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Sample records for 3-m shane telescope

  1. Lick Observatory's Shane telescope adaptive optics system (ShaneAO): research directions and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald T.; Kupke, Renate; Rudy, Alexander R.; Srinath, Srikar; Dillon, Daren; Poyneer, Lisa A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a review of the ongoing research activity surrounding the adaptive optics system at the Shane telescope (ShaneAO) particularly the R&D efforts on the technology and algorithms for that will advance AO into wider application for astronomy. We are pursuing the AO challenges for whole sky coverage diffraction-limited correction down to visible science wavelengths. This demands high-order wavefront correction and bright artificial laser beacons. We present recent advancements in the development of MEMS based AO correction, woofer-tweeter architecture, wind-predictive wavefront control algorithms, atmospheric characterization, and a pulsed fiber amplifier guide star laser tuned for optical pumping of the sodium layer. We present the latest on-sky results from the new AO system and present status and experimental plans for the optical pumping guide star laser.

  2. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, G.; Adams, B.; Butler, K.; Cardoza, J.; Colin, P.; Hui, C. M.; Kieda, D.; Kirkwood, D.; Kress, D.; Kress, M.; LeBohec, S.; McGuire, C.; Newbold, M.; Nunez, P.; Pham, K.

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  3. The refurbished 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope at Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    In 1999, the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) announced the opportunity to "assume responsibility for operation of the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope." A group of astronomers/educators from institutions across the USA successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the observatory and operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT Consortium has been established between Francis Marion University, the Planetary Science Institute, South Carolina State University, Villanova University, and Western Kentucky University to oversee the refurbishment and automation, and operate the telescope to successfully achieve its research and education goals. The RCT was commissioned in 1964 as the Remotely Controlled Telescope and utilized that epoch's computing and communication technology to provide unattended operation from NOAO headquarters in Tucson, about 90 km distant. The original incarnation of the RCT allowed astronomers to gain experience in the remote operation of observatories in order to both develop techniques for operating space-based telescopes and to increase the productivity of ground-based telescopes (Maran 1967 Science 158, 867). While these tests worked as well as could be expected given the technology of the time, the telescope and observatory were refitted in 1969 for classical, attended operations. The second life of the 1.3-m was as a heavily subscribed KPNO visitor facility, first with photoelectric photometers and later as an important testbed for the newest infrared instrumentation. In 1996 the telescope was removed from the list of available KPNO facilities and stood idle until the RCT Consortium hired EOS Technologies, Inc. to refurbish and automate the observatory. In winter 2003 most of the observatory systems have been refurbished and the commissioning has begun. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  4. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  5. The RCT 1.3 m robotic telescope: broadband color transformation and extinction calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Strolger, L.-G.; Gott, A. M.; Carini, M.; Gelderman, R.; Laney, C. D.; McGruder, C.; Engle, S.; Guinan, E.; Treffers, R. R.; Walter, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    The Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) 1.3 m telescope, formerly known as the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 50 inch telescope, has been refurbished as a fully robotic telescope, with an autonomous scheduler to take full advantage of the observing site without the requirement of a human presence. Here we detail the current configuration of the RCT and present, as a demonstration of its high-priority science goals, the broadband UBVRI photometric calibration of the optical facility. In summary, we find the linear color transformation and extinction corrections to be consistent with similar optical KPNO facilities, to within a photometric precision of 10% (at 1σ). While there were identified instrumental errors that likely added to the overall uncertainty, associated with since-resolved issues in engineering and maintenance of the robotic facility, a preliminary verification of this calibration gave a good indication that the solution is robust, perhaps to a higher precision than this initial calibration implies. The RCT has been executing regular science operations since 2009 and is largely meeting the science requirements set during its acquisition and redesign.

  6. Autonomous Observing and Control Systems for PAIRITEL, a 1.3m Infrared Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.; Blake, C. H.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Falco, E. E.

    2006-07-01

    The Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) is the first meter-class telescope operating as a fully robotic IR imaging system. Dedicated in October 2004, PAIRITEL began regular observations in mid-December 2004 as part of a 1.5 year commissioning period. The system was designed to respond without human intervention to new gamma-ray burst transients: this milestone was finally reached on November 9, 2005 but the telescope had a number of semi-automated sub-10 minute responses throughout early commissioning. When not operating in Target of Opportunity mode, PAIRITEL performs a number of queue scheduled transient monitoring campaigns. To achieve this level of automation, we have developed communicating tools to connect the various sub-systems: an intelligent queue scheduling database, run-time configurable observation sequence software, a data reduction pipeline, and a master state machine which monitors and controls all functions within and affecting the observatory.

  7. Structural design of 3m class ground based telescope elevation ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yufeng; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Zhu, Fuyin; Jiang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic stiffness of telescope mount, the accuracy of aiming and stability of optical system, a topology optimization method based on the theory of variable density and taking maximum stiffness as objective function is studied. In the topology optimization analysis of elevation ring, one of the most important members of the telescope mount, two kinds of structural are designed: one is a traditional plate welding structure and the other is a combination of plate welding and truss welding. Furthermore, the stiffness and modal performance of the elevation ring in different performances are analyzed and compared. The results show that in meeting the strength and stiffness of the premise, the mass of elevation ring with plate welding and truss welding is 7.00T and the moment of inertia is 11.94 t•m2. What`s more, the total deformation in the horizontal direction and the zenith direction are 6.70μm and 55.86μm, respectively; the stress is within stress range of material's promise; the modal is 105.9Hz.Compared with the traditional structural with plate welding, this new structural design approached to ensure the dynamic stiffness while effectively reducing its own weight with reduction rate 10.7% and moments of inertia with reduction rate 12.3%. This new structural of plate welding and truss welding has obvious advantages in lightweight design. This new design method based on topology optimization will provide efficient help to later components design of the telescope mount.

  8. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  9. Spacewatch Astrometry of Asteroids and Comets with the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m Telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, James V.; McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes on Kitt Peak to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies in need of recovery that cannot be reached with the Spacewatch 0.9-m and 1.8-m telescopes. Targets include NEOs with potential close encounters with Earth (Virtual Impactors; VIs), future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by NEOWISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by NEOWISE, and faint Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Notable targets successfully recovered include the Earth Trojan 2010 TK7 and the faint almost-lost VI 2011 BY24 discovered by NEOWISE. Between 2010 June 6 and 2014 July 23 the MPC accepted 1316 lines of astrometry by us with these telescopes on 207 different NEOs including 84 PHAs. We made 343 observations of PHAs with V>=22. Our average arc extension on large PHAs (with H<=17.75) is 184 days, which is 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. Recently with all four telescopes Spacewatch has made 39% of all the observations of PHAs that were fainter than V=22 at the time of measurement. This count is twice that of the next most productive station in that measure. The faintest V magnitude we have observed so far is 24.4 and the smallest solar elongation angle at which we have observed is 46 degrees. Our work with the Mayall and Bok telescopes has been determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to provide "dramatic improvement" to NEO orbits (T. Spahr, 2014 private communication). Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted

  10. Blazar variability studies with the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope and the automated 0.6m Bell Observatory telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Mattox, J. R.; Walters, R.; Poteet, C.; Wills, W.; Gelderman, R.; Davis, D.; Everett, M.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; McGruder, C. H., III

    2004-10-01

    One of the key programs on the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) located at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 0.6m telescope at the Bell Observatory operated by Western Kentucky University is a study of the variability of the class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known as Blazars. Blazars are highly variable on timescales of minutes to decades and this variability is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, they display a featureless spectrum, thus continuum variability provides the only diagnostic of these objects. Variability provides information on the size of the emission region responsible for the observed variations and when observations are obtained at multiple wavelengths, it can be used to discriminate between emission models. However, traditional ground based observations are limited in a variety of ways. We will discuss how an automated facility, with time dedicated to this astrophysically interesting problem, can overcome many of these limitations, and we show results from the Bell Observatory as well as some of the first results of Blazar observations from the RCT.

  11. "Shane" Is Alive and Well and Living in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitscher, Carol; Childs, Sharon

    1984-01-01

    Describes an attempt to interrelate English and state history classes in a Texas middle school by assigning literature readings, such as Jack Schaeffer's novel "Shane," that help students understand the frontier period in Texas history. (RBW)

  12. A Graceful Leap Backwards: From "Shane" to "Beowulf."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that students who have found "Shane" to be an exciting literary experience can be motivated to read other heroic literature such as "Beowulf" if the teacher presents it with an eye toward motivation. "The Odyssey" might follow os another epic poem. (TJ)

  13. High Precision Photometry of Variable Stars in Clusters of Different Ages with the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, E. F.; McCook, G. P.; DeWarf, L. E.; Gelderman, R. F.; McGruder, C. H.; Walter, D. K.; Howell, S. B.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Mattox, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    We discuss a new program of carrying out high precision VRI CCD photometry of several star clusters of different ages. The photometry is being carried out using the 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT), located at KPNO. This program focuses on the study of variable stars in mostly open clusters. Selected astrophysically important eclipsing binaries, pulsating variables, blue stragglers, and chromospherically active variable stars will be studied. Also, searches of new variable stars will be made from the expected large samples of cluster stars. For example, photometry is planned of the several W UMa eclipsing binaries and blue straggler stars in the old open cluster NGC 188. Photometry also will be carried out of the young open cluster NGC 7790. This cluster is unique because has three confirmed classical cepheid members: CE Cas A (V ˜ +10.9 mag; F8 Ib; P = 4.446 d ), CE Cep B (V ˜ +11.0 mag; F9 Ib; 5.128 d), and CF Cas (V ˜ +11.1 mag; F8 Ib; 4.875 d). NGC 7790 also contains the 10th mag eccentric B0+B0 eclipsing binary QX Cas. The observations of QX Cas are being conducted to determine the accurate distance to this star and thus to the cluster and its cepheid members. When complete these observations, combined with spectroscopy, will permit a reliable calibration of the ``zero-point'' of the galactic cepheid Period-Luminosity Law. Another possible project is the search of light variations of PMS stars and chromospherically active stars (from star spot rotational modulations) in young clusters such as the alpha Perseus Cluster, h & χ Per, M34, and the Pleiades. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG 58762. The RCT Consortium includes: Western Kentucky Univ., S. Carolina St Univ., Francis Marion Univ., Villanova Univ., and the Planetary Science Institute (PSI).

  14. The Shane-Wirtanen counts. [in galaxy correlation function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. J.; Kurtz, M. J.; De Lapparent, V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the 2.5 degree-break in the galaxy correlation function derived from the Shane-Wirtanen star counts is indistinguishable from an artifact introduced by residual systematic variations in the effective magnitude limit from plate to plate. In order to avoid the introduction of a break, the maximum error from plate to plate must be no more than about 0.05 mag. Other large scale features in the data which are also affected by the systematic variations are discussed.

  15. THE RADIAL VELOCITY TATOOINE SEARCH FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: PLANET DETECTION LIMITS FOR A SAMPLE OF DOUBLE-LINED BINARY STARS-INITIAL RESULTS FROM KECK I/HIRES, SHANE/CAT/HAMSPEC, AND TNG/SARG OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Konacki, Maciej; Helminiak, Krzysztof G.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2009-10-10

    We present preliminary results of the first and on-going radial velocity survey for circumbinary planets. With a novel radial velocity technique employing an iodine absorption cell, we achieve an unprecedented radial velocity (RV) precision of up to 2 m s{sup -1} for double-lined binary stars. The high-resolution spectra collected with the Keck I/Hires, TNG/Sarg, and Shane/CAT/Hamspec telescopes/spectrographs over the years 2003-2008 allow us to derive RVs and compute planet detection limits for 10 double-lined binary stars. For this initial sample of targets, we can rule out planets on dynamically stable orbits with masses as small as approx0.3 to 3 M {sub Jup} for the orbital periods of up to approx5.3 years. Even though the presented sample of stars is too small to make any strong conclusions, it is clear that the search for circumbinary planets is now technique-wise possible and eventually will provide new constraints for the planet formation theories.

  16. Shane O'Mara's Why Torture Doesn't Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation.

    PubMed

    Costandi, Moheb

    2016-01-01

    Waterboarding, sleep deprivation, and solitary confinement were some of the tactics outlined and authorized in a series of Bush Administration secret legal documents, known as the "torture memos," which were made public in 2009. Shane O'Mara's new book casts morality aside to examine whether torture produces reliable information. He reviews existing research in psychology and neuroscience to highlight the impact of torture methods on brain function.

  17. Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Doug Shane examines the screen of his ground control station during tests in New Mexico. Shane used this configuration as the ground control station to remotely pilot the Proteus aircraft during a NASA sponsored series of test flights. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  18. Kilop Cretaceous Hardground (Kale, Gümüshane, NE Turkey):description and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, Muhsin; Tasli, Kemal

    2002-06-01

    A hardground surface is well exposed in the Kilop area of Kale (Gümüshane, NE Turkey) which forms part of the Eastern Pontides. Here, the hardground is underlain by shallow water Lower Cretaceous limestones, and overlain by Upper Cretaceous red limestones/marls which contains a planktonic microfauna including Globotruncanidae. In the field, the recognition of the hardground is based on the presence of extensive burrows (especially vertical burrows), the encrusting rudistid bivalve Requienia, neptunian-dykes with infills of pelagic sediments and synsedimentary faults. Skolithos and Thalassinoides-type burrows are present. Some burrow walls show iron hydroxide-staining. The extensive burrowing occurred prior to lithification. On the other hand, the neptunian-dykes and synsedimentary faults, which cut the hard ground, occurred after the lithification. These features indicate the progressive hardening of the substrate. The burrowed limestone consists of an intrabioclastic peloidal grainstone which was deposited in an intertidal to shallow, subtidal, moderate to relatively high energy environment. The peloidal limestone shows little or no evidence of submarine cementation, characterized by only scarce relics of isopachous cement rims of bladed calcite spar. The grainstone cement is composed predominantly of blocky calcite and overgrowth calcite cements on the echinoid-fragments. The origin of this cement is controversial. Biostratigraphic analysis of the limestones demonstrates that there is a marked stratigraphic gap (hiatus), spanning the Aptian to the Santonian, in the Cretaceous of the Kilop area. The formation of the Kilop Hardground is related to the break-up and subsidence of the Eastern Pontides carbonate platform during the formation of the Black Sea backarc basin. Hardground development was initiated in a shallow marine environment of slow sedimentation and with moderate to high energy indicating slow subsidence. Later, the hardground subsided abruptly, as

  19. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kuklik M, Zemkova D, Kozlowski K. 3-M syndrome in two sisters. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002 Aug;38(4):419-22. Citation on PubMed Temtamy SA, Aglan MS, Ashour AM, Ramzy MI, Hosny LA, Mostafa MI. 3-M syndrome: a report of three Egyptian cases with review ...

  1. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  2. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left to right: Richard Rawls, Chip Holloway, and Art Hayhurst standing next to the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  3. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Back view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and the Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  4. SAGE III/Meteor - 3M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Full view of the SAGE III Bench Checkout Unit, Collimated Source Bench (CSB), Portable Image Generator (PIG) on tripod, and Stratospheric Aerosol Gastropheric Experiment (SAGE)/Meteor - 3M flight instrument. Photographed in building 1250, 40 foot clean room.

  5. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  6. Remote observing with the Nickel Telescope at Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigsby, Bryant; Chloros, Konstantinos; Gates, John; Deich, William T. S.; Gates, Elinor; Kibrick, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We describe a project to enable remote observing on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Lick Observatory. The purpose was to increase the subscription rate and create more economical means for graduate- and undergraduate students to observe with this telescope. The Nickel Telescope resides in a 125 year old dome on Mount Hamilton. Remote observers may work from any of the University of California (UC) remote observing facilities that have been created to support remote work at both Keck Observatory and Lick Observatory. The project included hardware and software upgrades to enable computer control of all equipment that must be operated by the astronomer; a remote observing architecture that is closely modeled on UCO/Lick's work to implement remote observing between UC campuses and Keck Observatory; new policies to ensure safety of Observatory staff and equipment, while ensuring that the telescope subsystems would be suitably configured for remote use; and new software to enforce the safety-related policies. The results increased the subscription rate from a few nights per month to nearly full subscription, and has spurred the installation of remote observing sites at more UC campuses. Thanks to the increased automation and computer control, local observing has also benefitted and is more efficient. Remote observing is now being implemented for the Shane 3- meter telescope.

  7. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  8. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  9. SNAP Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, Carl W.; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, R.; Astier, Pierre; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, Christopher; Bergstrom, Lars; Bercovitz, John; Bernstein, G.; Bester, Manfred; Bonissent, Alain; Bower, C. R.; Carithers, William C., Jr.; Commins, Eugene D.; Day, C.; Deustua, Susana E.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, Richard S.; Eriksson, Mikael; Fruchter, Andrew; Genat, Jean-Francois; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Groom, Donald E.; Harris, Stewart E.; Harvey, Peter R.; Heetderks, Henry D.; Holland, Steven E.; Huterer, Dragan; Karcher, Armin; Kim, Alex G.; Kolbe, William F.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, Michael E.; Levin, Daniel S.; Linder, Eric V.; Loken, Stewart C.; Malina, Roger; Massey, R.; McKay, Timothy; McKee, Shawn P.; Miquel, Ramon; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, Stuart; Musser, J. A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Pain, Reynald; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Pankow, David H.; Perlmutter, Saul; Pratt, R.; Prieto, Eric; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, Kem E.; Roe, N.; Sholl, Michael; Schubnell, Michael S.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, George F.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, Gregory; Tomasch, Andrew D.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, Guobin

    2002-12-01

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  10. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  11. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  12. Space Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Kirkpatrick–Baez type systems and the focussing colli- mator or ‘ lobster -eye’ systems. 1http://henke.lbl.gov/optical constants/ 176 9. Space...mirror requires a longer telescope. Focussing collimator or ‘ lobster -eye’ telescopes The Wolter and the Kirkpatrick–Baez systems have in common a...9.13: Flat-mirror two-dimensional focussing collimator or detached lobster - eye configuration (Schmidt 1975). within one tube but from adjacent walls a

  13. BCK Network of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Antoniuk, Krill; Carini, Michael T.; Gelderman, Richard; Hammond, Benjamin; Hicks, Stacy; Laney, David; Shakhovskoy, David; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Williams, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The BCK network consists of three research grade telescopes: 0.6m (B) at the Bell Observatory near Western Kentucky University (WKU), 1.3m (C) at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and a 1.3m (K) at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The Bell Telescope is operated remotely from WKU while the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak possesses an autonomous scheduler. The BCK telescopes are distributed longitudinally over 145º and can be used to observe continuously up to 21.2 hours/day. The network will be chiefly employed to observe variable stars, blazars and unpredictable celestial events.Because celestial objects with ground-based telescopes cannot be observed optically during the daytime, continuous ground-based astronomical observations are only possible via a network of longitudinally distributed telescopes. When the sun rises in Crimea after it sets at Bell, continuous observations are possible. This occurs for about six and ½ months per year - mid September to early April. A network is highly desirable for events that are not predictable for instance the appearance of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, or undiscovered exoplanetsVariable stars are really only known in significant numbers to about 14 mag. But, as the magnitude increases the number of stars in any field increases very sharply, so there are many variable stars to discover at faint magnitude (m > 14). Discovering new variables makes great undergraduate student projects, a major component of astronomical research at WKU. In addition, pinning down the periods of variable stars is greatly facilitated with a network of telescopes.The BCK telescope network will also be used for monitoring the optical variability of blazars. The network provides increased coverage on daily variability timescales by minimizing interruptions due to weather and or mechanical problems at any one observatory and is used for obtaining continuous (12+ hours) of observations of rapid variability in blazars which would

  14. Telescopic hindsight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Cosmic blunders that have held back science" (2 June, http://ow.ly/xwC7C), about an essay by the astronomer Avi Loeb in which he criticized, among others, his Harvard University predecessor Edward Pickering, who claimed in 1909 that telescopes had reached their optimal size.

  15. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  16. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  17. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  18. Holographic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  19. Efficient 3M PBS enhancing miniature projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Zhisheng; Nevitt, Timothy; Willett, Stephen; Mortenson, Dave; Le, John; McDowell, Erin; Kent, Susan; Wong, Timothy; Beniot, Gilles J.; Ouderkirk, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, 3M has developed a number of mobile projectors, with a goal towards providing the world's smallest, most efficient projection systems. Compact size and efficiency are required characteristics for projection systems used in mobile devices and more lately, in augmented reality systems. In this paper we summarize the main generations of 3M light engine optical designs. We present the optical architectures of four light engines, including the rationale behind the illumination designs and the projection systems. In particular, we describe various configurations relating to the 3M polarizing beam splitter (PBS) which is key to enhanced efficiency of the miniature projection systems.

  20. Arrays vs. single telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. L.

    The question of the relative efficiencies of telescope arrays versus an equivalent mirror-area very large telescope is re-examined and summarized. Four separate investigations by Bowen, Johnson and Richards, Code, and Disney all came to the same conclusion: that an array of telescopes is superior, both scientifically and economically, to a single very large telescope. The costs of recently completed telescopes are compared. The costs of arrays of telescopes are shown to be significantly lower than that of a single, very large telescope, with the further advantage that because existing, proven, designs can be used, no engineering 'break-throughs' are needed.

  1. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ˜570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  2. The 3M complex maintains microtubule and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yan, Feng; Li, Zhijun; Sinnott, Becky; Cappell, Kathryn M.; Yu, Yanbao; Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.; Chen, Xian; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Whitehurst, Angelique W.; Xiong, Yue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not 3M patients-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in similar defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage as loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development. PMID:24793695

  3. Telescope Bernard Lyot: operation, instrumentation, perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanac, R.

    2016-12-01

    This talk is the TBL director report at the 3rd French national telescopes Users Meeting of 2016. Telescope Bernard Lyot, the 2-m at Pic du midi (2870m), is dedicated to spectro-polarimetric studies since 2007 with the instrument Narval. This paper presents TBL operation, science highlights and statistics of the past 10 years of operation. It also opens perspectives for the coming 10 years with the funding of Neo-Narval (Narval stabilized to v_r < 3m/s) and SPIrou at Pic du midi (aka SPIP) for the study of the young exoplanetary systems.

  4. Telescope performance at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Rothberg, Barry; Christou, Julian C.; Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Virginia. The telescope uses two 8.4-m diameter primary mirrors mounted sideby- side on the same AZ-EL mount to produce a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8-meter aperture. Adaptive optics loops are routinely closed with natural stars on both sides for sided and combined beam observations. Rayleigh laser guide stars provide GLAO seeing improvement. With the telescope now in operation for 10 years, we report on various statistics of telescope performance and seeing-limited image quality. Statistics of telescope performance are reported in the areas of off-axis guiding, open-loop mount tracking, active optics and vibration. Delivered image quality is reported as measured by the DIMM and several guide cameras as a function of other parameters such as temperature and wind velocity. Projects to improve image quality and dome seeing are underway.

  5. Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G; Brown, R; Bromiley, P

    1998-01-01

    Virtually all business plans are written as a list of bullet points. Despite the skill or knowledge of their authors, these plans usually aren't anything more than lists of "good things to do." For example: Increase sales by 10%. Reduce distribution costs by 5%. Develop a synergistic vision for traditional products. Rarely do these lists reflect deep thought or inspire commitment. Worse, they don't specify critical relationships between the points, and they can't demonstrate how the goals will be achieved. 3M executive Gordon Shaw began looking for a more coherent and compelling way to present business plans. He found it in the form of strategic stories. Telling stories was already a habit of mind at 3M. Stories about the advent of Post-it Notes and the invention of masking tape help define 3M's identity. They're part of the way people at 3M explain themselves to their customers and to one another. Shaw and his coauthors examine how business plans can be transformed into strategic narratives. By painting a picture of the market, the competition, and the strategy needed to beat the competition, these narratives can fill in the spaces around the bullet points for those who will approve and those who will implement the strategy. When people can locate themselves in the story, their sense of commitment and involvement is enhanced. By conveying a powerful impression of the process of winning, narrative plans can mobilize an entire organization.

  6. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA conditionally granted the request from 3M for a waiver from testing tetrabromobisphenol A (CASRN 79-94-7). Regulations issued by EPA under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act... application is submitted to EPA and is approved. EPA received such a request for a waiver from these...

  7. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  8. Productivity and Impact of Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Zaich, Paul; Bosler, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, about 2100 papers appearing in 18 journals reported and/or analyzed data collected with ground-based optical and infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. About 250 telescopes were represented, including 25 with primary mirror diameters of 3 m or larger. The subjects covered in the papers divide reasonably cleanly into 20 areas, from solar system to cosmology. These papers were cited 24,354 times in 2002 and 2003, for a mean rate of 11.56 citations per paper, or 5.78 citations per paper per year (sometimes called impact or impact factor). We analyze here the distributions of the papers, citations, and impact factors among the telescopes and subject areas and compare the results with those of a very similar study of papers published in 1990-1991 and cited in 1993. Some of the results are exactly as expected. Big telescopes produce more papers and more citations per paper than small ones. There are fashionable topics (cosmology and exoplanets) and less fashionable ones (binary stars and planetary nebulae). And the Hubble Space Telescope has changed the landscape a great deal. Some other results surprised us but are explicable in retrospect. Small telescopes on well-supported sites (La Silla and Cerro Tololo, for instance) produce papers with larger impact factors than similar sized telescopes in relative isolation. Not just the fraction of all papers, but the absolute numbers of papers coming out of the most productive 4 m telescopes of a decade ago have gone down. The average number of citations per paper per year resulting from the 38 telescopes (2 m and larger) considered in 1993 has gone up 38%, from 3.48 to 4.81, a form, perhaps, of grade inflation. And 53% of the 2100 papers and 38% of the citations (including 44% of the papers and 31% of the citations from mirrors of 3 m and larger) pertain to topics often not regarded as major drivers for the next generation of still larger ground-based telescopes.

  9. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  10. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, John P; Rizy, D Tom; Kisner, Roger A

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  13. Concerning neutral flux shielding in the U-3M torsatron

    SciTech Connect

    Dreval, N. B.

