtain high-resolution spectrum (R~70000) from 0.97 to 1.75 μm. We have been developing new technologies to achieve 1m/s RV measurement precision, including an original laser frequency comb as an extremely stable wavelength standard in the near infrared. To achieve ultimate thermal stability, very low thermal expansion ceramic is used for most of the optical components including the optical bench.

  7. Repackaging and characterizing of a HgCdTe CMOS infrared camera for the New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenda; Coulter, Roy; Gorceix, Nicolas; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    The 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope (NST) is currently the world's largest aperture solar telescope. The NST is newly built at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among other instruments, the NST is equipped with several focal plane instruments operating in the near infrared (NIR). In order to satisfy the diverse observational requirements of these scientific instruments, a 1024 × 1024 HgCdTe TCM8600 CMOS camera manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Company has been repackaged and upgraded at Infrared Laboratories Inc. A new ND-5 dewar was designed to house the TCM8600 array with a low background filter wheel, inverted operation and at least 12 hours of hold time between fills. The repackaged camera will be used for high-resolution NIR photometry at the NST Nasmyth focus on the telescope and high-precision NIR spectro-polarimetry in the NST Coudé Lab below. In March 2010, this repackaged camera was characterized in the Coudé Lab at BBSO. This paper presents the design of new dewar, the detailed process of repackaging and characterizing the camera, and a series of test results.

  8. Investigation Development Plan for Reflight of the Small Helium-cooled Infrared Telescope Experiment. Volume 1: Investigation and Technical/management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope (IRT) is designed to survey extended celestial sources of infrared radiation between 4 and 120 micrometers wavelength. It will provide data regarding Space Shuttle induced environmental contamination and the zodical light. And, it will provide experience in the management of large volumes of superfluid helium in the space environment.

  9. The SAPHIRA Near-Infrared Avalanche Photodiode Array: Telescope Deployments and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Hall, Donald; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent achievements of the Selex SAPHIRA APD arrays, which this year have seen deployment at three different telescopes, most notably demonstrating tip-tilt wavefront sensing in conjunction with the Palomar 1.5-m Telescope's Robo-AO system. A cooperative effort to provide enhanced speckle nulling capability to the SCExAO instrument on the Subaru telescope is also underway. We present the progress and development timeframe for the SAPHIRA and expected future applications, including targets and observational parameter space we expect the detectors to open to the astronomical community.

  10. Dual-Telescope Multi-Channel Thermal-Infrared Radiometer for Outer Planet Fly-By Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; Jennings, Donald E.; Lakew, Brook; Loeffler, Mark; Nicoletti, Anthony; Nixon, Conor A.; Quilligan, Gerard; West, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 microns, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual- telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field- of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  11. Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; Irwin, Patrick; Jennings, Donald E.; Kessler, Ernst; Lakew, Brook; Loeffler, Mark; Mellon, Michael; Nicoletti, Anthony; Nixon, Conor A.; Putzig, Nathaniel; Quilligan, Gerard; Rathbun, Julie; Segura, Marcia; Spencer, John; Spitale, Joseph; West, Garrett

    2016-11-01

    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 μm, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual-telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field-of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  12. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  13. Test results of Spacelab 2 infrared telescope focal plane. [photoconductive detector fabrication and JFET transimpedance amplifier design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. T.; Rieke, G. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Poteet, W.; Fazio, G. G.; Koch, D.; Traub, W. A.; Urban, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The small helium cooled infrared telescope for Spacelab 2 is designed for sensitive mapping of extended, low-surface-brightness celestial sources as well as highly sensitive investigations of the shuttle contamination environment (FPA) for this mission is described as well as the design for a thermally isolated, self-heated J-FET transimpedance amplifier. This amplifier is Johnson noise limited for feedback resistances from less than 10 to the 8th power Omega to greater than 2 x 10 to the 10th power Omega at T = 4.2K. Work on the focal plane array is complete. Performance testing for qualification of the flight hardware is discussed, and results are presented. All infrared data channels are measured to be background limited by the expected level of zodiacal emission.

  14. BETTII: The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (Phase 2a)- High Angular Resolution Astronomy at Far-Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an eight-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. The combination of the long baseline with a double-Fourier instrument allows BETTII to simultaneously gain both spatial and spectral information; BETTII is designed for spatially-resolved spectroscopy. The unique data obtained with BETTII will be valuable for understanding how stars form within dense clusters, by isolating individual objects that are unresolved by previous space telescopes and my measuring their spectral energy distributions. BETTII will be also used in future flights to understand the processes in the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei. In addition to these scientific goals, BETTII serves as a major step towards achieving the vision of space-based interferometry. BETTII was first funded through the 2010 APRA program; last year, the proposal also fared well in the APRA review, but for programmatic reasons was only awarded one year of funding. With the current funding, we will complete the BETTII experiment and conduct a Commissioning Flight in August/September 2016. The effort proposed includes full analysis of data from the Commissioning Flight, which will help us determine the technical and scientific capabilities of the experiment. It also includes two science flights, one in each 2017 and 2018, with full data analysis being completed in 2019.

  15. Serviceable Large Low Cost/Mass Infrared 4 Kelvin Telescope Passively Cooled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, J.; Klavins, A.; Putnam, D.

    2012-05-01

    An innovative space telescope concept was studied for the New Millenium program for ST6. The telescope called a Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) features two single curvature monolith parabolic surfaces. The telescope system personifies simplicity which extrapolates to low cost and mass. We at Lockheed Martin have implemented this design in two large prototypes that demonstrate imaging in the IR without the use of corrective optics as well as demonstrate the mass scaling advantageous of this architecture. A serviceable deployment concept is described which will enable apertures greater than 10m with areal density less than 10 kg/m2 to be realized for space applications. Because of the overall simplicity of the architecture the instrument section is easily replaceable when new detector technology is developed. In addition the simplicity of the overall architecture allows the system to assembled on the International Space Station (ISS). Anti sun pointing, low conductance support structure and deployable sun shade made of multiple deployable shields in an open groove configuration maintains telescope temperatures near 4K with minimal gradients

  16. Photometry of Galactic and Extragalactic Far-Infrared Sources using the 91.5 cm Airborne Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to construct a series of far infrared photometers, cameras, and supporting systems for use in astronomical observations in the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The observations have included studies of galaxies, star formation regions, and objects within the Solar System.

  17. Experiment requirements document for reflight of the small helium-cooled infrared telescope experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The four astronomical objectives addressed include: the measurement and mapping of extended low surface brightness infrared emission from the galaxy; the measurement of diffuse emission from intergalactic material and/or galaxies and quasi-stellar objects; the measurement of the zodiacal dust emission; and the measurement of a large number of discrete infrared sources.

  18. Optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) Petite on the Thirty Meter Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Dekany, R; Ellerbroek, B

    2005-08-02

    We describe an exploratory optical design for the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics (AO) System (NFIRAOS) Petite, a proposed adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope Project. NFIRAOS will feed infrared spectrograph and wide-field imaging instruments with a diffraction limited beam. The adaptive optics system will require multi-guidestar tomographic wavefront sensing and multi-conjugate AO correction. The NFIRAOS Petite design specifications include two small 60 mm diameter deformable mirrors (DM's) used in a woofer/tweeter or multiconjugate arrangement. At least one DM would be a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) DM. The AO system would correct a 10 to 30 arcsec diameter science field as well as laser guide stars (LGS's) located within a 60 arcsec diameter field and low-order or tip/tilt natural guide stars (NGS's) within a 60 arcsec diameter field. The WFS's are located downstream of the DM's so that they can be operated in true closed-loop, which is not necessarily a given in extremely large telescope adaptive optics design. The WFS's include adjustable corrector elements which correct the static aberrations of the AO relay due to field position and LGS distance height.

  19. Dusty Disks, Diffuse Clouds, and Dim Suns: Galactic Science with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Watson, D. M.; Uchida, K. I.; Forrest, W. J.; VanCleve, J. E.; Herter, T. L.; Sloan, G. C.; Furlan, E.; Wilson, J. C.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope has now been in routine science operations since Dec. 14,2003. The IRS Science Team has used a portion of their guaranteed time to pursue three major science themes in galactic astronomy: the evolution of protostellar disks and debris disks; the composition and evolution of diffuse matter and clouds in the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of brown dwarfs and low-mass main-sequence stars. We report here on the results from the first five months of IRS observations in these programs. Full IRS Spectra have already been obtained for large samples of YSO/protoplanetary disks in the Taurus and TW Hya associations, and or debris disks around main-sequence stars, in which many aspects of the evolution of planetary systems can be addressed for the first time. As anticipated, the mid-infrared IRS observations of brown dwarfs have yielded important new information about their atmospheres, including the identification of NH3 and measurements of new methane features. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

  20. An optical design of the wide-field imaging and multi-object spectrograph for an Antarctic infrared telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Obata, Tomokazu

    2016-08-01

    A design of the wide-field infrared camera (AIRC) for Antarctic 2.5m infrared telescope (AIRT) is presented. The off-axis design provides a 7'.5 ×7'. 5 field of view with 0".22 pixel-1 in the wavelength range of 1 to 5 μm for the simultaneous three-color bands using cooled optics and three 2048×2048 InSb focal plane arrays. Good image quality is obtained over the entire field of view with practically no chromatic aberration. The image size corresponds to the refraction limited for 2.5 m telescope at 2 μm and longer. To enjoy the stable atmosphere with extremely low perceptible water vapor (PWV), superb seeing quality, and the cadence of the polar winter at Dome Fuji on the Antarctic plateau, the camera will be dedicated to the transit observations of exoplanets. The function of a multi-object spectroscopic mode with low spectra resolution (R 50-100) will be added for the spectroscopic transit observation at 1-5 μm. The spectroscopic capability in the environment of extremely low PWV of Antarctica will be very effective for the study of the existence of water vapor in the atmosphere of super earths.

  1. Discovery and characterization of on-orbit degradation of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Rotating Telescope Assembly (RTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luccia, F.; Moyer, D.; Johnson, E.; Rausch, K.; Lei, N.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X.; Fulbright, J.; Haas, E.; Iona, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched on Oct. 28, 2011, and began the commissioning phase of several of its instruments shortly thereafter. One of these instruments, VIIRS, was found to exhibit a gradual but persistent decrease in the optical throughput of several bands, with the near-infrared bands being more affected than those in the visible. The rate of degradation quickly increased upon opening of the nadir door that permits the VIIRS telescope to view the earth. Simultaneously, a second instrument on NPP, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), was experiencing a similar decrease in response, leading the investigation team to suspect that the cause must be the result of some common contamination process. This paper will discuss a series of experiments that were performed to demonstrate that the VIIRS and SDSM response changes were due to separate causes, and which enabled the team to conclude that the VIIRS sensor degradation was the result of ultraviolet light exposure of the rotating telescope assembly. The root cause investigation of the telescope degradation will be addressed in a separate paper.

  2. STRAY An Interactive Program For The Computation Of Stray Radiation In Infrared Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Ann S.

    1987-06-01

    STRAY has been developed to quickly but roughly model the amount of stray radiation reaching the focal plane of a well-baffled telescope. This radiation arises from the scattering and diffraction of the light of bright off-axis sources, such as the Sun, Earth and Moon, as well as the thermal emission of the telescope itself. A series of specular reflections, scatters and diffractions propagates this energy to the focal plane. The sum of the various paths yields the focal plane irradiance. The telescope may be of Cassegrain, Gregorian or Herschelian design, as well as prime focus. A two-section conical aperture shade is included, which may be sliced off at an angle to the optical axis. Data on Class 100, 300 and 500 mirror contaminations, as well as a number of clean mirrors, are available for BRDF calculations. The stray radiation signal accumulated after a series of telescope nods and/or chops against a time-varying background may also be evaluated. The user enters the nodding and chopping frequencies, the chopping amplitude and duty cycle, and the time rate-of-change of the off-axis angle or temperature.

  3. A Multi-Band Far-Infrared Survey with a Balloon-Borne Telescope. Final Report, 20 Nov. 1972 - 19 Feb. 1978. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.; Harwit, M.; Frederick, C.; Ward, D. B.; Melnick, G.; Stasavage, G.

    1978-01-01

    Nine additional radiation sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified at 100 microns by far infrared photometry of the galactic plane using a 0.4 meter aperture, liquid helium cooled, multichannel far infrared balloon-borne telescope. The instrument is described, including its electronics, pointing and suspension systems, and ground support equipment. Testing procedures and flight staging are discussed along with the reduction and analysis of the data acquired. The history of infrared astronomy is reviewed. General infrared techniques and the concerns of balloon astronomers are explored.

  4. Near-infrared images of MG 1131+0456 with the W. M. Keck telescope: Another dusty gravitational lens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, J. E.; Matthews, K.; Lawrence, C. R.; Graham, J. R.; Harrison, W.; Jernigan, G.; Lin, S.; Nelson, J.; Neugebauer, G.; Smith, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images of the gravitational lens system MG 1131+0456 taken with the near-infrared camera on the W. M. Keck telescope in the J and K(sub s) bands show that the infrared counterparts of the compact radio structure are exceedingly red, with J - K greater than 4.2 mag. The J image reveals only the lensing galaxy, while the K(sub s) image shows both the lens and the infrared counterparts of the compact radio components. After subtracting the lensing galaxy from the K(sub s) image, the position and orientation of the compact components agree with their radio counterparts. The broad-band spectrum and observed brightness of the lens suggest a giant galaxy at a redshift of approximately 0.75, while the color of the quasar images suggests significant extinction by dust in the lens. There is a significant excess of faint objects within 20 sec of MG 1131+0456. Depending on their mass and redshifts, these objects could complicate the lensing potential considerably.

  5. Solar System Studies in the Infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Stansberry, J. A.; Cleve, J. Van; Burgdorf, M. J.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Meadows, V. S.; Reach, W. T.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly known as SIRTF, is a cryogenic telescope (85 cm diameter) operating in a heliocentric orbit trailing the Earth. Its three instruments provide capabilities for spectroscopy, wide-field and small-field imaging at many wavelengths in the range 3.5-160 microns. Observations to be executed in the first two years in programs defined by the Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) group (the authors of this presentation) consist of photometry, spectroscopy, and radiometry of many Solar System objects, including Titan and other satellites of the outer planets, Pluto, Centaurs, trans-Neptunian objects, comers, asteroids, Uranus, and Neptune. At the time of the preparation of this abstract, some preliminary observations have been made, but the final calibration and reduction of the data are still in progress. The latest results of the Solar System investigations will be presented here.

  6. Optimised radiative cooling of infrared space telescopes and applications to possible missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawarden, T. G.; Cummings, R. O.; Telesco, C. M.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Simple guidelines are presented for designing radiatively cooled space telescopes that must reach low temperatures. The limits achievable by such means are explored and secondary issues such as the on-orbit cooling time are examined. Results to date from a program of more detailed model simulations are summarized. These indicate that radiative cooling can indeed lower the temperatures of large-aperture telescopes sufficiently to make the technique of great interest for future IR space missions, while retaining advantages of size and duration, and can attain such low temperatures in quite reasonable times. Possible missions of this type are outlined, including the Edison proposal, the Japanese SMIRT survey mission, and an intermediate-size ESA/NASA mission.

  7. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1986-01-01

    The study and revision of the gimbal design of the Three-Meter Balloon Borne Telescope (TMBBT) is discussed. Efforts were made to eliminate the alignment and limited rotation problems inherent in the flex-pivot design. A new design using ball bearings to replace the flex-pivots was designed and its performance analyzed. An error analysis for the entire gondola pointing system was also prepared.

  8. Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS): A Very Wide-Field, Massively Multi-Object, Optical and Near-Infrared Fiber-Fed Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, N.; PFS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    PFS (Prime Focus Spectrograph), a next generation facility instrument on the Subaru Telescope, is a very wide-field, massively multiplexed, optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph: 2400 reconfigurable fibers are distributed in the 1.3 deg. field of view at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope. The spectrograph system has blue, red, and near-infrared cameras to simultaneously observe spectra from 380 nm to 1260 nm in one exposure. The project is now entering the construction phase, aiming at starting system integration and commissioning in 2017-2018, and science operation in 2019.

  9. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  10. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): High-resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy in the Far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, D,; Baker, G.; Barger, A.; Benford, D.; Blain, A; Boyle, R.; Broderick, R.; Budinoff, J.; Carpenter, J.; Caverly, R.; Chen, P.; Cooley, S.; Cottingham, C.; Crooke, J.; DiPietro, D.; Femiano, M.; Ferrer, A.; Fischer, J.; Gardner, J.; Hallock, L.; Harris, K.; Hartman, K.; Harwit, M.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hyde, T.

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a recently-completed study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets form, and why some planets are ice giants and others are rocky; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. Observations with SPIRIT will be complementary to those of the James Webb Space Telescope and the ground-based Atacama Large Millimeter Array. All three observatories could be operational contemporaneously. SPIRIT will pave the way to the 1 km maximum baseline interferometer known as the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). In addition to the SPIRIT mission concept, this talk will emphasize the importance of dense u-v plane coverage and describe some of the practical considerations associated with alternative interferometric baseline sampling schemes.

  11. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT): The Mission Design Solution Space and the Art of the Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Hyde, T. Tupper; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Weiss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) was studied as a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission, the real world presents a broader set of options, pressures, and constraints. Fundamentally, SPIRIT is a far-IR observatory for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy designed to address a variety of compelling scientific questions. How do planetary systems form from protostellar disks, dousing some planets in water while leaving others dry? Where do planets form, and why are some ice giants while others are rocky? How did high-redshift galaxies form and merge to form the present-day population of galaxies? This paper takes a pragmatic look at the mission design solution space for SPIRIT, presents Probe-class and facility-class mission scenarios, and describes optional design changes. The costs and benefits of various mission design alternatives are roughly evaluated, giving a basis for further study and to serve as guidance to policy makers.

  12. The mid-infrared instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope: performance and operation of the Low-Resolution Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Scheithauer, Silvia; Bouchet, Patrice; Amiaux, Jerome; Azzollini, Ruymán.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Chen, Christine; Dubreuil, Didier; Fischer, Sebastian; Fox, Ori D.; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, Karl; Greene, Tom; Hines, Dean C.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lahuis, Fred; Ronayette, Samuel; Wright, David; Wright, Gillian S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe here the performance and operational concept for the Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) of the mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope. The LRS will provide R˜100 slit and slitless spectroscopy from 5 to 12 micron, and its design is optimised for observations of compact sources, such as exoplanet host stars. We provide here an overview of the design of the LRS, and its performance as measured during extensive test campaigns, examining in particular the delivered image quality, dispersion, and resolving power, as well as spectrophotometric performance. The instrument also includes a slitless spectroscopy mode, which is optimally suited for transit spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres. We provide an overview of the operational procedures and the differences ahead of the JWST launch in 2018.

  13. Optical design of MEMS-based infrared multi-object spectrograph concept for the Gemini South Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaojie; Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the optical design of an infrared multi-object spectrograph (MOS) concept that is designed to take advantage of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) corrected field at the Gemini South telescope. This design employs a unique, cryogenic MEMS-based focal plane mask to select target objects for spectroscopy by utilizing the Micro-Shutter Array (MSA) technology originally developed for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The optical design is based on all spherical refractive optics, which serves both imaging and spectroscopic modes across the wavelength range of 0.9-2.5 μm. The optical system consists of a reimaging system, MSA, collimator, volume phase holographic (VPH) grisms, and spectrograph camera optics. The VPH grisms, which are VPH gratings sandwiched between two prisms, provide high dispersing efficiencies, and a set of several VPH grisms provide the broad spectral coverage at high throughputs. The imaging mode is implemented by removing the MSA and the dispersing unit out of the beam. We optimize both the imaging and spectrographic modes simultaneously, while paying special attention to the performance of the pupil imaging at the cold stop. Our current design provides a 1' ♢ 1' and a 0.5' ♢ 1' field of views for imaging and spectroscopic modes, respectively, on a 2048 × 2048 pixel HAWAII-2RG detector array. The spectrograph's slit width and spectral resolving power are 0.18'' and 3,000, respectively, and spectra of up to 100 objects can be obtained simultaneously. We present the overall results of simulated performance using optical model we designed.

  14. Near Infrared Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field with Keck Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogg, David W.; Neugebauer, G.; Armus, Lee; Matthews, K.; Pahre, Michael A.; Soifer, B. T.; Weinberger, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Two deep K-band (2.2 micrometer) images, with point-source detection limits of K=25.2 mag (one sigma), taken with the Keck Telescope in subfields of the Hubble Deep Field, are presented and analyzed. A sample of objects to K=24 mag is constructed and V(sub 606)- I(sub 814) and I(sub 814)-K colors are measured. By stacking visually selected objects, mean I(sub 814)-K colors can be measured to very faint levels, the mean I(sub 814)-K color is constant with apparent magnitude down to V(sub 606)=28 mag.