    2015-03-15

    The volume of the torsatron U-3M vacuum chamber is about 70 m{sup 3}, whereas the plasma volume is about 0.3 m{sup 3}. The large buffer volume of the chamber serves as a source of a substantial neutral flux into the U-3M plasma. A fraction of this flux falls onto the torsatron helical coils located in front of the plasma, due to which the dynamics of neutral influx into the plasma modifies. The shielding of the molecular flux from the buffer volume into the plasma is estimated using numerical calculations. Only about 10% of the incident flux reaches the plasma volume. Estimates show that about 20% of atoms escape beyond the helical coils without colliding with them. Under these conditions, the helical coils substantially affect the neutral flux. A discharge regime with a hot low-density plasma produced by a frame antenna is considered. The spatial distribution of the molecular density produced in this regime by the molecular flux from the chamber buffer volume after it has passed between the helical coils is calculated. The contributions of the fluxes emerging from the side and inner surfaces of the helical coils are considered. The calculations show that the shape of the spatial distribution of the molecular density differs substantially from the shape of the magnetic surfaces.

  14. Cost and Performance Report 3M Selective Separation Cartridges

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    2000-12-19

    In the summer of 1998, the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) initiated a water treatment project through its Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program at the Savannah River Site (DOE-SR, 1999). The purpose of the ASTD project was to deploy new and innovative water treatment technologies - that offer significant improvements over existing baseline technologies - in the removal of cesium and strontium from contaminated water. One of the technologies selected by EM-50 was the Selective Separation Cartridge, based on an innovative membrane technology developed the 3M Co., St. Paul, MN (OST-2000).The Savannah River Site is committed to deploy this Selective Separation Cartridge technology at other appropriate locations. It may be appropriate for other Reactor Disassembly Basins, or in-situ groundwater remediation. The deployment of this technology will be considered strongly as opportunities present themselves. The primary lesson learned is to anticipate and plan to reduce the radiation dose from a Cs-137 removal system to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept. 3M did not include any mitigating actions in their original design and fabrication, primarily because the system was completely constructed before WSRC became deeply involved with the 3M/EM-50 project.

  15. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schember, Helene; Manhart, Paul; Guiar, Cecilia; Stevens, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be the first true infrared observatory in space, building upon the technical and scientific experience gained through its two NASA survey-oriented predecessors: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the Cosmic Background Explorer. During its minimum five year lifetime, the SIRTF will perform pointed scientific observations at wavelengths from 1.8 to 1200 microns with an increase in sensitivity over previous missions of several orders of magnitude. This paper discusses a candidate design for the SIRTF telescope, encompassing optics, cryostat, and instrument accommodation, which has been undertaken to provide a fulcrum for the development of functional requirements, interface definition, risk assessment and cost. The telescope optics employ a baffled Ritchey-Chretien Cassegrain system with a 1-m class primary mirror, an active secondary mirror, and a stationary facetted tertiary mirror. The optics are embedded in a large superfluid He cryostat designed to maintain the entire telescope-instrument system at temperatures below 3 K.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This image illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). One of the three major elements of the HST, the OTA consists of two mirrors (a primary mirror and a secondary mirror), support trusses, and the focal plane structure. The mirrors collect and focus light from selected celestial objects and are housed near the center of the telescope. The primary mirror captures light from objects in space and focuses it toward the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror redirects the light to a focal plane where the Scientific Instruments are located. The primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 meters) in diameter and the secondary mirror is 12.2 inches (0.3 meters) in diameter. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth Orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from the Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The spacecraft is 42.5 feet (13 meters) long and weighs 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  17. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  18. Hamline/3M Project: Liaison for Curricular Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundquist, Andy

    2002-03-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace: most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and culture competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars, self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building, a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focussing on topics directly related to technological industries, high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty and workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace, and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported.

  19. Hamline/3M Corp. Project: Liason for Curricular Change*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry L.

    2002-04-01

    This project was designed to catalyze curricular changes to better prepare students for the workplace. Industrial managers provided a list of 16 characteristics valued in the workplace; most were NOT related to science course content. The project formed 5 teams each including 3M professionals and students. Each team developed curricular changes in one of the 16 areas. Team goals were to improve skills in communication, data analysis, business/economics, team problem solving, and cultural competency. Curricular changes realized include communication skill activities embodied in science courses and faculty communication teaching skill seminars; self learning tools in data analysis, statistics and model building; a new course developed with assistance from 3M personnel focusing on topics directly related to technological industries; high performance team problem solving training/coaching for faculty; workshops for students and faculty relative to importance of cultural competencies in the workplace; and a new course focusing on culture, team problem solving and conflict resolution in the technical workplace. Process for developing and content of curricular changes will be reported. *Thanks to: NSF GOALI CHE-99010782

  20. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  1. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  2. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  3. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  4. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  5. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E.

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  6. Observations of 3-m auroral irregularities during the ERRRIS campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, J. D.; Farley, D. T.; Swartz, W. E.; Providakes, J. F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1992-06-01

    In the late winter of 1988 and 1989, three NASA sounding rockets were flown through the auroral electrojet from ESRANGE (Sweden) as part of the E-region Rocket-Radar Instability Study (ERRRIS). Many ground-based instruments supported these flights, including the EISCAT, STARE, and CUPRI radars, as well as all-sky cameras, riometers, and magnetometers. In this paper the observations of the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), which detected coherent backscatter from 3-m irregularities in the auroral E-region are summarized. Twenty hours of power spectra and interferometry data are available, and, during the 1989 campaign, three weeks of nearly continuous Range-Time-Intensity (RTI) and first moment data were recorded.

  7. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  8. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  9. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  10. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  11. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  12. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  13. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  14. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  15. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  16. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  17. Gemini telescope structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  19. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  20. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  1. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  2. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  3. Holographic telescope arrays.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, A W; Sauer, F

    1988-07-15

    A typical job in optical computing is to illuminate an array of small nonlinear optical components, separated by wide gaps to avoid crosstalk. We do this by letting a wide uniform beam fall onto a densely packed array of minifying telescopes. Each telescope produces a narrow bundle of parallel rays which illuminates one of the nonlinear optical components. The holographic telescopes can do more than change the width of the bundles of parallel rays. Their image forming capability allows the transmission of many pixels per channel in parallel. The pair of lenslets of a single holographic telescope (Kepler or Galilean) is produced in rigid coupling. The monolithic production avoids adjusting the two lenslets later on.

  4. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John; Stockman, H. S.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), planned for launch in 2009, will be an 8-m class radiatively cooled infrared telescope at the Lagrange point L2. It will cover the wavelength range from 0.6 to 28 microns with cameras and spectrometers, to observe the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, and the formation, growth, clustering, and evolution of galaxies, stars, and protoplanetary clouds, leading to better understanding of our own Origins. It will seek evidence of the cosmic dark matter through its gravitational effects. With an aperture three times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope, it will provide extraordinary advances in capabilities and enable the discovery of many new phenomena. It is a joint project of the NASA, ESA, and CSA, and scientific operations will be provided by the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  5. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  8. New catadioptric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Acme telescope is a compound telescope that resembles the familiar Cassegrain type except that the main mirror is spherical and the secondary is an achromatic doublet mangin mirror. Three 6-in. aperture f/15 telescope designs are described. With a cemented, all spherical surface achromangin mirror, there is a small amount of coma which can be eliminated by redesigning with an air space between the crown and flint elements of the achromangin mirror, or by cementing them with one of the concave external surfaces of achromangin figured to an hyperboloid. In the examples, the spherical aberration is nil and the chromatic residual is roughly half that of an achromatic objective of the same speed, aperture, and glass types. Readily available crown and flint glasses such as Schott BK-7 and F-2 are entirely satisfactory for the achromangin mirror. Also considered are two examples of Acme-like telescopes with paraboloidal instead of spherical main mirrors.

  9. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  10. Heinrich Hertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.; Martin, Robert N.

    1998-07-01

    The Heinrich Hertz Telescope is a radio telescope dedicated to the observation of submillimeter wavelength radiation from celestial sources. It is a Cassegrain telescope with a diameter of 10 m and a reflector accuracy of about 17 micrometer, yielding an excellent performance at 350 micrometer, the shortest wavelength transmitted through the atmosphere. The reflector panels and the backup structure employ carbon-fiber reinforced plastic as basic material to achieve a lightweight, stiff construction with a very small coefficient of thermal expansion. This enables us to maintain full performance of the telescope in day time under solar illumination of the structure. In this paper, we describe the structural and material characteristics of the telescope. We also describe the holographic method which enables a measurement and setting of the reflector panels to an accuracy of 10 micrometer. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham in Eastern Arizona at an altitude of 3250 m, providing good submillimeter observing conditions, especially in the winter months. This is a collaborative effort of the Max-Planck- Institut fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

  11. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  12. Telescopes in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yessayian, Rick

    Imagine sitting in your classroom with your students and controlling a Research Grade 24 inch telescope. You control where it points, you control the duration of the exposure of a high grade CCD camera, and you control all of this within your school day, on a camera half way around the globe, in real time. You can hear the telescope moving, talk to the operator sitting atop historic Mt. Wilson Observatory in California. You might be looking at comets, asteroids, galaxies, nebulas or a host of other interesting celestial objects. Perhaps you have students that are up to a real challenge -- doing real science! Students in our program have contributed the discovery of a new variable star, to the Pluto Express project, to the search for supernovas, and the collection of images of intersecting galaxies. These are among the many possible projects you might choose from. The age and ability of your students are taken into account when you choose your project. Students from Kindergarten through Grade 12 have participated in this free program. A new robotic telescope was added at Mount Wilson in 1999. The telescope is a Celestron 14" SCT mounted on a Bisque Paramount GT-1100 with an Apogee AP-7 CCD camera (512X512 pixels). In the Spring of 2001, we duplicated the 14" robotic telescope configuration and placed it at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile (operated by the Carnegie Observatories). I installed the system in late September, 2001, and we began testing. The system requires one more upgrade and some hardware adjustments, which I will complete in June, 2002. We duplicated another 14" robotic telescope, and sent it to Brisbane Australia in January, 2002. The grand opening of the telescope will be in August 2002.

  13. Cosmic X-ray telescope for ARIES rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.; Berthelsdorf, R.; Culhane, J. L.; Sanford, P. W.; Franks, A.

    1979-01-01

    A rocket-borne Wolter Type I X-ray telescope having a focal length of 2.3m, an entrance aperture of 66cm and a geometrical area of 380cm2 is nearing completion. The telescope mirrors are formed by diamond turning their figures into forged aluminum substrates of 5083 alloy. These diamond-turned substrates are subsequently plated with a thin coating of electroless nickel and polished to obtain the final X-ray reflecting surfaces. Details of the rocket payload, the X-ray telescope, its calculated response and the experience gained in selecting the mirror substrate alloy are discussed and the current status of the telescope is reviewed.

  14. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  15. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.

  16. Towers for Antarctic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Nielsen, G.

    To take advantage of the exceptional seeing above the boundary layer on Antarctic sites, a high-resolution telescope must be mounted on a support tower. An open transparent tower of framework minimizes the upward temperature-disturbed airflow. A typical minimum height is 30m. The tower platform has to be extremely stable against wind-induced rotational motions, which have to be less than fractions of an arc second, unusually small from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. In a traditional structure, structural deflections result in angular deflections of the telescope platform, which introduce tip and tilt motions in the telescope. However, a structure that is designed to deflect with parallel motion relative to the horizontal plane will undergo solely translation deflections in the telescope platform and thus will not degrade the image. The use of a parallel motion structure has been effectively demonstrated in the design of the 15-m tower for the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. Special framework geometries are developed, which make it possible to construct high towers in stories having platforms with extreme stability against wind-induced tilt. These geometric solutions lead to constructions, being no more massive than a normal steel framework carrying the same load. Consequently, these lightweight towers are well suited to difficult sites as on Antarctica. A geometry with 4 stories has been worked out.

  17. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  18. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  19. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  20. The Nuclear Compton Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.; NCT Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and novel polarization analysis of astrophysical sources. NCT employs a novel Compton telescope design, utilizing 12 high spectral resolution germanium detectors, with the ability to localize photon interaction in three dimensions. NCT underwent its first science flight from Fort Sumner, NM in Spring 2009, and was partially destroyed during a second launch attempt from Alice Spring, Australia in Spring 2010. We will present an overview of the NCT program, including results from the Spring 2009 flight, as well as status and plans for the NCT program.

  1. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  2. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  3. LSST telescope modeling overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  4. Ultrathin zoom telescopic objective.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-08-08

    We report an ultrathin zoom telescopic objective that can achieve continuous zoom change and has reduced compact volume. The objective consists of an annular folded lens and three electrowetting liquid lenses. The annular folded lens undertakes the main part of the focal power of the lens system. Due to a multiple-fold design, the optical path is folded in a lens with the thickness of ~1.98mm. The electrowetting liquid lenses constitute a zoom part. Based on the proposed objective, an ultrathin zoom telescopic camera is demonstrated. We analyze the properties of the proposed objective. The aperture of the proposed objective is ~15mm. The total length of the system is ~18mm with a tunable focal length ~48mm to ~65mm. Compared with the conventional zoom telescopic objective, the total length has been largely reduced.

  5. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  6. Telescopes for the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    In the last decades, astronomy has been changed in a number of significant ways. The number of large optical telescopes with diameters on the order of or larger than 2.3 m has increased from 3 shortly after World War II to about 20 at the present time. Whereas prewar astronomy was largely devoted to the visual wavelengths (0.3-0.8 μm), astronomical observations currently span the range from γ ray wavelengths to the longest radio wavelengths. Most significantly, astronomy outside conventional optical astronomy has developed into sophisticated disciplines rather than experimental explorations. Many of the observational advances at the forefront of astronomy now come from other than visual observations. Along with these changes have come fundamental changes in visual astronomy itself. Observations with photographic plates are the exception rather than the rule at most large observatories. Instead, electronic cameras are in common use. A second change, especially in the United States, is that the funding has gone from largely private funding (e.g., the Carnegie Institution of Washington) to funding with the government providing a main share of the support. Indeed, the government has provided the total funding for those disciplines, like X ray astronomy, which use space-borne platforms. These changes have also affected the character of doing astronomy, and astronomers have become much more politically active on the national science scene.

  7. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Carla

    The ANTARES collaboration has completed in 2008 the construction of an underwater high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, located 40 km off the French coast at a depth of 2500 m. The detector consists of 885 optical modules, which are distributed in 12 detector lines, various calibration systems and devices for environmental measurements. With an instrumented volume of about 0.05 km3, ANTARES is the largest Cherenkov neutrino detector currently operating in the Northern hemisphere. A general overview on the ANTARES telescope is given. The preliminary results from the various physics analyses on the collected data will be presented.

  8. Numerical simulation of ground-based telescope enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Nian; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    In order to choose enclosure for the next generation telescopes, numerical simulation method was used. Firstly, the telescope, two general kinds of enclosures structure and the external flow field model were established, Then CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology was used to analyze the wind speed, static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy distribution and eddy around the telescope, when the telescope at two different pointing gestures and the external wind speed at 10m/s. The simulation results showed that when the telescope adapt the retractable enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 6.1 m/s and 9.3 m/s, and the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 42.9268 Pa and 37.5579 Pa, however when telescope adapt the hemispherical enclosure, the wind speed of the main optical path between 3.4 m/s and 6.8 m/s, the average static pressure (gauge pressure) on the primary mirror between 12.1387 Pa and 11.105 Pa. Although the wind resistance of the retractable enclosure was lower than the hemispherical enclosure, no eddy generated near the main optical path, it provided the telescope a uniform flow field and ensured the quality of the image of a star. So the retractable enclosure would have better performance than the hemispherical enclosure.

  9. Transit telescope designs optimized for multiple object spectroscopy with fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments to simultaneously study the spectra of many objects in the field of view of a telescope can be made using fused silica fibers. The spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the University of Arizona has been modified for such operation, and is used routinely to study the dynamics of galaxy clusters. Consideration has been given to how the multifiber technique can best be used to obtain spectra of the many faint objects identified by deep transit survey instruments and new space and radio telescopes. A transit survey such as that planned by McGraw et al. (1980), with CCDs at the focus of a 2m transit telescope, will identify objects down to 24th magnitude, and down to 22nd magnitude will give very complete data on variability and optical energy distribution. A telescope with much larger aperture is required for spectroscopic follow up. It is suggested that large telescopes dedicated to this type of work can be made and operated for only a fraction of the cost of a general-purpose telescope.

  10. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts and characteristics. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. Apollo Telescope Mount Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) served as the first marned astronomical observatory in space. It was designed for solar research from Earth orbit aboard the Skylab. This image is a cutaway illustration of the ATM canister with callouts. The ATM was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  14. The Falcon Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  15. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  16. The Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, Neil R.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Steele, I. A.; Tomlinson, M. D.

    2011-03-01

    The Liverpool Telescope (LT) is a fully robotic 2m optical telescope at a world-class observatory site. It runs autonomously without direct human control either on site or remotely. It is not operated primarily for a single science project, but rather is a common-user facility, time allocated by an open, peer-review process and conducting a variety of optical and IR imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric programs. This paper describes some of aspects of the site infrastructure and instrument suite designed specifically to support robust and reliable unsupervised operations. Aside from the telescope hardware, the other aspect of robotic operations is the mechanisms whereby users interact with the telescope and its automated scheduler. We describe how these have been implemented for the LT. Observing routinely since 2004, the LT has demonstrated it is possible to operate a large, common-user robotic observatory. Making the most of the flexibility afforded by fully robotic operations, development continues in collaboration with both observers and other observatories to develop observing modes to enable new science across the broad discipline of time-domain astrophysics.

  17. Wearable telescopic contact lens.

    PubMed

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Schuster, Glenn M; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Groisman, Alex; Legerton, Jerry; Meyers, William; Amigo, Goretty Alonso; Ford, Joseph E

    2015-08-20

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a 1.6 mm thick scleral contact lens providing both 1× and 2.8× magnified vision paths, intended for use as a switchable eye-borne telescopic low-vision aid. The F/9.7 telescopic vision path uses an 8.2 mm diameter annular entrance pupil and 4 internal reflections in a polymethyl methacrylate precision optic. This gas-impermeable insert is contained inside a smooth outer casing of rigid gas-permeable polymer, which also provides achromatic correction for refraction at the curved lens face. The unmagnified F/4.1 vision path is through the central aperture of the lens, with additional transmission between the annular telescope rings to enable peripheral vision. We discuss potential solutions for providing oxygenation for an extended wear version of the lens. The prototype lenses were characterized using a scale-model human eye, and telescope functionality was confirmed in a small-scale clinical (nondispensed) demonstration.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineers and technicians conduct a fit check of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array flight article in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The Solar Array is 40- feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, and provides power to the spacecraft. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. Membrane photon sieve telescopes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Geoff

    2010-11-20

    We present results of research into the design and construction of membrane photon sieves as primaries for next-generation lightweight space telescopes. We have created prototypes in electroformed nickel as well as diazo and CP-1 polymer films. In two such cases, diffraction-limited imaging performance was demonstrated over a narrow bandwidth.

  20. A Novel Dust Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Kempf, S.; Harris, D.; Conlon, T.; Auer, S.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles in space, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with a chemical composition analyzer for dust particles. A novel dust telescope is described. It consists of a highly sensitive dust trajectory sensor, and a large area chemical dust analyzer. It can provide valuable information about the particles' birthplace which may not be accessible by other techniques. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through an appropriately configured electrode systems. After the successful identification of a few charged micron-sized dust grains in space by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer, this dust telescope has a ten fold increased sensitivity of charge detection (10-16 Coulombs) and will be able to obtain trajectories for sub-micron sized dust grains. State-of-the art dust chemical analyzers have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass numbers above 100. However, since their impact areas are small they can analyze statistically meaningful numbers of grains only in the dust-rich environments of comets or ringed planets. Therefore, this dust telescope includes a large area (0.1 m2) chemical dust analyzer of mass resolution > 100 that will allow us to obtain statistically significant measurements of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains in space.

  1. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  2. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. The development of telescope optical requirements and potential optical design configurations is reported.

  3. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  4. The Primeval Structure Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Pen, U. L.; Wu, X. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Primeval Structure Telescope (PaST) will be used to study early ionization of the universe. The telescope will image and spectrally resolve hyperfine emission of neutral hydrogen at redshifts from about 6 to 20. Recently released data, obtained with the WMAP satellite, indicate that the universe was ionized very early, at around redshift 15. Right now, there is very little information on this ionization, since the WMAP data do not tell us the ionization history or the energy source. If the energy source was emission from collapsed objects, perhaps ultraviolet radiation from the first stars, the ionization did not occur homogenously. Earlier star formation in high-density regions causes these to be ionized first. Just when the ionization was half complete, the large-scale structure of the universe became visible in the ionization pattern. We will use redshifted 21 cm brightness to image the largest of the ionized bubbles in three dimensions, allowing us to determine the redshift of the early ionization. In addition, we will be able to study the evolution and merging of the ionized bubbles. PAST will be a sparse array telescope consisting of 10,000 log periodic antennas, providing over 50,000 square meters of effective collecting area. These antennas will be grouped into 80 phased arrays of 127 antennas. Current plans have these phased arrays fixed, pointed at the North Celestial Pole. Later, we can add electronic beam steering. Signals from the 80 phased arrays will be processed using a correlator built from a network of about 100 PC computers. The telescope will occupy ten square kilometers in the Ulastai Valley, Xin Jiang, China. The telescope will be built almost entirely of inexpensive commercially available off-the-shelf components. A series of tests of prototypes, made on-site, have allowed us to study the performance of the telescope and its components. We will present these results and show sky images obtained with the prototypes. We anticipate that one

  5. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1991-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  6. Lunar transit telescope lander design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam A.

    1992-01-01

    The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

  7. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  8. Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Lowell Observatory broke ground on its 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) in July 2005 and celebrated first light for the telescope in July 2012. In this overview to this special session, I will discuss the origin and development of the project, the telescope's general specifications and performance, its current operating status, and the initial instrument suite.

  9. The Bionic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Neville

    2009-05-01

    Four hundred years after children in a spectacle makers workshop accidentally discovered the telescope, the development of this device has been a continuous replacement of the ``natural'' by the deliberate. The human eye is gone. The lens is gone. The tube is gone. The dome is on the verge of going. The size of the optics are ceasing to be set by transportation limits. Adaptive optics are preferred to stable optics. We deliberately break the Lagrange invariant. We focus on lasers instead of stars, and natural observing environments are being replaced by adaptive environments. The goals for the new ground based telescope encompass the oldest and newest ideas, to find signs of life elsewhere, and to find how all the universe developed.

  10. Origins Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  11. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  12. Telescopes of galileo.

    PubMed

    Greco, V; Molesini, G; Quercioli, F

    1993-11-01

    The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia delta Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He-Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

  13. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  14. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device.

  15. Nonmechanical bifocal zoom telescope.

    PubMed

    Valley, Pouria; Reza Dodge, Mohammad; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, N

    2010-08-01

    We report on a novel zoom lens with no moving parts in the form of a switchable Galilean telescope. This zoom telescope consists of two flat liquid-crystal diffractive lenses with apertures of 10mm that can each take on the focal lengths of -50 and +100cm, with a spacing of 50cm and, hence, a zoom ratio of 4x. The lenses are driven using a low-voltage ac source with 1.6V and exhibit millisecond switching times. The spectral characteristic of this diffractive zoom system is evaluated for light sources of various bandwidths. Potential applications for this technology include a zoom lens with no moving parts for camera phones and medical imaging devices.

  16. TAUVEX - UV Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, Jeremy; Braun, Ofer; Brosch, Noah

    1993-01-01

    The TAUVEX UV Space Telescope currently under construction by El-Op Ltd. in Israel is designed both for recording images of the sky in the UV region and to serve as the optical monitor for the SODART X-Ray Telescope being built by the Danish Space Research Institute. The two systems, together with several other experiments, will be flown on the S-R-G satellite to be launched by the CIS in 1995. TAUVEX will image a field of about 1 deg simultaneously in three spectral bands. In addition, it will record a selected object in a high-speed time-resolved mode in these bands. The concept and design of TAUVEX is described in this paper.

  17. The Neutrino Telescope ANTARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Juan José

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration [1] , formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological deffects, Q-balls, etc). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented

  18. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  19. The Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, Peter F.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL

    2007-11-13

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy pair-conversion telescope, covering the energy range from {approx}20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT is being built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. The scientific objectives the LAT will address include resolving the high-energy gamma-ray sky and determining the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources and the origin of the apparently isotropic diffuse emission observed by EGRET; understanding the mechanisms of particle acceleration in celestial sources, including active galactic nuclei, pulsars, and supernovae remnants; studying the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray bursts and transients; using high-energy gamma-rays to probe the early universe to z {ge} 6; and probing the nature of dark matter. The components of the LAT include a precision silicon-strip detector tracker and a CsI(Tl) calorimeter, a segmented anticoincidence shield that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large field-of-view and ensuring that nearly all pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. This paper includes a description of each of these LAT subsystems as well as a summary of the overall performance of the telescope.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  1. Status of the coating facility of the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kamata, Yukiko; Kanzawa, Tomio; Miyashita, Akihiko; Nakagiri, Masao; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Takeshi; Okita, Kiichi; Oshima, Norio; Sasaki, Goro; Torii, Yasuo; Yutani, Masami; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    1998-08-01

    One of the major problems to retain the efficiency of a telescope is to achieve and maintain high reflectivity in the wide wavelengths of the coatings of the telescope optics. For coating the large mirrors of Subaru Telescope, we employed the conventional evaporation scheme, in the expectation of uniform coverage of the film. In this paper, we will report the installation and the performance verification of the coating facility. This facility consists of a washing tower for stripping off the old coating, an evaporation coating chamber, two trolleys and a scissors- like lifter for handling the primary mirror. To supply a large number of filaments loaded with uniform quality molten metal, the practical solution is to pre-wet the filaments with the agent metal and keep them in a controlled manner before the evaporation. The aluminum film deposit on the test samples in the 8.3 m coating chamber proved the film thickness uniformity matching with the specification. Reflectivity of the fresh surface was over 90% at visible wavelength. In September 1997, we re-aluminized 1.6 m and 1.3 m mirrors for the first time (at least for ourselves) application to the real astronomical telescopes. The resultant surface reflectivity confirmed the feasibility of using pre-wetted filaments.

  2. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  3. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  4. Is Your Telescope Tweeting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Half of the world's population today was born after the Apollo Moon landings. The best way to reach this generation and get them excited about today's space exploration and astronomy news and events is through online social media, which are technologies that allow anyone to communicate with everyone. Twitter is a growing popular social media tool that uses short, 140 character "Tweets" to quickly and concisely convey updates on what you "are doing." With the right combination of information, personality and fun, telescopes and spacecraft are using Twitter for public outreach, providing important status updates while making the public feel like they are part of the mission.

  5. SST dual-mirror telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Pareschi, Giovanni; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Stringhetti, Luca; Catalano, Osvaldo; White, Richard; Greenshaw, Tim; Hinton, Jim; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international collaboration that aims to create the world's foremost very high energy gamma-ray observatory, composed of large, medium and small size telescopes (SST). The SSTs will be the most numerous telescopes on site and will focus on capturing the rarer highest energy photons. Three prototypes of SST are designed and currently under construction; two of them, ASTRI and SST-GATE, have been designed, based on a dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) design which has never been built before for any astronomical observation. The SC optical design allows for a small plate scale, a wide field of view and a lightweight cameras aiming to minimize the cost of SST telescopes in order to increase their number in the array. The aim of this article is to report the progress of the two telescope projects prototyping telescope structures and cameras for the Small Size Telescopes for CTA. After a discussion of the CTA project and its scientific objectives, the performance of the SC design is described, with focus on the specific designs of SST-GATE and ASTRI telescopes. The design of both prototypes and their progress is reported in the current prototyping phase. The designs of Cherenkov cameras, CHEC and ASTRI, to be mounted on these telescopes are discussed and progresses are reported.

  6. New Observational Constraints on the υ Andromedae System with Data from the Hubble Space Telescope and Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz; Barnes, Rory; Martioli, Eder; Korzennik, Sylvain; Nelan, Ed; Butler, R. Paul

    2010-06-01

    We have used high-cadence radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with existing velocities from the Lick, Elodie, Harlan J. Smith, and Whipple 60'' telescopes combined with astrometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors to refine the orbital parameters and determine the orbital inclinations and position angles of the ascending node of components υ And A c and d. With these inclinations and using M * = 1.31M sun as a primary mass, we determine the actual masses of two of the companions: υ And A c is 13.98+2.3 -5.3 M JUP, and υ And A d is 10.25+0.7 -3.3 M JUP. These measurements represent the first astrometric determination of mutual inclination between objects in an extrasolar planetary system, which we find to be 29fdg9 ± 1°. The combined RV measurements also reveal a long-period trend indicating a fourth planet in the system. We investigate the dynamic stability of this system and analyze regions of stability, which suggest a probable mass of υ And A b. Finally, our parallaxes confirm that υ And B is a stellar companion of υ And A. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  7. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  8. The CCAT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; CCAT

    2013-01-01

    CCAT will be a 25 m diameter on-axis Gregory telescope operating in the 0.2 to 2.1 mm wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude of 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. CCAT will support cameras and spectrometers with up to 1 field of view at its f/6 Nasmyth foci. The key performance requirements for the telescope are a half wavefront error <12.5 μm rms and pointing error <0.35"/350 μm). CCAT will have an f/0.4 primary with an active surface to compensate gravitational and thermal deformations. The primary will be made of 2 m keystone-shaped segments, each with 16 machined aluminum tiles mounted on a carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CFRP) subframe. The segments will be supported by a CFRP spaceframe truss on an elevation over azimuth mount made of steel. CCAT will be inside an enclosure to reduce wavefront and pointing errors due to wind forces and thermal deformation due to solar illumination.

  9. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.

    2008-07-01

    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  11. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  12. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  13. 3M's Model Rewards and Recognition Program Engages Employees and Drives Energy Savings Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    3M has implemented more than 1,900 employee-inspired projects that have realized a 22% improvement in energy efficiency and yielded $100 million in energy savings. This case study provides information about 3M's approach to energy efficiency.

  14. Optimizing Electric Motor Systems at a Corporate Campus Facility (3M)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    3M conducted an in-house motor system study in 29 buildings at the 3M Center. The company evaluated approximately 1,000 electric motors and upgraded systems, resulting in reduced electricity use and cost savings of $77,554 per year.

  15. Coating Procedure of Subaru Telescope Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kamata, Yukiko; Kanzawa, Tomio; Miyashiti, Akihiko; Nakagiri, Masao; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Noguchi, Takeshi; Okita, Kiichi; Oshima, Norio; Sasaki, Goro; Torii, Yasuo; Yutani, Masami; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    For coating large mirrors of Subaru Telescope, we employ conventional evaporation scheme because it is known for uniform coverage. We will report installation and the performance verification of the coating facility of Subaru telescope. The coating facility consists of a washing tower for stripping the old coating from the primary mirror, a large evaporation coating chamber, two trolleys for the primary mirror, and a scissors-like primary mirror lifter. Tests with large coating chamber at Mauna Kea, as well as with smaller chamber at Mitaka, will be discussed. To supply a large number of filaments with uniform quality, our practical solution is to pre-wet the filaments and keep them in a controlled environment before the evaporation. In the initial test, aluminum film over the large area exceeded the number targeted for the thickness and yet the uniformity turned out to be better than the specification. Reflectivity of the fresh surface was over 90% at visible wavelength. In September 1997, we re-aluminized 1.6m infrared simulator at Mitaka for the first time using pre-wetted filaments. The result verified our coating procedures for the secondary mirror in late 1997 and the 8.3m primary mirror in early in 1998.

  16. Site testing for the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Dunham, Edward W.; Bright, Leonard P.; Corson, Charles

    2004-10-01

    We present results of an extended campaign to test astronomical and environmental qualities of the intended site for the Discovery Channel Telescope, located at 2361m elevation near Happy Jack, AZ. A semi-permanent test station has been in operation since January 2003, consisting of a Differential Image Motion Measurement (DIMM) system and a weather station. Median seeing derived from DIMM measurements for January 2003 - May 2004 on 117 separate nights was 0.84 arcsec, with a first-quartile average of 0.62 arcsec. A wind sensor array deployed on a 12.2m tower is used to characterize air flow over the site. We find that ground induced turbulence becomes more prevalent below the 7.3m level. The Lowell DIMM system has also been run adjacent to the WIYN telescope for simultaneous comparative seeing measurements. Absolute correlations of DIMM seeing with WIYN image quality were good over two nights' observing under a range of environmental conditions.

  17. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyunjin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2009-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M3 is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3. This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K+ channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K+ currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca2+ currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca2+ currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:19931239

  18. Phospholipase C-independent effects of 3M3FBS in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Kim, Hyun Jin; Koh, Byoung Ho; Koh, Sang Don

    2010-02-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype M(3) is coupled to Gq/11 proteins. Muscarinic receptor agonists such as carbachol stimulate these receptors that result in activation of phospholipase C (PLC) which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into diacylglycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P(3). This pathway leads to excitation and smooth muscle contraction. In this study the PLC agonist, 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(meta-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benezenesulfonamide (m-3M3FBS), was used to investigate whether direct PLC activation mimics carbachol-induced excitation. We examined the effects of m-3M3FBS and 2, 4, 6-trimethyl-N-(ortho-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide (o-3M3FBS), on murine colonic smooth muscle tissue and cells by performing conventional microelectrode recordings, isometric force measurements and patch clamp experiments. Application of m-3M3FBS decreased spontaneous contractility in murine colonic smooth muscle without affecting the resting membrane potential. Patch clamp studies revealed that delayed rectifier K(+) channels were reversibly inhibited by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS. The PLC inhibitor, 1-(6-((17b-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), did not prevent this inhibition by m-3M3FBS. Both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS decreased two components of delayed rectifier K(+) currents in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride or 4-aminopyridine. Ca(2+) currents were significantly suppressed by m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS with a simultaneous increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Pretreatment with U73122 did not prevent the decrease in Ca(2+) currents upon m-3M3FBS application. In conclusion, both m-3M3FBS and o-3M3FBS inhibit inward and outward currents via mechanisms independent of PLC acting in an antagonistic manner. In contrast, both compounds also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in an agonistic manner. Therefore caution must be employed when interpreting their effects at the tissue and cellular level.

  19. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.

  20. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  1. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for over 400 years, yet most people have never looked though one. We invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky, and have a close encounter with the cosmos.Our main aim is to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to the young minds by inspiring, empowering and engaging them using astronomy and astrophysics tools and concepts. We would like to see Africa compete with the rest of the world and we believe this can happen through having a scientifically literate society. We also work closely wit teachers, parents and the general public to further our objectives. We will present on our recently awarded project to work with schools in rural coastal Kenya, a very poor area of the country. We will also present on other work we continue to do with schools to make our project sustainable even after the OAD funding.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have identified what may be the most luminous star known; a celestial mammoth that releases up to 10-million times the power of the Sun and is big enough to fill the diameter of Earth's orbit. The star unleashes as much energy in six seconds as our Sun does in one year. The image, taken by a UCLA-led team with the recently installed Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) aboard the HST, also reveals a bright nebula, created by extremely massive stellar eruptions. The UCLA astronomers estimate that the star, called the Pistol Star, (for the pistol shaped nebula surrounding it), is approximately 25,000 light-years from Earth, near the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The Pistol Star is not visible to the eye, but is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius, hidden behind the great dust clouds along the Milky Way

  3. Composite telescope technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of optical mirrors based on polymer matrix composite materials. Advantages of this technology are low cost and versatility. By using appropriate combinations of polymers and various metallic and nonmetallic particles and fibers, the properties of the materials can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications. We report the fabrication and testing of flat and curved mirrors made with metal powders, multiple mirrors replicated with high degree of uniformity from the same mandrels, cryogenic testing, mirrors made of ferromagnetic materials that can be actively or adaptively controlled by non-contact actuation, optics with very smooth surfaces made by replication, and by spincasting. We discuss development of a new generation of ultra-compact, low power active optics and 3D printing of athermal telescopes.

  4. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  5. The Metagenomic Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well–known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well–researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms. PMID:25054802

  6. The metagenomic telescope.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Scheer, Ildikó; Nagy, Kinga; Vértessy, Beáta G; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies led to the discovery of numerous new microbe species in diverse environmental samples. Some of the new species contain genes never encountered before. Some of these genes encode proteins with novel functions, and some of these genes encode proteins that perform some well-known function in a novel way. A tool, named the Metagenomic Telescope, is described here that applies artificial intelligence methods, and seems to be capable of identifying new protein functions even in the well-studied model organisms. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the Metagenomic Telescope, we considered DNA repair enzymes in the present work. First we identified proteins in DNA repair in well-known organisms (i.e., proteins in base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair and DNA break repair); next we applied multiple alignments and then built hidden Markov profiles for each protein separately, across well-researched organisms; next, using public depositories of metagenomes, originating from extreme environments, we identified DNA repair genes in the samples. While the phylogenetic classification of the metagenomic samples are not typically available, we hypothesized that some very special DNA repair strategies need to be applied in bacteria and Archaea living in those extreme circumstances. It is a difficult task to evaluate the results obtained from mostly unknown species; therefore we applied again the hidden Markov profiling: for the identified DNA repair genes in the extreme metagenomes, we prepared new hidden Markov profiles (for each genes separately, subsequent to a cluster analysis); and we searched for similarities to those profiles in model organisms. We have found well known DNA repair proteins, numerous proteins with unknown functions, and also proteins with known, but different functions in the model organisms.

  7. Silicon Carbide Telescope Investigations for the LISA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjuan, J.; Spannagel, R.; Braxmaier, C.; Korytov, D.; Mueller, G.; Preston, A.; Livas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors are conceived to detect GWs in the low frequency range (mili-Hertz) by measuring the distance between free-falling proof masses in spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 Gm. The reference in the last decade has been the joint ESA-NASA mission LISA. One of the key elements of LISA is the telescope since it simultaneously gathers the light coming from the far SC (approximately or equal to 100 pW) and expands, collimates and sends the outgoing beam (2 W) to the far SC. Demanding requirements have been imposed on the telescope structure: the dimensional stability of the telescope must be approximately or equal to 1pm Hz(exp-1/2) at 3 mHz and the distance between the primary and the secondary mirrors must change by less than 2.5 micrometer over the mission lifetime to prevent defocussing. In addition the telescope structure must be light, strong and stiff. For this reason a potential on-axis telescope structure for LISA consisting of a silicon carbide (SiC) quadpod structure has been designed, constructed and tested. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the LISA expected temperature range has been measured with a 1% accuracy which allows us to predict the shrinkage/expansion of the telescope due to temperature changes, and pico-meter dimensional stability has been measured at room temperature and at the expected operating temperature for the LISA telescope (around -6[deg]C). This work is supported by NASA Grants NNX10AJ38G and NX11AO26G,

  8. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  9. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    In 1990 NASA launched the HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. In addition to cameras and spectrographs usable from the far ultraviolet to the near-infrared, the observatory contains three white-light INTERFEROMETERS. As part of engineering and science support their primary task was telescope guiding; to position and hold science targets within the science instrument apertures with tolerances approaching 0.1'...

  10. Telescopes, Mounts and Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, M.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    The amateur astronomer used to have a relatively basic choice of equipment: a refractor (see REFRACTING TELESCOPES), or a Newtonian reflector (see REFLECTING TELESCOPES); there were few other options. The refractor has always been the stereotype astronomer's instrument: a spy glass, with a lens at one end and an eyepiece at the other. However, in practice, the reflector has always been better aper...

  11. Wind buffeting of large telescopes.

    PubMed

    MacMynowski, Douglas G; Andersen, Torben

    2010-02-01

    Unsteady wind loads due to turbulence within the telescope enclosure are one of the largest dynamic disturbances for ground-based optical telescopes. The desire to minimize the response to the wind influences the design of the telescope enclosure, structure, and control systems. There is now significant experience in detailed integrated modeling to predict image jitter due to wind. Based on this experience, a relatively simple model is proposed that is verified (from a more detailed model) to capture the relevant physics. In addition to illustrating the important elements of the telescope design that influence wind response, this model is used to understand the sensitivity of telescope image jitter to a wide range of design parameters.

  12. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    telescope at La Silla on May 11, 1999, at 08:42 UT, under inferior observing conditions (seeing = 1.9 arcsec). The exposure time was 450 sec in a B(lue) filter. The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is indicated with an arrow in the upper part of the field that measures about 8 x 16 arcmin 2. The original scale is 0.24 pix/arcsec and there are 2k x 4k pixels in the original frame. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 22b/99 : This is a (false-)colour composite of the area around the optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510, based on three near-infrared exposures with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the 3.6-m ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, obtained on May 10, 1999, between 23:15 and 23:45 UT. The exposure times were 10 min each in the J- (1.2 µm; here rendered in blue), H- (1.6 µm; green) and K-bands (2.2 µm; red); the image quality is excellent (0.6 arcsec). The field measures about 5 x 5 arcmin 2 ; the original pixel size is 0.29 arcsec. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 22c/99 ESO PR Photo 22c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 235 pix - 81k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 469 pix - 244k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2732 x 1603 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22d/99 ESO PR Photo 22d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 441 pix - 154k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 561k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2537 pix - 2.3M] Caption to PR Photo 22c/99 : To the left is a reproduction of a short (30 sec) centering exposure in the V-band (green-yellow light), obtained with VLT ANTU and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument on May 11, 1999, at 03:48 UT under mediocre observing conditions (image quality 1.0 arcsec).The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is easily seen in the box, by comparison with an exposure of the same sky field before the explosion, made with the ESO Schmidt Telescope in 1986 (right).The exposure time was 120 min on IIIa-F emulsion behind a R(ed) filter. The field shown measures about 6.2 x 6.2 arcmin 2. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR

  13. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  14. 101. JOB NO. 1347F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. JOB NO. 1347-F, SHEET 3M, 1927, ASSEMBLY BUILDING; FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ONE-EIGHTH SCALE OF OFFICES - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 115. JOB NO. 1347K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. JOB NO. 1347-K, SHEET 3M, 1929/1930, FORD MOTOR COMPANY; BOILER HOUSE ASSEMBLY PLANT; BOILER SETTING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  17. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  18. The LIULIN-3M Radiometer for Measuring Particle Doses in Space and on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Obenschain, Art (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  19. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  20. Astronomy with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczyński, Bohdan

    2006-12-01

    The All Sky Automated Survey is monitoring the entire sky to about 14 mag with a cadence of about 1 day; it has discovered about 105 variable stars, most of them new. The instrument used for the survey had an aperture of 7 cm. A search for planetary transits has led to the discovery of about a dozen confirmed planets, so-called hot Jupiters, providing information on planetary masses and radii. Most discoveries were done with telescopes with apertures of 10 cm. We propose a search for optical transients covering the entire sky with a cadence of 10-30 minutes and a limit of 12-14 mag, with an instant verification of all candidate events. The search will be made with a large number of 10 cm instruments, and the verification will be done with 30 cm instruments. We also propose a system to be located at the L1 point of the Earth-Sun system to detect ``killer asteroids.'' With a limiting magnitude of about 18 mag, it could detect 10 m boulders several hours prior to their impact and provide warning against Tunguska-like events, as well as provide news about spectacular but more modest, harmless impacts.

  1. Astronomy with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    2006-06-01

    While there are more than a dozen telescopes larger than 10 meters there is plenty of interesting astronomy which can be done with much smaller instruments. Notice that the existing SDSS, and the future PanSTARRS and LSST saturate at 15 mag. An example of interesting science is provided with ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey) which used aperture of 7 cm to discover over 50,000 variable stars brighter than 14 mag, covering almost 3/4 of the sky. Most of these are new discoveries.ASAS like instruments are most likely more efficient in a search for afterglows following gamma-ray bursts (GRB) than CFHT and its Megacam. In fact it should be possible to detect the afterglows without a GRB trigger by imaging all visible sky every 15 minutes down to 16 mag using a number of ASAS-like instruments.Another example of small instruments being essential, is their ability to detect 'killer asteroids' prior to their impact. It will take a number of small instruments, somewhat more powerful than ASAS, to detect boulders as small as 10 - 20 meters at a distance of several days prior to their impact. This will provide time to evacuate a region in case of Tunguska-like event, or to provide news of a spectacular but harmless event in case of a more modest impact.

  2. POST: Polar Stratospheric Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bely, Pierre Y.; Ford, Holland C.; Burg, Richard; Petro, Larry; White, Rick; Bally, John

    1995-10-01

    The tropopause, typically at 16 to 18 km altitude at the lower latitudes, dips to 8 km in the polar regions. This makes the cold, dry and nonturbulent lower stratosphere accessible to tethered aerostats. Tethered aerostats can fly as high as 12 km and are extremely reliable, lasting for many years. In contrast to free-flying balloons, they can stay on station for weeks at a time, and payloads can be safely recovered for maintenance and adjustment and relaunched in a matter of hours. We propose to use such a platform, located first in the Arctic (near Fairbanks, Alaska) and, potentially, later in the Antarctic, to operate a new technology 6-meter, diluted aperture telescope with diffraction-limited performance in the near infrared. Thanks to the low ambient temperature (220 K), thermal emission from the optics is of the same order as that of the zodiacal light in the 2 to 3 micron band. Since this wavelength interval is the darkest part of the zodiacal light spectrum from optical wavelengths to 100 microns, the combination of high resolution images and a very dark sky make it the spectral region of choice for observing the redshifted light from galaxies and clusters of galaxies at moderate to high redshifts.

  3. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  4. Space Telescope Systems Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Space Telescope Project is to orbit a high quality optical 2.4-meter telescope system by the Space Shuttle for use by the astronomical community in conjunction with NASA. The scientific objectives of the Space Telescope are to determine the constitution, physical characteristics, and dynamics of celestial bodies; the nature of processes which occur in the extreme physical conditions existing in stellar objects; the history and evolution of the universe; and whether the laws of nature are universal in the space-time continuum. Like ground-based telescopes, the Space Telescope was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of utilizing a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic will allow the Space Telescope to be effectively used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs for an international user community and hence making contributions to man's needs. By using the Space Shuttle to provide scientific instrument upgrading and subsystems maintenance, the useful and effective operational lifetime of the Space Telescope will be extended to a decade or more.

  5. Why systems engineering on telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.

    2003-02-01

    Although Systems Engineering has been widely applied to the defence industry, many other projects are unaware of its potential benefits when correctly applied, assuming that it is an expensive luxury. It seems that except in a few instances, telescope projects are no exception, prompting the writing of this paper. The authors postulate that classical Systems Engineering can and should be tailored, and then applied to telescope projects, leading to cost, schedule and technical benefits. This paper explores the essence of Systems Engineering and how it can be applied to any complex development project. The authors cite real-world Systems Engineering examples from the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The SALT project is the development and construction of a 10m-class telescope at the price of a 4m telescope. Although SALT resembles the groundbreaking Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas, the project team are attempting several challenging changes to the original design, requiring a focussed engineering approach and discernment in the definition of the telescope requirements. Following a tailored Systems Engineering approach on this project has already enhanced the quality of decisions made, improved the fidelity of contractual specifications for subsystems, and established criteria testing their performance. Systems Engineering, as applied on SALT, is a structured development process, where requirements are formally defined before the award of subsystem developmental contracts. During this process conceptual design, modeling and prototyping are performed to ensure that the requirements were realistic and accurate. Design reviews are held where the designs are checked for compliance with the requirements. Supplier factory and on-site testing are followed by integrated telescope testing, to verify system performance against the specifications. Although the SALT project is still far from completion, the authors are confident that the present benefits from

  6. Geodetic Observatory Wettzell - 20-m Radio Telescope and Twin Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Schatz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012, the 20-m radio telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany again contributed very successfully to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry observing program. Technical changes, developments, improvements, and upgrades were made to increase the reliability of the entire VLBI observing system. In parallel, the new Twin radio telescope Wettzell (TTW) got the first feedhorn, while the construction of the HF-receiving and the controlling system was continued.

  7. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, June 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Smith, B. W.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.; Marshall, H.

    2006-06-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, Centaurs, NEA’s, and other time-variable objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera.The DCT facility enclosure and control building will be completed this year, including the supports for the telescope mount and dome, the major infrastructure for facility machinery, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating facility. Meanwhile, the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank was completed at Corning, Inc., in October 2005, and the 2-3 year mirror figuring effort is due to begin June 2006. The primary mirror and its design support, and the preliminary integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces.The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking additional partners in the project; interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director.

  8. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  9. Prism beamswitch for radio telescopes.

    PubMed

    Payne, J M; Ulich, B L

    1978-12-01

    A dielectric prism and switching mechanism have been constructed for beamswitching a Cassegrain radio telescope. Spatially extended radio sources may be mapped without significant confusion utilizing the sensitivity and stability inherent in the conventional Dicke radiometer.

  10. Automated telescope for variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; Chandra, S.; Joshi, U. C.; Kalyaan, A.; Mathur, S. N.

    PRL has installed a 50 cm telescope at Mt Abu, Gurushikhar. The backend instrument consists of a 1K × 1K EMCCD camera with standard UBVRI filters and also has polarization measurement capability using a second filter wheel with polaroid sheets oriented at different position angles. This 50 cm telescope observatory is operated in a robotic mode with different methods of scheduling of the objects being observed. This includes batch mode, fully manual as well as fully autonomous mode of operation. Linux based command line as well as GUI software are used entirely in this observatory. This talk will present the details of the telescope and associated instruments and auxiliary facilities for weather monitoring that were developed in house to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the telescope. The facility has been in use for a couple of years now and various objects have been observed. Some of the interesting results will also be presented.

  11. Anastigmatic three-mirror telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D. G. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A three-mirror telescope for extraterrestrial observations is described. An ellipsoidal primary mirror, a hyperbolic secondary mirror, and an ellipsoidal tertiary mirror, produce an image in a conveniently located finite plane for viewing.

  12. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  13. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  15. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in late fall 1995 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia. Construction

  16. The Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. M.

    1995-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project has evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 x 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train --- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in spring of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximicrons flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximicrons stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1995 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson) and ADS Italia

  17. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  19. Imaging phased telescope array study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The problems encountered in obtaining a wide field-of-view with large, space-based direct imaging phased telescope arrays were considered. After defining some of the critical systems issues, previous relevant work in the literature was reviewed and summarized. An extensive list was made of potential error sources and the error sources were categorized in the form of an error budget tree including optical design errors, optical fabrication errors, assembly and alignment errors, and environmental errors. After choosing a top level image quality requirment as a goal, a preliminary tops-down error budget allocation was performed; then, based upon engineering experience, detailed analysis, or data from the literature, a bottoms-up error budget reallocation was performed in an attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of difficulty in satisfying the various allocations. This exercise provided a realistic allocation for residual off-axis optical design errors in the presence of state-of-the-art optical fabrication and alignment errors. Three different computational techniques were developed for computing the image degradation of phased telescope arrays due to aberrations of the individual telescopes. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses were then performed for a variety of subaperture configurations and telescope design parameters in an attempt to determine how the off-axis performance of a phased telescope array varies as the telescopes are scaled up in size. The Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) multipurpose telescope testbed (MMTT) configuration was analyzed in detail with regard to image degradation due to field curvature and distortion of the individual telescopes as they are scaled up in size.

  20. Demonstration Telescopes Using "Dollar Optics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Paul

    2008-05-01

    I propose a poster that illustrates the use of "dollar optics” for experimentation and for the creation of demonstration telescopes. Handling a variety of lenses and mirrors provides an opportunity for discovering practical optics. Some part of this path of exploration must have been traveled by Galileo as he experimented with spectacle lenses. "Dollar optics” include reading glasses (positive meniscus lenses), convex and concave mirrors, Fresnel sheets, magnifying lenses, and eye loupes. Unwanted distance spectacles (negative meniscus lenses) are available at second-hand stores. Galileo telescopes, "long” 17th century telescopes, and useful demonstration models of Newtonian reflectors can be made with "dollar” optics. The poster will illustrate practical information about "dollar optics” and telescopes: magnification, focal length, and "diopters” disassembling spectacles; creating cheap mounts for spectacle lenses; the importance of optical axes and alignment; eyepieces; and focusing. (A table would be useful with the poster to set out a hands-on display of "dollar optic” telescopes.) Educators, experimenters, and those concerned with astronomy outreach might be interested in this poster. Working with "dollar optics” requires facility with simple tools, interest in planning projects, patience, imagination, and the willingness to invest some time and effort. "Dollar optics” may help to foster creativity and hands-on enthusiasm - as did Galileo's work with simple lenses 400 years ago. "Oh! When will there be an end put to the new observations and discoveries of this admirable instrument?” - Galileo Galilei as quoted by Henry C. King, The History of the Telescope.