  15. The Lower Main Sequence of ω Centauri from Deep Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulone, Luigi; De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Allard, France

    1998-01-01

    A 20" × 20" field located ~7' from the center of the massive galactic globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) was observed by the NIC2 camera of the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the F110W and F160W broadband filters centered at 1.1 and 1.6 μm for a total of 3000 and 4000 s for the two filters, respectively. Standard photometric analysis of the resulting images yields 340 stars with a signal above a 10 σ threshold in both filters, covering the range of HST m160 magnitudes between 20 and 26, the deepest probe yet of a globular cluster in this wavelength region. These objects form a well-defined sequence in the m160 versus m110-m160 plane that is consistent with the theoretical near-IR color-magnitude diagram expected from recent low-mass stellar model calculations. The resulting stellar luminosity function increases steadily with increasing magnitude up to a peak at m160~=25, where it turns over and drops slowly down to the detection limit set by the incompleteness limit of 60% at m160~=26. With the theoretical mass-luminosity relationship that provides the best fit to the IR color-magnitude diagram, we obtain an excellent fit to the observed luminosity function down to a mass of ~0.2 Msolar with a power-law mass function having a slope of α=-1. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA under contract NAS5-26555.

  16. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and wellfunded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  17. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Mission and Synergies with LISA and LIGO-Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Spergel, D.; WFIRST SDT Project

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA space mission in study for launch in 2024. It has a 2.4 m telescope, wide-field IR instrument operating in the 0.7 - 2.0 micron range and an exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument operating in the 400 - 1000 nm range. The observatory will perform galaxy surveys over thousands of square degrees to J=27 AB for dark energy weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements and will monitor a few square degrees for dark energy SN Ia studies. It will perform microlensing observations of the galactic bulge for an exoplanet census and direct imaging observations of nearby exoplanets with a pathfinder coronagraph. The mission will have a robust and well- funded guest observer program for 25% of the observing time. WFIRST will be a powerful tool for time domain astronomy and for coordinated observations with gravitational wave experiments. Gravitational wave events produced by mergers of nearby binary neutron stars (LIGO-Virgo) or extragalactic supermassive black hole binaries (LISA) will produce electromagnetic radiation that WFIRST can observe.

  18. Optical design of a near-infrared imaging spectropolarimeter for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Vincenzo; Cavallini, Fabio

    2013-06-01

    In designing the optics of an imaging multi-etalon spectropolarimeter as a post-focus instrument for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), many constraints must be considered. Among these are the large entrance pupil diameter of the telescope (4 m), the demanded large field of view (≥90 arc sec), high spectral resolving power (≥200,000), and limited field-dependent blue-shift of the instrumental profile [≤3 full width at half maximum (FWHM)], which require Fabry-Perot interferometers of large diameter (≥200 mm), lighted by highly collimated beams. This implies large optical elements and long optical paths. Moreover, to use interference pre-filters with a relatively small diameter (≤70 mm) and placed between the interferometers to reduce the inter-reflections in axial-mount, a "pupil adapter" must be included with a further increase of the optical path length. Although a multi-etalon spectropolarimeter works in quasi-monochromatic light, the Fraunhofer lines of interest cover a wide range of wavelengths (850 to 1650 nm), which demands a good chromatic aberration control. A low instrumental polarization (≤0.5%) is also required to allow a high polarimetric precision. Finally, some secondary optical paths are required to perform the initial instrumental setup and to secure the best instrumental performances. A diffraction-limited optical solution for ATST is described that fulfills all the above requirements in a relative small volume.

  19. Study of alternate optical and fine guidance sensor designs for the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, A.; Steir, M.; Mcfarlane, M.; Fuschetto, A.

    1984-01-01

    A unique optical design was developed that compensates for the coma degraded images caused by field chopping in SIRTF. The conic constants of a Cassegrain telescope were altered to compensate for the coma induced by the secondary mirror tilt. The modulation transfer function is essentially independent of secondary mirror tilt, and diffraction limited image quality is maintained over a several arcminute field during chopping. With an untilted secondary mirror, the coma compensated (CC) design has a smaller field than the unchopped Ritchey-Chretien design; but use of relay optics, such as the inverted Cassegrain design developed for the fine guidance sensor (FGS), can increase the CC telescope's field size. A reactionless secondary mirror chopper mechanism that uses superconducting magnets was studied. The heart producing elements are confined to a reaction plate that is not directly viewed by the IR focal plane. A design was also developed for a low moment of inertia, reticulated HIP beryllium secondary mirror consistent with blank fabrication technology and optical finishing requirements.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide on Io - Evidence from telescopic and laboratory infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Howell, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is reported for hydrogen sulfide on Io's surface. An infrared band at 3.915 (+ or - 0.015) micrometers in several ground-based spectra of Io can be accounted for by reflectance from H2S frost deposited on or cocondensed with sulfur dioxide frost. Temporal variation in the occurrence and intensity of the band suggests that condensed H2S on Io's surface is transient, implying a similar variation of H2S abundance in Io's atmosphere.

  1. Optimal Merging of Point Sources Extracted from Spitzer Space Telescope Data in Multiple Infrared Passbands Versus Simple General Source Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laher, R. R.; Fowler, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    For collating point-source flux measurements derived from multiple infrared passbands of Spitzer-Space-Telescope data -- e.g., channels 1-4 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and channels 1-3 of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) -- it is best to use the `bandmerge' software developed at the Spitzer Science Center rather than the relatively simple method of general source association (GSA). The former method uses both source positions and positional uncertainties to form a chi-squared statistic that can be thresholded for optimal matching, while the latter method finds nearest neighbors across bands that fall within a user-specified radius of the primary source. Our assertion is supported by our study of completeness (C) vs. reliability (R) for the two methods, which involved MIPS-24/IRAC-1 matches in the SWIRE Chandra Deep Field South. Both methods can achieve C = 98%, but with R=92.7% for GSA vs. R=97.4% for bandmerge. With almost a factor of three lower in unreliability (1-R), bandmerge is the clear winner of this comparison.

  2. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.; Rieke, G. H.; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Amiaux, J.; Aricha-Yanguas, Ana; Azzollini, Ruymán; Banks, Kimberly; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Belenguer-Davila, T.; Bloemmart, J. A. D. L.; Bouchet, Patrice; Brandl, B. R.; Colina, L.; Detre, Örs; Diaz-Catala, Eva; Eccleston, Paul; Friedman, Scott D.; García-Marín, Macarena; Güdel, Manuel; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M.; Greene, T. P.; Groezinger, Uli; Grundy, Tim; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, Ralph; Hunter, Faye; Jessen, N. C.; Justtanont, K.; Karnik, Avinash R.; Khorrami, Mori A.; Krause, Oliver; Labiano, Alvaro; Lagage, P.-O.; Langer, Ulrich; Lemke, Dietrich; Lim, Tanya; Lorenzo-Alvarez, Jose; Mazy, Emmanuel; McGowan, Norman; Meixner, M. E.; Morris, Nigel; Morrison, Jane E.; Müller, Friedrich; rgaard-Nielson, H.-U. Nø; Olofsson, Göran; O’Sullivan, Brian; Pel, J.-W.; Penanen, Konstantin; Petach, M. B.; Pye, J. P.; Ray, T. P.; Renotte, Etienne; Renouf, Ian; Ressler, M. E.; Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schneider, Analyn; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Stevenson, Tim; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Swinyard, Bruce; Sykes, Jon; Thatcher, John; Tikkanen, Tuomo; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, Helen; Wells, Martyn; Zhender, Alex

    2015-07-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 microns. MIRI has, within a single 'package', four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectroscopy, and medium-resolving power (R ~ 1500 to 3500) integral field spectroscopy. An associated cooler system maintains MIRI at its operating temperature of < 6.7 K. This paper describes the driving principles behind the design of MIRI, the primary design parameters, and their realization in terms of the 'as-built' instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements.

  3. Space infrared telescope facility wide field and diffraction limited array camera (IRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1986-01-01

    IRAC focal plane detector technology was developed and studies of alternate focal plane configurations were supported. While any of the alternate focal planes under consideration would have a major impact on the Infrared Array Camera, it was possible to proceed with detector development and optical analysis research based on the proposed design since, to a large degree, the studies undertaken are generic to any SIRTF imaging instrument. Development of the proposed instrument was also important in a situation in which none of the alternate configurations has received the approval of the Science Working Group.

  4. The near-infrared spectrometer of the Observatoire du Mont megantic 1.6-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Daniel; Beland, Stephane; Doyon, Rene

    1987-12-01

    An infrared spectrometer based on a piezo-electrically scanned Fabry-Pérot interferometer is described. The instrument includes a remote-controlled offset guider, the Fabry-Pérot interferometer and associated optics, and a cryostat containing the cold optics, and InSb detector. In the present configuration the spectrometer can be used from 1.8 to 2.5 μm, but it can be modified for observations in the range from 1 to 5 μm. Line profiles of the H2 emission in Cepheus A obtained with this instrument are shown.

  5. Antarctic Surveying Telescope (AST3-3) NIR camera for the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS): thermal optimization and system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Lawrence, Jon; Content, Robert; Churilov, Vladimir; Zhang, Kaiyuan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Lu, Haiping

    2016-08-01

    The Antarctic survey telescope (AST 3-3) near infrared(NIR) camera is designed to conduct the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey which will provide a comprehensive exploration of the time varying Universe in the near infrared. It is going to be located at Dome A, on the Antarctic plateau, one of the most unique low background sites at the Kdark band (2.4μm). Carefully designed thermal emission from the telescope and the Kdark camera is very important to realize background limited operation. We setup a scattering and thermal emission model of the whole system to optimize the camera performance. An exposure time calculator was also built to predict system performance.

  6. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  7. Thermal and cryogenic design study for space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Kelly, T.; Poley, R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of an all superfluid helium design to meet the performance requirements of background limited to 200 micrometer, and a two year lifetime for a one meter class free flying infrared observatory. Both a 98 deg and 28.5 deg inclination orbits were examined, and aperture shade designs were developed for both orbits. A unique forebaffle cooling design significantly reduces the sensitivity to aperture heat loads. With certain restrictions on observing modes, the study determined that an all superfluid helium Dewar will meet the temperature and lifetime requirements. A dual cryogen SFHe/SH2 system was also investigated for the 28.5 deg orbit and found to provide a more constant forebaffle temperature but with only a slight improvement in lifetime.

  8. INFRARED NARROWBAND TOMOGRAPHY OF THE LOCAL STARBURST NGC 1569 WITH THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE/LUCIFER

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquali, A.; Zibetti, S.; Brandner, W.; Rix, H.-W.; Laun, W.; Lehmitz, M.; Lenzen, R.; Mall, U.; Ageorges, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Gemperlein, H.; Hofmann, R.; Lederer, R.; Seifert, W.; Feiz, C.; Germeroth, A.; Mandel, H.; Juette, M.; Knierim, V.; Bik, A.

    2011-04-15

    We used the near-IR imager/spectrograph LUCIFER mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope to image, with subarcsecond seeing, the local dwarf starburst NGC 1569 in the JHK bands and He I 1.08 {mu}m, [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m, and Br{gamma} narrowband filters. We obtained high-quality spatial maps of He I 1.08 {mu}m, [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m, and Br{gamma} emission across the galaxy, and used them together with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images of NGC 1569 in the H{alpha} filter to derive the two-dimensional spatial map of the dust extinction and surface star formation rate (SFR) density. We show that dust extinction (as derived from the H{alpha}/Br{gamma} flux ratio) is rather patchy and, on average, higher in the northwest (NW) portion of the galaxy (E{sub g}(B - V) {approx_equal} 0.71 mag) than in the southeast (E{sub g}(B - V) {approx_equal} 0.57 mag). Similarly, the surface density of SFR (computed from either the dereddened H{alpha} or dereddened Br{gamma} image) peaks in the NW region of NGC 1569, reaching a value of about 4 x 10{sup -6} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} pc{sup -2}. The total SFR as estimated from the integrated, dereddened H{alpha} (or, alternatively, Br{gamma}) luminosity is about 0.4 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, and the total supernova rate from the integrated, dereddened [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m luminosity is about 0.005 yr{sup -1} (assuming a distance of 3.36 Mpc). The azimuthally averaged [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m/Br{gamma} flux ratio is larger at the edges of the central, gas-deficient cavities (encompassing the superstar clusters A and B) and in the galaxy outskirts. If we interpret this line ratio as the ratio between the average past star formation (as traced by supernovae) and ongoing activity (represented by OB stars able to ionize the interstellar medium), it would then indicate that star formation has been quenched within the central cavities and lately triggered in a ring around them. The number of ionizing hydrogen and helium photons as computed

  9. GMTNIRS: progress toward the Giant Magellan Telescope near-infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Daniel T.; Barnes, Stuart; Brooks, Cynthia; Lee, Hanshin; Mace, Gregory; Pak, Soojong; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan

    2016-08-01

    GMTNIRS is a first-generation instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope. It is a high-resolution spectrograph that will cover the 1.15-5.3 μm range in a single exposure with R=60,000 in the J, H, and K bands and R=85,000 in the L and M bands. It resides on the GMT's rotating instrument platform and employs the facility adaptive optics system. The GMTNIRS design is evolving in response to emerging science problems, particularly in the area of exoplanet atmospheres. Our design revisions also derive lessons from GMTNIRS' highly successful forerunner instrument, IGRINS. Technical changes also drive evolution of the design. It has proven impractical to manufacture 200mm long immersion gratings at the necessary precision. The success of primary mirror phasing efforts has removed the need for a very wide entrance slit that we would have needed to accommodate the Airy pattern of individual segments at the shortest operating wavelengths. The high efficiency of our double-side coated JWST grisms introduces the possibility of transmissive cross-dispersers at L and M. These changes move us toward a design with almost the same R as presented in our previous work but with a much more compact physical envelope. We will report on the optimization of the instrument design with these technical changes in mind. We are also producing the critical Si immersion gratings. The grating production is well under way and includes manufacture of H and K gratings and process development for the precision needed in the J band and for the manufacture of larger gratings for the L and M band. The development of GMTNIRS is on track with the results from IGRINS and the progress in the lab giving us substantial assurance that the new instrument can meet its performance goals.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  11. Micro-spec: an Integrated Direct-detection Spectrometer for Far-infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements.Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 (micrometers) wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due tothe large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 sq cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance.Two point designs with resolving power of 260 and 520 and an RMS phase error less than approximately 0.004 radians were developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/NEAR-INFRARED CAMERA AND MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLIMPSE9 STELLAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John

    2010-01-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer photometry, and low-resolution K-band spectra of the GLIMPSE9 stellar cluster. The newly obtained color-magnitude diagram shows a cluster sequence with H - K{sub S} = approx1 mag, indicating an interstellar extinction A{sub K{sub s}} = 1.6 +- 0.2 mag. The spectra of the three brightest stars show deep CO band heads, which indicate red supergiants with spectral type M1-M2. Two 09-B2 supergiants are also identified, which yield a spectrophotometric distance of 4.2 +- 0.4 kpc. Presuming that the population is coeval, we derive an age between 15 and 27 Myr, and a total cluster mass of 1600 +- 400 M{sub sun}, integrated down to 1 M{sub sun}. In the vicinity of GLIMPSE9 are several H II regions and supernova remnants, all of which (including GLIMPSE9) are probably associated with a giant molecular cloud (GMC) in the inner galaxy. GLIMPSE9 probably represents one episode of massive star formation in this GMC. We have identified several other candidate stellar clusters of the same complex.

  13. SNAP Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, Carl W.; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, R.; Astier, Pierre; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, Christopher; Bergstrom, Lars; Bercovitz, John; Bernstein, G.; Bester, Manfred; Bonissent, Alain; Bower, C. R.; Carithers, William C., Jr.; Commins, Eugene D.; Day, C.; Deustua, Susana E.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, Richard S.; Eriksson, Mikael; Fruchter, Andrew; Genat, Jean-Francois; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Groom, Donald E.; Harris, Stewart E.; Harvey, Peter R.; Heetderks, Henry D.; Holland, Steven E.; Huterer, Dragan; Karcher, Armin; Kim, Alex G.; Kolbe, William F.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, Michael E.; Levin, Daniel S.; Linder, Eric V.; Loken, Stewart C.; Malina, Roger; Massey, R.; McKay, Timothy; McKee, Shawn P.; Miquel, Ramon; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, Stuart; Musser, J. A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Pain, Reynald; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Pankow, David H.; Perlmutter, Saul; Pratt, R.; Prieto, Eric; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, Kem E.; Roe, N.; Sholl, Michael; Schubnell, Michael S.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, George F.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, Gregory; Tomasch, Andrew D.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, Guobin

    2002-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  14. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  15. Bispectrum speckle interferometry of the Red Rectangle: Diffraction-limited near-infrared images reconstructed from Keck telescope speckle data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, P. G.; Men'shchikov, A. B.; Schertl, D.; Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Weigelt, G.

    2002-07-01

    We present new near-infrared (2.1-3.3 mu m) images of the Red Rectangle with unprecedented diffraction-limited angular resolutions of 46-68 mas; 4 times higher than that of the Hubble space telescope and almost a factor of two improvement over the previous 6 m SAO telecope speckle images presented by Men'shchikov et al. (\\cite{Men'shchikov_etal1998}). The new images, which were reconstructed from Keck telescope speckle data using the bispectrum speckle interferometry method, clearly show two bright lobes above and below the optically thick dark lane obscuring the central binary. X-shaped spikes, thought to trace the surface of a biconical flow, change the intensity distribution of the bright lobes, making them appear broadened or with an east-west double-peak in images with the highest resolution. The striking biconical appearance of the Red Rectangle is preserved on scales from 50 mas to 1 arcmin and from the visible (red) to at least 10 mu m, implying that large grains of at least several microns in size dominate scattering. The new images supplement previous 76 mas resolution speckle reconstructions at shorter wavelengths of 0.6-0.8 mu m (Osterbart et al. \\cite{Osterbart_etal1997}) and 0.7-2.2 mu m (Men'shchikov et al. \\cite{Men'shchikov_etal1998}), allowing a more detailed analysis of the famous bipolar nebula. The intensity distribution of the images is inconsistent with a flat disk geometry frequently used to model the bipolar nebulae. Instead, a geometrically thick torus-like density distribution with bipolar conical cavities is preferred. The extent of the bright lobes indicates that the dense torus has a diameter of >~ 100 AU, for an assumed distance of 330 pc. This torus may be the outer reaches of a flared thick disk tapering inwards to the central star, however such a density enhancement on the midplane is not strictly required to explain the narrow dark lane obscuring the central stars.

  16. The UK Infrared Telescope M 33 monitoring project - V. The star formation history across the galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Hamedani Golshan, Roya; Rashidi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope of the Local Group spiral galaxy M 33 (Triangulum). On the basis of their variability, we have identified stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this fifth paper of the series, we construct the birth mass function and hence derive the star formation history across the galactic disc of M 33. The star formation rate has varied between ˜0.010 ± 0.001 (˜0.012 ± 0.007) and 0.060±0.005 (0.052±0.009) M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 statistically (systematically) in the central square kiloparsec of M 33, comparable with the values derived previously with another camera. The total star formation rate in M 33 within a galactocentric radius of 14 kpc has varied between ˜0.110 ± 0.005 (˜0.174 ± 0.060) and ˜0.560 ± 0.028 (˜0.503 ± 0.100) M⊙ yr-1 statistically (systematically). We find evidence of two epochs during which the star formation rate was enhanced by a factor of a few - one that started ˜6 Gyr ago and lasted ˜3 Gyr and produced ≥71 per cent of the total mass in stars, and one ˜250 Myr ago that lasted ˜200 Myr and formed ≤13 per cent of the mass in stars. Radial star formation history profiles suggest that the inner disc of M 33 was formed in an inside-out formation scenario. The outskirts of the disc are dominated by the old population, which may be the result of dynamical effects over many Gyr. We find correspondence to spiral structure for all stars, but enhanced only for stars younger than ˜100 Myr; this suggests that the spiral arms are transient features and not a part of a global density wave potential.