  1. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  2. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  3. Manipulation of electronic structure via alteration of local orbital environment in [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Yeun; Kim, Choong H.; Sandilands, L. J.; Sohn, C. H.; Matsuno, J.; Takagi, H.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Moon, S. J.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of [(SrIrO3)m,(SrTi O3)] (m =1 ,2 ,and ∞ ) superlattice (SL) thin films with optical spectroscopy and first principles calculations. Our optical results confirmed the existence of the Jeff= 1 /2 states in SL samples, similar to the bulk Ruddlesden-Popper series S rn+1I rnO3 n +1 iridates. Apart from this similarity, in the SL samples, we observed red shifts of the characteristic optical excitations in the Jeff= 1 /2 state and an enhancement of the low-energy spectral weight, which implies a reduction in the effective electron correlation for bands near the Fermi energy. The density functional theory plus Coulomb interactions (DFT +U ) calculations suggested that the SrTi O3 layer intervened between SrIr O3 layers in the SLs activated additional hopping channels between the Ir ions, thus increasing the bandwidth and reducing the effective strength of the correlations. This paper demonstrates that fabrication of iridium-based heterostructures can be used to finely tune electronic structures via alteration of their local orbital environments.

  4. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    and a proof of concept mission for which SOFIA was opportunely positioned is showcased. Success on this time-critical mission to observe a rare astronomical event proved the usefulness of an airborne observatory and the value in waiting for the capability provided by SOFIA. Finally, lessons learned in the test program are presented with emphasis on how lessons from previous aircraft and successful test programs were applied to SOFIA. Effective application of these lessons was crucial to the success of the SOFIA flight test program. SOFIA is an international cooperative program between NASA and the German Space Agency, DLR. It is a 2.5 meter (100-inch) telescope mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft used for astronomical observations at altitudes above 35,000 feet. SOFIA will accommodate a host of scientific instruments from the international science community and has a planned operational lifespan of more than 20 years.

  5. Opto-mechanical design and development status of an all spherical five lenses focal reducer for the 2.3 m Thai National Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisset, Christophe; Prasit, Apirat; Lépine, Thierry; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar; Deboos, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    The National Astronomical Research Institute (NARIT) is currently developing an all spherical five lenses focal reducer to image a FOV circular of diameter Δθ = 14.6' on the 4K camera with a pixel scale equal to 0.42''/pixel. The spatial resolution will be better than 1.2'' over the full visible spectral domain [400 nm, 800 nm]. The relative irradiance between the ghost and the science images will be lower than 10-4. The maximum distortion will be lower than 1% and the maximum angle of incidence on the filters will be equal to 8°. The focal reducer comprises 1 doublet L1 located at the fork entrance and 1 triplet L2 located in front of the camera. The doublet L1 will be mounted on a tip-tilt mount placed on a robotic sliding rail. L1 will thus be placed in the optical path during the observations with the 4K camera and will be removed during the observations with the other instruments. The triplet L2 will be installed on the instrument cube in front of the camera equipped with the filter wheel. The glass will be manufactured in a specialized company, the mechanical parts will be manufactured by using the NARIT Computer Numerical Control machine and the lenses will be integrated at NARIT. In this paper, we describe the optical and mechanical designs and we present the geometrical performance, the transmission budget and the results of the stray light analyses.

  6. Primary mirror assemblies for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    In this report are considered the basic problems which relate to developemnt, manufacture, experimental trying out, and usage of primary mirrors (PM) of the large space telescopes intended to perform distant sounding of the Earth. Attention is concentrated on development of weight-reduced passive mirrors which ensure more reliable operation of the telescope as a whole. In the report we expressed the opinion that it is quite possible to manufacture a passive weight-reduced PM if its diameter is equal approximately to 3 m. Materials which may be used for the manufacturing of PM are beryllium and silicon carbide, physical and mechanical parameters of which are the most preferable ones. But it should be taken into consideration that this is the glass ceramic of CO115M brand which has been mastered by the industry of Russia in the greatest extent. It was confirmed that parameters of this material remain unchanged during a long period of time. Constructions of the PM, made of glass ceramic, as well as constructions of holders intended to fix the mirror, are presented in this report. A holder is used first of all to prevent lowering of a PM surface quality after a mirror has been removed from a machine and fixed in a primary mirror assembly (PMA). At present two-layer construction of a PM is preferable. This construction consists of thick base including weight reduction structure, which is in a radius which is optimum from the standpoint of deformation of a mirror operating surface. In the process of manufacture a mirror is deprived of its weight with the use of special pneumatic off-loading elements. PMA is erected in vertical plane by means of using an interferometric inspection system. In the end of this report we expressed the views on an approach to engineering of a PM by taking into account potentialities both of space ships and of carrier rockets.

  7. 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay: AOAC Official Methods 995.22 and 2002.09.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Deann L; Crowley, Erin S; Bird, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the 3M Tecra Listeria Visual Immunoassay (VIA; 3M Food Safety, St. Paul, MN) was conducted at Q Laboratories, Inc., Cincinnati, OH. The 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method was compared to the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for the analysis of five ready-to-eat (RTE) meats: deli turkey, hot dogs, liver pate, raw fermented sausage, and deli ham, and on a stainless steel environmental surface. Twenty replicates of each of the five food matrixes were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level test portions were inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/25 g, and the high-level test portions with 2-5 CFU/25 g. In addition, 20 replicates of one environmental surface were analyzed at a low and a high inoculum level. The low-level sampling area was inoculated with 0.2-2 CFU/5 cm2, and the high-level area with 2-5 CFU/5 cm2. Five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/25 g (uninoculated) for the foods and at 0 CFU/5 cm2 for the environmental sampling area. There was no significant difference in the number of positives detected by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method for four of the RTE meats and the stainless steel environmental surface analyzed in this study. For the raw, fermented sausage, there was a significant difference in the number of positives detected for the high inoculum level by the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA and the Health Canada MFHPB-30 reference method, with the 3M Tecra Listeria VIA method detecting more positives.

  8. The Carlsberg Meridian Telescope: an astrometric robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    An overview is given of the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope on La Palma, which is one of the oldest robotic telescopes, having started observing on La Palma in 1984. In the spring of 1997, a further stage of automation was made when we converted the telescope to remote operation. Since then, the telescope has been operated over the Internet from Britain, Denmark or Spain. In 1997, a CCD camera, operating in a drift-scan mode, was installed. A year later the telescope underwent a major upgrade and a larger 2k×2k CCD camera was installed, with a Sloan r' filter. With the new system, the magnitude limit is r'=17 and the positional accuracy is in the range 0.03'' to 0.05''. The main task of the project is to map the sky in the declination range -3o to +50o, with the aim of providing an astrometric and photometric catalogue that can accurately transfer the Hipparcos/Tycho reference frame to Schmidt plates. We will release the first data by the end of 2001. Using the photometric information, extinction data for La Palma is also provided.

  9. The Carlsberg Meridian Telescope: An Astrometric Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Dafydd Wyn

    An overview is given of the Carlsberg Meridian Telescope on La Palma, which is one of the oldest robotic telescopes, having started observing in 1984. In the spring of 1997, a further stage of automation was made when we converted the telescope to remote operation. Since then, the telescope has been operated over the Internet from Britain, Denmark or Spain. Two years ago, the telescope underwent a major upgrade and a 2k×2k CCD camera was installed, with a Sloan r' filter, operating in a drift scan mode. With the new system, the magnitude limit is r'=17 and the positional accuracy is in the range 0.03'' to 0.05''. The main task of the project is to map the sky in the declination range -3o to +50o, with the aim of providing an astrometric and photometric catalogue that can accurately transfer the Hipparcos/Tycho reference frame to Schmidt plates. We will release the first data by the end of the year.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope: large deployable cryogenic telescope in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Atkinson, Charles; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an infrared space telescope designed to explore four major science themes: first light and reionization, the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planetary systems and origins of life. JWST is a segmented architecture telescope with an aperture of 6.6 m. It will operate at cryogenic temperature (40 K), achieved via passive cooling, in an orbit about the Earth-Sun second Lagrange point (L2). Passive cooling is facilitated by means of a large sunshield that provides thermal isolation and protection from direct illumination from the Sun. The large size of the telescope and spacecraft systems require that they are stowed for launch in a configuration that fits the Ariane 5 fairing, and then deployed after launch. Routine wavefront sensing and control measurements are used to achieve phasing of the segmented primary mirror and initial alignment of the telescope. A suite of instruments will provide the capability to observe over a spectral range from 0.6- to 27-μm wavelengths with imaging and spectroscopic configurations. An overview is presented of the architecture and selected optical design features of JWST are described.

  11. Flux growth of MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Rudenko, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The temperatures for saturation of the MBO3 (M=Fe, Ga, In, Sc, Lu) compounds in the M2O3-B2O3- (70 PbO-30 PbF2, wt%) solvents are determined. The growth rates of FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystal faces as functions of the flux supercooling are obtained. It is demonstrated that the bulk FeBO3 and GaBO3 crystals can be grown in a narrow flux supercooling range using a controlled seeding technique. The MBO3 (M=In, Sc, Lu) crystals in the form of (111) plates are synthesized by spontaneous crystallization.

  12. Model experience in the Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The model building, development, and testing experience gained during 8 years of operation of the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) is summarized. The summary is divided into four portions: (1) models tested in the 0.3-m TCT's original octagonal test section; (2) models tested in the present two dimensional test section; (3) models tested as a part of tunnel calibration and the development of advanced technology airfoils; and (4) development of a new way to construct two dimensional airfoil models. Design requirements imposed on the models by high Reynolds number testing at cryogenic temperatures are reviewed.

  13. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  14. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  16. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; Kruk, J.; Kuan, G.; Melton, M.; Ruffa, J.; Underhill, M.; Buren, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  17. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E. Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10−6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5–10, p = 3.3 x 10−6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC. PMID:26372210

  18. Attenuation of kindling-induced decreases in NT-3 mRNA by thyroid hormone depletion.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Smith, M A; Post, R M; Rosen, J B

    1998-02-01

    The expression of neurotrophins is altered by amygdala kindled seizures. Because thyroid hormone can regulate the transcription of neurotrophins, we asked whether thyroid hormone regulates neurotrophin mRNA expression following amygdala kindling. Rats with electrodes implanted in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala were either depleted of thyroid hormone or given excess thyroid hormone. The rats were then kindled daily until they had one generalized seizure. The brains were removed 4 h after the seizure and processed for in situ hybridization of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNAs. In non-kindled rats, thyroid hormone depletion increased the levels of BDNF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. NGF and NT-3 mRNA expression was not altered. In addition, thyroid hormone manipulations had no effect on kindling or on kindling-induced BDNF and NGF mRNA. However, the kindling-induced decrease in NT-3 mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer was significantly attenuated by thyroid hormone depletion. These effects were reversed by thyroid hormone replacement. The results indicate that thyroid hormone plays a modulatory role in the seizure-induced changes of NT-3 mRNA expression found in the dentate gyrus.

  19. CDKN3 mRNA as a Biomarker for Survival and Therapeutic Target in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Eira Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Sánchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Espinosa, Ana María; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Alfaro, Ana; Bermúdez, Miriam; Zamora, Rubén; García-Ruiz, Carlos; Gomora, Juan Carlos; Kofman, Susana; Pérez-Armendariz, E Martha; Berumen, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ≥ 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.

  20. A DS106 Thing Happened on the Way to the 3M Tech Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockridge, Rochelle; Levine, Alan; Funes, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates how DS106, a computer science course in Digital Storytelling from the University of Mary Washington (UMW) and accessible as an open course on the web, is being explored in a corporate environment at 3M, an American multinational corporation based in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build community, collaboration, and more…

  1. Shear in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F plumes observed over Sanya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Abdu, M. A.; Wan, Weixing; Hu, Lianhuan

    2015-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radars near magnetic equator regularly measured a vertical shear in zonal drifts of the evening background plasma, with westward drifts below the equatorial F region peak and eastward drifts above. We report here observations of a clear shear structure in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F (SF) backscatter plumes measured with a 47.5 MHz coherent scatter radar operated at a low-latitude site Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E; dip latitude 12.8°N). The radar interferometry analysis on the zonal drifts of the 3 m irregularities yields results consistent with that estimated from the irregularity echo Doppler velocity measurements with multiple beams. It is shown that the SF 3 m irregularities move westward at the lowest altitudes, while at higher altitudes in the same SF plume structure, the 3 m irregularities drift eastward. One interesting point is that the vertical shear of zonal drifts was centered at ~300 km altitude over Sanya, which maps to an apex altitude of ~650 km at magnetic equator and is thus apparently higher than the apex altitudes 250-450 km where the zonal velocity shear has usually been observed. Analysis of the observations suggests that while the possibility of local generation of the shear flow of the irregularities can exist, the possibility of a plasma vortex appearing at relative high altitudes causing the zonal drift shear of F region 3 m irregularities measured over Sanya cannot be totally ruled out.

  2. Large aperture millimeter/submillimeter telescope: which is more cost-effective, aperture synthesis telescope versus large single dish telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) consists of 66 antennas with the aperture equivalent to a 91-m diameter antenna. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest, 100-m diameter telescope in the wavelength range of 3 mm to 30 cm. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) will be the world's largest, 50-m diameter, steerable millimeter-wavelength telescope. The Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will be the world's largest, 25-m diameter, submillimeter-wavelength telescope. We will investigate advantages and disadvantages of both the aperture synthesis telescope and the large single-dish telescope taking the cost effectiveness into consideration, and will propose the design of antenna structure for a future telescope project at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  3. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, NASA's Great Observatory for infrared astronomy, was launched 2003 August 25 and is returning excellent scientific data from its Earth-trailing solar orbit. Spitzer combines the intrinsic sensitivity achievable with a cryogenic telescope in space with the great imaging and spectroscopic power of modern detector arrays to provide the user community with huge gains in capability for exploration of the cosmos in the infrared. The observatory systems are largely performing as expected, and the projected cryogenic lifetime is about five years. Spitzer is thus both a scientific and a technical precursor to the infrared astronomy missions of the future. This very brief paper refers interested readers to several sets of recent publications which describe both the scientific and the technical features of Spitzer in detail. Note that, until 2003 December, Spitzer was known as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).

  4. Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.

    PubMed

    Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A

    2016-03-15

    The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design.

  5. Double Compton scatter telescope calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, B.; Simone, J.; Green, M.; Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Calibration techniques for a medium energy gamma ray telescope are described. Gain calibration using Compton edge spectra involves comparisons of pulse height spectra with spectra simulated by a Monte Carlo computer code which includes Compton scattering and pair production, plural scattering and variable energy resolution, and cell size. The telescope considered comprises 56 cells of liquid scintillator in four size groups, with a total liquid volume of 325 l; each cell has its own photomultiplier tube. Energy and angular resolutions and the PMT gain calibration procedure are verified with double scatter data for monoenergetic gamma rays at a known location. Detection probabilities for any cell combination in the two telescope arrays are calculated per steradian as a function of the scattering for a number of different energies with a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  6. Feature-based telescope scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghib, Elahesadat; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Feature-based Scheduler offers a sequencing strategy for ground-based telescopes. This scheduler is designed in the framework of Markovian Decision Process (MDP), and consists of a sub-linear online controller, and an offline supervisory control-optimizer. Online control law is computed at the moment of decision for the next visit, and the supervisory optimizer trains the controller by simulation data. Choice of the Differential Evolution (DE) optimizer, and introducing a reduced state space of the telescope system, offer an efficient and parallelizable optimization algorithm. In this study, we applied the proposed scheduler to the problem of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Preliminary results for a simplified model of LSST is promising in terms of both optimality, and computational cost.

  7. LSST telescope and site status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  8. EST: The European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collados, M.

    2008-09-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project for a 4 meter-class ground-based telescope, to be located in the Canary Islands. The project is promoted by the European Association for Solar Telescopes (EAST), a consortium formed by research organizations from 15 European countries. EST will be optimized for studies of magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. The project has been approved for funds by the European Union, within the FP-7 framework, to produce the design of all systems and subsystems of the telescope during the next three years. This includes the optical and optomechanical design of the telescope itself and of the instruments and their control. MCAO will be included in the optical path in a natural way to compensate for atmospheric disturbances in an optimum way. The design of EST will strongly emphasize the use of a large number of visible and near-infrared instruments simultaneously which will influence the telescope design from the very beginning. This communication will center mainly on the scientific objectives that EST will address. Generally speaking, they involve understanding how the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface, interacts with the plasma dynamics to transfer energy between different regions, and finally releases it in the form of heat or as violent events in the solar chromosphere and corona. Among the many topics of interest, one may cite, as described in the EST Science Requirements Document: small-scale flux emergence in quiet sun regions, large-scale magnetic structures, magnetic flux cancellation processes, polar magnetic fields, magnetic topology of the photosphere and chromosphere, conversion of mechanical to magnetic energy in the photosphere, wave propagation from photosphere to chromosphere, energy dissipation in the chromosphere at small and large scales, etc. The present status and future perspectives of the project will also be outlined.

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is being developed by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies for launch during 2013. This mission is expected to carry the legacy of discovery of the Hubble Space Telescope through the next decade, and is designed with unique capability to address key questions about formation of the first galaxies after the Big Bang, their subsequelet volution, and the formation of stars and planets within our own galaxy. This talk will present an overview of the mission science objectives and the status of the mission development.

  10. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  11. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  12. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  13. The network of INTA telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial has a network of three telescopes located at some of the best places for astronomy in mainland Spain. The first is at the Observatorio de Calar Alto in Almeria, at an altitude of more than 2100 m. The second is near Calatayud in Zaragoza, at the summit of a 1400-m high mountain. The last is on the campus of the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aerospatial (INTA), in Madrid. The three telescopes are either 40 or 50 cm in diameter and will be available for communications and educational projects.

  14. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  15. LISA telescope spacer design investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjuan, Josep; Mueller, Guido; Livas, Jeffrey; Preston, Alix; Arsenovic, Petar; Castellucci, Kevin; Generie, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Stebbins, Robin

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observa-tory with the goal of observing Gravitational Waves (GWs) from astronomical sources in a frequency range from 30 µHz to 0.1 Hz. The detection of GWs at such low frequency requires measurements of distances at the pico-meter level between bodies separated by 5 million kilo-meters. The LISA mission consists of three identical spacecraft (SC) separated by 5 × 106 km forming an equilateral triangle. Each SC contains two optical assemblies and two vacuum en-closures housing one proof mass (PM) in geodesic (free fall) motion each. The two assemblies on one SC are each pointing towards an identical assembly on each of the other two SC to form a non-equal arm interferometer. The measurement of the GW strain is done by measuring the change in the length of the optical path between the PMs of one arm relative to the other arms caused by the pass of a GW. An important element of the Interferometric Measurement System (IMS) is the telescope which, on one hand, gathers the light coming from the far SC (˜100 pW) and, on the other hand, expands and collimates the small outgoing beam ( 1 W) and sends it to the far SC. Due to the very demanding sensitivity requirements care must be taken in the design and validation of the telescope not to degrade the IMS performance. For instance, the diameter of the telescope sets the the shot noise of the IMS and depends critically on the diameter of the primary and the divergence angle of the outgoing beam. As the telescope is rather fast telescope, the divergence angle is a critical function of the overall separation between the primary and secondary. Any long term changes of the distance of more than a a few micro-meter would be detrimental to the LISA mission. Similarly challenging are the requirements on the in-band path-length noise for the telescope which has to be kept below 1 pm Hz-1/2 in the LISA band. Different configurations (on-axis/off axis

  16. New Information about Old Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Helden, Albert

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the earliest telescopes were primitive, suffering from a number of defects such as spherical and chromatic aberrations, grinding and polishing errors, and poor quality glass. In the last two decades, much new information has been uncovered by the cooperation between historians and scientists. As a result, we now have a much better, and more complete, history of early telescopes, from spectacle lenses and the invention of the instrument to the demise of long-focus non-achromatic refractors and their replacement by reflectors in the eighteenth century. We can begin to quantify the properties of these early instruments, and the results are often surprising.

  17. Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources: today's specialized 30-m telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2011-10-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) use large-aperture (3-30 m) optical telescopes with arcminute angular resolution to detect TeV gamma-rays in the atmosphere. I show that IACTs are well suited for optical observations of bright sources (V≲ 8-10), because these sources are brighter than the sky background. Their advantages are especially great on rapid time-scales. Thus, IACTs might study many phenomena optically, including transiting exoplanets and the brightest gamma-ray bursts. In principle, an IACT could achieve millimagnitude photometry of these objects with second-long exposures. I also consider the potential for optical spectroscopy with IACTs, finding that their poor angular resolution limits their usefulness for high spectral resolutions, unless complex instruments are developed. The high photon collection rate of IACTs is potentially useful for precise polarimetry. Finally, I briefly discuss the broader possibilities of extremely large, low-resolution telescopes, including a 10 arcsec resolution telescope and space-borne telescopes.

  18. Stimulation of high-frequency breakdown of gas in Uragan-3M torsatron by runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, I. K.; Tarasov, M. I.; Sitnikov, D. A.; Pashnev, V. K.; Lytova, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments on confinement and heating of plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron, the method of high-frequency breakdown of the working gas is used. In these experiments, in conditions of a relatively stable magnetic field, the rf power supplied to the setup chamber has a frequency close to the ion-cyclotron frequency. Such a method of gas breakdown is not always sufficiently reliable. In our experiments, preliminary ionization of the working gas by the run-away electron beam is used for stabilizing the breakdown. This work contains the results of experiments on enhancement of the runaway electron beam and on the interaction of the runaway electron beam in the Uragan-3M torsatron with the HF electromagnetic pump field. This enables us to formulate a number of recommendations for using spontaneously formed beams of accelerated particles for stimulating the rf breakdown. Our results confirm the possibility of gas breakdown by runaway electrons.

  19. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  20. A 3 m. y. record of Pliocene-Pleistocene loess in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.A.; Stemper, B.A. ); Pewe, T.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Many distal tephra beds exist in the thick, fossiliferous loess deposits near Fairbanks interior Alaska. Isothermal plateau fission-track ages, determined on glass shards from tephra beds, in conjunction with tephrostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic techniques, indicate that loess deposition began in the late Pliocene-an antiquity previously unsuspected. Hence, there is the opportunity now to reconstruct a detailed, well-dated record of environmental changes in interior Alaska during the past 3 m.y.

  1. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  2. Fundamental experiments of radio astronomy by the paraboloidal antenna of 3.3 m diameter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Kuji, S.; Hara, T.; Fujishita, M.; Horiai, K.; Iwadate, K.; Sato, K.; Tsubokawa, T.; Tamura, Y.; Takano, S.; Tsuruta, S.; Asari, K.

    The 3.3 m diameter paraboloidal antenna was moved at early 1985 for fundamental experiments of radio astronomy at the International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa. The antenna was originally manufactured for the telecomunication experiments at 4 GHz. The authors fitted up a new feed horn of 8 GHz-band for their experiments. The driving system was renewed as suitable for astronomical use by using DC servomotors, optical encoders and a micro-computer.

  3. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  4. LSST Telescope and Site Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, Victor; Claver, C. F.; Andrew, J.; Barr, J.; Gressler, W.; Kingsley, J.; Neill, D. R.; Olivier, S.; Sebag, J.; LSST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The LSST Telescope and Site has been designed to meet the stringent goals of the survey in terms of image quality and throughput. The telescope system delivers 0.25 arc sec FWHM seeing to the overall system image quality error budget. An active optics control system has been identified to measure wavefront quality in the focal plane and use this to reconstruct the figure and alignment errors in the optics. The primary-tertiary monolithic mirror is being fabricated at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab using their structured borosilicate spin casting technology. Fabrication of the mold is underway, with "high fire” scheduled for spring 2008, and final delivery in late 2011. Baseline designs for active mirror support and optical testing for the monolith and conventional secondary mirror systems have been developed. The telescope is compact, stiff, and agile to maximize observing efficiency. The 300 ton structure can make 3.5 degree moves (at a 30 degree zenith angle) on the sky in less than 5 seconds. The dome will track and slew to follow the telescope pointing with minimal power. The summit facility has been designed to support operations and maintenance for minimal down time

  5. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    SciTech Connect

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-12

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its stag phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  7. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  8. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  9. POST: a polar stratospheric telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Bally, John; Crocker, James H.; Dopita, Mike; Tilley, James N.; Allen, Ronald; Bartko, Frank; White, Richard L.; Burg, Richard; Burrows, Christopher J.; Clampin, Mark; Harper, Doyal A.; Illingworth, Garth; McCray, Richard; Meyer, Stephan; Mould, Jeremy; Norman, Colin

    1994-06-01

    The lower stratosphere in the polar regions offers conditions for observation in the near-infrared comparable to those obtained from space. We describe a concept for a 6-meter, diluted aperture, near-infrared telescope carried by a tethered aerostat flying at 12 km altitude, to serve as a testbed for future space astronomical observatories while producing frontier science.

  10. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  11. Thai National Telescope beam simulator testbed development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisset, Christophe; Prasit, Apirat; Lépine, Thierry; Poshyachinda, Saran; Leckngam, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Thai National Telescope (TNT) is a Ritchey-Chretien Telescope with a clear aperture ΦM1 = 2.3 m, a focal ratio f/10 and a central obstruction Obsc = 0.3. The TNT is the main instrument of the Thai National Observatory (TNO) which is located near the summit of the Doi Inthanon, situated in the Chiang Mai Province of Thailand at altitude 2,457 meters. The median seeing on this site is approximately 0.9" and is remarkably stable on most nights, rarely exceeding 2". We decided to develop an optical setup to simulate in laboratory conditions the geometry of the TNT output beam. This, in order to carefully prepare and to improve the efficiency of the test to be performed in real conditions at the TNT focal plane level. We specified the setup to be representative of the TNT optical design, beam aperture, central obscuration, geometry of the spider, wavefront quality and PSF size under various seeing conditions. This setup comprises 2 identical Cassegrain telescopes mounted on dedicated supports with 5 degree-of-Freedom. The first application of this setup will be the preparation of the TNT optical alignment. The second application of this setup will be the development and the test of the future instruments for the TNT such as a focal reducer or a spectrograph. In this paper, we discuss the setup specifications we describe the setup optical and mechanical design and we present the performance.