  17. The Near-Infrared Camera on the James Webb Space Telescope: The Next Great Step in Exoplanet Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, C.; Doyon, R.; Greene, T.; Hodapp, K.; Horner, S.; Krist, J.; McCarthy, D.; Meyer, M.; Rieke, M.; Stansberry, J.; Stauffer, J.; Trauger, J.; NIRCam Team

    2014-03-01

    The Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) offers revolutionary gains in sensitivity throughout the 1-5 mm region. NIRCam will enable great advances in all areas of astrophysics, from the composition of objects in our own Kuiper Belt and the physical properties of planets orbiting nearby stars to the formation of stars and the detection of the youngest galaxies in the Universe. NIRCam will make some of its most dramatic contributions in the field of exoplanets: • Coronagraphy at 3 and 5 mm offers a very stable Point Spread Function (PSF) outside of ~5 l/D, or ~300 mas at 3.5 mm, plus the great sensitivity possible with a cooled telescope in the low background of space. While large ground-based telescopes with Adaptive Optics can achieve smaller working angles, they will be hard-pressed to find planets as small as 1 MJup whereas simulations suggest NIRCam will be able to find planets as small as Saturn on orbits from 10 to a few 100 AU around nearby young stars. • The great stability of NIRCam photometry will enable precision observations of known transiting systems to determine the vertical structure of exoplanet atmospheres and to measure complete phase curves to study atmospheric circulation. The use of sub-array mode and defocused images produced by a weak lenses in the pupil wheel will permit observations of transit host stars as bright as K~4 mag. • NIRCam's grism mode will be used to obtain R~2000 spectra in the 3 - 5 mm region to investigate the composition and atmospheric structure of transiting planets with radii as small as that of Uranus and perhaps super-Earths with hydrogen rich atmospheres. The use of sub-array mode and high spectral resolution will permit observations of objects as bright as K~ 6 mag. Laboratory tests suggest that NIRCam's HgCdTe detectors will be able to achieve (spectro-)photometric precision better than 50 mmag consistent with these goals. • NIRCam grism spectroscopy will reveal the

  18. Detector control and data acquisition for the wide field infrared survey telescope (WFIRST) with a custom ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brian; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; Luppino, Gerard; Culver, Harry; Wollack, Edward; Content, David

    2016-07-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally 300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  19. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    SciTech Connect

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-02-20

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f{sub min}=27{sub −7}{sup +11}% over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  20. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  1. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; Luppino, Gerard; Culver, Harry; Wollack, Edward; Content, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  2. Review of the absorption spectra of solid O2 and N2 as they relate to contamination of a cooled infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    During contamination studies for the liquid helium cooled shuttle infrared telescope facility, a literature search was conducted to determine the absorption spectra of the solid state of homonuclear molecules of O2 and N2, and ascertain what laboratory measurements of the solid have been made in the infrared. With the inclusion of one unpublished spectrum, the absorption spectrum of the solid oxygen molecule has been thoroughly studied from visible to millimeter wavelengths. Only two lines appear in the solid that do not also appear in the gas or liquid. A similar result is implied for the solid nitrogen molecule because it also is homonuclear. The observed infrared absorption lines result from lattice modes of the alpha phase of the solid, and disappear at the warmer temperatures of the beta, gamma, and liquid phases. They are not observed from polycrystalline forms of O2, while strong scattering is. Scattering, rather than absorption, is considered to be the principal natural contamination problem for cooled infrared telescopes in low earth orbit.

  3. Progress with the Prime Focus Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope: a massively multiplexed optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Tamura, Naoyuki; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Takato, Naruhisa; Kimura, Masahiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Ueda, Akitoshi; Aghazarian, Hrand; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bickerton, Steve; Bozier, Alexandre; Braun, David F.; Bui, Khanh; Capocasale, Christopher M.; Carr, Michael A.; Castilho, Bruno; Chang, Yin-Chang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Dawson, Olivia R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ek, Eric M.; Ellis, Richard S.; English, Robin J.; Ferrand, Didier; Ferreira, Décio; Fisher, Charles D.; Golebiowski, Mirek; Gunn, James E.; Hart, Murdock; Heckman, Timothy M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hope, Stephen; Hovland, Larry E.; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Hu, Yen-Sang; Huang, Pin Jie; Jaquet, Marc; Karr, Jennifer E.; Kempenaar, Jason G.; King, Matthew E.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Le Mignant, David; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H.; Madec, Fabrice; Mao, Peter; Marrara, Lucas S.; Ménard, Brice; Morantz, Chaz; Murayama, Hitoshi; Murray, Graham J.; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Claudia M.; de Oliveira, Ligia S.; Orndorff, Joe D.; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Partos, Eamon J.; Pascal, Sandrine; Pegot-Ogier, Thomas; Reiley, Daniel J.; Riddle, Reed; Santos, Leandro; dos Santos, Jesulino B.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Smee, Stephen A.; Smith, Roger M.; Steinkraus, Ronald E.; Sodré, Laerte; Spergel, David N.; Surace, Christian; Tresse, Laurence; Vidal, Clément; Vives, Sebastien; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wu, Amy C.; Wyse, Rosie; Yan, Chi-Hung

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is an optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph with 2394 science fibers, which are distributed in 1.3 degree diameter field of view at Subaru 8.2-meter telescope. The simultaneous wide wavelength coverage from 0.38 μm to 1.26 μm, with the resolving power of 3000, strengthens its ability to target three main survey programs: cosmology, Galactic archaeology, and galaxy/AGN evolution. A medium resolution mode with resolving power of 5000 for 0.71 μm to 0.89 μm also will be available by simply exchanging dispersers. PFS takes the role for the spectroscopic part of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project, while Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) works on the imaging part. HSC's excellent image qualities have proven the high quality of the Wide Field Corrector (WFC), which PFS shares with HSC. The PFS collaboration has succeeded in the project Preliminary Design Review and is now in a phase of subsystem Critical Design Reviews and construction. To transform the telescope plus WFC focal ratio, a 3-mm thick broad-band coated microlens is glued to each fiber tip. The microlenses are molded glass, providing uniform lens dimensions and a variety of refractive-index selection. After successful production of mechanical and optical samples, mass production is now complete. Following careful investigations including Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) measurements, a higher transmission fiber is selected for the longest part of cable system, while one with a better FRD performance is selected for the fiber-positioner and fiber-slit components, given the more frequent fiber movements and tightly curved structure. Each Fiber positioner consists of two stages of piezo-electric rotary motors. Its engineering model has been produced and tested. After evaluating the statistics of positioning accuracies, collision avoidance software, and interferences (if any) within/between electronics boards, mass production will commence. Fiber

  4. INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SEYFERT GALAXIES: SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE 12 {mu}m SAMPLE OF ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gallimore, J. F.; Yzaguirre, A.; Jakoboski, J.; Stevenosky, M. J.; Axon, D. J.; O'Dea, C. P.; Robinson, A.; Baum, S. A.; Buchanan, C. L.; Elitzur, M.; Elvis, M.

    2010-03-01

    The mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 83 active galaxies, mostly Seyfert galaxies, selected from the extended 12 {mu}m sample are presented. The data were collected using all three instruments, Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS data were obtained in spectral mapping mode, and the photometric data from IRAC and IRS were extracted from matched, 20'' diameter circular apertures. The MIPS data were obtained in SED mode, providing very low-resolution spectroscopy (R {approx} 20) between {approx}55 and 90 {mu}m in a larger, 20'' x 30'' synthetic aperture. We further present the data from a spectral decomposition of the SEDs, including equivalent widths and fluxes of key emission lines; silicate 10 {mu}m and 18 {mu}m emission and absorption strengths; IRAC magnitudes; and mid-far-infrared spectral indices. Finally, we examine the SEDs averaged within optical classifications of activity. We find that the infrared SEDs of Seyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s with hidden broad line regions (HBLRs, as revealed by spectropolarimetry or other technique) are qualitatively similar, except that Seyfert 1s show silicate emission and HBLR Seyfert 2s show silicate absorption. The infrared SEDs of other classes within the 12 {mu}m sample, including Seyfert 1.8-1.9, non-HBLR Seyfert 2 (not yet shown to hide a type 1 nucleus), LINER, and H II galaxies, appear to be dominated by star formation, as evidenced by blue IRAC colors, strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and strong far-infrared continuum emission, measured relative to mid-infrared continuum emission.

  5. Prime Focus Spectrograph: A very wide-field, massively multiplexed, optical & near-infrared spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Naoyuki

    This short article is about Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS), a very wide-field, massively-multiplexed, and optical & near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph as a next generation facility instrument on Subaru Telescope. More details and updates are available on the PFS official website (http://pfs.ipmu.jp), blog (http://pfs.ipmu.jp/blog/), and references therein. The project, instrument, & timeline PFS will position 2400 fibers to science targets or blank sky in the 1.3 degree field on the Subaru prime focus. These fibers will be quickly (~60sec) reconfigurable and feed the photons during exposures to the Spectrograph System (SpS). SpS consists of 4 modules each of which accommodate ~600 fibers and deliver spectral images ranging from 380nm to 1260nm simultaneously at one exposure via the 3 arms of blue, red, and NIR cameras. The instrument development has been undertaken by the international collaboration at the initiative of Kavli IPMU. The project is now going into the construction phase aiming at system integration and on-sky engineering observations in 2017-2018, and science operation in 2019. The survey design has also been under development envisioning a survey spanning ~300 nights over ~5 years in the framework of Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). The key science areas are: Cosmology, galaxy/AGN evolution, and Galactic Archaeology (GA) (Takada et al. 2014). The cosmology program will be to constrain the nature of dark energy via a survey of emission line galaxies over a comoving volume of 10 Gpc3 at z=0.8-2.4. In the galaxy/AGN program, the wide wavelength coverage of PFS as well as the large field of view will be exploited to characterize the galaxy populations and its clustering properties over a wide redshift range. A survey of color-selected galaxies/AGN at z = 1-2 will be conducted over 20 square degrees yielding a fair sample of galaxies with stellar masses down to ~1010 M ⊙. In the GA program, radial velocities and chemical abundances of stars in the Milky

  6. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF A z = 6.42 QUASAR HOST GALAXY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mechtley, M.; Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Scannapieco, E.; Ryan, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, G.; Fan, X.; Hathi, N. P.; Keel, W. C.; Roettgering, H.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Yan, H. J.

    2012-09-10

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z = 6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point-spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m{sub J} > 22.8 and m{sub H} > 23.0 AB mag (2 {sigma}). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.''3 to 0.''5 radius of {mu}{sub J} > 23.5 and {mu}{sub H} > 23.7 AB mag arcsec{sup -2} (2 {sigma}). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and Sersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface brightness limit ({mu}{sub J} > 23.5 AB mag arcsec{sup -2}) corresponds to an integrated upper limit of m{sub J} > 22-23 AB mag, consistent with the direct subtraction method. Combined with existing far-infrared observations, this gives an infrared excess log (IRX) > 1.0 and corresponding ultraviolet spectral slope {beta} > -1.2 {+-} 0.2. These values match those of most local luminous infrared galaxies, but are redder than those of almost all local star-forming galaxies and z {approx_equal} 6 Lyman break galaxies.

  7. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  8. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  9. Far-Infrared Photometry with an 0.4-Meter Liquid Helium Cooled Balloon-Borne Telescope. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.4-meter aperture, liquid helium cooled multichannel far-infrared balloon-borne telescope was constructed to survey the galactic plane. Nine new sources, above a 3-sigma confidence level of 1300 Jy, were identified. Although two-thirds of the scanned area was more than 10 degrees from the galactic plane, no sources were detected in that region; all nine fell within 10 degrees and eight of those within 4 degrees of the galactic equator. Correlations with visible, compact H lines associated with radio continuum and with sources displaying spectra steeply rising between 11 and 20 microns were noted, while stellar objects were not detected.

  10. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  11. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  12. CEPHEID PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED AND THE DISTANCE TO M31 FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, Adam G.; Fliri, Juergen; Valls-Gabaud, David E-mail: jurgen.fliri@obspm.fr

    2012-02-01

    We present measurements of 68 classical Cepheids, most detected from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope POMME Survey, with periods from 10 to 78 days observed in the near-infrared by the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury Program using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The combination of HST's resolution and the use of near-infrared measurements provide a dramatic reduction in the dispersion of the period-luminosity relation over the present optical, ground-based data. Even using random phase magnitudes we measure a dispersion of just 0.17 mag, implying a dispersion of just 0.12 mag for mean magnitudes. The error in the mean for this relation is 1% in distance. Combined with similar observations of Cepheids in other hosts and independent distance determinations, we measure a distance to M31 of {mu}{sub 0} = 24.38 {+-} 0.06(statistical) {+-} 0.03(systematic), 752 {+-} 27 kpc, in good agreement with past measurements though with a better, 3% precision here. The result is also in good agreement with independent distance determinations from two detached eclipsing binaries allowing for an independent calibration of the Cepheid luminosities and a determination of the Hubble constant.

  13. Design Tradeoffs for a High Spectral Resolution Mid-Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Thirty-Meter Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    characterizing extrasolar planetary systems with the Kepler mission, Space Interferometry Mission, Gemini Precision Radial Velocity Spectrometer, Gemini... Planet Imager, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, and the James Webb Space Telescope...that will allow high-angular resolution imaging to be accomplished. MIRES on the TMT will be a powerful tool for probing planet formation

  14. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  15. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  16. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  17. Productivity and Impact of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, about 2100 papers appearing in 18 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based optical and infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. About 250 telescopes were represented, including 25 with primary mirror diameters of 3 m or larger. The subjects covered in the papers divide reasonably cleanly into 20 areas, from solar system to cosmology. These papers were cited 24,354 times in 2002 and 2003, for a mean rate of 11.56 citations per paper, or 5.78 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). We analyze here the distributions of the papers, citations, and impact factors among the telescopes and subject areas and compare the results with those of a very similar study of papers published in 1990-1991 and cited in 1993. Some of the results are exactly as expected. Big telescopes produce more papers and more citations per paper than small ones. There are fashionable topics (cosmology and exoplanets) and less fashionable ones (binary stars and planetary nebulae). And the Hubble Space Telescope has changed the landscape a great deal. Some other results surprised us but are explicable in retrospect. Small telescopes on well-supported sites (La Silla and Cerro Tololo, for instance) produce papers with larger impact factors than similar sized telescopes in relative isolation. Not just the fraction of all papers, but the absolute numbers of papers coming out of the most productive 4 m telescopes of a decade ago have gone down. The average number of citations per paper per year resulting from the 38 telescopes (2 m and larger) considered in 1993 has gone up 38%, from 3.48 to 4.81, a form, perhaps, of grade inflation. And 53% of the 2100 papers and 38% of the citations (including 44% of the papers and 31% of the citations from mirrors of 3 m and larger) pertain to topics often not regarded as major drivers for the next generation of still larger ground-based telescopes.

  18. Deep 610-MHz Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations of the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey field - III. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garn, Timothy; Alexander, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a class of source which are bright at radio frequencies, but do not appear in deep infrared images. We report the detection of 14 IFRSs within the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey field, eight of which are detected near to the limiting magnitude of a deep R-band image of the region, at R ~ 24.5. Sensitive Spitzer Space Telescope images are stacked in order to place upper limits on their mid-infrared flux densities, and using recent 610-MHz and 1.4-GHz observations we find that they have spectral indices which vary between α = 0.05 and 1.38, where we define α such that Sν = S0ν-α, and should not be thought of as a single source population. We place constraints on the luminosity and linear size of these sources, and through comparison with well-studied local objects in the Revised Revised Third Cambridge catalogue demonstrate that they can be modelled as being compact (<20 kpc) Fanaroff-Riley type II (FRII) radio galaxies located at high redshift (z ~ 4).

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Near-infrared and Optical Imaging of Faint Radio Sources in the Distant Cluster CL 0939+4713

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smail, Ian; Morrison, G.; Gray, M. E.; Owen, F. N.; Ivison, R. J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ellis, R. S.

    1999-11-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS) and Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) optical imaging of a small region in the core of the distant rich cluster Cl 0939+4713 (z=0.41). We compare the optical and near-infrared morphologies of cluster members and find apparent small-scale optical structures within the galaxies that are absent in the near-infrared. We conclude that strong dust obscuration is a common feature in the late-type galaxies in distant clusters. We then concentrate on a sample of 10 faint radio galaxies lying within our NICMOS field and selected from a very deep 1.4 GHz VLA map of the cluster with a 1 σ flux limit of 9 μJy. Using published data we focus on the spectral properties of the eight radio-selected cluster members and show that these comprise a large fraction of the poststarburst population in the cluster. The simplest interpretation of the radio emission from these galaxies is that they are currently forming massive stars, contradicting their classification as poststarburst systems based on the optical spectra. We suggest that this star formation is hidden from view in the optical by the same obscuring dust that is apparent in our comparison on the optical and near-infrared morphologies of these galaxies. We caution that even in the rest-frame optical the effects of dust cannot be ignored when comparing samples of distant galaxies to low-redshift systems, particularly if dust is as prevalent in distant galaxies as appears to be the case in our study.

  20. Near-infrared Emission Spectrum of WASP-103b Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Zhao, Ming; Line, Michael; Ngo, Henry; Mawet, Dimitri; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wright, Jason T.; Kreidberg, Laura; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    We present here our observations and analysis of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-103b. We observed WASP-103b during secondary eclipse using two visits of the Hubble Space Telescope with the G141 grism on Wide Field Camera 3 in spatial scan mode. We generated secondary eclipse light curves of the planet in both blended white-light and spectrally binned wavechannels from 1.1 {to} 1.7 μ {{m}} and corrected the light curves for flux contamination from a nearby companion star. We modeled the detector systematics and secondary eclipse spectrum using Gaussian process regression and found that the near-IR emission spectrum of WASP-103b is featureless across the observed near-IR region to down to a sensitivity of 175 ppm, and shows a shallow slope toward the red. The atmosphere has a single brightness temperature of {T}{{B}}=2890 K across this wavelength range. This region of the spectrum is indistinguishable from isothermal, but may not manifest from a physically isothermal system, i.e., pseudo-isothermal. A solar-metallicity profile with a thermal inversion layer at 10‑2 bar fits the spectrum of WASP-103b with high confidence, as do an isothermal profile with solar metallicity and a monotonically decreasing atmosphere with C/O > 1. The data rule out a monotonically decreasing atmospheric profile with solar composition, and we rule out a low-metallicity decreasing profile as unphysical for this system. The pseudo-isothermal profile could be explained by a thermal inversion layer just above the layer probed by our observations, or by clouds or haze in the upper atmosphere. Transmission spectra at optical wavelengths would allow us to better distinguish between potential atmospheric models. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Development status of the mid-infrared two-field camera and spectrograph MIMIZUKU for the TAO 6.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Jumpei; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Usui, Fumihiko; Takato, Naruhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kato, Natsuko M.; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kobayakawa, Yutaka; Kohno, Kotaro; Konishi, Masahiro; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Soyano, Takao; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Terao, Yasunori; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2016-08-01

    MIMIZUKU is the first-generation mid-infrared instrument for the university of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope. MIMIZUKU provides imaging and spectroscopic monitoring capabilities in a wide wavelength range from 2 to 38 μm, including unique bands like 2.7-μm and 30-μm band. Recently, we decided to add spectroscopic functions, KL-band mode (λ= 2.1-4.0 μm R =λ/Δλ 210) and 2.7-μm band mode ( λ= 2.4-2.95 μm R 620), and continuous spectroscopic coverage from 2.1 to 26 μm is realized by this update. Their optical designing is completed, and fabrications of optical elements are ongoing. As recent progress, we also report the completion of the cryogenic system and optics. The cryogenic system has been updated by changing materials and structures of thermal links, and the temperatures of the optical bench and detector mounting stages finally achieved required temperatures. Their stability against instrument attitude is also confirmed through an inclination test. As for the optics, its gold-plated mirrors have been recovered from galvanic corrosion by refabrication and reconstruction. Enough image quality and stability are confirmed by room-temperature tests. MIMIZUKU is intended to be completed in this autumn, and commissioning at the Subaru telescope and scientific operations on the TAO telescope are planned in 2017 and around 2019, respectively. In this paper, these development activities and future prospects of MIMIZUKU are reported.

  2. Configurable slit-mask unit of the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration for the Keck telescope: integration and tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Giriens, Laurent; Henein, Simon; Lisowski, Leszek; O'Hare, Aidan; Onillon, Emmanuel; Schwab, Philippe; Theurillat, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    A Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) has been developed for the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) instrument to be installed on the Keck 1 Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. MOSFIRE will provide NIR multi-object spectroscopy over a field of view of 6.1' x 6.1'. The reconfigurable mask allows the formation of 46 optical slits in a 267 x 267 mm2 field of view. The mechanism is an evolution of a former prototype designed by CSEM and qualified for the European Space Agency (ESA) as a candidate for the slit mask on NIRSpec for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The CSU is designed to simultaneously displace masking bars across the field-of-view (FOV) to mask unwanted light. A set of 46 bar pairs are used to form the MOSFIRE focal plane mask. The sides of the bars are convoluted so that light is prevented from passing between adjacent bars. The slit length is fixed (5.1 mm) but the width is variable down to 200 μm with a slit positioning accuracy of +/- 18 μm. A two-bar prototype mechanism was designed, manufactured and cryogenically tested to validate the modifications from the JWST prototype. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 92 masking bars forming the optical mask. Original voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches. The design makes significant use of flexure structures.

  3. First light observation of GIGMICS (germanium immersion grating mid-infrared cryogenic spectrograph) by Kanata 1.5-m Telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Keishin; Ohta, Kanako; Shibata, Sho; Hirao, Tsuyoshi; Tatamitani, Yoshio; Ebizuka, Noboru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Uemura, Makoto; Oosugi, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Fujimori, Ryuji; Ohiwa, Hiroki; Nagahiro, Hisayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a germanium immersion grating mid-infrared cryogenic spectrograph (GIGMICS) designed for the Nasmyth focus stage of NAOJ Subaru 8.2-m telescope, which operates at N-band (8-13 μm) in wavelength (λ) with maximum resolving power R(≡λ/Δλ) ~ 50,000. A single crystal germanium echelle immersion grating (30 × 30 × 72 mm) for collimated beam size of 28 mmφ was fabricated by utilizing ultra precision micro-grinding method coupled with the ELID (ELectrolytic In-process Dressing) technique (Ohmori, H. 1992, Ebizuka et al. 2003, Tokoro et al. 2003). After the critical test for the application to the laboratory gas-phase IR high-resolution spectroscopy(Hirahara et al. 2010), we have conducted the "first light" astronomical observation of GIGMICS by the Kanata 1.5-m telescope at Higashi- Hiroshima Observatory from January to April, 2011. Toward many astronomical objects such as the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars, proto-planetary nebulae, and interstellar molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, we conducted spectroscopic observations in the N-band region.

  4. The Performance and Scientific Rationale for an Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrograph on a Large Space Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-22

    their youth. An exciting prospect is the study of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) that have been ejected from young planetary systems. The unexpected...spectrometers developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) flew on board the Mariner 9 mission to Mars and were carried to the outer planets by the...giant gaseous planets (e.g., Jupiter; Hanel et al. 1979). The Composite Infrared Spectrom- eter (CIRS), currently traveling to Saturn on board the Cassini

  5. THE FIRST DETECTION OF GeV EMISSION FROM AN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY: Arp 220 AS SEEN WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-04-20

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high-energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy that has star formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense search efforts. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of ∼6.3σ using 7.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it is consistent with the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high-density medium of Arp 220 makes it an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova (SN) remnants given a known supernova rate in Arp 220. We find that this efficiency is about 4.2 ± 2.6% for CRs above 1 GeV.

  6. SPIRou: the near-infrared spectropolarimeter/high-precision velocimeter for the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Étienne; Kouach, Driss; Donati, Jean-François; Doyon, René; Delfosse, Xavier; Baratchart, Sébastien; Lacombe, Marielle; Moutou, Claire; Rabou, Patrick; Parès, Laurent P.; Micheau, Yoan; Thibault, Simon; Reshetov, Vladimir A.; Dubois, Bruno; Hernandez, Olivier; Vallée, Philippe; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Dolon, François; Pepe, Francesco A.; Bouchy, François; Striebig, Nicolas; Hénault, François; Loop, David; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Barrick, Gregory; Vermeulen, Tom; Dupieux, Michel; Hébrard, Guillaume; Boisse, Isabelle; Martioli, Eder; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; do Nascimento, José-Diaz; Figueira, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    SPIRou is a near-IR echelle spectropolarimeter and high-precision velocimeter under construction as a next- generation instrument for the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. It is designed to cover a very wide simultaneous near-IR spectral range (0.98-2.35 μm) at a resolving power of 73.5K, providing unpolarized and polarized spectra of low-mass stars at a radial velocity (RV) precision of 1m/s. The main science goals of SPIRou are the detection of habitable super-Earths around low-mass stars and the study of stellar magnetism of star at the early stages of their formation. Following a successful final design review in Spring 2014, SPIRou is now under construction and is scheduled to see first light in late 2017. We present an overview of key aspects of SPIRou's optical and mechanical design.

  7. Two telescopes ABCD electro-optic beam combiner based on lithium niobate for near infrared stellar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, S.; Caballero, O.; Nolot, A.; Gineys, M.; Moulin, T.; Delboulbé, A.; Jocou, L.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Berger, J.-P.; Martin, G.

    2011-06-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) based electro-optic modulators are well known in the optical communications field, due to their high bandwidth and deep rejection ratio [1]. These performances could be used in the field of astronomy for stellar interferometry in the mid-infrared domain [2]. With our partners from Photline Technologies, we have conceived, developed and characterized a 2T ABCD [3] beam combiner in the near-infrared (1.5μm, the H-band in astrophysics). The modulation scheme, presented below in Figure 1, allows to determine the fringe characteristics in a single shot measurement, without the need to externally scan the optical phase delay. Fine adjustment of the relative phase can be achieved using the electro-optic properties of the lithium niobate waveguides. In particular, the phase on each output can be electrically controlled and locked by using appropriate electrodes. These devices have to ensure modal filtering to reject optical aberrations of the wavefront and thus optimize the fringes contrast, which means that they have to be single mode through all the spectral range of interest. This also means that the couplers should be achromatic and balanced in order to optimize the fringe contrast. We will present results on global transmission, performance of the couplers and the electro-optic behavior of the device using monochromatic as well as wide spectral sources in the H-band.

  8. HONIR: an optical and near-infrared simultaneous imager, spectrograph, and polarimeter for the 1.5-m Kanata telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ui, Takahiro; Urano, Takeshi; Ohashi, Yuma; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakashima, Asami; Sasada, Mahito; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Harao, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsui, Rieko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Yamashita, Takuya; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2014-08-01

    We have developed an optical and near-infrared instrument HONIR (Hiroshima Optical and Near-InfraRed camera) with imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry capabilities in two (one optical and one near-infrared) bands simultaneously. Imaging capability with a field of view of 10 arcmin by 10 arcmin has been available since 2011, as reported in the previous SPIE conference. In addition, spectroscopic and polarimetric optical components (grisms, an Wollaston prism, a half-wave plate, and focal masks) were installed in the instrument, which enabled us to perform spectroscopy and linear polarization measurement by imaging polarimetry and spectro-polarimetry. Spectral resolution of R = λ/(triangle)λ ~ 440 - 800 is achieved in spectroscopy using a slit mask with an 1".3 width. In polarimetry, instrumental polarization is less than ~0.05 % with stability of better than ~0.05 %, which is sufficiently small to achieve an aimed accuracy of polarization measurement of ~0.1 % at primal observing wavelengths.

  9. The host galaxies and explosion sites of long-duration gamma ray bursts: Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, J. D.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; McGuire, J. T. W.; Perley, D. A.; Angus, C. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Conselice, C. J.; Fruchter, > A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Starling, R. L. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/F160W SNAPSHOT survey of the host galaxies of 39 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z < 3. We have non-detections of hosts at the locations of 4 bursts. Sufficient accuracy to astrometrically align optical afterglow images and determine the location of the LGRB within its host was possible for 31/35 detected hosts. In agreement with other work, we find the luminosity distribution of LGRB hosts is significantly fainter than that of a star formation rate-weighted field galaxy sample over the same redshift range, indicating LGRBs are not unbiasedly tracing the star formation rate. Morphologically, the sample of LGRB hosts are dominated by spiral-like or irregular galaxies. We find evidence for evolution of the population of LGRB hosts towards lower-luminosity, higher concentrated hosts at lower redshifts. Their half-light radii are consistent with other LGRB host samples where measurements were made on rest-frame UV observations. In agreement with recent work, we find their 80 per cent enclosed flux radii distribution to be more extended than previously thought, making them intermediate between core-collapse supernova (CCSN) and super-luminous supernova (SLSN) hosts. The galactocentric projected-offset distribution confirms LGRBs as centrally concentrated, much more so than CCSNe and similar to SLSNe. LGRBs are strongly biased towards the brighter regions in their host light distributions, regardless of their offset. We find a correlation between the luminosity of the LGRB explosion site and the intrinsic column density, NH, towards the burst.

  10. Prime Focus Spectrograph: A very wide-field, massively multiplexed, optical & near-infrared spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TAMURA, NAOYUKI

    2015-08-01

    PFS (Prime Focus Spectrograph), a next generation facility instrument on Subaru, is a very wide-field, massively-multiplexed, and optical & near-infrared spectrograph. Exploiting the Subaru prime focus, 2400 reconfigurable fibers will be distributed in the 1.3 degree field. The spectrograph will have 3 arms of blue, red, and near-infrared cameras to simultaneously observe spectra from 380nm to 1260nm at one exposure. The development of this instrument has been undertaken by the international collaboration at the initiative of Kavli IPMU. The project is now going into the construction phase aiming at system integration and on-sky commissioning in 2017-2018, and science operation in 2019. In parallel, the survey design has also been developed envisioning a Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) that spans roughly speaking 300 nights over 5 years. The major science areas are three-folds: Cosmology, galaxy/AGN evolution, and Galactic archaeology (GA). The cosmology program will be to constrain the nature of dark energy via a survey of emission line galaxies over a comoving volume of ~10 Gpc^3 in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 2.4. In the GA program, radial velocities and chemical abundances of stars in the Milky Way, dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and M31 will be used to understand the past assembly histories of those galaxies and the structures of their dark matter halos. Spectra will be taken for ~1 million stars as faint as V = 22 therefore out to large distances from the Sun. For the extragalactic program, our simulations suggest the wide wavelength coverage of PFS will be particularly powerful in probing the galaxy populations and its clustering properties over a wide redshift range. We will conduct a survey of color-selected 1 < z < 2 galaxies and AGN over 20 square degrees down to J = 23.4, yielding a fair sample of galaxies with stellar masses above ˜10^10 solar masses. Further, PFS will also provide unique spectroscopic opportunities even in the era of Euclid, LSST

  11. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey—The Hubble Space Telescope Observations, Imaging Data Products, and Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Roshan Cooray, Asantha; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Davé, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Häussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z ≈ 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ~125 arcmin2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ~800 arcmin2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  12. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  13. THE INFRARED EYE OF THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MULTIPLE MAIN SEQUENCES OF VERY LOW MASS STARS IN NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. E-mail: aparicio@iac.es; and others

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing {approx}65% and {approx}35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kuklik M, Zemkova D, Kozlowski K. 3-M syndrome in two sisters. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Temtamy SA, Aglan MS, Ashour AM, Ramzy MI, Hosny LA, Mostafa MI. 3-M syndrome: a report of three Egyptian cases with review ...

  15. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  16. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  17. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE FAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF COMPACT SOURCES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Sloan, G. C.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2010-04-15

    We present far-infrared spectra, {lambda} = 52-93 {mu}m, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer instrument, of a selection of luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These comprise nine young stellar objects (YSOs), the compact H II region N 81 and a similar object within N 84, and two red supergiants (RSGs). We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cool dust and the excitation conditions within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium. We compare these results with those obtained in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The spectra of the sources in N 81 (of which we also show the Infrared Space Observatory-Long-wavelength Spectrograph spectrum between 50 and 170 {mu}m) and N 84 both display strong [O I] {lambda}63 {mu}m and [O III] {lambda}88 {mu}m fine-structure line emission. We attribute these lines to strong shocks and photo-ionized gas, respectively, in a 'champagne flow' scenario. The nitrogen content of these two H II regions is very low, definitely N(N)/N(O) < 0.04 but possibly as low as N(N)/N(O) < 0.01. Overall, the oxygen lines and dust continuum are weaker in star-forming objects in the SMC than in the LMC. We attribute this to the lower metallicity of the SMC compared to that of the LMC. While the dust mass differs in proportion to metallicity, the oxygen mass differs less; both observations can be reconciled with higher densities inside star-forming cloud cores in the SMC than in the LMC. The dust in the YSOs in the SMC is warmer (37-51 K) than in comparable objects in the LMC (32-44 K). We attribute this to the reduced shielding and reduced cooling at the low metallicity of the SMC. On the other hand, the efficiency of the photo-electric effect to heat the gas is found to be indistinguishable to that measured in the same manner

  18. INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EXOPLANETS HD 209458b AND XO-1b USING THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA-3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee; McCullough, Peter; Crouzet, Nicolas; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Agol, Eric; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Haynes, Korey; Magic, Zazralt; Mandell, Avi M.; Clampin, Mark; Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David; Seager, Sara; and others

    2013-09-10

    Exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS is currently ambiguous because different observational groups claim different results from the same data, depending on their analysis methodologies. Spatial scanning with HST/WFC3 provides an opportunity to resolve this ambiguity. We here report WFC3 spectroscopy of the giant planets HD 209458b and XO-1b in transit, using spatial scanning mode for maximum photon-collecting efficiency. We introduce an analysis technique that derives the exoplanetary transmission spectrum without the necessity of explicitly decorrelating instrumental effects, and achieves nearly photon-limited precision even at the high flux levels collected in spatial scan mode. Our errors are within 6% (XO-1) and 26% (HD 209458b) of the photon-limit at a resolving power of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 70, and are better than 0.01% per spectral channel. Both planets exhibit water absorption of approximately 200 ppm at the water peak near 1.38 {mu}m. Our result for XO-1b contradicts the much larger absorption derived from NICMOS spectroscopy. The weak water absorption we measure for HD 209458b is reminiscent of the weakness of sodium absorption in the first transmission spectroscopy of an exoplanet atmosphere by Charbonneau et al. Model atmospheres having uniformly distributed extra opacity of 0.012 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} account approximately for both our water measurement and the sodium absorption. Our results for HD 209458b support the picture advocated by Pont et al. in which weak molecular absorptions are superposed on a transmission spectrum that is dominated by continuous opacity due to haze and/or dust. However, the extra opacity needed for HD 209458b is grayer than for HD 189733b, with a weaker Rayleigh component.

  19. Herschel Far-infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. I. PACS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Shimizu, T. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    Far-Infrared (FIR) photometry from the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 313 nearby, hard X-ray selected galaxies from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic Nuclei catalog. The present data do not distinguish between the FIR luminosity distributions at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. This result suggests that if the FIR emission is from the nuclear obscuring material surrounding the accretion disk, then it emits isotropically, independent of orientation. Alternatively, a significant fraction of the 70 and 160 μm luminosity could be from star formation, independent of active galactic nucleus (AGN) type. Using a non-parametric test for partial correlation with censored data, we find a statistically significant correlation between the AGN intrinsic power (in the 14-195 keV band) and the FIR emission at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find no correlation between the 14-195 keV and FIR luminosities in Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observed correlations suggest two possible scenarios: (1) if we assume that the FIR luminosity is a good tracer of star formation, then there is a connection between star formation and the AGN at sub-kiloparsec scales, or (2) dust heated by the AGN has a statistically significant contribution to the FIR emission. Using a Spearman rank-order analysis, the 14-195 keV luminosities for the Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies are weakly statistically correlated with the F 70/F 160 ratios. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the swift burst alert telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe. I. PACS observations

    SciTech Connect

    Meléndez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Shimizu, T. T.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2014-10-20

    Far-Infrared (FIR) photometry from the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 313 nearby, hard X-ray selected galaxies from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic Nuclei catalog. The present data do not distinguish between the FIR luminosity distributions at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. This result suggests that if the FIR emission is from the nuclear obscuring material surrounding the accretion disk, then it emits isotropically, independent of orientation. Alternatively, a significant fraction of the 70 and 160 μm luminosity could be from star formation, independent of active galactic nucleus (AGN) type. Using a non-parametric test for partial correlation with censored data, we find a statistically significant correlation between the AGN intrinsic power (in the 14-195 keV band) and the FIR emission at 70 and 160 μm for Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find no correlation between the 14-195 keV and FIR luminosities in Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observed correlations suggest two possible scenarios: (1) if we assume that the FIR luminosity is a good tracer of star formation, then there is a connection between star formation and the AGN at sub-kiloparsec scales, or (2) dust heated by the AGN has a statistically significant contribution to the FIR emission. Using a Spearman rank-order analysis, the 14-195 keV luminosities for the Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies are weakly statistically correlated with the F {sub 70}/F {sub 160} ratios.

  1. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe - II. SPIRE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Meléndez, Marcio; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Koss, Michael J.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory's Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) for 313 nearby (z < 0.05) active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected AGN from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue, the result of an all-sky survey in the 14-195 keV energy band, allowing for a reduction in AGN selection effects due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find 46 per cent (143/313) of our sample is detected at all three wavebands and combined with our Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations represents the most complete FIR spectral energy distributions of local, moderate-luminosity AGN. We find no correlation among the 250, 350, and 500 μm luminosities with 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating the bulk of the FIR emission is not related to the AGN. However, Seyfert 1s do show a very weak correlation with X-ray luminosity compared to Seyfert 2s and we discuss possible explanations. We compare the SPIRE colours (F250/F350 and F350/F500) to a sample of normal star-forming galaxies, finding the two samples are statistically similar, especially after matching in stellar mass. But a colour-colour plot reveals a fraction of the Herschel-BAT AGN are displaced from the normal star-forming galaxies due to excess 500 μm emission (E500). Our analysis shows E500 is strongly correlated with the 14-195 keV luminosity and 3.4/4.6 μm flux ratio, evidence the excess is related to the AGN. We speculate these sources are experiencing millimetre excess emission originating in the corona of the accretion disc.

  2. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In 1990 NASA launched the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. In addition to cameras and spectrographs usable from the far ultraviolet to the near-infrared, the observatory contains three white-light INTERFEROMETERS. As part of engineering and science support their primary task was telescope guiding; to position and hold science targets within the science instrument apertures with tolerances approaching 0.1'...

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  5. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  6. Infrared: Beyond the Visible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Infrared: Beyond the Visible, is a fast, fun look at why infrared light matters to astronomy, and what the Webb Space Telescope will search for once it's in orbit. Caption file available at: http:/...

  7. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE FAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF COMPACT SOURCES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. I. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Shiao, Bernie; Boyer, Martha L.; Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Marengo, Massimo; Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Sloan, G. C.

    2010-01-15

    We present far-infrared spectra, {lambda} = 52-93 {mu}m, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its MIPS instrument, of a representative sample of the most luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These include carbon stars, OH/IR asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB objects and planetary nebulae, the R CrB-type star HV 2671, the OH/IR red supergiants (RSGs) WOH G064 and IRAS 05280 - 6910, the three B[e] stars IRAS 04530 - 6916, R 66 and R 126, the Wolf-Rayet star Brey 3a, the luminous blue variable (LBV) R 71, the supernova remnant N 49, a large number of young stellar objects (YSOs), compact H II regions and molecular cores, and a background galaxy at a redshift z {approx_equal} 0.175. We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cold dust and the excitation conditions and shocks within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). First, we introduce a spectral classification scheme. Then, we measure line strengths, dust temperatures, and IR luminosities. Objects associated with star formation are readily distinguished from evolved stars by their cold dust and/or fine-structure lines. Evolved stars, including the LBV R 71, lack cold dust except in some cases where we argue that this is swept-up ISM. This leads to an estimate of the duration of the prolific dust-producing phase ('superwind') of several thousand years for both RSGs and massive AGB stars, with a similar fractional mass loss experienced despite the different masses. We tentatively detect line emission from neutral oxygen in the extreme RSG WOH G064, which suggests a large dust-free cavity with implications for wind driving. In N 49, the shock between the supernova ejecta and ISM is revealed in spectacular fashion by its strong [O I] {lambda}63 {mu}m emission and possibly water vapor; we estimate that 0.2 M {sub

  8. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John; Stockman, H. S.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), planned for launch in 2009, will be an 8-m class radiatively cooled infrared telescope at the Lagrange point L2. It will cover the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns with cameras and spectrometers, to observe the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, and the formation, growth, clustering, and evolution of galaxies, stars, and protoplanetary clouds, leading to better understanding of our own Origins. It will seek evidence of the cosmic dark matter through its gravitational effects. With an aperture three times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope, it will provide extraordinary advances in capabilities and enable the discovery of many new phenomena. It is a joint project of the NASA, ESA, and CSA, and scientific operations will be provided by the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  9. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  10. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  11. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  12. POST: a polar stratospheric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Bally, John; Crocker, James H.; Dopita, Mike; Tilley, James N.; Allen, Ronald; Bartko, Frank; White, Richard L.; Burg, Richard; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Harper, Doyal A.; Illingworth, Garth; McCray, Richard; Meyer, Stephan; Mould, Jeremy; Norman, Colin

    1994-06-01

    The lower stratosphere in the polar regions offers conditions for observation in the near-infrared comparable to those obtained from space. We describe a concept for a 6-meter, diluted aperture, near-infrared telescope carried by a tethered aerostat flying at 12 km altitude, to serve as a testbed for future space astronomical observatories while producing frontier science.

  13. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  15. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  16. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  17. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  18. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  19. Origins Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  20. Cats: Optical to Near-Infrared Colors of the Bulge and Disk of Two z = 0.7 Galaxies Using Hubble Space Telescope and Keck Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, E.; Melbourne, J.; Metevier, A. J.; Koo, D. C.; Chun, M. R.; Simard, L.; Larkin, J. E.; Max, C. E.

    2008-10-01

    We have employed laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck II telescope to obtain near-infrared (NIR) images in the Extended Groth Strip deep galaxy survey field. This is a continuation of our Center for Adaptive Optics Treasury Survey program of targeting 0.5 < z < 1 galaxies where existing images with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are already in hand. Our AO field has already been imaged by the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS). Our AO images at 2.2 μm (K') are comparable in depth to those from the HST, have Strehl ratios up to 0.4, and full width at half-maximum resolutions superior to that from NICMOS. By sampling the field with the LGS at different positions, we obtain better quality AO images than with an immovable natural guide star. As examples of the power of adding LGS AO to HST data, we study the optical to NIR colors and color gradients of the bulge and disk of two galaxies in the field with z = 0.7. All authors except L.S. are affiliated with the Center for Adaptive Optics.