  12. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Southern Cross) and YEPUN (UT4; ye-poon ; Sirius), respectively. An audio sequence with these names pronounced by a native speaker is available below: [RealMedia - Audio only - 164k] "First Light" of UT2 Following the installation of the main mirror in its cell and a 20-hour working session to put the complex secondary mirror and its support in place, the UT2, now Kueyen , achieved (technical) first light in the morning of March 1, 1999, when an image was obtained of a bright star. It showed this telescope to be in good optical shape and further adjustments of the optical and mechanical systems are expected soon to result in some "astronomical" images. The announcement of this important event was made by the ESO Director during the opening session of the VLT Symposium that was held in Antofagasta during March 1-4, 1999. This meeting attracted over 250 scientists from all over world. It provided a most useful opportunity to discuss future scientific programmes with the VLT and other large telescopes. The participants were left with the impression of mounting expectations, just four weeks before the first VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), will receive the first visiting astronomers. More images from UT1 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 ESO PR Photo 17c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 667 pix - 332k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1334 pix - 1.3M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2108 x 3450 pix - 2.8M] Caption to PR Photo 17c/99 : This colour composite photo of the Chamaeleon I area is based on six 1-min exposures obtained with VLT UT1 + FORS1 in the V, R and I bands. The sky field measures 6.8 x 11.2 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left [1]. Despite the extensive preparations for the Paranal Inguration and the VLT Symposium, excellent progress is being made during the final tuning of Antu (UT1) and its instruments for the "hand-over" to the astronomers on April 1, 1999. This involves exposures in many different modes and of different sky regions. Another impressive photo is shown here that was obtained some nights

  13. Validation of the 3M molecular detection system for the detection of listeria in meat, seafood, dairy, and retail environments.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Esther D; David, John; Koeritzer, Bob; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-05-01

    There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.

  14. FORCAST Camera Installed on SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cornell University's Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope, or FORCAST, being installed on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy's 2.5-meter telescope in preparation f...

  15. Rangefinder Metrology for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. A.; Creager, R. E.; Parker, D. H.; Payne, J. A.

    A scanning laser rangefinder metrology system for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope is described. Use of this system for correction of the primary reflector's shape and pointing of the telescope is described.

  16. Eclipse Photographs Through a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Bill

    1999-08-01

    Results of previous eclipse photography using a small telescope (Questar 90mm x 1200mm EFL) and camera. During the presentation of images, tips and ideas for getting good pictures through a telescope will be discussed.

  17. Galileo, telescopic astronomy, and the Copernican system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, A.

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Telescopic discoveries. 3. Sunspots, Copernicanism, and theology. 4. The decree of 1616. 5. The Dialogue. 6. The trial of Galileo. 7. The aftermath of the trial. 8. Telescopic astronomy after Galileo.

  18. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  19. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  20. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosystems for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of human death worldwide. There are many challenges in the treatment of cancer and the rapidly developing area of nanotechnology has shown great potential to open a new era in cancer therapy. This article, rather than being exhaustive, focuses on the striking progress in the drug delivery nanosystems (DDNS) for cancer therapy and selects typical examples to point out the emerging mode of action of DDNS from our perspective. Among the outstanding advances in DDNS for cancer therapy is the development of ``multicomponent delivery systems'', ``multifunctional nanocarriers'' and ``multistage delivery systems''. However, these represent only one aspect of DDNS research. In addition, nature is the best teacher and natural evolution pressure has meant that virions conform to the ``multitarget, multistage and multicomponent'' (3M) mode of action. Amazingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used for over 4000 years in China, also displays the same mode of action. Integrating the previous notable progress in nanoparticle technology, learned from the building mode of natural virions and the action concept of TCM, we propose an integrity-based 3M mode DDNS for cancer therapy: multitarget, multistage and multicomponent, which are not fragmented parts but an interconnected integrity. Based on the physiological multitarget and the pharmacokinetic multistage, multicomponent DDNS are rationally designed, where different components with individual specific functions act in a synergistic manner against each target at each disposition stage to maximize the targeted delivery effectiveness. In this article, we introduce each component of 3M DDNS in detail and describe some typical cases to realize the tumor-homing purposes.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  2. World atlas of large optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    By 1980 there will be approximately 100 large optical telescopes in the world with mirror or lens diameters of one meter (39 inches) and larger. This atlas gives information on these telescopes and shows their locations on continent-sized maps. Observatory locations considered suitable for the construction of future large telescopes are also shown.

  3. 2m class telescope project at Lijiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Bai-Rong; Luo, Guo-Quan; Liu, Zhong; Tan, Hui-Song

    Supported by the ministry of science and technology, government of Yunnan Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, a 2m class telescope project was granted. In this paper, we will first review the site, Gaomeigu, briefly, then give the details of 2m class telescope project, and finally discuss the future plans of this new telescope.

  4. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

    We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

  5. Spitzer Space Telescope mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

  6. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  7. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lifan; Yuan, Xiangyan; Gu, Bozhong; Li, Xinnan; Yang, Shihai; Gong, Xuefei; Du, Fujia; Qi, Yongjun; Xu, Lingzhe

    2014-07-01

    Chinese Antarctic Observatory has been listed as National large research infrastructure during twelfth five-year plan. Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope, one of two major facility of Chinese Antarctic Observatory, is a 2.5-meter optic/infrared telescope and will be built at the Chinese Antarctic Kunlun Station. It is intended to take advantage of the exceptional seeing conditions, as well as the low temperature reducing background for infrared observations. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system, which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. All of parts of it have been designed carefully to endure the extremely harsh environment. KDUST will be perched on a 14.5-meter-high tower to lift it above the turbulence layer. In this paper, preliminary design and key technology pre-research of KDUST will be introduced.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  9. THE OPTIMAL GRAVITATIONAL LENS TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Surdej, J.; Hanot, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Delacroix, C.; Habraken, S.; Coleman, P.; Dominik, M.; Le Coroller, H.; Mawet, D.; Quintana, H.; Sluse, D.

    2010-05-15

    Given an observed gravitational lens mirage produced by a foreground deflector (cf. galaxy, quasar, cluster, ...), it is possible via numerical lens inversion to retrieve the real source image, taking full advantage of the magnifying power of the cosmic lens. This has been achieved in the past for several remarkable gravitational lens systems. Instead, we propose here to invert an observed multiply imaged source directly at the telescope using an ad hoc optical instrument which is described in the present paper. Compared to the previous method, this should allow one to detect fainter source features as well as to use such an optimal gravitational lens telescope to explore even fainter objects located behind and near the lens. Laboratory and numerical experiments illustrate this new approach.

  10. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  11. The Ortega Telescope Andor CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, M.; Batcheldor, D.

    2012-07-01

    We present a preliminary instrument report for an Andor iKon-L 936 charge-couple device (CCD) being operated at Florida Tech's 0.8 m Ortega Telescope. This camera will replace the current Finger Lakes Instrumentation (FLI) Proline CCD. Details of the custom mount produced for this camera are presented, as is a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the new and old cameras. We find that the Andor camera has 50 times less noise than the FLI, has no significant dark current over 30 seconds, and has a smooth, regular flat field. The Andor camera will provide significantly better sensitivity for direct imaging programs and, once it can be satisfactorily tested on-sky, will become the standard imaging device on the Ortega Telescope.

  12. Workshop on Mars Telescopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III (Editor); Moersch, J. E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held August 14-15, 1995, at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was organized and planned with two primary goals in mind: The first goal was to facilitate discussions among and between amateur and professional observers and to create a workshop environment fostering collaborations and comparisons within the Mars observing community. The second goal was to explore the role of continuing telescopic observations of Mars in the upcoming era of increased spacecraft exploration. The 24 papers presented at the workshop described the current NASA plans for Mars exploration over the next decade, current and recent Mars research being performed by professional astronomers, and current and past Mars observations being performed by amateur observers and observing associations. The workshop was divided into short topical sessions concentrating on programmatic overviews, groundbased support of upcoming spacecraft experiments, atmospheric observations, surface observations, modeling and numerical studies, and contributions from amateur astronomers.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  14. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  15. Opening the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; de Wijn, A. G.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.

    2002-10-01

    We hope to "open the DOT" to the international solar physics community as a facility for high-resolution tomography of the solar atmosphere. Our aim is to do so combining peer-review time allocation with service-mode operation in a "hands-on-telescope" education program bringing students to La Palma to assist in the observing and processing. The largest step needed is considerable speedup of the DOT speckle processing.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched in about 5 years into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Proto planetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  17. Building the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous presentation, I reported on how the freak collapse of the NRAO 300-ft transit radio telescope led to the inclusion of $75 million for a new radio telescope in the 1989 Congressional Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. But, this was only the beginning. NRAO was faced with challenging specifications and an unworkable schedule, but there was no design and no project team. Only one bid was even close to the Congressional appropriation. In an attempt to meet the unrealistic antenna delivery date, the contractor started construction of the foundation and fabrication of antenna members before the design was finished, leading to retrofits, redesign, and multiple delays. The antenna contractor was twice sold to other companies leading to further delays and cost escalation. In order to recoup their mounting losses, the new owners sued NRAO for $29 million for claimed design changes, and NRAO countersued demanding to be reimbursed for added project management costs and lost scientific data resulting from the seven-year delay in the completion of the telescope. Legal fees and a small net award in favor of the contractor left NRAO and the NSF with a nine million dollar bill which NSF handled by an innovative accounting adjustment.

  18. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Eichorn, William; Hill, Michael; Hylan, Jason; Marsh, James; Ohl, Raymond; Sampler, Henry; Wright, Geraldine; Crane, Allen; Herrera, Acey; Quigley, Robert; Jetten, Mark; Young, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approx.40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The ISIM optical metering structure is a roughly 2.2x1.7x2.2mY, asymmetric frame that is composed of carbon fiber and resin tubes bonded to invar end fittings and composite gussets and clips. The structure supports the SIs, isolates the SIs from the OTE, and supports thermal and electrical subsystems. The structure is attached to the OTE structure via strut-like kinematic mounts. The ISM structure must meet its requirements at the approx.40K cryogenic operating temperature. The SIs are aligned to the structure s coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. The ISM structure is thermally cycled for stress relief and in order to measure temperature-induced mechanical, structural changes. These ambient-to-cryogenic changes in the alignment of SI and OTE-related interfaces are an important component in the JWST Observatory alignment plan and must be verified.

  19. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (SDK) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. The science goals for JWST include the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early universe; the chemical, morphological and dynamical buildup of galaxies and the formation of stars and planetary systems. Recently, the goals have expanded to include studies of dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to S microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  20. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels.

  1. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  2. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  3. CMB Telescopes and Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Shaul; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is now firmly establishedas a fundamental and essential probe of the geometry, constituents, and birth ofthe observable universe. The CMB is a potent observable because it can bemeasured with precision and accuracy. Just as importantly, theoretical models ofthe universe can predict the characteristics of the CMB to high accuracy, andthose predictions can be directly compared to observations. There are multipleaspects associated with making a precise measurement. In this chapter, we focuson optical components for the instrumentation used to measure the CMBpolarization and temperature anisotropy. We begin with an overview of generalconsiderations for CMB observations and discuss common concepts used inthe community. We next consider a variety of alternatives available for adesigner of a CMB telescope. Our discussion is guided by the ground- andballoon-based instruments that have been implemented over the years. In thesame vein, we compare the arc-minute resolution Atacama CosmologyTelescope (ACT) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). CMB interferometersare presented briefly. We conclude with a comparison of the four CMBsatellites, Relikt, COBE, WMAP, and Planck, to demonstrate a remarkableevolution in design, sensitivity, resolution, and complexity over the past30 years.

  4. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  5. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels.

  6. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3' UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3' extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3-aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis.

  7. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  8. [11'-Deoxyverticillin A induces caspase-dependent cell apoptosis in PC3M cells].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingdi; Zhang, Yingqiu; Ni, Yangxiao; Shi, Guoli; Yang, Huaiyi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years, the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer have increased dramatically in China. At earlier stages, most diagnosed prostate cancers are responsive to androgen depletion treatment, yet, nearly all patients will eventually progress to metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), which still has no effective therapeutic method or drug to deal with. 11'-Deoxyverticillin A (C42) belongs to the family of epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs), an interesting class of fungal toxins that inhibit farnesyl transferase. Compounds holding such a property have been explored as putative anticancer agents. In this study, using PC3M cells, an AIPC cell line, we investigated the effect of the compound on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. It revealed that C42 markedly enhanced the activity of caspase-3/7 and increased the accumulation of the cleaved PARP, all of which are the markers of apoptosis. It also revealed that C42 either decreased cell viability or inhibited the growth of PC3M cells. Moreover, we observed that the loss of cell viability and cell growth inhibition induced by C42 were both time- and dosage dependent. Taken together, we indicated that C42 can induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in AIPC cells, and the results presented here will broaden our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which C42 exerts its anticancer activity, and future work in this direction may provide valuable information in the development of these compounds into effective cancer therapeutic strategies against androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  9. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Marshall, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated DIMM-characterized median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, NEA’s, and astrophysical objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera. The DCT facility enclosure and control buildings will be completed soon, including the telescope mount and dome supports, major machinery infrastructure, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating plant. Meanwhile, the effort for final figuring and polishing of the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank began in August 2006 at the University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences. The primary mirror and its design support, and the integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The primary mirror axial and tangential actuators will be fabricated in early 2007 and utilized in the final figure and polish cycle. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications are actively seeking additional

  10. Equal-Curvature X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new type of x-ray telescope design; an Equal-Curvature telescope. We simply add a second order axial sag to the base grazing incidence cone-cone telescope. The radius of curvature of the sag terms is the same on the primary surface and on the secondary surface. The design is optimized so that the on-axis image spot at the focal plane is minimized. The on-axis RMS (root mean square) spot diameter of two studied telescopes is less than 0.2 arc-seconds. The off-axis performance is comparable to equivalent Wolter type 1 telescopes.

  11. Cost Modeling for Space Optical Telescope Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper reviews an on-going effort to develop cost modes for space telescopes. This paper summarizes the methodology used to develop cost models and documents how changes to the database have changed previously published preliminary cost models. While the cost models are evolving, the previously published findings remain valid: it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; technology development as a function of time reduces cost; and lower areal density telescopes cost more than more massive telescopes.

  12. Wavefront Analysis of Adaptive Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Hillman, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this work came from a NASA Headquarters interest in investigating design concepts for a large space telescope employing active optics technology. Current and foreseeable launch vehicles will be limited to carrying around 4-5 meter diameter objects. Thus, if a large, filled-aperture telescope (6-20 meters in diameter) is to be placed in space, it will be required to have a deployable primary mirror. Such a mirror may be an inflatable membrane or a segmented mirror consisting of many smaller pieces. In any case, it is expected that the deployed primary will not be of sufficient quality to achieve diffraction-limited performance for its aperture size. Thus, an active optics system will be needed to correct for initial as well as environmentally-produced primary figure errors. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed considerable expertise in the area of active optics with the PAMELA test-bed. The combination of this experience along with the Marshall optical shop's work in mirror fabrication made MSFC the logical choice to lead NASA's effort to develop active optics technology for large, space-based, astronomical telescopes. Furthermore, UAH's support of MSFC in the areas of optical design, fabrication, and testing of space-based optical systems placed us in a key position to play a major role in the development of this future-generation telescope. A careful study of the active optics components had to be carried out in order to determine control segment size, segment quality, and segment controllability required to achieve diffraction-limited resolution with a given primary mirror. With this in mind, UAH undertook the following effort to provide NASA/MSFC with optical design and analysis support for the large telescope study. All of the work performed under this contract has already been reported, as a team member with MSFC, to NASA Headquarters in a series of presentations given between May and December of 1995. As specified on the delivery

  13. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  14. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  15. 29 CFR 516.27 - “Board, lodging, or other facilities” under section 3(m) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBoard, lodging, or other facilitiesâ under section 3(m) of...” under section 3(m) of the Act. (a) In addition to keeping other records required by this part, an... these terms are used in sec. 3(m) of the Act) furnished to them by the employer or by an...

  16. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  17. Aligning Astronomical Telescopes via Identification of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A proposed method of automated, precise alignment of a ground-based astronomical telescope would eliminate the need for initial manual alignment. The method, based on automated identification of known stars and other celestial objects in the telescope field of view, would also eliminate the need for an initial estimate of the aiming direction. The method does not require any equipment other than a digital imaging device such as a charge-coupled-device digital imaging camera and control computers of the telescope and camera, all of which are standard components in professional astronomical telescope systems and in high-end amateur astronomical telescope systems. The method could be implemented in software running in the telescope or camera control computer or in an external computer communicating with the telescope pointing mount and camera control computers.

  18. Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Test of P3M-1 nacelle in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests on P3M-1 nacelle in 1931 which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1) This picture shows the engine with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached. The NACA tested several different modifications and cowlings as noted above. The Navy did not want to make any major structural alterations to the original wing and nacelle installation. Thus, the NACA did not conduct a full investigation of the aerodynamics of this particular configuration. DeFrance concludes his report with this note: 'in view of the limitations of the test, the drag data for the combinations tested may be summarized, and considering the necessity of temperature control and accessibility to the engine it is apparent that the best combination tested was with the large nose piece, the Curtiss anti-drag ring, and the modified tail section.'

  19. Note: Silicon Carbide Telescope Dimensional Stability for Space-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjuah, J.; Korytov, D.; Mueller, G.; Spannagel, R.; Braxmaier, C.; Preston, A.; Livas, J.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave detectors are conceived to detect gravitational waves in the low frequency range by measuring the distance between proof masses in spacecraft separated by millions of kilometers. One of the key elements is the telescope which has to have a dimensional stability better than 1 pm Hz(exp -1/2) at 3 mHz. In addition, the telescope structure must be light, strong, and stiff. For this reason a potential telescope structure consisting of a silicon carbide quadpod has been designed, constructed, and tested. We present dimensional stability results meeting the requirements at room temperature. Results at -60 C are also shown although the requirements are not met due to temperature fluctuations in the setup.

  20. Note: silicon carbide telescope dimensional stability for space-based gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, J; Korytov, D; Mueller, G; Spannagel, R; Braxmaier, C; Preston, A; Livas, J

    2012-11-01

    Space-based gravitational wave detectors are conceived to detect gravitational waves in the low frequency range by measuring the distance between proof masses in spacecraft separated by millions of kilometers. One of the key elements is the telescope which has to have a dimensional stability better than 1 pm Hz(-1/2) at 3 mHz. In addition, the telescope structure must be light, strong, and stiff. For this reason a potential telescope structure consisting of a silicon carbide quadpod has been designed, constructed, and tested. We present dimensional stability results meeting the requirements at room temperature. Results at -60 °C are also shown although the requirements are not met due to temperature fluctuations in the setup.

  1. Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.

  2. Experience and Challenges in Implementing Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment on Meteor-3M Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Newsom, Jerry; Rawls, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Implementation of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a joint science mission between the Rosavioskosmos, also called Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under the global collaboration agreement established by President Clinton and Yeltsin in 1995 between the United States and Russia, space was one of the major areas identified for joint scientific collaboration. There were several collaborative projects identified under space, earth, human exploration of space and aeronautics. SAGE was one of the key Earth Science instruments selected common to both countries' interests in ozone research. SAGE has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for the last 15-year period. It has provided a vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed in the overall ozone depletion research. SAGE II, the fourth instrument has been flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) for the last 14 years. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. SAGE III for Russian Meteor-3M mission is a third generation design with more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage and intelligent terrestrial software. The Russian collaboration required a complete integration of SAGE III on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite and a launch on a Zenit-2 launch vehicle manufactured in Ukraine. The whole complex is scheduled to be launched from Baikonur cosmodrome in early 2001. This cooperative mission has presented a number of management, technical and logistical challenges on both sides. This paper makes an attempt to review and document such experiences.

  3. Modeling the hydrothermal circulation and the hydrogen production at the Rainbow site with Cast3M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Charlou, J.; Jean-baptiste, P.

    2012-12-01

    On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Rainbow venting site is described as an ultramafic-hosted active hydrothermal site and releases high fluxes of methane and hydrogen [1, 2]. This behavior has first been interpreted as the result of serpentinization processes. But geochemical reactions involving olivine and plagioclase assemblages, and leading to chlorite, tremolite, talc and magnetite assemblages, could contribute to the observed characteristics of the exiting fluid [2]. The predominance of one of these geochemical reactions or their coexistence strongly depend on the hydrothermal fluid circulation. We developed and validated a 2D/3D numerical model using a Finite Volume method to simulate heat driven fluid flows in the framework of the Cast3M code [3, 4]. We also developed a numerical model for hydrogen production and transport that is based on experimental studies of the serpentinization processes [5-6]. This geochemical model takes into account the exothermic and water-consuming behavior of the serpentinization reaction and it can be coupled to our thermo-hydrogeological model. Our simulations provide temperatures, mass fluxes and venting surface areas very close to those estimated in-situ [7]. We showed that a single-path model [8] was necessary to simulate high values such as the in-situ measured temperatures and estimated water mass fluxes of the Rainbow site [7]. This single-path model will be used to model the production and transport of hydrogen at the Rainbow hydrothermal site. References [1]Charlou et al. (2010) AGU Monograph series. [2]Seyfried et al. (2011) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 1574-1593. [3]http://www-cast3m.cea.fr. [4]Martin & Fyfe (1970) Chem. Geol. 6, 185-202. [5] Marcaillou et al. (2011) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 303, 281-290. [6]Malvoisin et al. (2012) JGR, 117, B01104. [7]Perez et al. (2012) submited to Computational Geosciences. [8]Lowell & Germanovich (2004) AGU, Washington DC, USA.

  4. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  5. The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. To enable these four science themes, JWST will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched to the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point early in the next decade. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, and is a partnership of NASA, ESA and CSA. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In this paper, the status and capabilities of the observatory and instruments in the context of the major scientific goals are reviewed.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  7. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  8. TMT telescope structure thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Sadjadpour, Amir; Roberts, Scott

    2014-08-01

    The thermal behavior of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Telescope Structure (STR) and the STR mounted subsystems depends on the heat load of the System, the thermal properties of component materials and the environment as well as their interactions through convection, conduction and radiation. In this paper the thermal environment is described and the latest three-dimensional Computational Solid Dynamics (CSD) model is presented. The model tracks the diurnal temperature variation of the STR and the corresponding deformations. The resulting displacements are fed into the TMT Merit Function Routine (MFR), which converts them into translations and rotations of the optical surfaces. They, in turn, are multiplied by the TMT optical sensitivity matrix that delivers the corresponding pointing error. Thus the thermal performance of the structure can be assessed for requirement compliance, thermal drift correction strategies and look-up tables can be developed and design guidance can be provided. Results for a representative diurnal cycle based on measured temperature data from the TMT site on Mauna Kea and CFD simulations are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  9. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  10. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  11. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  12. Space Telescopes and Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Almost 12,000 artificial objects orbiting the Earth are currently in the public catalog of orbital elements maintained by the USAF. Only a small fraction of them are operational satellites. The remainder is satellites whose missions have ended, rocket bodies, and parts and debris from larger parent objects. And the catalog only contains the biggest and brightest of the objects in orbit. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) regime where most of this population concentrates is also a regime of incredible interest to astronomers, since it is where flagship missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope and other Great Observatories operate. I'll review the current state of knowledge of the orbital debris population, how it has grown with time, and how this environment could affect current and future space telescopes. There are mitigation measures which many spacecraft operators have adopted which can control the growth of the debris population. Orbital debris research at the University of Michigan is funded by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  13. Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L. (Editor); Bell, J. F., III (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop E convened in Tucson, Arizona, in October 1997 by popular demand slightly over two years following the first successful Mars Telescopic Observations Workshop, held in Ithaca, New York, in August 1995. Experts on Mars from the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, and the United States were present. Twenty-eight oral presentations were made and generous time allotted for useful discussions among participants. The goals of the workshop were to (1) summarize active groundbased observing programs and evaluate them in the context of current and future space missions to Mars, (2) discuss new technologies and instrumentation in the context of changing emphasis of observations and theory useful for groundbased observing, and (3) more fully understand capabilities of current and planned Mars missions to better judge which groundbased observations are and will continue to be of importance to our overall Mars program. In addition, the exciting new discoveries presented from the Pathfinder experiments and the progress report from the Mars Global Surveyor infused the participants with satisfaction for the successes achieved in the early stages of these missions. Just as exciting was the enthusiasm for new groundbased programs designed to address new challenges resulting from mission science results. We would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as Dr. David Black, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the staff of the Institute's Publications and Program Services Department for providing logistical, administrative, and publication support services for this workshop.

  14. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  15. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  16. JWST telescope integration and test progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  17. JWST telescope integration and test status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary; Scorse, Thomas; Kennard, Scott; Spina, John; Whitman, Tony; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles; Young, Greg; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Marsh, James; Lander, Juli; Feinberg, Lee

    2014-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. 2014 is an incredible year for the Telescope Alignment, Integration, and Test portion of the program. Long awaited and planned, the two segment Pathfinder telescope will be built and the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) will be integrated into the large cryo-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Spaceflight Center. The current status of the integration equipment and the demonstrations leading up to the flight-like Pathfinder telescope will be provided as the first step to the final verification of the complex cryo test equipment. The plans and status of bringing the OGSE on-line and ready for a series of risk reduction cryo tests starting in 2015 on the Pathfinder Telescope will also be presented.

  18. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-04-16

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  19. Compliant Baffle for Large Telescope Daylight Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Compliant Baffle for Large Telescope Daylight Imaging Steven Griffin, Andrew Whiting, Shawn Haar The Boeing Company Stacie Williams Air Force...not impact wind loading induced jitter on the 3.6 m telescope . Analysis was performed to design a compliant baffle out of a synthetic fabric that...will be a comparison of angular rate sensors and accelerometers mounted on the telescope . 1.0 INTRODUCTION Unsteady wind loading is the largest

  20. Telescope Systems for Balloon-Borne Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. (Editor); Witteborn, F. C. (Editor); Shipley, A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) astronomical observations with balloon-borne telescopes, (2) orientable, stabilized balloon-borne gondola for around-the-world flights, (3) ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, (4) infrared telescope for balloon-borne infrared astronomy, and (5) stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon-borne telescopes.