  1. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  2. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  3. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  4. Coating Procedure of Subaru Telescope Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kamata, Yukiko; Kanzawa, Tomio; Miyashiti, Akihiko; Nakagiri, Masao; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Takeshi; Okita, Kiichi; Oshima, Norio; Sasaki, Goro; Torii, Yasuo; Yutani, Masami; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    For coating large mirrors of Subaru Telescope, we employ conventional evaporation scheme because it is known for uniform coverage. We will report installation and the performance verification of the coating facility of Subaru telescope. The coating facility consists of a washing tower for stripping the old coating from the primary mirror, a large evaporation coating chamber, two trolleys for the primary mirror, and a scissors-like primary mirror lifter. Tests with large coating chamber at Mauna Kea, as well as with smaller chamber at Mitaka, will be discussed. To supply a large number of filaments with uniform quality, our practical solution is to pre-wet the filaments and keep them in a controlled environment before the evaporation. In the initial test, aluminum film over the large area exceeded the number targeted for the thickness and yet the uniformity turned out to be better than the specification. Reflectivity of the fresh surface was over 90% at visible wavelength. In September 1997, we re-aluminized 1.6m infrared simulator at Mitaka for the first time using pre-wetted filaments. The result verified our coating procedures for the secondary mirror in late 1997 and the 8.3m primary mirror in early in 1998.

  5. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1982-10-01

    The development of a new generation of orbital, airborne and ground-based infrared astronomical observatory facilities, including the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), the cosmic background explorer (COBE), the NASA Kuiper airborne observatory, and the NASA infrared telescope facility, intensified the need for a comprehensive, machine-readable data base and catalog of current infrared astronomical observations. The Infrared Astronomical Data Base and its principal data product, this catalog, comprise a machine-readable library of infrared (1 micrometer to 1000 micrometers) astronomical observations published in the scientific literature since 1965.

  6. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a new generation of orbital, airborne and ground-based infrared astronomical observatory facilities, including the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS), the cosmic background explorer (COBE), the NASA Kuiper airborne observatory, and the NASA infrared telescope facility, intensified the need for a comprehensive, machine-readable data base and catalog of current infrared astronomical observations. The Infrared Astronomical Data Base and its principal data product, this catalog, comprise a machine-readable library of infrared (1 micrometer to 1000 micrometers) astronomical observations published in the scientific literature since 1965.

  7. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  8. UBVR and Hubble Space Telescope Mid-Ultraviolet and Near-Infrared Surface Photometry and Radial Color Gradients of Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Violet A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Odewahn, Stephen C.; Hibbard, John E.

    2005-09-01

    We introduce a data set of 142 mostly late-type spiral, irregular, and peculiar (interacting or merging) nearby galaxies observed in UBVR at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), and we present an analysis of their radial color gradients. We confirm that nearby elliptical and early- to mid-type spiral galaxies show either no or only small color gradients, becoming slightly bluer with radius. In contrast, we find that late-type spiral, irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies become on average redder with increasing distance from the center. The scatter in radial color gradient trends increases toward later Hubble type. As a preliminary analysis of a larger data set obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we also analyze the color gradients of six nearby galaxies observed with NICMOS in the near-IR (H) and with WFPC2 in the mid-UV (F300W) and red (F814W). We discuss the possible implications of these results on galaxy formation and compare our nearby galaxy color gradients to those at high redshift. We present examples of images and UBVR radial surface brightness and color profiles, as well as of the tables of measurements; the full atlas and tables are published in the electronic edition only. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 8645, 9124, and 9824.

  9. Space Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Kirkpatrick–Baez type systems and the focussing colli- mator or ‘ lobster -eye’ systems. 1http://henke.lbl.gov/optical constants/ 176 9. Space...mirror requires a longer telescope. Focussing collimator or ‘ lobster -eye’ telescopes The Wolter and the Kirkpatrick–Baez systems have in common a...9.13: Flat-mirror two-dimensional focussing collimator or detached lobster - eye configuration (Schmidt 1975). within one tube but from adjacent walls a

  10. SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ˜ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Rest-frame Morphology, Structure, and Colors from Near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Lang, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A. E.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S. F.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.; Davies, R. I.; Kurk, J.; Pozzetti, L.

    2015-04-01

    We present the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) J- and H-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 2, which have adaptive optics Very Large Telescope SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI Hα data resolve the ongoing star formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of 1-2 kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies’ rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single Sérsic profile with n˜ 1, with only ˜ 15% requiring a high n\\gt 3 Sérsic index, all more massive than {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. In bulge+disk fits, about 40% of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with ˜ 15% showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio (B/T) B/T≳ 0.3. This is a lower limit to the frequency of z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies’ rest-optical half-light radii range between 1 and 7 kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The {{(u-g)}rest} color gradient and scatter within individual z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with ≳ {{10}11} {{M}⊙ } are as high as in z = 0 low-mass, late-type galaxies and are consistent with the high star formation rates of massive z ˜ 2 galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  11. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  12. ASTROCAM: An Offner Re-imaging 1024 x 1024 InSb Camera for Near-Infrared Astrometry on the USNO 1.55-m Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Kosakowskif, C. C. Dudleya and Kenneth Johnstoni aNaval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Washington, DC, USA bU.S. Naval Observatory ...Flagstaff Station, PO Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ, USA cMauna Kea Infrared, LLC, 159 Kalanikoa St, Hilo, HI USA dUniversity of Chicago Engineering Center...gApplied Designs, 3001 Specific Heights Rd, Honolulu, HI, USA hCAD Services, 1158 Mowai St, Kailua, HI, USA iU.S. Naval Observatory , 3450 Massachusetts

  13. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  14. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  15. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  16. AN INFRARED SEARCH FOR HDO IN COMET D/2012 S1 (ISON) AND IMPLICATIONS FOR iSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, Erika L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Paganini, Lucas; DiSanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2016-01-10

    We performed a sensitive search for HDO in comet D/2012 S1 (ISON) on 2013 November 16, 17, and 22 using CSHELL and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We constrained the HDO/H{sub 2}O ratio to <2.0 VSMOW (the terrestrial ocean value) at the 3σ uncertainty level from two independent measurements corresponding to different H{sub 2}O outgassing rates. This represents the best constrained HDO/H{sub 2}O ratio for a comet using a small (3 m) telescope and illustrates that when CSHELL is replaced with iSHELL, 3 m class telescopes are still strong contenders for detecting minor volatile species in moderately bright comets.

  17. An Infrared Search for HDO in Comet D/2012 S1 (ISON) and Implications for iSHELL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibb, Erika L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Paganini, Lucas; Mumma, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a sensitive search for HDO in comet D/2012 S1 (ISON) on 2013 November 16, 17, and 22 using CSHELL and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We constrained the HDO/H2O ratio to less than 2.0 VSMOW (the terrestrial ocean value) at the 3 sigma uncertainty level from two independent measurements corresponding to different H2O outgassing rates. This represents the best constrained HDO/H2O ratio for a comet using a small (3 m) telescope and illustrates that when CSHELL is replaced with iSHELL, 3 m class telescopes are still strong contenders for detecting minor volatile species in moderately bright comets.

  18. Infrared astronomy takes center stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick C.; Gatley, Ian; Hollenbach, David

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of infrared astronomy, including the ability to detect cool matter, explore the hidden universe, reveal a wealth of spectral lines, and reach back to the beginning of time are outlined. Ground-based infrared observations such as observations in the thermal infrared region are discussed as well as observations utilizing infrared telescopes aboard NASA aircraft and orbiting telescopes. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy are described, and it is pointed out that infrared astronomers can penetrate obscuring dust to study stars and interstellar matter throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Application of various infrared instruments to the investigation of stars and planets is emphasized, and focus is placed on the discovery of clouds or disks of particles around mature stars and acquisition of high-resolution spectra of the gaseous and solid materials orbiting on the fringes of the solar system.

  19. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  20. Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation; Sunset Village, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Ian S.

    1994-01-01

    Conference papers on infrared array techniques and methods for infrared astronomy are presented. Topics covered include the following: infrared telescopes; infrared spectrometers; spaceborne astronomy; astronomical observatories; infrared cameras; imaging techniques; sky surveys; infrared photography; infrared photometry; infrared spectroscopy; equipment specifications; data processing and analysis; control systems; cryogenic equipment; adaptive optics; image resolution; infrared detector materials; and focal plane arrays.

  1. Infrared Astronomy After IRAS.

    PubMed

    Rieke, G H; Werner, M W; Thompson, R I; Becklin, E E; Hoffmann, W F; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Stein, W A; Witteborn, F C

    1986-02-21

    The 250,000 sources in the recently issued Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) all-sky infrared catalog are a challenge to astronomy. Many of these sources will be studied with existing and planned ground-based and airborne telescopes, but many others can no longer even be detected now that IRAS has ceased to operate. As anticipated by advisory panels of the National Academy of Sciences for a decade, study of the IRAS sources will require the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), a cooled, pointed telescope in space. This instrument may be the key to our understanding of cosmic birth-the formation of planets, stars, galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and quasars. Compared with IRAS and existing telescopes, SIRTF's power derives from a thousandfold gain in sensitivity over five octaves of the spectrum.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  3. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  4. The mass-metallicity and fundamental metallicity relations at z > 2 using very large telescope and Subaru near-infrared spectroscopy of zCOSMOS galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, C.; Ziegler, B. L.; Lilly, S. J.; Peng, Y.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called 'fundamental metallicity relation' (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al.

  5. The Mass-Metallicity and Fundamental Metallicity Relations at z > 2 Using Very Large Telescope and Subaru Near-infrared Spectroscopy of zCOSMOS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Ziegler, B. L.; Contini, T.; Pérez Montero, E.; Peng, Y.; Balestra, I.

    2014-09-01

    In the local universe, there is good evidence that, at a given stellar mass M, the gas-phase metallicity Z is anti-correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. It has also been claimed that the resulting Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with redshift—the so-called "fundamental metallicity relation" (FMR). Given a number of difficulties in determining metallicities, especially at higher redshifts, the form of the Z(M, SFR) relation and whether it is really independent of redshift is still very controversial. To explore this issue at z > 2, we used VLT-SINFONI and Subaru-MOIRCS near-infrared spectroscopy of 20 zCOSMOS-deep galaxies at 2.1 < z < 2.5 to measure the strengths of up to five emission lines: [O II] λ3727, Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584. This near-infrared spectroscopy enables us to derive O/H metallicities, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) of these star-forming galaxies at z ≈ 2.3 is lower than the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than found by Erb et al. using [N II]/Hα-based metallicities from stacked spectra. We discuss how the different selections of the samples and metallicity calibrations used may be responsible for this discrepancy. The galaxies show direct evidence that the SFR is still a second parameter in the MZR at these redshifts. However, determining whether the Z(M, SFR) relation is invariant with epoch depends on the choice of extrapolation used from local samples, because z > 2 galaxies of a given mass have much higher SFRs than the local SDSS galaxies. We find that the zCOSMOS galaxies are consistent with a non-evolving FMR if we use the physically motivated formulation of the Z(M, SFR) relation from Lilly et al., but not if we use the empirical formulation of Mannucci et al. AND SUBARU

  6. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  7. Infrared Studies of AFGL Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-14

    displaced. We have recently used a small beam infrared photometer on the Wyoming Infrared Telescope to produce a set of isophotal maps of GL- 2636 which...reported herein, suggest that GL2636 ma1 be similar to the - Lco;plex in N42. 35 11. The Infrared Observation Isophotal maps of GL2636 were produced at

  8. On the origin of [Ne II] emission in young stars: mid-infrared and optical observations with the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Audard, M.; Carmona, A.; Güdel, M.; Briggs, K.; Rebull, L. M.; Skinner, S. L.; Ercolano, B.

    2012-07-01

    the disk. For the stars with VLT-UVES observations, in several cases, the optical forbidden line profiles and shifts are very similar to the profile of the [Ne II] line, suggesting that the lines are emitted in the same region. A general trend observed with VISIR is a lower line flux when compared with the fluxes obtained with Spitzer. We found no correlation between the line full-width at half maximum and the line peak velocity. The [Ne II] line remains undetected in a large part of the sample, an indication that the emission detected with Spitzer in those stars is likely extended. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes Kueyen/UT2 and Melipal/UT3 at the Paranal Observatory under programs ID 083.C-0471, 084.C-1062, 086.C-0911, and 286.C-5038.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. The development of WIFIS: a wide integral field infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Chou, Richard C. Y.; Moon, Dae-Sik; Ma, Ke; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Sang Chul; Raines, Steven N.; Eisner, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    We present the current results from the development of a wide integral field infrared spectrograph (WIFIS). WIFIS offers an unprecedented combination of etendue and spectral resolving power for seeing-limited, integral field observations in the 0.9 - 1.8 μm range and is most sensitive in the 0.9 - 1.35 μ,m range. Its optical design consists of front-end re-imaging optics, an all-reflective image slicer-type, integral field unit (IFU) called FISICA, and a long-slit grating spectrograph back-end that is coupled with a HAWAII 2RG focal plane array. The full wavelength range is achieved by selecting between two different gratings. By virtue of its re-imaging optics, the spectrograph is quite versatile and can be used at multiple telescopes. The size of its field-of-view is unrivalled by other similar spectrographs, offering a 4.511x 1211 integral field at a 10-meter class telescope (or 2011 x 5011 at a 2.3-meter telescope). The use of WIFIS will be crucial in astronomical problems which require wide-field, two-dimensional spectroscopy such as the study of merging galaxies at moderate redshift and nearby star/planet-forming regions and supernova remnants. We discuss the final optical design of WIFIS, and its predicted on-sky performance on two reference telescope platforms: the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope and the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We also present the results from our laboratory characterization of FISICA. IFU properties such as magnification, field-mapping, and slit width along the entire slit length were measured by our tests. The construction and testing of WIFIS is expected to be completed by early 2013. We plan to commission the instrument at the 2.3-m Steward Bok telescope at Kitt Peak, USA in Spring 2013.

  10. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in late fall 1995 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia. Construction

  12. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in spring of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximicrons flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximicrons stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia

  13. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lifan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Gu, Bozhong; Li, Xinnan; Yang, Shihai; Gong, Xuefei; Du, Fujia; Qi, Yongjun; Xu, Lingzhe

    2014-07-01

    Chinese Antarctic Observatory has been listed as National large research infrastructure during twelfth five-year plan. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope, one of two major facility of Chinese Antarctic Observatory, is a 2.5-meter optic/infrared telescope and will be built at the Chinese Antarctic Kunlun Station. It is intended to take advantage of the exceptional seeing conditions, as well as the low temperature reducing background for infrared observations. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system, which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. All of parts of it have been designed carefully to endure the extremely harsh environment. KDUST will be perched on a 14.5-meter-high tower to lift it above the turbulence layer. In this paper, preliminary design and key technology pre-research of KDUST will be introduced.

  14. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  15. Holographic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope: large deployable cryogenic telescope in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Atkinson, Charles; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an infrared space telescope designed to explore four major science themes: first light and reionization, the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planetary systems and origins of life. JWST is a segmented architecture telescope with an aperture of 6.6 m. It will operate at cryogenic temperature (40 K), achieved via passive cooling, in an orbit about the Earth-Sun second Lagrange point (L2). Passive cooling is facilitated by means of a large sunshield that provides thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the Sun. The large size of the telescope and spacecraft systems require that they are stowed for launch in a configuration that fits the Ariane 5 fairing, and then deployed after launch. Routine wavefront sensing and control measurements are used to achieve phasing of the segmented primary mirror and initial alignment of the telescope. A suite of instruments will provide the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6- to 27-μm wavelengths with imaging and spectroscopic configurations. An overview is presented of the architecture and selected optical design features of JWST are described.

  17. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  19. A 4-meter wide field coronagraph space telescope for general astrophysics and exoplanet observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerelli, Domenick; Angel, Roger; Burge, Jim; Guyon, Olivier; Zabludoff, Ann; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Egerman, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The Wide Field Coronagraph Telescope (WFCT) is a 4-meter space telescope for general astrophysics and exoplanet observations that meets the 2000 Decadal Committee requirements. This paper presents a design for a 4-m diameter, off-axis space telescope that offers high performance in both wide field and coronagraphic imaging modes. A 3.8 x 3.3-m unobstructed elliptical pupil is provided for direct coronagraphic imaging of exoplanets and a 4-m diameter pupil for wide-field imaging from far-ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (IR). The off-axis wide-field optics are all reflective and designed to deliver an average of 12 nm wavefront aberrations over a 6 x 24 arcminute field of view (FOV), therefore providing diffraction-limited images down to 300 nm wavelength and 15 mas images down to a wavelength limit set only by the mirror coatings. The coronagraph with phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) provides diffraction suppression around a 360-degree field with high Strehl and sensitivity at the 1e-10 level to an inner working angle of 2 λ/D (or 50 mas at 500 nm wavelength). This paper focuses on the optical design that allows the above imaging features to be combined in single telescope, and gives a preliminary spacecraft design and costing, assuming a distant trailing orbit.

  20. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  1. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D.; Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L.; Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W.; Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Bunker, A.

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  2. Herschel far-infrared photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope active galactic nuclei sample of the local universe - III. Global star-forming properties and the lack of a connection to nuclear activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael J.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2017-04-01

    We combine the Herschel Space Observatory PACS (Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer) and SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) photometry with archival WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) photometry to construct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for over 300 local (z < 0.05), ultrahard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 58-month catalogue. Using a simple analytical model that combines an exponentially cutoff power law with a single temperature modified blackbody, we decompose the SEDs into a host galaxy and AGN component. We calculate dust masses, dust temperatures, and star formation rates (SFRs) for our entire sample and compare them to a stellar mass-matched sample of local non-AGN galaxies. We find AGN host galaxies have systematically higher dust masses, dust temperatures, and SFRs due to the higher prevalence of late-type galaxies to host an AGN, in agreement with previous studies of the Swift/BAT AGN. We provide a scaling to convert X-ray luminosities into 8-1000 μm AGN luminosities, as well as determine the best mid-to-far IR colours for identifying AGN-dominated galaxies in the IR regime. We find that for nearly 30 per cent of our sample, the 70 μm emission contains a significant contribution from the AGN (>0.5), especially at higher luminosities (L14 - 195 keV > 1042.5 erg s-1). Finally, we measure the local SFR-AGN luminosity relationship, finding a slope of 0.18, large scatter (0.37 dex), and no evidence for an upturn at high AGN luminosity. We conclude with a discussion on the implications of our results within the context of galaxy evolution with and without AGN feedback.

  3. Monitoring LMXBs with the Faulkes Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Fraser; Russell, D. M.; Fender, R. P.; Roche, P.

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is the educational arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT). It currently has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned to increase this to six 2-metre telescopes in the future, complemented by a network of 30-40 smaller (0.4 - 1 metre) telescopes providing 24 hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. We are undertaking a monitoring project of 10 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using FT North to study the optical continuum behaviour of X-ray transients in quiescence. The introduction of FT South in September 2006 allows us to extend this monitoring to include 17 southern hemisphere LMXBs. With new instrumentation, we also intend to expand this monitoring to include both infrared wavelengths and spectroscopy.

  4. MI-6: Michigan interferometry with six telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Anderson, M.; Baron, F.; Berger, D. H.; Che, X.; Eckhause, T.; Kraus, S.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; Millan-Gabet, R.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Irwin, P.; Zhao, M.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the success of four-telescope imaging with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) on the CHARA Array, our Michigan-based group will now upgrade our system to combine all six CHARA telescope simultaneously. In order to make this observationally efficient, we have had to improve a number of subsystems and commission new ones, including the new CHAMP fringe tracker, the introduction of photometric channels, the upgrading of the realtime operating systems, and the obvious hardware and software upgrades of the control system and the data pipeline. Here we will discuss the advantages of six-telescope operation, outline our upgrade plans and discuss our current progress.

  5. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  9. Efficient 3M PBS enhancing miniature projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Zhisheng; Nevitt, Timothy; Willett, Stephen; Mortenson, Dave; Le, John; McDowell, Erin; Kent, Susan; Wong, Timothy; Beniot, Gilles J.; Ouderkirk, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3M has developed a number of mobile projectors, with a goal towards providing the world's smallest, most efficient projection systems. Compact size and efficiency are required characteristics for projection systems used in mobile devices and more lately, in augmented reality systems. In this paper we summarize the main generations of 3M light engine optical designs. We present the optical architectures of four light engines, including the rationale behind the illumination designs and the projection systems. In particular, we describe various configurations relating to the 3M polarizing beam splitter (PBS) which is key to enhanced efficiency of the miniature projection systems.

  10. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  11. Infrared astronomy after IRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Thompson, R. I.; Werner, M. W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Becklin, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of infrared astronomy in the wake of IRAS is discussed. Attention is given to an overview of next generation infrared telescope technology, with emphasis on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) which has been built to replace IRAS in the 1990s. Among the instruments to be included on SIRTF are: a wide-field high-resolution camera covering the infrared range 3-30 microns with large arrays of detectors; an imaging photometer operating in the range 3-700 microns; and a spectrograph covering the range 2.5-200 microns with resolutions of 2 and 0.1 percent. Observational missions for the SIRTF are proposed in connection with: planetary formation; star formation; cosmic energy sources; active galactic nuclei; and quasars.

  12. Arrays vs. single telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. L.

    The question of the relative efficiencies of telescope arrays versus an equivalent mirror-area very large telescope is re-examined and summarized. Four separate investigations by Bowen, Johnson and Richards, Code, and Disney all came to the same conclusion: that an array of telescopes is superior, both scientifically and economically, to a single very large telescope. The costs of recently completed telescopes are compared. The costs of arrays of telescopes are shown to be significantly lower than that of a single, very large telescope, with the further advantage that because existing, proven, designs can be used, no engineering 'break-throughs' are needed.

  13. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  14. Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Large Aperture Infrared Telescope System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    a number of DoD related issues related to Anti-Satellite (ASAT), Space-Based Space Survelliance (SBSS), and Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...possible using their (1) thermal emission, (2) exhaust, dump and plume spectra, and (3) spatial character- istics and track . 2.2 Cold Target Skin Emission

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  16. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  17. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  18. Telescope Bernard Lyot: operation, instrumentation, perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanac, R.

    2016-12-01

    This talk is the TBL director report at the 3rd French national telescopes Users Meeting of 2016. Telescope Bernard Lyot, the 2-m at Pic du midi (2870m), is dedicated to spectro-polarimetric studies since 2007 with the instrument Narval. This paper presents TBL operation, science highlights and statistics of the past 10 years of operation. It also opens perspectives for the coming 10 years with the funding of Neo-Narval (Narval stabilized to v_r < 3m/s) and SPIrou at Pic du midi (aka SPIP) for the study of the young exoplanetary systems.

  19. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  20. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  1. Telescope performance at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Rothberg, Barry; Christou, Julian C.; Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Virginia. The telescope uses two 8.4-m diameter primary mirrors mounted sideby- side on the same AZ-EL mount to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8-meter aperture. Adaptive optics loops are routinely closed with natural stars on both sides for sided and combined beam observations. Rayleigh laser guide stars provide GLAO seeing improvement. With the telescope now in operation for 10 years, we report on various statistics of telescope performance and seeing-limited image quality. Statistics of telescope performance are reported in the areas of off-axis guiding, open-loop mount tracking, active optics and vibration. Delivered image quality is reported as measured by the DIMM and several guide cameras as a function of other parameters such as temperature and wind velocity. Projects to improve image quality and dome seeing are underway.

  2. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  3. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA conditionally granted the request from 3M for a waiver from testing tetrabromobisphenol A (CASRN 79-94-7). Regulations issued by EPA under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act... application is submitted to EPA and is approved. EPA received such a request for a waiver from these...

  4. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  5. Infrared Solar Physics.

    PubMed

    Penn, Matthew J

    The infrared solar spectrum contains a wealth of physical data about our Sun, and is explored using modern detectors and technology with new ground-based solar telescopes. The scientific motivation behind exploring these wavelengths is presented, along with a brief look at the rich history of observations here. Several avenues of solar physics research exploiting and benefiting from observations at infrared wavelengths from roughly 1000 nm to 12 400 nm are discussed, and the instrument and detector technology driving this research is briefly summarized. Finally, goals for future work at infrared wavelengths are presented in conjunction with ground and space-based observations.

  6. POST: Polar Stratospheric Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bely, Pierre Y.; Ford, Holland C.; Burg, Richard; Petro, Larry; White, Rick; Bally, John

    1995-10-01

    The tropopause, typically at 16 to 18 km altitude at the lower latitudes, dips to 8 km in the polar regions. This makes the cold, dry and nonturbulent lower stratosphere accessible to tethered aerostats. Tethered aerostats can fly as high as 12 km and are extremely reliable, lasting for many years. In contrast to free-flying balloons, they can stay on station for weeks at a time, and payloads can be safely recovered for maintenance and adjustment and relaunched in a matter of hours. We propose to use such a platform, located first in the Arctic (near Fairbanks, Alaska) and, potentially, later in the Antarctic, to operate a new technology 6-meter, diluted aperture telescope with diffraction-limited performance in the near infrared. Thanks to the low ambient temperature (220 K), thermal emission from the optics is of the same order as that of the zodiacal light in the 2 to 3 micron band. Since this wavelength interval is the darkest part of the zodiacal light spectrum from optical wavelengths to 100 microns, the combination of high resolution images and a very dark sky make it the spectral region of choice for observing the redshifted light from galaxies and clusters of galaxies at moderate to high redshifts.

  7. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the design of telescopes with background limited performance, at least in some parts of the thermal infrared spectrum. Why leave the Earth to perform infrared astronomy is addressed as is the reasons for going all the way to the Moon for its environment.

  8. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  9. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  10. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  11. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    telescope at La Silla on May 11, 1999, at 08:42 UT, under inferior observing conditions (seeing = 1.9 arcsec). The exposure time was 450 sec in a B(lue) filter. The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is indicated with an arrow in the upper part of the field that measures about 8 x 16 arcmin 2. The original scale is 0.24 pix/arcsec and there are 2k x 4k pixels in the original frame. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 22b/99 : This is a (false-)colour composite of the area around the optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510, based on three near-infrared exposures with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the 3.6-m ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, obtained on May 10, 1999, between 23:15 and 23:45 UT. The exposure times were 10 min each in the J- (1.2 µm; here rendered in blue), H- (1.6 µm; green) and K-bands (2.2 µm; red); the image quality is excellent (0.6 arcsec). The field measures about 5 x 5 arcmin 2 ; the original pixel size is 0.29 arcsec. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 22c/99 ESO PR Photo 22c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 235 pix - 81k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 469 pix - 244k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2732 x 1603 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22d/99 ESO PR Photo 22d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 441 pix - 154k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 561k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2537 pix - 2.3M] Caption to PR Photo 22c/99 : To the left is a reproduction of a short (30 sec) centering exposure in the V-band (green-yellow light), obtained with VLT ANTU and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument on May 11, 1999, at 03:48 UT under mediocre observing conditions (image quality 1.0 arcsec).The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is easily seen in the box, by comparison with an exposure of the same sky field before the explosion, made with the ESO Schmidt Telescope in 1986 (right).The exposure time was 120 min on IIIa-F emulsion behind a R(ed) filter. The field shown measures about 6.2 x 6.2 arcmin 2. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR

  12. Infrared observations of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha S.

    1991-01-01

    Selected comets are observed in the near infrared (1 to 2.2 micron) and thermal infrared (3.5 to 20 micron) with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and other telescopes as appropriate, in order to characterize the physical properties of the dust grains; their composition, size distribution, emissivity, and albedo. Systematic variations in these properties among comets are looked for, in order to understand the heterogeneity of comet nuclei. Spectrophotometry of the 10 micron silicate emission feature is particularly emphasized. The rate of dust production from the nucleus and its temporal variability are also determined. Knowledge of the dust environment is essential to S/C design and mission planning for NASA's CRAF mission.

  13. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  14. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  15. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  16. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  17. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  18. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  19. ACS (Alma Common Software) operating a set of robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, C.; Ramolla, M.; Lemke, R.; Haas, M.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.

    2014-07-01

    We use the ALMA Common Software (ACS) to establish a unified middleware for robotic observations with the 40cm Optical, 80cm Infrared and 1.5m Hexapod telescopes located at OCA (Observatorio Cerro Armazones) and the ESO 1-m located at La Silla. ACS permits to hide from the observer the technical specifications, like mount-type or camera-model. Furthermore ACS provides a uniform interface to the different telescopes, allowing us to run the same planning program for each telescope. Observations are carried out for long-term monitoring campaigns to study the variability of stars and AGN. We present here the specific implementation to the different telescopes.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This image illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). One of the three major elements of the HST, the OTA consists of two mirrors (a primary mirror and a secondary mirror), support trusses, and the focal plane structure. The mirrors collect and focus light from selected celestial objects and are housed near the center of the telescope. The primary mirror captures light from objects in space and focuses it toward the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror redirects the light to a focal plane where the Scientific Instruments are located. The primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 meters) in diameter and the secondary mirror is 12.2 inches (0.3 meters) in diameter. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth Orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from the Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The spacecraft is 42.5 feet (13 meters) long and weighs 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  1. Infrared Astronomy with Arrays: The Next Generation; Sunset Village, LOS Angeles, CA, Oct. 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Ian S.

    Conference papers on infrared array techniques and methods for infrared astronomy are presented. Topics covered include the following: infrared telescopes; infrared spectrometers; spaceborne astronomy; astronomical observatories; infrared cameras; imaging techniques; sky surveys; infrared photography; infrared photometry; infrared spectroscopy; equipment specifications; data processing and analysis; control systems; cryogenic equipment; adaptive optics; image resolution; infrared detector materials; and focal plane arrays. For individual titles, see A95-62894 through A95-62970.

  2. NASA's Newest Orbital Debris Ground-based Telescope Assets: MCAT and UKIRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Frith, J.; Pace, L. F.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Buckalew, B.; Nishimoto, D.; Douglas, D.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2014-09-01

    NASAs Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) will break ground on Ascension Island in 2014 to build the newest optical (0.30 1.06 microns) ground-based telescope asset dedicated to the study of orbital debris. The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is a 1.3m optical telescope designed to track objects in orbits ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Ascension Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, offering longitudinal sky coverage not afforded by the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. With a fast-tracking dome, a suite of visible wide-band filters, and a time-delay integration (TDI) capable camera, MCAT is capable of multiple observing modes ranging from tracking cataloged debris targets to surveying the overall debris environment. Access to the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) will extend our spectral coverage into the near- (0.8-5 micron) and mid- to far-infrared (8-25 micron) regime. UKIRT is a 3.8m telescope located on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. At nearly 14,000-feet and above the atmospheric inversion layer, this is one of the premier astronomical sites in the world and is an ideal setting for an infrared telescope. An unprecedented one-third of this telescopes time has been allocated to collect orbital debris data for NASAs ODPO over a 2-year period. UKIRT has several instruments available to obtain low-resolution spectroscopy in both the near-IR and the mid/far-IR. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for constraining the material types, albedos and sizes of debris targets, and potentially gaining insight into reddening effects caused by space weathering. In addition, UKIRT will be used to acquire broadband photometric imaging at GEO with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) for studying known objects of interest as well as collecting data in survey-mode to discover new targets. Results from the first stage of the debris campaign will be presented. The combination of

  3. NASA's Newest Orbital Debris Ground-based Telescope Assets: MCAT and UKIRT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Frith, J. M.; Pace, L. F.; Cowardin, H. M.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Buckalew, B.; Nishimoto, D.; Douglas, D.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) will break ground on Ascension Island in 2014 to build the newest optical (0.30 - 1.06 micrometers) ground-based telescope asset dedicated to the study of orbital debris. The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is a 1.3m optical telescope designed to track objects in orbits ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Ascension Island is located in the South Atlantic Ocean, offering longitudinal sky coverage not afforded by the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. With a fast-tracking dome, a suite of visible wide-band filters, and a time-delay integration (TDI) capable camera, MCAT is capable of multiple observing modes ranging from tracking cataloged debris targets to surveying the overall debris environment. Access to the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) will extend our spectral coverage into the near- (0.8-5 micrometers) and mid- to far-infrared (8-25 micrometers) regime. UKIRT is a 3.8m telescope located on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. At nearly 14,000-feet and above the atmospheric inversion layer, this is one of the premier astronomical sites in the world and is an ideal setting for an infrared telescope. An unprecedented one-third of this telescope's time has been allocated to collect orbital debris data for NASA's ODPO over a 2-year period. UKIRT has several instruments available to obtain low-resolution spectroscopy in both the near-IR and the mid/far-IR. Infrared spectroscopy is ideal for constraining the material types, albedos and sizes of debris targets, and potentially gaining insight into reddening effects caused by space weathering. In addition, UKIRT will be used to acquire broadband photometric imaging at GEO with the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) for studying known objects of interest as well as collecting data in survey-mode to discover new targets. Results from the first stage of the debris campaign will be presented. The

  4. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  5. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitiess Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instrument(s) and the start of the integration and test phase.

  6. VY Monocerotis and the IC 446 region - Far-infrared and submillimeter images of a massive young stellar object and its environment

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.C.; Harper, D.A. Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI )

    1990-10-01

    The reflection nebulae IC 446 has been mapped in an 8 x 8-arcmin area at 100, 160, and 370 microns using 32-channel bolometer-array detectors on the 0.9-m telescope of the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory and the 3-m telescope of the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with IRAS profiles at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns to investigate the morphology and energetics of the region. The FIR through submm emission in the neighborhood of IC 446 is composed of three components: a compact point source associated with the young stellar object VY Mon, warm extended emission associated with dust in the reflection nebula IC 446, and cold extended emission associated with a dark absorption nebula or globule. 69 refs.

  7. Multiple-frame IR photo-recorder KIT-3M

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E; Wilkins, P; Nebeker, N; Murugov, V; Kravchenko, A; Lasarchuk, V; Litvin, D; Mis'ko, V; Petrov, S; Senik, A; Sheremetiev, Y

    2006-05-15

    This paper reports the experimental results of a high-speed multi-frame infrared camera which has been developed in Sarov at VNIIEF. Earlier [1] we discussed the possibility of creation of the multi-frame infrared radiation photo-recorder with framing frequency about 1 MHz. The basis of the photo-recorder is a semiconductor ionization camera [2, 3], which converts IR radiation of spectral range 1-10 micrometers into a visible image. Several sequential thermal images are registered by using the IR converter in conjunction with a multi-frame electron-optical camera. In the present report we discuss the performance characteristics of a prototype commercial 9-frame high-speed IR photo-recorder. The image converter records infrared images of thermal fields corresponding to temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2000 C with an exposure time of 1-20 {micro}s at a frame frequency up to 500 KHz. The IR-photo-recorder camera is useful for recording the time evolution of thermal fields in fast processes such as gas dynamics, ballistics, pulsed welding, thermal processing, automotive industry, aircraft construction, in pulsed-power electric experiments, and for the measurement of spatial mode characteristics of IR-laser radiation.

  8. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole.

  9. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  10. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  11. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  12. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  13. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  14. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  15. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  16. Ultraviolet, optical and infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, E. J.

    1982-11-01

    The principal scientific currents in ultraviolet, optical, and infrared astronomy are discussed, with detailed descriptions of the major recommendations of the Panel on Ultraviolet, Optical and Infrared Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences' Astronomy Survey Committee. The task of this panel was to survey progress and capabilities and to set priorities for new instrumentation in those branches of astronomy devoted to collecting and analyzing the information carried by cosmic photons with wavelengths between about 100 angstroms and 1 mm. It is pointed out that the best astronomical site in the U.S., the 14,000-foot-high summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, now has more square meters of telescope aperture operated by French, Canadian, and English groups than by U.S. groups. The panel named two instruments as major components of the programs for the 1980s. These are the Space Telescope and the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility.

  17. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  18. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  19. Observations of 3-m auroral irregularities during the ERRRIS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, J. D.; Farley, D. T.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1992-06-01

    In the late winter of 1988 and 1989, three NASA sounding rockets were flown through the auroral electrojet from ESRANGE (Sweden) as part of the E-region Rocket-Radar Instability Study (ERRRIS). Many ground-based instruments supported these flights, including the EISCAT, STARE, and CUPRI radars, as well as all-sky cameras, riometers, and magnetometers. In this paper the observations of the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), which detected coherent backscatter from 3-m irregularities in the auroral E-region are summarized. Twenty hours of power spectra and interferometry data are available, and, during the 1989 campaign, three weeks of nearly continuous Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) and first moment data were recorded.

  20. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  1. Evolution of operations for the Survey Telescope at Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Cristian M.; Mieske, Steffen; Brillant, Stéphane; Pino, Andres; Cerda, Susana; Reyes, Claudia; La Fuente, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, operations began at the Survey Telescopes at Paranal Observatory. The surveys aimed to observe using a large field of view targeting much fainter sources and covering wide areas of sky quickly. The first to enter operations was VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) and then the VST Telescope (VLT Survey Telescope). The survey telescopes introduced a change into the operational model of the time. The observations were wholly conducted by the telescope and instrument operator without the aid of a support astronomer. This prompted the gradual and steady improvement of tools for the operation of the observatory both generally and in particular for the Survey Telescopes. Examples of these enhancements include control systems for image quality, selection of OBs, logging of evening activities, among others. However, the new generation instruments at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) posed a new challenge to the observatory from a scientific and operational point of view. As these new systems were more demanding and complex, they would be more complicated to operate and require additional support. Hence, the focus of this study is to explore the possible development and optimization of the operations of the Survey telescopes, which would give greater operational flexibility in regards to the new generation instruments. Moreover, we aim to evaluate the feasibility of redistributing of telescope operators during periods of increased demand from other VLT systems.

  2. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  3. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  4. TeraHertz Space Telescope (TST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Lesser, David; O'Dougherty, Stephan; Swift, Brandon; Pat, Terrance; Cortez, German; Smith, Steve; Goldsmith, Paul; Walker, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    The Terahertz Space Telescope (TST) utilizes breakthrough inflatable technology to create a ~25 m far-infrared observing system at a fraction of the cost of previous space telescopes. As a follow-on to JWST and Herschel, TST will probe the FIR/THz regime with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, answering fundamental questions concerning the origin and destiny of the cosmos. Prior and planned space telescopes have barely scratched the surface of what can be learned in this wavelength region. TST will pick up where JWST and Herschel leave off. At ~30µm TST will have ~10x the sensitivity and ~3x the angular resolution of JWST. At longer wavelengths it will have ~1000x the sensitivity of Herschel and ~7 times the angular resolution. TST can achieve this at low cost through the innovative use of inflatable technology. A recently-completed NIAC Phase II study (Large Balloon Reflector) validated, both analytically and experimentally, the concept of a large inflatable spherical reflector and demonstrated critical telescope functions. In our poster we will introduce the TST concept and compare its performance to past, present, and proposed far-infrared observatories.

  5. Design of an afocal telescope for the ARIEL mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Micela, Giuseppina

    2016-07-01

    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in our Galaxy. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 microns. In addition there are four photometric channels: two wide band, also used as fine guidance sensors, and two narrow band. During its 3.5 years operations from L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star. The ARIEL design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is an off-axis portion of a two-mirror classic telescope coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror providing a collimating output beam. The telescope and optical bench operating temperatures, as well as those of some subsystems, will be monitored and fine tuned/stabilised mainly by means of a thermal control subsystem (TCU - Telescope Control Unit) working in closed-loop feedback and hosted by the main Payload electronics unit, i.e. the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). In this paper the telescope requirements will be given together with the foreseen design. The technical solution chosen to passively cool the telescope unit will be detailed discussed.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    replaced by COSTAR. During the second Servicing Mission instruments and other equipment were repaired and updated. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) replaced the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) replaced the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). Servicing mission 3A The original Servicing Mission 3 (initially planned for June 2000) has been split into two missions - SM3A and SM3B - due in part to its complexity, and in part to the urgent need to replace the failed gyroscopes on board. Three gyroscopes must function to meet the telescope's very precise pointing requirements. With only two new operational, observations have had to be suspended, but the telescope will remain safely in orbit until the servicing crew arrives. During this servicing mission * all six gyroscopes will be replaced, * a Fine Guidance Sensor will be replaced, * the spacecraft's computer will be replaced by a new one which will reduce the burden of flight software maintenance and significantly lower costs, * six voltage/temperature kits will be installed to protect spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating if the spacecraft enters safe mode, * a new S-Band Single Access Transmitter will replace a failed spare currently aboard the spacecraft, * a solid-state recorder will be installed to replace the tape recorder, * degraded telescope thermal insulation will be replaced if time allows; this insulation is necessary to control the internal temperature on HST. For the mission to be fully successful the gyroscopes, the Fine Guidance Sensor, the computer and the voltage/temperature kits must be installed. The minimum mission success criterion is that HST will have 5 operational gyros after the mission, 4 of them newly installed. The Future During SM3B (presently scheduled for 2001) the astronauts will replace the Faint Object Camera with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), install a cooling system for

  7. On sky testing of the SOFIA telescope in preparation for the first science observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Franziska; Wolf, Jürgen; Waddell, Patrick; Dunham, Edward; Reinacher, Andreas; Lampater, Ulrich; Jakob, Holger; Bjarke, Lisa; Adams, Sybil; Grashuis, Randy; Meyer, Allan; Bower, Kenneth; Schweikhard, Keith; Keilig, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is an airborne observatory that will study the universe in the infrared spectrum. A Boeing 747-SP aircraft will carry a 2.5 m telescope designed to make sensitive infrared measurements of a wide range of astronomical objects. In 2008, SOFIA's primary mirror was demounted and coated for the first time. After reintegration into the telescope assembly in the aircraft, the alignment of the telescope optics was repeated and successive functional and performance testing of the fully integrated telescope assembly was completed on the ground. The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) was used as a test instrument for aligning the optics and calibrating and tuning the telescope's pointing and control system in preparation for the first science observations in flight. In this paper, we describe the mirror coating process, the subsequent telescope testing campaigns and present the results.

  8. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  9. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  10. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  11. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  12. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  13. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  14. Efficient computer algorithms for infrared astronomy data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelzmann, R. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Data processing techniques to be studied for use in infrared astronomy data analysis systems are outlined. Only data from space based telescope systems operating as survey instruments are considered. Resulting algorithms, and in some cases specific software, will be applicable for use with the infrared astronomy satellite (IRAS) and the shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). Operational tests made during the investigation use data from the celestial mapping program (CMP). The overall task differs from that involved in ground-based infrared telescope data reduction.