  1. Segmented Mirror Telescope Model and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SEGMENTED MIRROR TELESCOPE MODEL AND SIMULATION by Travis W. Axtell June 2011 Thesis Co...Mirror Telescope Model and Simulation Travis W. Axtell Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 Department of the Navy Approved for public release...Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB Protocol Number: N/A The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) housed at the Naval Postgraduate School is a

  2. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  3. Observation of 20-400 kHz fluctuations in the U-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Kulaga, A. E.; Zamanov, N. V.; Hirose, A.

    2016-02-01

    First observations of quasi-coherent fluctuations in the frequency range of 20-400 kHz in Alfvén-wave-heated plasmas of the U-3M torsatron are presented. The excitation conditions of these modes depend on the radio frequency antenna type and the plasma density, the appearance of the modes correlating with the presence of both suprathermal electrons and high-energy ions in the plasma, which supports our opinion that the modes are excited by energetic particles. Complicated evolution of the mode frequencies with abrupt changes at the instants of plasma confinement transitions is observed at the initial stage of each discharge. The frequencies become stable at the stage of the plasma current flattop. Raw estimates show that toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes could be responsible for the 150-400 kHz fluctuations. Low-frequency 20-70 kHz bursts are observed during plasma confinement transitions. The poloidal mode number of one of these bursts with the frequency of 20 kHz burst was determined to be m = 2. This mode rotated in the electron diamagnetic rotation direction with a frequency lower than the geodesic acoustic mode frequency and can be identified as a drift-sound-type mode.

  4. Characteristics of ICR-produced peripheral plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedin, N. T.; Chechkin, V. V.; Fomin, I. P.

    Some plasma parameters outside the confinement volume near the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) and in the divertor fluxes were studied by probe and microwave techniques during ICR production and heating of the plasma in the Uragan-3M torsatron. When moving around the LCMS, the steepness of the radial density, electron temperature, and potential profiles increase with distance away from the 'rib' of the LCMS. The quasi-steady radial electric field E(sub r) near the LCMS exceeds 100 V/cm and is directed outwards, opposite to the calculated ambipolar electric field inside the confinement volume. It is shown that the total flow of the diverted plasma in the spacing between two helical windings consists of a weakly mobile non-resonant component which is presumably formed at the periphery due to ionization, and a component whose value and poloidal location are sensitive to resonance conditions for RF power absorption, this flow being apparently formed by a plasma diffusing through the LCMS and/or generated near the LCMS, where the filed E(sub r) is localized. Based on plasma parameters measurements after the RF pulse is switched off, a qualitative model of peripheral plasma dynamics after the end of the RF heating is constructed.

  5. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  6. Analysis of temperature-time data from 3 m drillholes at Crystal Hot Springs, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.; Chapman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the background geothermal gradient values through the analysis of temperature measurements at multiple depths to 3 m and recorded over a time span of several days is presented. The analysis is based on the amplitude decay and phase shift of temperature waves with depth. Diurnal and other high frequency temperature variations are used to compute thermal diffusivities which in turn are used to model and remove the effect of the annual temperature wave. The analysis considers both a homogeneous half space and a two layer medium consisting of an overburden of finite thickness overlying a semi-infinite substratum. The method was tested in three holes in the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal field. Temperatures in each hole were recorded once a minute over a period of three days with a probe containing thermistors at eight different depths. Five of the thermistors were positioned at shallow depths (less than or equal to 0.5 m) to monitor diurnal and other high frequency waves and three at greater depths (greater than or equal to 1 m) to measure lower frequency variations. Since measurements were recorded at only three sites, the accuracy and reliability of the method is not fully evaluated. Potential problems to the method resulting from inaccurate model parameters and convective heat transport are investigated.

  7. Cleaning of inner vacuum surfaces in the Uragan-3M facility by radio-frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lozin, A. V. Moiseenko, V. E.; Grigor’eva, L. I.; Kozulya, M. M.; Kulaga, A. E.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Romanov, V. S.; Chernyshenko, V. Ya.; Chechkin, V. V.; Collaboration: Uragan-3M Team

    2013-08-15

    A method for cleaning vacuum surfaces by a low-temperature (T{sub e} ∼ 10 eV) relatively dense (n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}) plasma of an RF discharge was developed and successfully applied at the Uragan-3M torsatron. The convenience of the method is that it can be implemented with the same antenna system and RF generators that are used to produce and heat the plasma in the operating mode and does not require retuning the frequencies of the antennas and RF generators. The RF discharge has a high efficiency from the standpoint of cleaning vacuum surfaces. After performing a series of cleanings by the low-temperature RF discharge plasma (about 20000 pulses), (i) the intensity of the CIII impurity line was substantially reduced, (ii) a quasi-steady operating mode with a duration of up to 50 ms, a plasma density of n{sub e} ≈ 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, and an electron temperature of up to T{sub e} ∼ 1 keV was achieved, and (iii) mass spectrometric analysis of the residual gas in the chamber indicated a significant reduction in the impurity content.

  8. GRACOS: Scalable and Load Balanced P3M Cosmological N-body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, Alexander; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The GRACOS (GRAvitational COSmology) code, a parallel implementation of the particle-particle/particle-mesh (P3M) algorithm for distributed memory clusters, uses a hybrid method for both computation and domain decomposition. Long-range forces are computed using a Fourier transform gravity solver on a regular mesh; the mesh is distributed across parallel processes using a static one-dimensional slab domain decomposition. Short-range forces are computed by direct summation of close pairs; particles are distributed using a dynamic domain decomposition based on a space-filling Hilbert curve. A nearly-optimal method was devised to dynamically repartition the particle distribution so as to maintain load balance even for extremely inhomogeneous mass distributions. Tests using 800(3) simulations on a 40-processor beowulf cluster showed good load balance and scalability up to 80 processes. There are limits on scalability imposed by communication and extreme clustering which may be removed by extending the algorithm to include adaptive mesh refinement.

  9. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  10. Robotic telescope observing with the BAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P.

    2010-06-01

    Have you ever wished you had access to a telescope that can image down to magnitude 20 from the comfort of your own home? This is now made possible by using the growing number of robotic telescopes around the world that are available for amateur astronomers to acquire such CCD imagery. In 2008, using income derived from the legacy of renowned BAA observer Harold Ridley, the Robotic Telescope Project was started to encourage members to contribute to the various BAA Observing Sections using robotic telescopes, by providing a 50% subsidy on commercial rates (up to a limit per member).

  11. The Dutch Open Telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Leenaarts, J.; Snik, F.; Sütterlin, P.; Tziotziou, K.; de Wijn, A. G.

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is an innovative solar telescope combining open telescope structure and an open support tower with a multi-wavelength imaging assembly and with synchronous speckle cameras to generate high-resolution movies which sample different layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously and co-spatially at high resolution over long durations. The DOT test and development phase is nearly concluded. The installation of an advanced speckle processor enables full science utilization including "Open-DOT" time allocation to the international community. Co-pointing with spectropolarimeters at other Canary Island telescopes and with TRACE furnishes valuable Solar-B precursor capabilities.

  12. A New 800 mm Automatic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Molotov, I. E.; Fashchevsky, N. N.; Podlesnyak, S. V.; Zhukov, V. V.; Kouprianov, V. V.; Kashuba, S. G.; Kashuba, V. I.; Mel'nichenko, V. F.; Gorbanev, Yu. M.

    A new automatic telescope, a 800-millimeter main mirror catadioptric anastigmatic aplanat, was constructed by specialists of Odessa National University Astronomical observatory (Ukraine) in cooperation with their colleagues from the ISON project (Russia), and was recently put into operation. The telescope is mounted at Mayaki station in suburb of Odessa. It is equipped with a focal corrector and a professional CCD camera. The telescope is used now for observations of geostationary objects, asteroids, and comets. In addition, this telescope can be used for the high precision photometric observations of faint objects up to 20m.

  13. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  14. Cleaning procedure for mirror coating at Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yutani, Masami; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kurakami, Tomio; Kanzawa, Tomio; Ohshima, Norio; Nakagiri, Masao

    2003-02-01

    We would like to present the procedure of how to prepare the primary mirror of Subaru Telescope for the realuminization. The equipment for the coating and its preparation are located at the ground floor of the telescope enclosure. There are two trolleys for carrying the mirror cell and the mirror itself, a mirror lifting jig, a washing facility for the primary mirror (PMWF), the water purification system, the coating chamber and the waste water pit. The PMWF can provide the tap water for initial rinsing, the chemical for stripping the old coating, and the deionized water for final cleaning. It has two pairs of arms that deploy horizontally above the mirror and have nozzles to spray. The arms spin around its center where the rotary joints are connected to the plumbing from storage tanks. Deck above the water arms serve as platform for personnel for the inspection or for scrubbing work. We use hydrochloric acid mixture to remove the old aluminum coating. For rinsing and final cleaning, we use the water through the purification system. The water supply from the nozzles and the rotation of the arms can be controlled from a panel separated from the washing machine itself. After several experiments and improvements in the washing, we have carried out the coating of the 8.3 m primary mirror in September last year. This was the third time, and the reflectivity of the new coating show satisfactory result.

  15. Developing a Telescope Simulator Towards a Global Autonomous Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakoumidis, N.; Ioannou, Z.; Dong, H.; Mavridis, N.

    2013-05-01

    A robotic telescope network is a system that integrates a number of telescopes to observe a variety of astronomical targets without being operated by a human. This system autonomously selects and observes targets in accordance to an optimized target. It dynamically allocates telescope resources depending on the observation requests, specifications of the telescopes, target visibility, meteorological conditions, daylight, location restrictions and availability and many other factors. In this paper, we introduce a telescope simulator, which can control a telescope to a desired position in order to observe a specific object. The system includes a Client Module, a Server Module, and a Dynamic Scheduler module. We make use and integrate a number of open source software to simulate the movement of a robotic telescope, the telescope characteristics, the observational data and weather conditions in order to test and optimize our system.

  16. On Education and the Future: A Conversation with Harold Shane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1983-01-01

    A futurist predicts a renaissance in schooling because of the oncoming information era and because new people moving into positions of responsibility will generate enthusiasm for "making tomorrow work" in school and society. (MLF)

  17. SkyView Virtual Telescope:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.; McDonald, Laura M.; Scollick, Keith A.

    2015-11-01

    The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well. SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.

  18. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  19. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  20. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  1. Compact telescope for free-space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganov, Vladimir; James, Daryl G.

    2002-10-01

    Several types of telescopes are used for free space telecommunications. The most common are Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes. The main difference between Cassegrain and Gregorian optical systems is that Gregorian telescopes employ a concave secondary mirror located beyond the focus of the primary mirror. This results in longer tube lengths, as the distance between mirrors is slightly more than the sum of their focal lengths, which is the reason Cassegrain systems are the most common. In addition, Gregorian telescopes produce an upright image, while Cassegrain telescopes produce an inverted image. FSONA is presenting a new compact optical system, which can be described as a modified Gregorian telescope. This telescope is ideally suited for free space optical communications but also has many other applications. The compact telescope is created from a standard Gregorian system by flipping the secondary mirror over a folding mirror installed approximately in the middle of the optical path between primary and secondary mirrors. In this manner, the primary mirror is constructed with a concentric "double curved" geometry, and a central obscuring folding mirror which matches the diameter of the smaller curve of the primary is mounted a short distance in front. This "double curved" geometry is easily produced using diamond turning technology, and the result is a compact telescope approximately 1/2 the length of a regular Gregorian telescope and roughly 2/3 the length of a Cassegrain telescope. There are several advantages to using this type of telescope: 1. The system is very compact. Telescope can be as short as 1/7 of the focal length of the system. 2. For Cassegrain and Gregorian systems it is very critical to keep tight tolerances on the centration between primary and secondary mirrors. The modified Gregorian telescope will always have perfect centration because both curved surfaces are machined at the same time on a diamond turning lathe. The folding mirror is flat

  2. The Onsala Twin Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, R.

    2013-08-01

    This paper described the Onsala Twin Telescope project. The project aims at the construction of two new radio telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory, following the VLBI2010 concept. The project starts in 2013 and is expected to be finalized within 4 years. Z% O. Rydbeck. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Göteborg, ISBN 91-7032-621-5, 407-823, 1991. B. Petrachenko, A. Niell, D. Behrend, B. Corey, J. Böhm, P. Charlot, A. Collioud, J. Gipson, R. Haas, Th. Hobiger, Y. Koyama, D. MacMillan, Z. Malkin, T. Nilsson, A. Pany, G. Tuccari, A. Whitney, and J. Wresnik. Design Aspects of the VLBI2010 System. NASA/TM-2009-214180, 58 pp., 2009. R. Haas, G. Elgered, J. Löfgren, T. Ning, and H.-G. Scherneck. Onsala Space Observatory - IVS Network Station. In K. D. Baver and D. Behrend, editors, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2011 Annual Report, NASA/TP-2012-217505, 88-91, 2012. H.-G. Scherneck, G. Elgered, J. M. Johansson, and B. O. Rönnäng. Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol. 23, No. 7-8, 811-823, 1998. A. R. Whitney. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Electrical engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA., 1974. B. A. Harper, J. D. Kepert, and J. D. Ginger. Guidelines for converting between various wind averaging periods in tropical cyclone conditions. WMO/TD-No. 1555, 64 pp., 2010 (available at \\url{http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/WMO_TD_1555_en.pdf})

  3. Clinical evaluation of the 3M Littmann Electronic Stethoscope Model 3200 in 150 cats.

    PubMed

    Blass, Keith A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Scansen, Brian A; Visser, Lance C; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, Danielle N; Ward, Jessica L

    2013-10-01

    Detection of murmurs and gallops may help to identify cats with heart disease. However, auscultatory findings may be subject to clinically relevant observer variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electronic stethoscope (ES) in cats. We hypothesized that the ES would perform at least as well as a conventional stethoscope (CS) in the detection of abnormal heart sounds. One hundred and fifty consecutive cats undergoing echocardiography were enrolled prospectively. Cats were ausculted with a CS (WA Tycos Harvey Elite) by two observers, and heart sounds were recorded digitally using an ES (3M Littmann Stethoscope Model 3200) for off-line analysis. Echocardiography was used as the clinical standard method for validation of auscultatory findings. Additionally, digital recordings (DRs) were assessed by eight independent observers with various levels of expertise, and compared using interclass correlation and Cohen's weighted kappa analyses. Using the CS, a heart murmur (n = 88 cats) or gallop sound (n = 17) was identified in 105 cats, whereas 45 cats lacked abnormal heart sounds. There was good total agreement (83-90%) between the two observers using the CS. In contrast, there was only moderate agreement (P <0.001) between results from the CS and the DRs for murmurs, and poor agreement for gallops. The CS was more sensitive compared with the DRs with regard to murmurs and gallops. Agreement among the eight observers was good-to-excellent for murmur detection (81%). In conclusion, DRs made with the ES are less sensitive but comparably specific to a CS at detecting abnormal heart sounds in cats.

  4. Qualification Of Kapton Pretreatment Process Using 3M Scotch Weld 2216 For Solar Panel Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, B. R.; Krishna, Priya G.; Venkatesh, K.; Nagendra, H. R.; Nanjundaswamy, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    Substrates for solar arrays intended to be used on satellite systems are generally made of aluminum honeycomb structure sandwiched with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) face skin. Two mil thick KaptonTM sheets are co cured on one side of the aluminum /CFRP composite structure while realizing the substrate panels. This Kapton sheet would serve as an insulator over which solar cell blankets are bonded with suitable adhesive for the satellite solar panels. The satellite solar panels demands highest degree of quality and reliability and one of the prime factors in this regards is the bond strength of adhesive which is used to bond the solar cell blankets. Various methods of pretreatments of Kapton surface are in use for increasing the surface energy, which in turn results in improved bond strengths. These methods generally provide roughened surface of the Kapton which is achieved either by abrasive means like scrubbing the surface using fine silica chip, or plasma etching or alternatively by an additive process wherein suitable polyester, phenolic or other resins are coated on to the Kapton surface to achieve the desired results. For spacecraft solar panel applications at ISRO, polyester resin coating on to the Kapton surface was used as pretreatment prior to adhesive application. This process had provided adequate bond strengths between the solar cells and Kapton. Due to issues related to the supply of the polyester resin material from the vendor alternative methods of pretreatments were explored. In this paper, a novel process developed for Kapton pretreatment is described along with results of relevant qualifications for the satellite solar panel application. This newly developed pretreatment process for Kapton successfully adopts an epoxy based material 3M Scotch weld 2216 which is widely used in spacecraft electronic hardware.

  5. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases. PMID:22989054

  6. Initial Operation and Checkout of Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment and Meteor-3M Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, L.; Chu, W.; Salikhov, R.; Moore, A.; Trepte, C.; Cisewski, M.

    2002-01-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10,2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA s Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center s (LaRC) management. This paper presents innovative approaches deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational issues

  7. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  8. PLANET ENGULFMENT BY {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitomo, M.; Ikoma, M.; Sato, B.; Ida, S.; Katsuta, Y.

    2011-08-20

    Recent radial-velocity surveys for GK clump giants have revealed that planets also exist around {approx}1.5-3 M{sub sun} stars. However, no planets have been found inside 0.6 AU around clump giants, in contrast to solar-type main-sequence stars, many of which harbor short-period planets such as hot Jupiters. In this study, we examine the possibility that planets were engulfed by host stars evolving on the red-giant branch (RGB). We integrate the orbital evolution of planets in the RGB and helium-burning phases of host stars, including the effects of stellar tide and stellar mass loss. Then we derive the critical semimajor axis (or the survival limit) inside which planets are eventually engulfed by their host stars after tidal decay of their orbits. Specifically, we investigate the impact of stellar mass and other stellar parameters on the survival limit in more detail than previous studies. In addition, we make detailed comparisons with measured semimajor axes of planets detected so far, which no previous study has done. We find that the critical semimajor axis is quite sensitive to stellar mass in the range between 1.7 and 2.1 M{sub sun}, which suggests a need for careful comparison between theoretical and observational limits of the existence of planets. Our comparison demonstrates that all planets orbiting GK clump giants that have been detected are beyond the survival limit, which is consistent with the planet-engulfment hypothesis. However, on the high-mass side (>2.1M{sub sun}), the detected planets are orbiting significantly far from the survival limit, which suggests that engulfment by host stars may not be the main reason for the observed lack of short-period giant planets. To confirm our conclusion, the detection of more planets around clump giants, especially with masses {approx}> 2.5M{sub sun}, is required.

  9. System of the optic-electronic sensors for control position of the radio telescope elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor; Stepashkin, Ivan; Petrochenko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    A promising area of modern astronomy is the study of the field of millimeter waves. The use of this band is due to a large extent the spectrum characteristics of the propagation of waves in the atmosphere, short wavelength. Currently, Russia jointly with Uzbekistan is implementing a project to build a radio astronomy observatory on the Suffa plateau (Uzbekistan). The main instrument of the observatory is fully steerable radio telescope RT-70 type. Main mirror telescope is a fragment of an axisymmetric parabolic with a focal length of 21 m, consisting of 1200 reflecting panels; main mirror diameter - 70 m; diameter of counter reflector - 3 m. A feature of the radio telescope as a means of research in the millimeter wavelength range are high for the quality requirements parabolic surface of the primary mirror (standard deviation of points on the surface of the theoretical parabolic is not more than 0.05 mm), to the stability of the mutual arrangement of the primary mirror and the counter reflector (not more than 0, 07 mm) for precision guidance in the corners of the mirror system azimuth and elevation (margin of error 1.5-2"). Weight of structure, temperature changes and air shock result in significant deformation elements radio telescope construction (progressive linear displacements of points of the surface of the main mirror), reaching in the marginal zone of 30 mm; counter reflector shift of up to 60 mm; Unlike the angular position of the axis of the beam pattern of the radio telescope of the measured angle transducers can reach 10 ". Therefore, to ensure the required quality of the reflective elements RT-70 systems, as well as the implementation of precision-guided munitions needs complex measuring deformation elements telescope design. This article deals with the construction of opto-electronic system of remote optoelectronic displacement sensor control elements mirror telescope system.

  10. [The experience of using Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE) - the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives].

    PubMed

    Sharova, T N

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents clinical cases illustrating the advantages of bulk fill flowable restoratives, such as Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). The material showed good clinical results for class I and class II restorations.

  11. Modifications to Langley 0.3-m TCT adaptive wall software for heavy gas test medium, phase 1 studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1992-01-01

    The scheme for two-dimensional wall adaptation with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as test gas in the NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) is presented. A unified version of the wall adaptation software has been developed to function in a dual gas operation mode (nitrogen or SF6). The feature of ideal gas calculations for nitrogen operation is retained. For SF6 operation, real gas properties have been computed using the departure function technique. Installation of the software on the 0.3-m TCT ModComp-A computer and preliminary validation with nitrogen operation were found to be satisfactory. Further validation and improvements to the software will be undertaken when the 0.3-m TCT is ready for operation with SF6 gas.

  12. Space Infrared Telescope Facility science instruments overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will contain three cryogenically cooled infrared instruments: the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and the Multiband Infrared Photometer for SIRTF (MIPS). These instruments are sensitive to infrared radiation in the 1.8-1,200 micrometer range. This paper will discuss the three instruments' functional requirements and their accommodation in the SIRTF telescope system.

  13. The development of the Schmidt telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2009-06-01

    % Bernhard Schmidt (1879-1935) was born in Estonia. After a few years of studying engineering he ran an optical workshop in Mittweida, Saxonia, between 1901 and 1927. Astronomers appreciated the quality of his telescopes. Starting in 1925, on behalf of the Hamburg Observatory, he developed a short focal length optical system with a large field of view. For this purpose, Schmidt moved his workshop to the observatory. He succeeded in inventing the ``Schmidt telescope'' which allows the imaging of a large field of the sky without any distortions. Schmidt's first telescope (spherical mirror diameter 0.44 m, correction plate 0.36 m diameter, aperture ratio 1:1.75, and focal length 0.625 m) has been used since 1962 at the Boyden Observatory in Bloemfontein/South Africa. Apart from his 0.36 m telescope, Schmidt produced a second larger one of 0.60 m aperture. Shortly after Schmidt's death, the director of the observatory published details on the invention and production of the Schmidt telescope. After World War II, Schmidt telescopes have been widely used. The first large Schmidt telescope, the ``Big Schmidt'' (1.26 m), Mount Palomar, USA, was completed in 1948. The 0.80 m Schmidt telescope of Hamburg Observatory, planned since 1936, finished in 1954, is now on Calar Alto/Spain.

  14. Proposed Integrated Radio-Telescope Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Ewing, M. S.; Levy, G. S.; Mallis, R. K.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Smith, J. R.; Backer, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed network of radio telescopes, controlled by a central computer and managed by a single organization, offer potential for research on a scale that could not be matched by present privately and publicly-owned radio telescopes. With 10 antenna sites, network would establish base lines thousands of miles long. Antennas will be linked to computer center by telephone circuits.

  15. A Mechanical Analogue of the Refracting Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Molesini, Giuseppe; Sordini, Andrea; Straulino, Samuele

    2011-01-01

    The recent celebration of the discoveries made by Galileo four centuries ago has attracted new attention to the refracting telescope and to its use as an instrument for the observation of the night sky. This has offered the opportunity for addressing in the classroom the basic principles explaining the operation of the telescope. When doing so, a…

  16. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines.

  17. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  18. Monitoring LMXBs with the Faulkes Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Fraser; Russell, D. M.; Fender, R. P.; Roche, P.

    The Faulkes Telescope Project is the educational arm of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT). It currently has two 2-metre robotic telescopes, located at Haleakala on Maui (FT North) and Siding Spring in Australia (FT South). It is planned to increase this to six 2-metre telescopes in the future, complemented by a network of 30-40 smaller (0.4 - 1 metre) telescopes providing 24 hour coverage of both northern and southern hemispheres. We are undertaking a monitoring project of 10 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using FT North to study the optical continuum behaviour of X-ray transients in quiescence. The introduction of FT South in September 2006 allows us to extend this monitoring to include 17 southern hemisphere LMXBs. With new instrumentation, we also intend to expand this monitoring to include both infrared wavelengths and spectroscopy.

  19. University of California ten meter telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the prospective design features of the segmented, 10-m diameter optical-IR range telescope which the University of California is planning to build on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, with attention to the performance levels obtained from prototypes. The telescope primary mirror will be formed by 36 actively controlled mirror segments, which will be polished to their desired shape by stressed mirror polishing. The active control system employs displacement sensors at the edges of the mirror segments to determine their positions, which are then adjusted by three displacement actuators/segment. The telescope overall design is described as a Ritchley-Cretien f/1.75-f/15 system. The telescope's dome is highly compact, and rotates on a stationary building in the manner of conventional telescope domes.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Project (JWST) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project. The JWST is an infrared telescope designed to collect data in the cosmic dark zone. Specifically, the mission of the JWST is to study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. It is a deployable telescope with a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, adjustable primary mirror. outfitted with cryogenic temperature telescope and instruments for infrared performance. The JWST is several times more sensitive than previous telescope and other photographic and electronic detection methods. It hosts a near infrared camera, near infrared spectrometer, mid-infrared instrument and a fine guidance sensor. The JWST mission objection and architecture, integrated science payload, instrument overview, and operational orbit are described.

  1. The Hexa-Pod-Telescope (HPT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.; Stenvers, K.-H.; Pausch, K.

    The recently completed Hexa-Pod-Telescope (HPT) presents revolutionary new ideas on astronomical telescope design. Six mechanical struts support the HPT. The length of the six struts can be varied to permit the pointing and tracking of the HPT. Supporting the optical structure of the HPT from below allows to avoid superfluous balancing weights of normal telescopes. Compared to a classical telescope of the same mirror diameter the HPT realizes a weight reduction by a factor of 15! The HPT's primary mirror is realized as a hybrid structure consisting of a light-weight Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) structure permanently fixed to a 55 mm thin Zerodur faceplate, that forms the reflecting surface. Piezoelectrical ceramic positioners serve as active interface between the CFRP-structure and the optical surface. The low weight and extremely good optical quality of the HPT makes it an ideal candidate for larger telescopes in space, the moon and the stratosphere.

  2. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage.

  3. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25{endash}100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope{close_quote}s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope{close_quote}s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{approximately}0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  4. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  5. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  6. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA s mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated reacquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  7. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  8. ULE design considerations for a 3m class light weighted mirror blank for E-ELT M5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Andrew; Hobbs, Tom; Edwards, Mary; Arnold, Matthew; Sawyer, Kent

    2016-07-01

    It is expected that the next generation of large ground based astronomical telescopes will need large fast-steering/tip-tilt mirrors made of ultra-lightweight construction. These fast-steering mirrors are used to continuously correct for atmospheric disturbances and telescope vibrations. An example of this is the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) M5 lightweight mirror, which is part of the Tip-Tilt/Field-Stabilization Unit. The baseline design for the E-ELT M5 mirror, as presented in the E-ELT Construction Proposal, is a closed-back ULE mirror with a lightweight core using square core cells. Corning Incorporated (Corning) has a long history of manufacturing lightweight mirror blanks using ULE in a closed-back construction, going back to the 1960's, and includes the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror, Subaru Telescope secondary and tertiary mirrors, the Magellan I and II tertiary mirrors, and Kepler Space Telescope primary mirror, among many others. A parametric study of 1-meter class lightweight mirror designs showed that Corning's capability to seal a continuous back sheet to a light-weighted core structure provides superior mirror rigidity, in a near-zero thermal expansion material, relative to other existing technologies in this design space. Corning has investigated the parametric performance of several design characteristics for a 3-meter class lightweight mirror blank for the E-ELT M5. Finite Element Analysis was performed on several design scenarios to obtain weight, areal density, and first Eigen frequency. This paper presents an overview of Corning ULE and lightweight mirror manufacturing capabilities, the parametric performance of design characteristics for 1-meter class and 3-meter class lightweight mirrors, as well as the manufacturing advantages and disadvantages of those characteristics.

  9. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  11. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L. F.; Abercromby, K. J.; Kervin, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA - Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of gigabytes of image data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Ascension Island offers numerous advantages. As a British overseas territory with a US Air Force base presence, the necessary infrastructure and support already exists. It is located mid-way between Brazil and Africa at 7.93S latitude and 14.37 W longitude. With the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) asset in Moron, Spain shutting down, this presents access to the sky from a unique latitude

  12. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, A; Chincoli, A; de Gennaro, A C; DʼAddario, V; Cicinelli, E

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk.

  13. 2D and 3D Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Fetal Midface Hypoplasia in Two Cases with 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, A.; Chincoli, A.; de Gennaro, A. C.; DʼAddario, V.; Cicinelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the utility of 2D and 3D ultrasonography in the prenatal diagnosis of facial dysmorphisms suggestive of very rare syndromes such as 3-M syndrome. Two pregnant women at risk for fetal skeletal dysplasias were referred to our clinic for 2D/3D ultrasound scan in the second trimester of pregnancy. Only one of the patients had a familial history of 3-M syndrome. Karyotyping and genetic testing of abortion material were performed in both cases. 2D ultrasonography revealed growth retardation of the long bones in both cases. In the case without a familial history of the syndrome, 2D and 3D ultrasonography showed an absence of nasal bones and a flat malar region suggestive of 3-M syndrome, although the difficult differential diagnosis included other dysmorphic growth disorders with prenatal onset. The karyotype was normal but the pregnancy was terminated in both cases. Postmortem examination confirmed 3-M syndrome as indicated by prenatal findings. In high-risk cases with a familial history of 3-M syndrome, prenatal diagnosis of 3-M syndrome is possible by analyzing fetal DNA. In the absence of risk, a definitive prenatal diagnosis is often not possible but may be suspected in the presence of shortened long bones, normal head size and typical flattened malar region (midface hypoplasia) shown on complementary 2D and 3D sonograms. 2D and 3D ultrasonography has been shown to offer reliable information for the prenatal study of skeletal and facial anomalies and can be useful if there is a suspicion of 3-M syndrome in a pregnancy not known to be at risk. PMID:27453585

  14. Coordinated observations of F region 3 m field-aligned plasma irregularities associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. F.; Wang, C. Y.; Su, C. L.; Shiokawa, K.; Saito, S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-04-01

    Three meter field-aligned irregularities (3 m FAIs) associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) that occurred on 5 February 2008 were observed by using the Chung-Li 52 MHz coherent scatter radar. Interferometry measurements show that the plasma structures responsible for the 3 m FAI echoes are in a clumpy shape with a horizontal dimension of about 10-78 km in a height range of 220-300 km. In order to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the plasma irregularities at different scales in the bottomside of F region, the VHF radar echo structures from the 3 m FAIs combined with the 630 nm airglow images provided by the Yonaguni all-sky imager are compared and analyzed. The results show that the radar echoes were located at the west edge of the depletion zones of the 630 nm airglow image of the MSTIDs. The bulk echo structures of the 3 m FAIs drifted eastward at a mean trace velocity of about 30 m/s that is in general agreement with the zonal trace velocity of the MSTIDs shown in the 630 nm airglow images. These results suggest that the observed F region 3 m FAIs for the present case can be regarded as the targets that are frozen in the local region of the MSTIDs. In addition, the radar-observed 3 m FAI echo intensity and spectral width bear high correlations to the percentage variations of the 630 nm emission intensity. These results seem to suggest that through the nonlinear turbulence cascade process, the MSTID-associated 3 m FAIs are very likely generated from the kilometer-scale plasma irregularities with large amplitude excited by the gradient drift instability.

  15. P3 mAb: An Immunogenic Anti-NeuGcGM3 Antibody with Unusual Immunoregulatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Darel; Rodríguez, Nely; Griñán, Tania; Rondón, Teresa; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando; Hernández, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8(+) T cells, since the depletion of CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8(+) T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8(+) T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8(+) T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Furthermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

  16. Infrastructure for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, Howard A.; Lillie, Charles F.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally recognized (e.g., in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration response to recent congressional appropriations) that future space observatories must be serviceable, even if they are orbiting in deep space (e.g., around the Sun-Earth libration point, SEL2). On the basis of this legislation, we believe that budgetary considerations throughout the foreseeable future will require that large, long-lived astrophysics missions must be designed as evolvable semipermanent observatories that will be serviced using an operational, in-space infrastructure. We believe that the development of this infrastructure will include the design and development of a small to mid-sized servicing vehicle (MiniServ) as a key element of an affordable infrastructure for in-space assembly and servicing of future space vehicles. This can be accomplished by the adaptation of technology developed over the past half-century into a vehicle approximately the size of the ascent stage of the Apollo Lunar Module to provide some of the servicing capabilities that will be needed by very large telescopes located in deep space in the near future (2020s and 2030s). We specifically address the need for a detailed study of these servicing requirements and the current proposals for using presently available technologies to provide the appropriate infrastructure.

  17. Parallaxes with Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Harrison, T. E.; Lee, J.; Slesnick, C. L.; HST Astrometry Science Team

    2001-11-01

    We report on parallaxes for astrophysically interesting stars obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. These objects include the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 6853, the cataclysmic variable TV Col, and the distance scale calibrators RR Lyr and delta Cep. We will discuss our considerable efforts to characterize the reference stars associated with each prime target, necessary to effect the correction from relative to absolute parallax. These targets were originally chosen by L. W. Fredrick in 1980. We compare these and our past results with all past, non-HST determinations, including those from HIPPARCOS for our brighter targets. The HST Astrometry Sceince Team consists of W. H. Jefferys , P.I., G. F. Benedict, deputy P.I., B. E. McArthur, P. J. Shelus, R. Duncombe (UTexas), E. Nelan (STScI), W. van Altena and J. Lee (Yale), O. Franz and L. Wasserman (Lowell Obs.), and L. Fredrick (UVirginia). We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NAG5-1603 and our many supporters at STScI and Goddard Spaceflight Center. We thank R. Patterson, J. Rhee, and S. Majewski (UVirginia) and T. Montemayor (UTexas) for assistance with reference star photometry.

  18. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas William

    2010-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Instrument and the Observer: 1. The telescope; 2. The mode of observation; Part II. The Solar System: 1. The Sun; 2. Mercury; 3. Venus; 4. The Moon; 5. Index to the map of the moon; 6. Mars; 7. Jupiter; 8. Saturn; 9. Uranus and Neptune; 10. Comets; Part III. The Starry Heavens: 1. Double stars, clusters, and nebulae; 2. Andromeda; 3. Anser; 4. Antinous; 5. Aquarius; 6. Aquila; 7. Argo Navis; 8. Aries; 9. Auriga; 10. Boötes; 11. Camelopardus; 12. Cancer; 13. Canes Venatici; 14. Canis Major; 15. Canis Minor; 16. Capricornus; 17. Cassiopea; 18. Cepheus; 19. Cetus; 20. Clypeus Sobieskii; 21. Coma Berenices; 22. Corona Borealis; 23. Corvus; 24. Crater; 25. Cygnus; 26. Delphinus; 27. Draco; 28. Equuleus; 29. Eridanus; 30. Gemini; 31. Hercules; 32. Hydra; 33. Lacerta; 34. Leo; 35. Leo Minor; 36. Lepus; 37. Libra; 38. Lynx; 39. Lyra; 40. Monoceros; 41. Ophiuchus; 42. Orion; 43. Pegasus; 44. Perseus; 45. Pisces; 46. Sagitta; 47. Sagittarius; 48. Scorpio; Scutum, see Clypeus, Sobieskii; 49. Serpens; 50. Sextans; 51. Taurus; 52. Taurus Poniatowskii; 53. Triangulum; 54. Ursa Major; 55. Ursa Minor; 56. Virgo; 57. Vulpecula.

  19. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  20. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, J.; Plötzing, T.; Rohe, D.; Pieranski, P.

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay “dry”. This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  1. Maternal uniparental isodisomy and heterodisomy on chromosome 6 encompassing a CUL7 gene mutation causing 3M syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Okamoto, N; Kosaki, K; Yorifuji, T; Shimokawa, O; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K-i; Harada, N

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of segmental uniparental maternal hetero- and isodisomy involving the whole of chromosome 6 (mat-hUPD6 and mat-iUPD6) and a cullin 7 (CUL7) gene mutation in a Japanese patient with 3M syndrome. 3M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation that was recently reported to involve mutations in the CUL7 or obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1) genes. We encountered a patient with severe growth retardation, an inverted triangular gloomy face, an inverted triangle-shaped head, slender long bones, inguinal hernia, hydrocele testis, mild ventricular enlargement, and mild mental retardation. Sequence analysis of the CUL7 gene of the patient revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.2975G>C. Genotype analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed two mat-hUPD and two mat-iUPD regions involving the whole of chromosome 6 and encompassing CUL7. 3M syndrome caused by complete paternal iUPD of chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation has been reported, but there have been no reports describing 3M syndrome with maternal UPD of chromosome 6. Our results represent a combination of iUPDs and hUPDs from maternal chromosome 6 involving a CUL7 mutation causing 3M syndrome.

  2. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, S.; et al.

    2012-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Primer for Cycle 21 is a companion document to the HST Call for Proposals1. It provides an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), with basic information about telescope operations, instrument capabilities, and technical aspects of the proposal preparation process. A thorough understanding of the material in this document is essential for the preparation of a competitive proposal. This document is available as an online HTML document and a PDF file. The HTML version, optimized for online browsing, contains many links to additional information. The PDF version is optimized for printing, but online PDF readers have search capabilities for quick retrieval of specific information.

  4. Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Content, David

    2009-01-01

    A dual-channel telescope allows for a wide-field telescope design wit h a good, narrow field channel of fewer surfaces for shorter-wavelen gth or planet-finding applications. The design starts with a Korsch three-mirror-anastigmat (TMA) telescope that meets the mission criter ia for image quality over a wide field of view. The internal image a t the Cassegrain focus is typically blurry due to the aberration bala ncing among the three mirrors. The Cassegrain focus is then re-optim ized on the axis of the system where the narrow field channel instru ment is picked off by bending the primary mirror.

  5. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  6. General surface equations for glancing incidence telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized set of equations are derived for two mirror glancing incidence telescopes using Fermat's principle, a differential form of the law of reflection, the generalized sine condition, and a ray propagation equation described in vector form as a theoretical basis. The resulting formulation groups the possible telescope configurations into three distinct classes which are the Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and higher-order telescopes in which the Hettrick-Bowyer types are a subset. Eight configurations are possible within each class depending on the sign and magnitude of the parameters.

  7. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  8. New technology for large optical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, M. J.

    1983-05-01

    A recurrent topic arising in the discussions about new generation large optical telescopes is related to the economic advantages of lightweight reflector surfaces. A description is given of new technologies which might be suited for the construction of lightweight telescopes of low cost. One technology involves the use of sandwich structures, which include aluminum layers, separated by aluminum honeycomb layers. The availability of these structures, which have been developed for aircraft manufacture, has led various groups to study the feasibility of a use of sandwich materials for the manufacture of highly accurate reflecting surfaces, as required for millimeter and submillimeter wave telescopes. The results of these studies are discussed.

  9. MI-6: Michigan interferometry with six telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Anderson, M.; Baron, F.; Berger, D. H.; Che, X.; Eckhause, T.; Kraus, S.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; Millan-Gabet, R.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Irwin, P.; Zhao, M.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the success of four-telescope imaging with the Michigan Infrared Combiner (MIRC) on the CHARA Array, our Michigan-based group will now upgrade our system to combine all six CHARA telescope simultaneously. In order to make this observationally efficient, we have had to improve a number of subsystems and commission new ones, including the new CHAMP fringe tracker, the introduction of photometric channels, the upgrading of the realtime operating systems, and the obvious hardware and software upgrades of the control system and the data pipeline. Here we will discuss the advantages of six-telescope operation, outline our upgrade plans and discuss our current progress.

  10. Design analysis of the astrometrical telescope facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chunsheng; Lawrence, George; Levy, Eugene; Mcmillan, Robert

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a space-based telescope requiring an accuracy of 50 pico radians. A relationship between the geometric centroid of a diffraction image and wave aberrations is derived by a combination approach of diffraction optics and geometric optics. Based on sensitivity of the centroid, one-mirror and two-mirror aplanatic telescopes are investigated. The comparison among three telescopes, parabola, Schwartzschild and Ritchey-Chretien are quantitatively carried out in terms of their sensitivities to the systematic errors and random errors. The study shows that the Ritchey-Chretien design is the most preferable.

  11. Dynamics and Control for a Small Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berná, J. A.; Pérez, M.; Bernabeu, G.

    1998-06-01

    Our main goal is to determine the dynamic equations of a certain complex system, as is the case of the mechanical system for a small aperture telescope. Causes of this complexity are: the lack of documents about the operation of the elements belonging to the system, and the variation of dynamics with respect to the time and the position of the telescope. To check that we have obtained a valid set of dynamic equations, we will design a computer control system that will implement a self-guide system for the telescope.

  12. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  13. Plans for the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope and Potential Coordinated Measurements with Kwajalein Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, Gene; Kervin, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office is teaming with the US Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Maui Optical Site to deploy a moderate field-of-view, 1.3 m aperture, optical telescope for orbital debris applications. The telescope will be located on the island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll and is scheduled for completion in the Spring of 2011. The telescope is intended to sample both low inclination/high eccentricity orbits and near geosynchronous orbits. The telescope will have a 1 deg diagonal field-of-view on a 4K x 4K CCD. The telescope is expected to be able to detect 10-cm diameter debris at geosynchronous altitudes (5 sec exposure assuming a spherical specular phase function w/ albedo =0.13). Once operational, the telescope has the potential of conducting simultaneous observations with radars operated by the US Army at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and located on the island of Roi-Namur, approximately 55 km to the north of Legan. Four radars, representing 6 frequency bands, are available for use: ALTAIR (ARPA-Long Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) operating at VHF & UHF, TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiment) operating at L-band and S-band, ALCOR (ARPA-Lincoln C-band Observables Radar) operating at S-band, and MMW (Millimeter Wave) Radar operating at Ka-band. Also potentially available is the X-band GBRP (Ground Based Radar-Prototype located 25 km to the southeast of Legan on the main island of Kwajalein.

  14. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  15. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  16. Properties near magnetic instability of heavy-electron compounds Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13, with M=Co, Rh and Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślebarski, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we report the thermodynamic, magnetic and electronic transport properties of the skutterudite-related Ce3M4Sn13 and La3M4Sn13 intermetallic compounds with M = Co, Rh and Ru, which display a variety of behaviours. Ce3M4Sn13 exhibit a large increase in C/T with a maximum value of about 4 JK-2mol-1Ce due to strong electron and short-range magnetic correlations. These compounds show a crossover from a magnetically correlated heavy-fermion state to a single impurity state in applied magnetic fields. In order to study the proximity of Ce3Co4Sn13 to the possible magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), we investigated the system of Ce3-xLaxCo4Sn13 alloys. We found the critical concentration ?, which separates the magnetically correlated state (?) from a single impurity state (?), however the low-T C(T)/T and the magnetic susceptibility behaviours are not characteristic of the QCP. With increasing of the magnetic field, resistivity follows power law behaviour for the samples ?, with n strongly field dependent. The ?-anomaly is discussed on the base of spin-fluctuation theory of Moriya and Takimoto. Specific heat data show that La3M4Sn13 are typical BCS superconductors, however, La3Rh4Sn13 and La3Ru4Sn13 exhibit a second superconducting phase, characteristic of inhomogeneous superconductors.

  17. A variable-focal-length telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkaev, Bahor; Popov, Gennadiy; Nekhaeva, Svetlana

    2005-04-01

    A special additional optical system (AOS) to develop any telescope into a zoom or a variable-focal-length telescope (variotelescope) is proposed. This system permits the telescope optics and detector (charge-couped device) to be matched in order to obtain the best resolution. An analysis of the resolution of the system consisting of the ‘V-telescope and detector’ is performed, and it is shown that the best way to match the optics and detector is to change the focal length, that is to change the image scale. The proposed AOS consists of two spherical mirrors: a large concave mirror and a small convex mirror. The AOS is illustrated by means of figures and tables.

  18. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  19. Thermal conditioning of the AEOS Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Figgis, Peter D.

    2003-02-01

    The AEOS telescope facility was designed for high angular resolution imagery. Part of that design is the inclusion of several air handling systems to maximize dome seeing. Four air conditioning units chill the telescope and dome air to the predicted nighttime temperature. There is a mirror purge system, which prevents moisture from condensing on the mirror by blowing desiccated air into the mirror cell. A laminar air system counteracts the seeing degradation effects of a warm mirror by blowing air across the face of the primary. An hour before sunset the dome is partially opened and outside air is pulled through the telescope truss structure in an effort to remove any thermal differences caused by incorrect cooling. Finally a fan pulls air through the coude' tube in order to remove rising air cells. We present details of each system and the beginnings of our experiments to determine their efficacy. Finally, lessons learned from the systems on the AEOS telescope are presented.

  20. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets coronagraphic operations: lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.; Ygouf, Marie; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Golimowski, David A.; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument (CGI) currently proposed for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. We review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA CGI. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: (1) detector health and evolution, (2) wavefront control, (3) observing strategies/postprocessing, (4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and (5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  1. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  2. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  3. Operations at the JPL OCTL Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit; Roberts, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) is a 200 sq-m located at 2.2.km altitude in Wrightwood California and houses a state-of-the-art 1-m telescope. The OCTL team is involved in the development of operational strategies for ground-to-space laser beam propagation for future NASA optical communications missions. Strategies include safe beam propagation through navigable air space, line of sight optical attenuation monitoring, adaptive optics, and multi-beam scintillation mitigation. This paper presents the results of recent operations at the OCTL facility including telescope characterization data and laser beam propagation experiments to Earth-orbiting retro-reflecting satellites; experiments that validate the telescope's tracking and blind-pointing performance and safe laser beam transmission procedures for propagating through navigable airspace.

  4. Hunting Spinning Asteroids with the Faulkes Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Faulkes telescopes are proving a dab hand at allowing schools and amateurs to do real science. The author discusses the latest Faulkes research project, and his record-breaking discovery that was pert of it.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  6. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission.

  7. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  8. Holographic optical elements as scanning lidar telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2006-09-01

    We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. Rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

  9. The MuPix Telescope: A Thin, High-Rate Tracking Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, H.; Berger, N.; Dittmeier, S.; Grzesik, C.; Hammerich, J.; Huang, Q.; Huth, L.; Kiehn, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Meier, F.; Perić, I.; Perrevoort, A.-K.; Schöoning, A.; vom Bruch, D.; Wauters, F.; Wiedner, D.

    2017-01-01

    The MuPix Telescope is a particle tracking telescope, optimized for tracking low momentum particles at high rates. It is based on the novel High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), designed for the Mu3e tracking detector. The telescope represents a first application of the HV-MAPS technology and also serves as test bed of the Mu3e readout chain. The telescope consists of up to eight layers of the newest prototypes, the MuPix7 sensors, which send self-triggered data via fast serial links to FPGAs, where the data is time-ordered and sent to the PC. A particle hit rate of 1 MHz per layer could be processed. Online tracking is performed with a subset of the incoming data. The general concept of the telescope, chip architecture, readout concept and online reconstruction are described. The performance of the sensor and of the telescope during test beam measurements are presented.

  10. Solar Rejection Filter for Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James

    2009-01-01

    To reject solar radiation photons at the front aperture for large telescopes, a mosaic of large transmission mode filters is placed in front of the telescope or at the aperture of the dome. Filtering options for effective rejection of sunlight include a smaller filter down-path near the focus of the telescope, and a large-diameter filter located in the front of the main aperture. Two types of large filters are viable: reflectance mode and transmittance mode. In the case of reflectance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (e.g. a low-thermal-expansion glass) is arranged to reflect only a single, narrow wavelength and to efficiently transmit all other wavelengths. These coatings are commonly referred to as notch filter. In this case, the large mirror located in front of the telescope aperture reflects the received (signal and background) light into the telescope. In the case of transmittance mode, a dielectric coating on a suitable substrate (glass, sapphire, clear plastic, membrane, and the like) is arranged to transmit only a single wavelength and to reject all other wavelengths (visible and near IR) of light. The substrate of the large filter will determine its mass. At first glance, a large optical filter with a diameter of up to 10 m, located in front of the main aperture, would require a significant thickness to avoid sagging. However, a segmented filter supported by a structurally rugged grid can support smaller filters. The obscuration introduced by the grid is minimal because the total area can be made insignificant. This configuration can be detrimental to a diffraction- limited telescope due to diffraction effects at the edges of each sub-panel. However, no discernable degradation would result for a 20 diffraction-limit telescope (a photon bucket). Even the small amount of sagging in each subpanel should have minimal effect in the performance of a non-diffraction limited telescope because the part has no appreciable optical power. If the

  11. A 4-meter wide field coronagraph space telescope for general astrophysics and exoplanet observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerelli, Domenick; Angel, Roger; Burge, Jim; Guyon, Olivier; Zabludoff, Ann; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Egerman, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The Wide Field Coronagraph Telescope (WFCT) is a 4-meter space telescope for general astrophysics and exoplanet observations that meets the 2000 Decadal Committee requirements. This paper presents a design for a 4-m diameter, off-axis space telescope that offers high performance in both wide field and coronagraphic imaging modes. A 3.8 x 3.3-m unobstructed elliptical pupil is provided for direct coronagraphic imaging of exoplanets and a 4-m diameter pupil for wide-field imaging from far-ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (IR). The off-axis wide-field optics are all reflective and designed to deliver an average of 12 nm wavefront aberrations over a 6 x 24 arcminute field of view (FOV), therefore providing diffraction-limited images down to 300 nm wavelength and 15 mas images down to a wavelength limit set only by the mirror coatings. The coronagraph with phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) provides diffraction suppression around a 360-degree field with high Strehl and sensitivity at the 1e-10 level to an inner working angle of 2 λ/D (or 50 mas at 500 nm wavelength). This paper focuses on the optical design that allows the above imaging features to be combined in single telescope, and gives a preliminary spacecraft design and costing, assuming a distant trailing orbit.

  12. ESO's Telescopes In memoriam Daniel Enard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The contributions of ESO to the art of telescope-making have come a long way since the early years, placing it, by the turn of the millennium, among the acknowledged leaders in the field. In this article I will give a brief history of what are, in my view, the highlights among these developments, from the 3.6-metre telescope through the NTT and VLT/I to the E-ELT.

  13. Commissioning Results on the JWST Testbed Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Acton, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The one-meter 18 segment JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) has been developed at Ball Aerospace to facilitate commissioning operations for the JWST Observatory. Eight different commissioning activities were tested on the TBT: telescope focus sweep, segment ID and Search, image array, global alignment, image stacking, coarse phasing, fine phasing, and multi-field phasing. This paper describes recent commissioning results from experiments performed on the TBT.

  14. Development of a clean optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate contamination on astronomical mirrors degrades performance in two ways: by information loss by extinction of light; and background and noise from scattering, especially forward or Fraunhofer scattering. These effects were not generally understood, and an ambitious pilot program was outlined to measure particulate effects on telescope optical performance; develop prophylactic and cleaning procedures suitable for groundbased observatories; investigate by computational modelling the effects on telescopes in space; and communicate the results and concerns within the astronomical community.

  15. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  16. Telescope Wavefront Aberration Compensation with a Deformable Mirror in an Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijiang; Crossfield, Ian

    2005-01-01

    With the goal of reducing the surface wavefront error of low-cost multi-meter-diameter mirrors from about 10 waves peak-to-valley (P-V), at lpm wavelength, to approximately 1-wave or less, we describe a method to compensate for slowly varying wavefront aberrations of telescope mirrors. A deformable mirror is utilized in an active optical compensation system. The kMS wavefront error of a 0.3m telescope improved to 0.05 waves (0.26 waves P-V) from the original value of 1.4 waves RMS (6.5 waves P-V), measured at 633nm, and the Strehl ratio improved to 89% from the original value of 0.08%.

  17. The anti-coincidence detector for the GLAST large area telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Ormes, J. F.; Thompson, D. J.; Amato, M. J.; Johnson, T. E.; Segal, K. N.; Sheppard, D. A.