  15. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  16. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  17. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  18. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  19. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is how the flight test team for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) re-cast an extensive developmental test program to meet key milestones while simultaneously ensuring safe certification of the airframe and delivery of an operationally relevant platform, ultimately saving the overall program from financial demise. Following a brief introduction to the observatory and what it is designed to do, SOFIAs planned developmental test program is summarized, including analysis and design philosophy, envelope expansion, model validation and airframe certification. How NASA used lessons learned from other aircraft that employed open cavities in flight is explained as well as how and why the chosen design was selected. The approach to aerodynamic analysis, including bare airframe testing, wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics and finite element modeling proved absolutely critical. Despite a solid analytical foundation, many unknowns remained. History provides several examples of disastrous effects on both systems and flight safety if cavity design is not approached properly. For these reasons, an extensive test plan was developed to ensure a safe and thorough build-up for envelope expansion, airframe certification and early science missions. Unfortunately, as is often the case, because of chronic delays in overall program execution, severe schedule and funding pressures were present. If critical milestones were not met, domestic as well as international funding was in serious jeopardy, and the demise of the entire program loomed large. Concentrating on rigorous model validation, the test team challenged certification requirements, increased test efficiency and streamlined engineering analysis. This resulted in the safe reduction of test point count by 72%, meeting all program milestones and a platform that soundly satisfied all operational science requirements. Results from early science missions are shown

  20. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  1. Gemini telescope structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  2. NASA's Orbital Debris Optical and IR Ground-based Observing Program: Utilizing the MCAT, UKIRT, and Magellan Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L.; Matney, M.; Anz-Meador, P.; Seitzer, P.; Stansbery, E.; Glesne, T.

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing debris in Earth-orbit has become increasingly important as the growing population of debris poses greater threats to active satellites each year. Currently, the Joint Space Operations is tracking > 23,000 objects ranging in size from 1-meter and larger in Geosychronous orbits (GEO) to 10-cm and larger at low-Earth orbits (LEO). Model estimates suggest that there are hundreds of thousands of pieces of spacecraft debris larger than 10 cm currently in orbit around the Earth. With such a small fraction of the total population being tracked, and new break-ups occurring from LEO to GEO, new assets, techniques, and approaches for characterizing this debris are needed. With this in mind, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office has actively tasked a suite of telescopes around the world. In 2015, the newly-built 1.3m optical Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) came on-line on Ascension Island and is now being commissioned. MCAT is designed to track Earth-orbiting objects above 200km, conduct surveys at GEO, and work with a co-located Raven-class commercial-off-the-shelf system, a 0.4m telescope with a field-of-view similar to MCAT's and research-grade instrumentation designed to complement MCAT. The 3.8m infrared UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii has been heavily tasked to collect data on individual targets and in survey modes to study both the general GEO population and a break-up event. Data collected include photometry and spectroscopy in the near-Infrared (0.85 - 2.5μm) and the mid-infrared (8-16μm). Finally, the 6.5-m Baade Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile was used to collect optical photometric survey data in October 2015 of two GEO Titan transtage breakups, focusing on locations of possible debris concentrations as indicated by the NASA standard break-up model.

  3. NASA's Orbital Debris Optical and IR Ground-Based Observing Program Utilizing the MCAT, UKIRT, and Magellan Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, H. M.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L.; Matney, M.; Anz-Meador, P.; Seitzer, P.; Stansbery, E.; Glesne, T.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing debris in Earth-orbit has become increasingly important as the population growth rises steadily, posing greater and greater threats to active satellites with each passing year. Currently, the Joint Space Operations is tracking over 23,000 pieces of debris, ranging in size from 1-meter and larger in geosychronous orbits (GEO) to 10-cm and larger at low-Earth orbits (LEO). Model estimates suggest that there may be more than 500,000 pieces of spacecraft debris larger than 1 cm currently in orbit around the Earth. With such a small fraction of the total population being tracked, and new break-ups occurring in LEO, GEO, and Geo Transfer Orbits, new assets, techniques, and approaches for characterizing this debris are needed. With this in mind, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office has actively tasked a suite of telescopes around the world. In 2015, the newly-built 1.3m optical Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) came on-line on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean and is currently in its commissioning phase. MCAT is designed to track Earth-orbiting objects above 200km, conduct surveys at GEO, and work in tandem with a newly-installed Raven-class commercial-off-the-shelf system, a 0.4-meter telescope co-located on Ascension with a field-of-view similar to MCAT's and research-grade instrumentation designed to complement MCAT for observations taken either simultaneously or in tandem. The 3.8m infrared UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, has been heavily tasked throughout 2015 and into 2016, collecting data on individual targets as well as in survey modes to study both the general GEO population as well as an individual break-up event of a BRIZ-M Rocket body that occurred in January 2016. Data collected include photometry and spectroscopy in the near-Infrared (0.85-2.5 m) and the mid-infrared (8-16 m). Finally, the 6.5-m Baade Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile was used to collect optical photometric survey data in October

  4. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  5. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  6. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed.

  7. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  8. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope: Observatory Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Bowers, Charles W.; Clampin, Mark; Niedner, Malcolm B.; Kimble, Randy A.

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) segmented aperture telescope equipped with near- and mid-infrared instruments (0.6-28 microns), all of which are passively cooled to ~40 K by a 5-layer sunshield while the mid-infrared instrument is actively cooled to 7 K. JWST is currently in the integration and test phase, with parallel activities on-going across the project. The current estimated JWST performance metrics will be presented, such as the image quality, pointing stability, sensitivity, and stray light backgrounds. The JWST development status and future schedule will be described for the full integration, launch, and commissioning.

  10. Digital control of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Ann C.; Snyder, Philip K.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using a digital controller to stabilize a telescope mounted in an airplane is investigated. The telescope is a 30 in. infrared telescope mounted aboard a NASA C-141 aircraft known as the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Current efforts to refurbish the 14-year-old compensation system have led to considering a digital controller. A typical digital controller is modeled and added into the telescope system model. This model is simulated on a computer to generate the Bode plots and time responses which determine system stability and performance parameters. Important aspects of digital control system hardware are discussed. A summary of the findings shows that a digital control system would result in satisfactory telescope performance.

  11. Design and performance of the Douglas Mawson telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jon S.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Burton, Michael G.; Storey, John W. V.

    2002-12-01

    The Douglas Mawson Telescope (DMT) is a proposed 2 m telescope to be situated on the Antarctic plateau. The proposal comes from Australia, and invites participation by other nations, especially those already active in Antarctic astronomy; such as Italy, France and the United States. The DMT will be equipped with instrumentation to perform wide-field imaging from the near to far infrared. Results from an extensive site testing campaign over the last decade indicates that an Antarctic infrared telescope can be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than any other ground based telescope of the same size. The DMT will be an important tool for astrophysical research. It will also be beneficial as a technological test bed for future large (8-10 m class) Antarctic telescopes and interferometers, and for space-based telescopes. This paper analyses the performance of the DMT in terms of the achievable resolution, field-of-view, sensitivity and survey depth and compares it to a similar sized telescope located with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere of Mauna Kea.

  12. Holographic telescope arrays.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Sauer, F

    1988-07-15

    A typical job in optical computing is to illuminate an array of small nonlinear optical components, separated by wide gaps to avoid crosstalk. We do this by letting a wide uniform beam fall onto a densely packed array of minifying telescopes. Each telescope produces a narrow bundle of parallel rays which illuminates one of the nonlinear optical components. The holographic telescopes can do more than change the width of the bundles of parallel rays. Their image forming capability allows the transmission of many pixels per channel in parallel. The pair of lenslets of a single holographic telescope (Kepler or Galilean) is produced in rigid coupling. The monolithic production avoids adjusting the two lenslets later on.

  13. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  15. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  16. New catadioptric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Acme telescope is a compound telescope that resembles the familiar Cassegrain type except that the main mirror is spherical and the secondary is an achromatic doublet mangin mirror. Three 6-in. aperture f/15 telescope designs are described. With a cemented, all spherical surface achromangin mirror, there is a small amount of coma which can be eliminated by redesigning with an air space between the crown and flint elements of the achromangin mirror, or by cementing them with one of the concave external surfaces of achromangin figured to an hyperboloid. In the examples, the spherical aberration is nil and the chromatic residual is roughly half that of an achromatic objective of the same speed, aperture, and glass types. Readily available crown and flint glasses such as Schott BK-7 and F-2 are entirely satisfactory for the achromangin mirror. Also considered are two examples of Acme-like telescopes with paraboloidal instead of spherical main mirrors.

  17. Heinrich Hertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.; Martin, Robert N.

    1998-07-01

    The Heinrich Hertz Telescope is a radio telescope dedicated to the observation of submillimeter wavelength radiation from celestial sources. It is a Cassegrain telescope with a diameter of 10 m and a reflector accuracy of about 17 micrometer, yielding an excellent performance at 350 micrometer, the shortest wavelength transmitted through the atmosphere. The reflector panels and the backup structure employ carbon-fiber reinforced plastic as basic material to achieve a lightweight, stiff construction with a very small coefficient of thermal expansion. This enables us to maintain full performance of the telescope in day time under solar illumination of the structure. In this paper, we describe the structural and material characteristics of the telescope. We also describe the holographic method which enables a measurement and setting of the reflector panels to an accuracy of 10 micrometer. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham in Eastern Arizona at an altitude of 3250 m, providing good submillimeter observing conditions, especially in the winter months. This is a collaborative effort of the Max-Planck- Institut fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

  18. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  19. Wide-field compact catadioptric telescope spanning 0.7-14 μm wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Marks, Daniel L; Hagen, Nathan; Durham, Mark; Brady, David J

    2013-06-20

    We present a wide-field compact f-1.2, f-1.6 effective illumination catadioptric telescope that spans the wavelengths 0.7-14.0 μm. Such a telescope replaces several telescopes designed for different infrared bands, while having a track length shorter than most single-band telescopes. Incorporated with a suitable multiband focal plane array, many wavelength bands may be imaged simultaneously in the same instrument. We have constructed and tested prototypes of the telescopes and found the performance is near the predicted values.

  20. An early lunar-based telescope - The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1990-01-01

    The first telescope accompanying return to the moon, a simple but elegant two meter class instrument capable of producing an extraordinary survey of the universe is proposed. This telescope produces a deep image of the sky obtained simultaneously in several broad bandpasses in the wavelength range from about 0.1 to 2 microns, with diffraction limited imaging in the infrared and approximately 0.1 arcsec resolution at shorter wavelengths. In an 18.6 year mission, the survey would include approximately 2 percent of the sky with multiple observations of all the surveyed area. This survey is accomplished with a telescope which has no moving parts and requires no continuing support beyond initial deployment.

  1. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) high-resolution near-infrared multi-object fiber spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John C.; Hearty, Fred; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Majewski, Steven; Schiavon, Ricardo; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Blank, Basil; Henderson, Chuck; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert; Harding, Al; Fitzgerald, Greg; Stolberg, Todd; Arns, Jim; Nelson, Matt; Brunner, Sophia; Burton, Adam; Walker, Eric; Lam, Charles; Maseman, Paul; Barr, Jim; Leger, French; Carey, Larry; MacDonald, Nick; Horne, Todd; Young, Erick; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; O'Brien, Tom; Hope, Steve; Krakula, John; Crane, Jeff; Zhao, Bo; Carr, Mike; Harrison, Craig; Stoll, Robert; Vernieri, Mary A.; Holtzman, Jon; Shetrone, Matt; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Johnson, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Gillespie, Bruce; Weinberg, David

    2010-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) will use a dedicated 300-fiber, narrow-band (1.5-1.7 micron), high resolution (R~30,000), near-infrared spectrograph to survey approximately 100,000 giant stars across the Milky Way. This survey, conducted as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III), will revolutionize our understanding of kinematical and chemical enrichment histories of all Galactic stellar populations. The instrument, currently in fabrication, will be housed in a separate building adjacent to the 2.5 m SDSS telescope and fed light via approximately 45-meter fiber runs from the telescope. The instrument design includes numerous technological challenges and innovations including a gang connector that allows simultaneous connection of all fibers with a single plug to a telescope cartridge that positions the fibers on the sky, numerous places in the fiber train in which focal ratio degradation must be minimized, a large (290 mm x 475 mm elliptically-shaped recorded area) mosaic-VPH, an f/1.4 sixelement refractive camera featuring silicon and fused silica elements with diameters as large as 393 mm, three near-within a custom, LN2-cooled, stainless steel vacuum cryostat with dimensions 1.4 m x 2.3 m x 1.3 m.

  2. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: beginning construction of the world's largest solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Wagner, J.; Keil, S.; Elmore, D.; Hubbard, R.; Hansen, E.; Warner, M.; Jeffers, P.; Phelps, L.; Marshall, H.; Goodrich, B.; Richards, K.; Hegwer, S.; Kneale, R.; Ditsler, J.

    2010-07-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has successfully passed its final design review and the Environmental Impact Study for construction of ATST on Haleakala, Maui, HI has been concluded in December of 2009. The project is now entering its construction phase. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4 m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0."03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0."1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectropolarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a fourmeter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  3. Telescopes in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yessayian, Rick

    Imagine sitting in your classroom with your students and controlling a Research Grade 24 inch telescope. You control where it points, you control the duration of the exposure of a high grade CCD camera, and you control all of this within your school day, on a camera half way around the globe, in real time. You can hear the telescope moving, talk to the operator sitting atop historic Mt. Wilson Observatory in California. You might be looking at comets, asteroids, galaxies, nebulas or a host of other interesting celestial objects. Perhaps you have students that are up to a real challenge -- doing real science! Students in our program have contributed the discovery of a new variable star, to the Pluto Express project, to the search for supernovas, and the collection of images of intersecting galaxies. These are among the many possible projects you might choose from. The age and ability of your students are taken into account when you choose your project. Students from Kindergarten through Grade 12 have participated in this free program. A new robotic telescope was added at Mount Wilson in 1999. The telescope is a Celestron 14" SCT mounted on a Bisque Paramount GT-1100 with an Apogee AP-7 CCD camera (512X512 pixels). In the Spring of 2001, we duplicated the 14" robotic telescope configuration and placed it at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile (operated by the Carnegie Observatories). I installed the system in late September, 2001, and we began testing. The system requires one more upgrade and some hardware adjustments, which I will complete in June, 2002. We duplicated another 14" robotic telescope, and sent it to Brisbane Australia in January, 2002. The grand opening of the telescope will be in August 2002.

  4. Cosmic X-ray telescope for ARIES rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.; Berthelsdorf, R.; Culhane, J. L.; Sanford, P. W.; Franks, A.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne Wolter Type I X-ray telescope having a focal length of 2.3m, an entrance aperture of 66cm and a geometrical area of 380cm2 is nearing completion. The telescope mirrors are formed by diamond turning their figures into forged aluminum substrates of 5083 alloy. These diamond-turned substrates are subsequently plated with a thin coating of electroless nickel and polished to obtain the final X-ray reflecting surfaces. Details of the rocket payload, the X-ray telescope, its calculated response and the experience gained in selecting the mirror substrate alloy are discussed and the current status of the telescope is reviewed.

  5. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  6. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  7. Towers for Antarctic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Nielsen, G.

    To take advantage of the exceptional seeing above the boundary layer on Antarctic sites, a high-resolution telescope must be mounted on a support tower. An open transparent tower of framework minimizes the upward temperature-disturbed airflow. A typical minimum height is 30m. The tower platform has to be extremely stable against wind-induced rotational motions, which have to be less than fractions of an arc second, unusually small from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. In a traditional structure, structural deflections result in angular deflections of the telescope platform, which introduce tip and tilt motions in the telescope. However, a structure that is designed to deflect with parallel motion relative to the horizontal plane will undergo solely translation deflections in the telescope platform and thus will not degrade the image. The use of a parallel motion structure has been effectively demonstrated in the design of the 15-m tower for the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. Special framework geometries are developed, which make it possible to construct high towers in stories having platforms with extreme stability against wind-induced tilt. These geometric solutions lead to constructions, being no more massive than a normal steel framework carrying the same load. Consequently, these lightweight towers are well suited to difficult sites as on Antarctica. A geometry with 4 stories has been worked out.

  8. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  9. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  10. VISTA Telescope opto-mechanical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Henry, David

    2010-07-01

    VISTA1 is an infrared survey telescope which delivers 0.5 arc second images over a 1.65 degree diameter unvignetted field of view. The project was split into separate work-packages, which after successful individual acceptance, were integrated by the project office. The main mechanical integration is the matching up of two sides of a controlled interface and should be a straightforward process. This covers the mounting of the M2 Hexapod, the installation of the M2 mirror assembly onto the M2 Hexapod, the M1 attachment to the M1 support system components and installation of the instrument mass simulator. The second stage of this integration is the mechanical alignment of the optical elements (i.e. M1 & M2) to the telescope mechanical axis. This is achieved through use of jigs and alignment equipment combined with the inbuilt adjustment in both the M2 on it's Hexapod and the manual adjustment of the M1 on its positional definers. This then leaves the telescope in a state ready to start optical commissioning using a Shack Hartman wavefront sensor. This paper deals with the mechanical integration and alignment of the telescope components up to the start of optical commissioning. There will be discussion of the build-up of information through the separate component acceptance details, to the equipment methodology, preparation and actual integration of the different systems. There will also be discussion of lessons learned.

  11. Active damping of the SOFIA Telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keas, Paul J.; Dunham, Edward; Lampater, Ulrich; Pfüller, Enrico; Teufel, Stefan; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen

    2012-09-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) employs a 2.5-meter reflector telescope in a Boeing 747SP. The telescope is housed in an open cavity and is subjected to aeroacoustic and inertial disturbances in flight. To meet pointing requirements, SOFIA must achieve a pointing stability of approximately 0.5 arcseconds RMS. An active damping control system is being developed for SOFIA to reduce image jitter and image degradation due to resonance of the telescope assembly. Our paper discusses the history of the active damping design for SOFIA, from early concepts to the current implementation which has recently completed a ground and flight testing for proof-of-concept. We describe some milestones in the analysis and testing of the telescope assembly which guided the development of the vibration control system. The control synthesis approach and current implementation of the active damping control system is presented. Finally, we summarize the performance observed in early flight tests and the steps that are currently foreseen to completing the development of this system.

  12. SAAO small telescopes, capabilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefako, Ramotholo

    2015-03-01

    The SAAO is at a geographically crucial site in the southern hemisphere between South America and Australasia. SAAO has a long history of involvement in infrared and optical astronomy that dates back almost two hundred years. The observatory expects to continue contributing to astronomical research for many years to come, using its small (0.5m, 0.75m, 1.0m and 1.9m) telescopes and their various instruments (ranging from spectroscopy to polarimetry and high-speed photometry), together with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and other hosted international telescopes. In this paper, I discuss the capabilities and uses of the SAAO small telescopes, and the challenges that threaten astronomical research at the observatory, including light pollution and other emerging threats to the usually dust-free and dark-night-sky site at Sutherland. This is mitigated by the legislation called the Astronomy Geographic Advantage (AGA) Act of 2007 that protects the observatory from these threats.

  13. SOFIA telescope modal survey test and test-model correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Guerra, Jorge; Lampater, Ulrich; Kärcher, Hans; Teufel, Stefan; Wagner, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) employs a 2.5-meter reflector telescope in a Boeing 747SP. The telescope is housed in an open cavity and will be subjected to aeroacoustic and inertial disturbances. The image stability goal for SOFIA is 0.2 arc-seconds (RMS). Throughout the development phase of the project, analytical models were employed to predict the image stability performance of the telescope, and to evaluate pointing performance improvement measures. These analyses clearly demonstrated that key aspects which determined performance were: 1) Disturbance environment and relevant load-paths 2) Telescope modal behavior 3) Sensor and actuator placement 4) Control algorithm design The SOFIA program is now entering an exciting phase in which the characteristics of the telescope and the cavity environment are being verified through ground and airborne testing. A modal survey test (MST) was conducted in early 2008 to quantify the telescope modal behavior. We will give a brief overview of analytical methods which have been employed to assess/improve the pointing stability performance of the SOFIA telescope. In this context, we will describe the motivation for the MST, and the pre-test analysis which determined the modes of interest and the required MST sensor/shaker placement. A summary will then be given of the FEM-test correlation effort, updated end-to-end simulation results, and actual data coming from telescope activation test flights.

  14. Overview of the James Webb Space Telescope Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a cryogenic, 6.5 meter diameter space telescope. JWST has a unique architecture, compared to previous space telescopes, that is driven by its science requirements, ia passively cooled cryogenic design, and the need to stow the observatory for launch. JWST's large, segmented mirror meets the requirement for high angular resolution in the infrared coupled with a significant increase in collecting area compared to the Spitzer and Hubble Space telescopes in order to detect the first galaxies. JWST's unique five-layer sunshield allows the telescope and instrument module to passively cool to cryogenic temperatures. JWST will be launched on an Ariane 5, and so both its telescope optics, and the sunshield have to be stowed in order to fit the Ariane 5 fairing. Following launch the sunshield and telescope optics must be deployed, and the primary mirror phased for science operations. In this presentation we will review the design of the observatory and highlight recent progress in the construction of the JWST observatory. In particular, we address recent progress with the telescope optics, sunshield and spacecraft. We will discuss predicted observatory performance in terms of the scientific goals of JWST and address key operational considerations that might bear upon frontier science observations.

  15. POST: a stratospheric testbed for testing new space telescope technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, James N.; Friedman, Ed; Ford, Holland C.; Bely, Pierre Y.

    1995-06-01

    The Polar Stratospheric Telescope payload will be the prototype of a diffraction limited, large space telescope and will fly in the stratosphere to validate a number of new technologies that future large space telescopes will require. The telescope is a 6-m diameter, sparsely-filled array comprised on one 1.8-m and six 60-cm mirrors. Each mirror is a segment of an f/1.2 primary. The mirrors have an unequal spacing around the circumference which optimizes spatial coverage of the u,v plane. The mirror segments are coaligned and cophased by a combination of internal metrology and re-imaging of the pupil onto a small active mirror for the correction of piston and tilt errors. The telescope will be flown during the winter in a polar region where the tropopause is a factor of two lower than at lower latitudes, making the stratosphere accessible to tethered aerostats. The telescope is suspended approximately 100 m below a tethered aerostat flying at an altitude of about 12 km. The telescope body is stabilized gyroscopically with two reaction wheels, and fine guidance of the line of sight is provided by a fast steering mirror. The telescopes primary mirrors are at the ambient temperature of 190 to 220 K, and internal baffles and relay optics are cooled to 160 K to minimize the instrumental background in the near infrared.

  16. Multiple-Cone Sunshade for a Spaceborne Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cafferty, Terry; Ford, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a sunshade assembly for the spaceborne telescope of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph mission. During operation, the telescope is aimed at target stars in the semihemisphere away from the Earth's Sun. The observatory rotates about its pointing axis during a single star observation, resulting in relative movement of the Sun. The sunshade assembly protects the telescope against excessive solar-induced thermal distortions for times long enough to complete observations. The assembly includes a cylindrical baffle immediately surrounding the telescope, and a series of coaxial conical shields at half-cone angle increments of between 3 and 6. The black inner surface of the cylindrical baffle suppresses stray light. The outer surface of the cylindrical baffle and all the surfaces of the conical shields except the outermost one are specular and highly reflective in the infrared. The outer surface of the outer shield is a material with low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance, such as silverized Teflon or white paint. This arrangement strongly radiatively couples each shield layer more effectively to cold space than to adjacent shield layers. The result is that the solar-driven temperature gradients in the cylindrical baffle are nearly negated, and only weakly communicated to the highly-infrared-reflective face of the primary telescope mirror.

  17. The Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; NCT Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization analysis of astrophysical sources. NCT employs a novel Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 high spectral resolution germanium detectors, with the ability to localize photon interaction in three dimensions. NCT underwent its first science flight from Fort Sumner, NM in Spring 2009, and was partially destroyed during a second launch attempt from Alice Spring, Australia in Spring 2010. We will present an overview of the NCT program, including results from the Spring 2009 flight, as well as status and plans for the NCT program.

  18. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  19. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  20. LSST telescope modeling overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  1. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-08

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced.

  2. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  3. Telescopes for the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    In the last decades, astronomy has been changed in a number of significant ways. The number of large optical telescopes with diameters on the order of or larger than 2.3 m has increased from 3 shortly after World War II to about 20 at the present time. Whereas prewar astronomy was largely devoted to the visual wavelengths (0.3-0.8 μm), astronomical observations currently span the range from γ ray wavelengths to the longest radio wavelengths. Most significantly, astronomy outside conventional optical astronomy has developed into sophisticated disciplines rather than experimental explorations. Many of the observational advances at the forefront of astronomy now come from other than visual observations. Along with these changes have come fundamental changes in visual astronomy itself. Observations with photographic plates are the exception rather than the rule at most large observatories. Instead, electronic cameras are in common use. A second change, especially in the United States, is that the funding has gone from largely private funding (e.g., the Carnegie Institution of Washington) to funding with the government providing a main share of the support. Indeed, the government has provided the total funding for those disciplines, like X ray astronomy, which use space-borne platforms. These changes have also affected the character of doing astronomy, and astronomers have become much more politically active on the national science scene.

  4. Ground-based Infrared Observations of Water Vapor and Hydrogen Peroxide in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Bitner, M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Bézard, B.; Fouchet, T.; Lefevre, F.; Forget, F.; Atreya, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Ground-based observations of water vapor and hydrogen peroxide have been obtained in the thermal infrared range, using the TEXES instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, for different times of the seasonal cycle.

  5. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  6. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Carla

    The ANTARES collaboration has completed in 2008 the construction of an underwater high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, located 40 km off the French coast at a depth of 2500 m. The detector consists of 885 optical modules, which are distributed in 12 detector lines, various calibration systems and devices for environmental measurements. With an instrumented volume of about 0.05 km3, ANTARES is the largest Cherenkov neutrino detector currently operating in the Northern hemisphere. A general overview on the ANTARES telescope is given. The preliminary results from the various physics analyses on the collected data will be presented.

  7. Telescope poised for second life to hunt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2013-09-01

    A NASA space telescope could be given a new lease of life to sniff out near-Earth objects that could be on a collision course with the Earth. Agency officials are currently toying with the idea of reactivating the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which was left dormant in 2011 after spending two years studying the universe.

  8. The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the Infrared successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 sq m aperture (6 m class) telescope yielding diffraction limited angular resolution at a wave1ength of 2 micron. The science instrument payload includes three passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronagraphy, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 infrared instrument provides broad-band imagery, coronagraphy, and integral-field spectroscopy over the 5.0 < lambda < 29 micron spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations to be proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete, and construction is underway in all areas of the program.

  9. Shake, Rattle and Roll: James Webb Telescope Components Pass Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a model of one of three detectors for the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The detector, which looks green in this picture, and is similar to the charge-coupled devices, or 'CCDs,' in digital cameras, is housed in the brick-like unit shown here, called a focal plane module.

  10. Shake, Rattle and Roll: James Webb Telescope Components Pass Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Mike Ressler (right) and Kalyani Sukhatme of JPL pose in the clean room with a model component, called a focal plane module, of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. Ressler is the project scientist for the instrument, and Sukhatme is the project element manager for the instrument's focal plane module.

  11. MITO: the 2.6 M millimetre telescope at Testa Grigia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Petris, M.; Aquilini, E.; Canonico, M.; D'Addio, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Mainella, G.; Mandiello, A.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, B.; Perciballi, M.; Scaramuzzi, F.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a new ground based telescope dedicated to millimetre cosmological research: MITO, Millimetre and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory. The site and all the instrumental subsystems of the telescope have been chosen to perform high sensitivity measurements for wavelengths ranging from 300 micron to 2 millimetre. The possibility of detecting fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background has been explored for some observational strategies. F. Melchiorri

  12. ITTT: a state-of-the-art ultra-lightweight all-Be telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paquin, R. A.; Coulter, D. R.; Stier, M. T.; Macenka, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Infrared Technology Testbed Telescope (ITTT) is a demonstration telescope meeting the needs of the SIRTF mission. It is a Ritchey-Cretien form designed for diffraction limited performance at 6.5 um, at 5.5 K with an 85 cm. clear aperture.

  13. Numerical simulation of ground-based telescope enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Nian; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    In order to choose enclosure for the next generation telescopes, numerical simulation method was used. Firstly, the telescope, two general kinds of enclosures structure and the external flow field model were established, Then CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology was used to analyze the wind speed, static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy distribution and eddy around the telescope, when the telescope at two different pointing gestures and the external wind speed at 10m/s. The simulation results showed that when the telescope adapt the retractable enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 6.1 m/s and 9.3 m/s, and the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 42.9268 Pa and 37.5579 Pa, however when telescope adapt the hemispherical enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 3.4 m/s and 6.8 m/s, the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 12.1387 Pa and 11.105 Pa. Although the wind resistance of the retractable enclosure was lower than the hemispherical enclosure, no eddy generated near the main optical path, it provided the telescope a uniform flow field and ensured the quality of the image of a star. So the retractable enclosure would have better performance than the hemispherical enclosure.

  14. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  15. A suggested 12-m telescope optical system configuration for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2016-08-01

    This is an optical/infrared telescope. It is a general purpose telescope. A segmented primary mirror is adopted with diameter 12 m and f-ratio 1.6. This telescope has prime focus, Cassegrain, Nasmyth and coudé systems. The prime focus system has a 1.5° field-of-view corrector with excellent image quality. It will be used for multi-object fibre spectroscopic observation and CCD photography. In this 12-m telescope, all systems except the prime focus system share the same secondary mirror; the Nasmyth and coudé systems are formed by adding relay mirrors; and the method of moving a secondary mirror is used to enhance image quality. All these features originate from the innovative optical system of the Chinese 2.16-m telescope. At the Cassegrain focus, a dark object spectrograph, for example, can be installed without any corrector; and in case a field of view is needed, a corrector may be added. Both the Nasmyth and coudé systems have exceptionally excellent image quality and the exchange between them occurs very conveniently. Many instruments in visible and infrared wavebands, some with an adaptive optics system, will be installed at the Nasmyth platform. Coudé system will be used for interferometry and for those instruments which require high stability. This configuration has a nearly full range of systems but it is not complex, and it can even be adopted by 20-40-m class telescopes.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Hammel, H. B.; Lunine, J. I.; Milam, S. N.; Kalirai, J. S.; Sonneborn, G.

    2013-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is poised to revolutionize many areas of astrophysical research including Solar System Science. Scheduled for launch in 2018, JWST is ~100 times more powerful than the Hubble and Spitzer observatories. It has greater sensitivity, higher spatial resolution in the infrared, and significantly higher spectral resolution in the mid infrared. Imaging and spectroscopy (both long-slit and integral-field) will be available across the entire 0.6 - 28.5 micron wavelength range. Herein, we discuss the capabilities of the four science instruments with a focus on Solar System Science, including instrument modes that enable observations over the huge range of brightness presented by objects within the Solar System. The telescope is being built by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems for NASA, ESA, and CSA. JWST development is led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST.

  17. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these for science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope in orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is the successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  18. The James Webb Telescope Instrument Suite Layout: Optical System Engineering Considerations for a Large, Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Davila, Pam; Jurotich, Matthew; Hobbs, Gurnie; Lightsey, Paul; Contreras, Jim; Whitman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space-based, infrared observatory designed to study the early stages of galaxy formation in the Universe. The telescope will be launched into an elliptical orbit about the second Lagrange point and passively cooled to 30-50 K to enable astronomical observations from 0.6 to 28 microns. A group from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Northrop Grumman Space Technology prime contractor team has developed an optical and mechanical layout for the science instruments within the JWST field of view that satisfies the telescope s high-level performance requirements. Four instruments required accommodation within the telescope's field of view: a Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) provided by the University of Arizona; a Near-Mared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) provided by the European Space Agency; a Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a European consortium; and a Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) with a tunable filter module provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The size and position of each instrument's field of view allocation were developed through an iterative, concurrent engineering process involving the key observatory stakeholders. While some of the system design considerations were those typically encountered during the development of an infrared observatory, others were unique to the deployable and controllable nature of JWST. This paper describes the optical and mechanical issues considered during the field of view layout development, as well as the supporting modeling and analysis activities.

  19. The Large Binocular Telescope's ARGOS ground-layer AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, M.; Rabien, S.; Busoni, L.; Barl, L.; Bechmann, U.; Bonaglia, M.; Boose, Y.; Borelli, J.; Bluemchen, T.; Carbonaro, L.; Connot, C.; Deysenroth, M.; Davies, R.; Durney, O.; Elberich, M.; Ertl, T.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Gasho, V.; Gemperlein, H.; Hubbard, P.; Kanneganti, S.; Kulas, M.; Newman, K.; Noenickx, J.; de Xivry, G.; Qirrenback, A.; Rademacher, M.; Schwab, C.; Storm, J.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Weigelt, G.; Ziegleder, J.

    2011-09-01

    ARGOS, the laser-guided adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), is now under construction at the telescope. By correcting atmospheric turbulence close to the telescope, the system is designed to deliver high resolution near infrared images over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. ARGOS is motivated by a successful prototype multi-laser guide star system on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, results from which are presented in this paper. At the LBT, each side of the twin 8.4 m aperture is being equipped with three Rayleigh laser guide stars derived from six 18 W pulsed green lasers and projected into two triangular constellations matching the size of the corrected field. The returning light is to be detected by wavefront sensors that are range gated within the seeinglimited depth of focus of the telescope. Wavefront correction will be introduced by the telescope’s deformable secondary mirrors driven on the basis of the average wavefront errors computed from the respective guide star constellation. Measured atmospheric turbulence profiles from the site lead us to expect that by compensating the ground-layer turbulence, ARGOS will deliver median image quality of about 0.2 arc sec in the near infrared bands. This will be exploited by a pair of multi-object near-IR spectrographs, LUCI1 and LUCI2, each with 4 arc minute field already operating on the telescope. In future, ARGOS will also feed two interferometric imaging instruments, the LBT Interferometer operating in the thermal infrared, and LINC-NIRVANA, operating at visible and near infrared wavelengths. Together, these instruments will offer very broad spectral coverage at the diffraction limit of the LBT’s combined aperture, 23 m in size.

  20. Telescope stray light: early experience with SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, Patrick; Becklin, Eric E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Vacca, William D.; Lachenmann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Effective stray light control is a key requirement for wide dynamic range performance of scientific optical and infrared systems. SOFIA now has over 325 mission flights including extended southern hemisphere deployments; science campaigns using 7 different instrument configurations have been completed. The research observations accomplished on these missions indicate that the telescope and cavity designs are effective at suppressing stray light. Stray light performance impacts, such as optical surface contamination, from cavity environment conditions during mission flight cycles and while on-ground, have proved to be particularly benign. When compared with earlier estimates, far fewer large optics re-coatings are now anticipated, providing greater facility efficiency.

  1. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  5. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  6. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  7. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  8. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineers and technicians conduct a fit check of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array flight article in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The Solar Array is 40- feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, and provides power to the spacecraft. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  10. Membrane photon sieve telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff

    2010-11-20

    We present results of research into the design and construction of membrane photon sieves as primaries for next-generation lightweight space telescopes. We have created prototypes in electroformed nickel as well as diazo and CP-1 polymer films. In two such cases, diffraction-limited imaging performance was demonstrated over a narrow bandwidth.

  11. Overview of key technologies for TMT telescope structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Yutaka; Kato, Atsushi; Hattori, Tomoya; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Haruna, Masaki; Tabata, Masaki; Hosokawa, Yoshihiro; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Usuda, Tomonori

    2016-07-01

    For the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that aims high-resolution and high-sensitivity observations for optical-infrared astronomy, detailed design is underway for Telescope Structure System (STR) including the mount control system and the segment handling system. The technical requirements for the STR system are very challenging on its performance and interface condition with telescope-mounted optics and observation instruments. The major challenging technical requirements include low flexure of mirror support structure and low optical path length variation due to gravitational deformation, high seismic performance against large earthquake, very accurate mount drive control for high tracking and guiding performance, and fast, safe and labor-saving segment exchange. To meet these technical requirements, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has made a detailed design and technology development. In this paper, overview of major key technologies is introduced that is adopted for the TMT telescope structure in the detailed design and technology development.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope stray light performance status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Wei, Zongying

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large space based astronomical telescope that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. The architecture has the telescope exposed to space, with a large sun shield providing thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the sun. The instruments will have the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6 µm to 28 µm wavelengths. The following paper will present updated stray light analysis results characterizing the stray light getting to the instrument focal planes from the full galactic sky, zodiacal background, bright objects near the line of sight, and scattered earth and moon shine. Included is a discussion of internal alignments of pupils at relevant interface planes to stray light. The amount of self-generated infrared background from the Observatory that reaches the instrument focal planes will be presented including the tolerance to the alignment of the edges of the sun shield membranes relative to each other and the telescope.

  13. A Novel Dust Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Kempf, S.; Harris, D.; Conlon, T.; Auer, S.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles in space, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with a chemical composition analyzer for dust particles. A novel dust telescope is described. It consists of a highly sensitive dust trajectory sensor, and a large area chemical dust analyzer. It can provide valuable information about the particles' birthplace which may not be accessible by other techniques. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through an appropriately configured electrode systems. After the successful identification of a few charged micron-sized dust grains in space by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer, this dust telescope has a ten fold increased sensitivity of charge detection (10-16 Coulombs) and will be able to obtain trajectories for sub-micron sized dust grains. State-of-the art dust chemical analyzers have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass numbers above 100. However, since their impact areas are small they can analyze statistically meaningful numbers of grains only in the dust-rich environments of comets or ringed planets. Therefore, this dust telescope includes a large area (0.1 m2) chemical dust analyzer of mass resolution > 100 that will allow us to obtain statistically significant measurements of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains in space.

  14. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  15. High-Redshift Galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes and will continue their rich legacy of high-z galaxy studies with a combination of deep, high-resolution infrared photometry and multi-object or integral field spectroscopy. As a large (6.6m) cold (50K) space telescope, JWST is well optimized for studying high-z galaxies and the science goals include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe and the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies. Webb has four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction and test phase. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors and scientific instruments and the start of high-level assembly and cryogenic testing. Proposals for the first cycle of scientific observations will be due in February 2018; the community should begin planning their proposals now.

  16. Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, J. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cleve, J. Van; Stansberry, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (approximately 0.3 to 4.0 microns) spectroscopy has been successfully employed since the early 1970 s to infer the surface compositions of asteroids. Spectroscopic observations in the thermal infrared (approximately 5 to 40 microns) are similarly promising. Silicate spectra in this range are dominated by Si-O stretch and bend fundamentals, and other minerals have similarly diagnostic bands. Observations in this spectral range are difficult from the ground due to strong telluric absorptions and background emission. Nevertheless, spectral structure has been detected on a few asteroids in the 8 to 14-micron range from the ground, as well as from orbit with the ISO satellite. The Spitzer Space Telescope can observe asteroids with much higher sensitivity over a broader wavelength range than is possible from the ground or was possible with ISO. We present results of measurements of asteroids with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  17. The Infrared Hunter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    This image composite compares infrared and visible views of the famous Orion nebula and its surrounding cloud, an industrious star-making region located near the hunter constellation's sword. The infrared picture is from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, and the visible image is from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, headquartered in Tucson, Ariz.

    In addition to Orion, two other nebulas can be seen in both pictures. The Orion nebula, or M42, is the largest and takes up the lower half of the images; the small nebula to the upper left of Orion is called M43; and the medium-sized nebula at the top is NGC 1977. Each nebula is marked by a ring of dust that stands out in the infrared view. These rings make up the walls of cavities that are being excavated by radiation and winds from massive stars. The visible view of the nebulas shows gas heated by ultraviolet radiation from the massive stars.

    Above the Orion nebula, where the massive stars have not yet ejected much of the obscuring dust, the visible image appears dark with only a faint glow. In contrast, the infrared view penetrates the dark lanes of dust, revealing bright swirling clouds and numerous developing stars that have shot out jets of gas (green). This is because infrared light can travel through dust, whereas visible light is stopped short by it.

    The infrared image shows light captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Light with wavelengths of 8 and 5.8 microns (red and orange) comes mainly from dust that has been heated by starlight. Light of 4.5 microns (green) shows hot gas and dust; and light of 3.6 microns (blue) is from starlight.

  18. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  19. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  20. The Primeval Structure Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Pen, U. L.; Wu, X. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Primeval Structure Telescope (PaST) will be used to study early ionization of the universe. The telescope will image and spectrally resolve hyperfine emission of neutral hydrogen at redshifts from about 6 to 20. Recently released data, obtained with the WMAP satellite, indicate that the universe was ionized very early, at around redshift 15. Right now, there is very little information on this ionization, since the WMAP data do not tell us the ionization history or the energy source. If the energy source was emission from collapsed objects, perhaps ultraviolet radiation from the first stars, the ionization did not occur homogenously. Earlier star formation in high-density regions causes these to be ionized first. Just when the ionization was half complete, the large-scale structure of the universe became visible in the ionization pattern. We will use redshifted 21 cm brightness to image the largest of the ionized bubbles in three dimensions, allowing us to determine the redshift of the early ionization. In addition, we will be able to study the evolution and merging of the ionized bubbles. PAST will be a sparse array telescope consisting of 10,000 log periodic antennas, providing over 50,000 square meters of effective collecting area. These antennas will be grouped into 80 phased arrays of 127 antennas. Current plans have these phased arrays fixed, pointed at the North Celestial Pole. Later, we can add electronic beam steering. Signals from the 80 phased arrays will be processed using a correlator built from a network of about 100 PC computers. The telescope will occupy ten square kilometers in the Ulastai Valley, Xin Jiang, China. The telescope will be built almost entirely of inexpensive commercially available off-the-shelf components. A series of tests of prototypes, made on-site, have allowed us to study the performance of the telescope and its components. We will present these results and show sky images obtained with the prototypes. We anticipate that one