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LATs first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3 5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and four sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of ˜8.3 m2. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  18. Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

  19. Synthesis of new visible light active photocatalysts of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M' = Nb, Ta): a band gap engineering strategy based on electronegativity of a metal component.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Park, Hyunwoong; Choi, Wonyong; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Sun Jin; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2005-08-11

    We have synthesized new, efficient, visible light active photocatalysts through the incorporation of highly electronegative non-transition metal Pb or Sn ions into the perovskite lattice of Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 (M = Sn, Pb; M' = Nb, Ta). X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopic, and energy dispersive spectroscopic microprobe analyses reveal that tetravalent Pb or Sn ions exist in the B-site of the perovskite lattice, along with In and Nb/Ta ions. According to diffuse UV-vis spectroscopic analysis, the Pb-containing quaternary metal oxides Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 possess a much narrower band gap (E(g) approximately 1.48-1.50 eV) when compared to the ternary oxides Ba(In(1/2)M'(1/2))O3 (E(g) approximately 2.97-3.30 eV) and the Sn-containing Ba(In(1/3)Sn(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 derivatives (E(g) approximately 2.85-3.00 eV). Such a variation of band gap energy upon the substitution is attributable to the broadening of the conduction band caused by the dissimilar electronegativities of the B-site cations. In contrast to the ternary or the Sn-substituted quaternary compounds showing photocatalytic activity under UV-vis irradiation, the Ba(In(1/3)Pb(1/3)M'(1/3))O3 compounds induce an efficient photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). The present results highlight that the substitution of electronegative non-transition metal cations can provide a very powerful way of developing efficient visible light harvesting photocatalysts through tuning of the band structure of a semiconductive metal oxide.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) is a segmented, cryogenic telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. In September of 2002, NASA selected prime contractor Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to build the observatory including management of the OTE. NGST is teamed with subcontractors Ball Aerospace, Alliant Techsystems (ATK). and Kodak. The team has completed several significant design, technology, architecture definition, and manufacturing milestones in the past year that are summarized in this paper.

  1. The Faulkes Telescope Optical Spectrographs and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    The Faulkes Telescope project funded primarily by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust is currently constructing two 2-m robotic telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Australia. These will be the largest and most powerful telescopes ever built dedicated for use by schools and colleges. We have been awarded funding to build two optical spectrographs to be permanently mounted on these telescopes by the end of 2003. At this time an astronomical satellite called Swift will be launched by NASA. Swift is dedicated to the study of gamma-ray bursts the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester has provided the X-ray camera for Swift and is a partner in the Faulkes Telescopes project. To enhance both projects we intend to use the Faulkes Telescope optical spectrographs to study the gamma-ray bursts identified by Swift. These data will also be made available to schools thereby raising the profile of physics and astronomy in the educational community.

  2. Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueff, Gavril; Alvito, Giovanni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Morsiani, Marco; Mureddu, Leonardo; Natale, Vincenzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Pernechele, Claudio; Poma, Angelo; Porceddu, Ignazio; Rossi, Lucio; Zacchiroli, Gianpaolo

    2004-10-01

    This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA. With its large antenna size (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT, capable of operations up to about 100GHz, will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and the standing wave between secondary mirror and feed. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  3. Analysis of space telescope data collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Multiple Access (MA) communication link of the Space Telescope (ST) is described. An expected performance bit error rate is presented. The historical perspective and rationale behind the ESTL space shuttle end-to-end tests are given. The concatenated coding scheme using a convolutional encoder for the outer coder is developed. The ESTL end-to-end tests on the space shuttle communication link are described. Most important is how a concatenated coding system will perform. This is a go-no-go system with respect to received signal-to-noise ratio. A discussion of the verification requirements and Specification document is presented, and those sections that apply to Space Telescope data and communications system are discussed. The Space Telescope System consists of the Space Telescope Orbiting Observatory (ST), the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the Space Telescope Operation Control Center. The MA system consists of the ST, the return link from the ST via the Tracking and Delay Relay Satellite system to White Sands, and from White Sands via the Domestic Communications Satellite to the STOCC.

  4. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  5. Adaptive-optics performance of Antarctic telescopes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jon S

    2004-02-20

    The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole.

  6. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received {>=}100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  7. Hartman Testing of X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Biskasch, Michael; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann testing of x-ray telescopes is a simple test method to retrieve and analyze alignment errors and low-order circumferential errors of x-ray telescopes and their components. A narrow slit is scanned along the circumference of the telescope in front of the mirror and the centroids of the images are calculated. From the centroid data, alignment errors, radius variation errors, and cone-angle variation errors can be calculated. Mean cone angle, mean radial height (average radius), and the focal length of the telescope can also be estimated if the centroid data is measured at multiple focal plane locations. In this paper we present the basic equations that are used in the analysis process. These equations can be applied to full circumference or segmented x-ray telescopes. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) to model a segmented x-ray telescope and show that the derived equations and accompanying analysis retrieves the alignment errors and low order circumferential errors accurately.

  8. Pixel telescope test in STAR at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Vu, Chinh; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Wieman, Howard

    2007-10-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designing a new inner vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT). The HFT's innermost two layers is called the PIXEL detector which uses Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor technology (MAPS). To test the MAPS technology, we just constructed and tested a telescope. The telescope uses a stack of three MIMOSTAR2 chips, Each MIMOSTAR2 sensor, which was designed by IPHC, is an array of 132x128 pixels with a square pixel size of 30 μ. The readout of the telescope makes use of the ALICE DDL/SIU cards, which is compatible with the future STAR data acquisition system called DAQ1000. The telescope was first studied in a 1.2 GeV/c electron beam at LBNL's Advanced Light Source. Afterwards, the telescope was outside the STAR magnet, and then later inside it, 145 cm away from STAR's center. We will describe this first test of MAPS technology in a collider environment, and report on the occupancy, particle flux, and performance of the telescope.

  9. Scientific Efficiency of Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received >=100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  10. The Utilization of the RCT Telescope for Studies of Blazar Continuum Emission during the GLAST Gamma-Ray Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Cominsky, L.; Spear, G.; Carinni, M.; Gelderman, R.; McGruder, C. H.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    The RCT Consortium successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope, and to operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). Refurbishment is nearing completion, and observations have begun. The capabilities of the RCT for broad-band optical photometry will be described. A program for systematic optical monitoring of blazars with the RCT is planned. We anticipate that an important utilization of the RCT will be in conjunction with multi-wavelength studies of blazar continuum emission during the operation of NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) satellite, now scheduled for launch in 2006. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  11. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  12. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbier, L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; BAT Engineering Team

    2000-10-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst MIDEX is a multiwavelength observatory scheduled to be launched in September 2003 to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their x-ray and optical afterglow emission. Swift will exploit these newly discovered GRB afterglow characteristics to make a comprehensive study of ~ 1000 GRBs and use the afterglow phenomenon as a tool for probing their source and evolution. Swift will also be able to use GRBs to probe the early Universe. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Mission. BAT will observe and locate hundreds of bursts per year to better than 4 arc minutes accuracy. Using this prompt burst location information, Swift can slew quickly (within 20 - 70 s) to point on-board x-ray (XRT) and optical (UVOT) instrumentation at the burst for continued afterglow studies. The BAT instrument consists of a large (5200 cm2) hard x-ray detector plane positioned one meter away from an even larger (2.6 m2) coded aperture mask. The BAT detector plane consists of 128 CdZnTe semiconductor detector modules each containing 256 individual, planar 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CdZnTe detectors that are read out by a pair of XA1 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The BAT mask will be constructed using 5 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm lead tiles attached to a self-supporting 0.4 g/cm2 substrate fabricated from Kevlar fiber/honeycomb materials. With 4 mm square focal plane detector elements and 5 mm square mask pixels, BAT will have angular resolution better than 22 arc minutes and will determine GRB source locations to ~ 4 arc minutes for bursts detected at 5 sigma or brighter. A full description of the BAT instrument and its capabilities will be presented along with results from performance tests of prototype detector modules.

  13. Spectral and statistical analysis of fluctuations in the SOL and diverted plasmas of the Uragan-3M torsatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletskii, A. A.; Grigor'eva, L. I.; Sorokovoy, E. L.; Chechkin, V. V.; Sorokovoy, Y. L.; Volkov, Ye. D.; Burchenko, P. Ya.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Tsybenko, S. A.; Lozin, A. V.; Slavnyj, A. S.; Lavrenovich, Yu. S.; Zamanov, N. V.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.

    2009-10-01

    In the l = 3/ m = 9 Uragan-3M (U3-M) torsatron ( R 0 = 1 m, ā ≈ 0.12 m, ι( ā)/2π ˜ 0.3) with an open helical divertor and a plasma produced and heated by RF fields (ω ≲ ωci), studies of low frequency (5-100 kHz) density and potential fluctuations in the SOL plasma and in the diverted plasma flows (DPFs), have been carried out. It is shown, that in the SOL to more (less) distantly located points relative to the last closed magnetic surface, higher (lower) frequency fluctuations are inherent. Such a spectral splitting in two sub-ranges occurs in the DPFs too. A peculiarity of the spatial distribution of DPF fluctuation spectra is that lower frequency fluctuations dominate on the ion toroidal B × ∇ B drift side. During L-H-like transition in U-3M simultaneously with strong E r shear formation, a suppression of lower frequency fluctuations and a decrease of local radial turbulent particle flux take place. Results are presented of investigation of plasma density fluctuations in SOL with the use of probability distribution function (PDF) analysis. Evaluations of skewness and kurtosis of fluctuations have been made. The analysis of I s fluctuations in DPF have been carried out in a similar way.

  14. Effect of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function of the burned hand: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lowell, M; Pirc, P; Ward, R S; Lundy, C; Wilhelm, D A; Reddy, R; Held, B; Bernard, J

    2003-01-01

    Edema and limited function are common acute problems associated with hand burns. This case study examined the effects of 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps on edema and function in a 59-year-old male (46% TBSA flame injury) with newly skin grafted dorsally burned hands. At the time of each dressing change, circumferential measurements were taken of both hands and weekly active range of motion and grip strength measurements were recorded. The nine-hole peg test was used to appraise dexterity. During the 4-week study period, there was less edema, greater active range of motion and grip strength, and greater dexterity in the hand with 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as compared with the control hand. This case study suggests that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps were effective in reducing edema in the skin-grafted hand after skin grafting. It further appeared that the reduced edema may have contributed to improved hand function and that 3M Coban Self-Adherent Wraps as a compressive dressing do not impede hand function

  15. Optical design study of the Wide Field Survey Telescope (WFST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Zheng; Liang, Ming; Yao, Dazhi; Zheng, Xianzhong; Cheng, Jingquan; Wang, Hairen; Liu, Wei; Qian, Yuan; Zhao, Haibin; Yang, Ji

    2016-10-01

    WFST is a proposed 2.5m wide field survey telescope intended for dedicated wide field sciences. The telescope is to operate at six wavelength bands (u, g, r, i, z, and w), spanning from 320 to 1028 nm. Designed with a field of view diameter of 3 degree and an effective aperture diameter of 2.29 m, the WFST acquires a total optical throughput over 29.3 m2deg2. With such a large throughput, WFST will survey up to 6000deg2 of the northern sky in multiple colors each night, reaching 23th magnitude for high-precision photometry and astrometry. The optical design is based on an advanced primary-focus system made up of a 2.5 m f/2.48 concave primary mirror and a primary-focus assembly (PFA) consisting of five corrector lenses, atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC), filters, and the focal-plane instrument. For zenith angles from 0 to 60 degrees, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy falls within a 0.35 arcsec diameter. The optical design also highlights an enhanced transmission in the UV bands. The total optical transmission reaches 23.5% at 320 nm, allowing unique science goals in the U band. Other features include low distortion and ease of baffling against stray lights, etc. The focal-plane instrument is a 0.9 gigapixel mosaic CCD camera comprising 9 pieces of 10K×10K CCD chips. An active optics system (AOS) is used to maintain runtime image quality. Various design aspects of the WFST including the optical design, active optics, mirror supports, and the focal-plane instrument are discussed in detail.

  16. The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility: Instrument Upgrades and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Bus, S. J.; Connelley, M. S.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a dedicated planetary 3-m telescope located at the summit of Mauna Kea. We discuss detector upgrades for our facility instruments, new instrument capabilities, and image quality upgrades. Detector upgrades are planned for SpeX during semester 2014A. We are also designing and constructing a new echelle spectrograph for 1-5 μm, to be commissioned starting in 2015. In terms of future capabilities, we would like input for planetary science cases needing diffraction-limited imaging at 1-5 μm and fast follow up of discoveries from sky surveys. Current instruments include: (1) SpeX, a 1-5 μm moderate-resolution spectrograph and camera, (2) MORIS, a high-speed CCD imager attached to SpeX for simultaneous visible and near-IR observations, (3) CSHELL, a 1-5 μm high-resolution spectrograph, and (4) NSFCAM, a 1-5 micron camera. MIRSI, an 8-25 μm camera, will be available after an upgrade to the array control electronics. Information on these instruments and also visitor instruments are given at: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/Facility/. The IRTF supports remote observing from any site. This eliminates the need for travel to the observatory, and therefore short observing time slots can be supported. We also welcome on-site visiting astronomers. For further information see: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/. We gratefully acknowledge the support of Cooperative Agreement no. NNX13AG88A with the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program.

  17. The Mercator telescope: relevance, status, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Gert; Pessemier, Wim; Merges, Florian; Pérez Padilla, Jesus; Prins, Saskia; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    In todays era of ever growing telescope apertures, there remains a specific niche for meter-class telescopes, provided they are equipped with efficient and dedicated instruments. In case these telescopes have permanent and long-term availability, they turn out very useful for intensive monitoring campaigns over a large range of time-scales. Flexible scheduling and time allocation allow small telescopes to rapidly seize new opportunities or provide immediate follow-up observations to complement data from large ground-based or space-borne facilities. The Mercator telescope, a 1.2-m telescope, installed at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain), successfully targets this niche of intensive monitoring and flexible scheduling. Mercator is already in operation since 2001 and has seen several upgrades in the mean time. In this contribution we give an update about the actual telescope status and its performance. We also present the Mercator instrument suite that currently consists of two instruments. The workhorse instrument is HERMES, a very efficient and stable fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph. Recently, the MAIA imager was commissioned. This is a three- channel photometric instrument that observes a large field simultaneously in the different color bands. The MAIA detectors are unique 6k x 2k frame transfer devices which also allow for fast and continuous monitoring of variable phenomena.We discuss two important upcoming upgrades: a long-awaited automatic mirror cover and, more importantly, an entirely new telescope control system (TCS). This TCS is based on modern PLC technology, and relies on OPC UA and EtherCAT communication. Only commercially off-the-shelve hardware will be used for controlling the telescope. As a test case and as a precursor of the full TCS, such PLC systems are already deployed at Mercator to steer the Nasmyth mirror mechanism and to control the MAIA instrument. Finally, we also give an overview of the

  18. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8′-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (−)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic yield is too low for practical applications. Therefore, we designed novel CYP707A inhibitors, Abz-T compounds, that have simpler structures in which the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring of (−)-Abz-E2B has been replaced with a triple bond. They were successfully synthesised in shorter steps, resulting in greater yields than that of (−)-Abz-E2B. In the enzymatic assays, one of the Abz-T compounds, (−)-Abz-E3M, acted as a strong and selective inhibitor of CYP707A, similar to (−)-Abz-E2B. Analysis of the biological effects in Arabidopsis revealed that (−)-Abz-E3M enhanced ABA’s effects more than (−)-Abz-E2B in seed germination and in the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Treatment with (−)-Abz-E3M induced stomatal closure and improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, (−)-Abz-E3M also increased the ABA response in rice and maize. Thus, (−)-Abz-E3M is a more practical and effective inhibitor of CYP707A than (−)-Abz-E2B. PMID:27841331

  19. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2016-11-02

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth.

  20. Update on Optical Design of Adaptive Optics System at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T; Waltjen, K E; Freeze, G J; Hurd, R L; Gates, E I; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Pennington, D M

    2001-07-31

    In 1999, we presented our plan to upgrade the adaptive optics (AO) system on the Lick Observatory Shane telescope (3m) from a prototype instrument pressed into field service to a facility instrument. This paper updates the progress of that plan and details several important improvements in the alignment and calibration of the AO bench. The paper also includes a discussion of the problems seen in the original design of the tip/tilt (t/t) sensor used in laser guide star mode, and how these problems were corrected with excellent results.

  1. Update on optical design of adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Freeze, Gary J.; Hurd, Randall L.; Gates, Elinor L.; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Pennington, Deanna M.

    2002-02-01

    In 1999, we presented our plan to upgrade the adaptive optics (AO) system on the Lick Observatory Shane telescope (3m) from a prototype instrument pressed into field service to a facility instrument. This paper updates the progress of that plan and details several important improvements in the alignment and calibration of the AO bench. The paper also includes a discussion of the problems seen in the original design of the tip/tilt (t/t) sensor used in laser guide star mode, and how these problems were corrected with excellent results.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A list of tantalum lines (Pakhomov, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.

    2015-08-01

    The list contains wavelengths of spectral lines of neutral and single ionized tantalum for accurate calibration of the Hamilton echelle spectrograph installed at the Shane 3-m telescope of the Lick observatory that was in operation before June 9, 2011 (S&J Box, Westinghouse WL23418, symbol ThAr02). Furthermore, the list may be used for wavelength calibration of another Lick lamp (symbol ThAr07, Westinghouse Box, Westinghouse WL32809) that was in operation from February 17, 1995 to June 19, 2011. (1 data file).

  3. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1990-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  4. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  5. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  6. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; ...

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  7. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  8. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System : intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. R.; Wren, J.; Davis, H. R.; Galassi, M. C.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficienfiy in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  9. TALON: the telescope alert operation network system: intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert R.; Wren, James; Davis, Heath R.; Galassi, Mark; Starr, Daniel; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P.

    2004-09-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficiently in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  10. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  11. Optimal Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan; Brugarolas, Paul; Boussalis, Dhemetrio

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the focal-plane calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope by use of the instrument pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, which was described in Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane (NPO-40798), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 9 (September 2006), page 62. To recapitulate: In the IPF Kalman filter, optimal estimates of both engineering and scientific focal-plane parameters are obtained simultaneously, using data taken in each focalplane survey activity. The IPF Kalman filter offers greater efficiency and economy, relative to prior calibration practice in which scientific and engineering parameters were estimated by separate teams of scientists and engineers and iterated upon each other. In the Spitzer Space Telescope application, the IPF Kalman filter was used to calibrate 56 frames for precise telescope pointing, estimate >1,500 parameters associated with focal-plane mapping, and process calibration runs involving as many as 1,338 scientific image centroids. The final typical survey calibration accuracy was found to be 0.09 arc second. The use of the IPF Kalman filter enabled a team of only four analysts to complete the calibration processing in three months. An unanticipated benefit afforded by the IPF Kalman filter was the ability to monitor health and diagnose performance of the entire end-to-end telescope-pointing system.

  12. Collimation of Fast Wide-Field Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Brian A.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper, I present a simple technique for collimating the secondary mirror of fast focal ratio wide-field Cassegrain telescopes. This technique minimizes both coma and astigmatism across the field. Because astigmatism is nearly zero on-axis even in a misaligned system, it is necessary to make measurements off-axis. This technique is useful on telescopes corrected for off-axis coma such as Ritchey-Cretien designs and classical Cassegrains with refractive correctors. Proper alignment for astigmatism is especially important in the latter type of telescope where there is no astigmatism across the field in a properly aligned system. The tools required for collimation are a camera that can examine images at several locations at the edge of the field and a secondary mirror that can be controlled in five axes. Also presented are analytic expressions for the amount of field-dependent astigmatism due to miscollimation. The technique is robust enough to collimate telescopes with fixed astigmatism in the telescope primary. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  13. Science with the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the fourth and final member of NASA's series of Great Observatories, is scheduled to launch on April 15,2003. Together with the Hubbie Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma ray Telescope, and the Chandra X-Ray Telescope this series of observatories offers observational capabilities across the electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared to high-energy gamma rays. SIRTF is based on three focal plane instruments - an infrared spectrograph and two infrared imagers - coupled to a superfluid-helium cooled telescope to achieve unprecedented sensitivity from 3 to 180 microns. Although SIRTF is a powerful general-purpose infrared observatory, its design was based on the capability to address four broad science themes: (1) understanding the structure and composition of the early universe, (2) understanding the nature of brown dwarfs and super-planets, (3) probing protostellar, protoplanetary, and planetary debris disk systems, and (4) understanding the origin and structure of ultraluminous infrared galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This talk will address the design and capabilities of the SIRTF observatory, provide an overview of some of the initial science investigations planned by the SIRTF Guaranteed Time Observers, and give a brief overview of the General Observer proposal process.

  14. Liverpool Telescope 2: beginning the design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copperwheat, Christopher M.; Steele, Iain A.; Barnsley, Robert M.; Bates, Stuart D.; Bode, Mike F.; Clay, Neil R.; Collins, Chris A.; Jermak, Helen E.; Knapen, Johan H.; Marchant, Jon M.; Mottram, Chris J.; Piascik, Andrzej S.; Smith, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic 2-metre telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004, and currently seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient followup and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Work has begun on a successor facility with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2'. We are entering a new era of time domain astronomy with new discovery facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the next generation of optical survey facilities such as LSST are set to revolutionise the field of transient science in particular. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time, and will be designed to meet the challenges of this new era. Following a conceptual design phase, we are about to begin the detailed design which will lead towards the start of construction in 2018, for first light ˜2022. In this paper we provide an overview of the facility and an update on progress.

  15. Dutch Open Telescope: status, results, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, Robert J.; Sütterlin, Peter; de Wijn, Alfred G.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hoogendoorn, Piet W.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is a revolutionary telescope achieving high-resolution imaging of the solar surface. The DOT combines a pioneering open design at an excellent wind-swept site with image restoration through speckle interferometry. Its open principle is now followed in major solar-telescope projects elsewhere. In the past three years the DOT became the first solar telescope to regularly obtain 0.2" resolution in extended image sequences, i.e., reaching the diffraction limit of its 45-cm primary mirror. Our aim for 2003-2005 is to turn the DOT into a 0.2" tomographic mapper of the solar atmosphere with frequent partnership in international multi-telescope campaigns through student-serviced time allocation. After 2005 we aim to triple the DOT resolution to 0.07" by increasing the aperture to 140 cm and to renew the speckle cameras and the speckle pipeline in order to increase the field size and sequence duration appreciably. These upgrades will maintain the DOT's niche as a tomographic high-resolution mapper in the era when GREGOR, Solar-B and SDO set the stage.

  16. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  17. Undergraduate Research with a Small Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. L.; Williams, G. J.

    2001-11-01

    We describe the construction of a small radio telescope system at ULM and the role of radio astronomy in undergraduate education. The heart of the system is the Small Radio Telescope (SRT), which is a modified satellite TV antenna and custom receiver purchased from MIT Haystack Observatory. This telescope measures the brightness of many celestial objects at wavelengths near 21 cm. The system consists of various components to control dish movement, as well as perform analog to digital conversions allowing analysis of collected data. Undergraduate students have participated in the construction of the hardware and the task of interfacing the hardware to software on two GNU/Linux computer systems. The construction of the telescope and analysis of data allow the students to employ key concepts from mechanics, optics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics, as well as computer and electronics skills. We will report preliminary results of solar observations conducted with this instrument and with the MIT Haystack Observatory 37m radio telescope. This work was supported by Louisiana Board of Regents grant LEQSF-ENH-UG-16, NASA/LaSPACE LURA R109139 and ULM Development Foundation Grant 97317.

  18. The Faulkes Telescope Project at school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Faulkes Telescope Project [1] was started in 2000 and is currently managed by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) [2]. Allows student access to two remote telescopes (in Hawaii and in Australia), allowing you to capture images of the sky. Since January 2012 I conduct monthly observations with students: first with students from Escola Secundária de Loulé (ESL) [3] and starting from September 2013 with students from Agrupamento de Escolas Dra Laura Ayres [4], in Quarteira. Each session is previously prepared in order to make the best of the time available. For that we use a virtual planetarium that allows us to see the sky in place and time of the scheduled session. After the start of each session a student takes control in real time of one of the telescopes from a computer connected to the internet. This project is a tool that gives the students the feeling of doing science and meet the sky step by step. The observations made by my students can be found at www.miguelneta.pt/faulkestelescope. [1] http://www.faulkes-telescope.com [2] http://lcogt.net [3] https://www.es-loule.edu.pt [4] http://www.esla.edu.pt

  19. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  20. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213.

  1. Confinement bifurcation initiated by plasma current profile and toroidal electric field perturbations in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Bulanin, V. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2011-03-01

    The results of the experimental study of confinement mode bifurcation performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak are reported. As a trigger of confinement mode switching, plasma current ramp-up/-down or magnetic compression/decompression is used. It is found that the possibility and direction of confinement mode switching are correlated not with plasma current profile perturbation (peaking or broadening) but with the sign of toroidal electric field perturbation. A model connecting confinement bifurcation and toroidal electric field perturbation through the perturbation of the radial electric field is used to describe the phenomena observed in all eight scenarios investigated. This model ascribes the radial electric field generation to the non-compensated Ware drift of banana electrons at the TUMAN-3M peripheral plasma, where \

  2. On the multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3 m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3 m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright p Ψ q -functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  3. On the multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions, fractional calculus relations and series convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a family of 3m-indices generalizations of the classical Mittag-Leffler function, called multi-index (3m-parametric) Mittag-Leffler functions. We survey the basic properties of these entire functions, find their order and type, and new representations by means of Mellin-Barnes type contour integrals, Wright pΨq-functions and Fox H-functions, asymptotic estimates. Formulas for integer and fractional order integration and differentiations are found, and these are extended also for the operators of the generalized fractional calculus (multiple Erdélyi-Kober operators). Some interesting particular cases of the multi-index Mittag-Leffler functions are discussed. The convergence of series of such type functions in the complex plane is considered, and analogues of the Cauchy-Hadamard, Abel, Tauber and Littlewood theorems are provided.

  4. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Pace, L.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J.; Buckalew, B.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  5. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Pace, L. F.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J. M.; Buckalew, B.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions, and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  6. Engineered proteins with Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor scaffold to manipulate RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zefeng; Tanaka Hall, Traci M

    2013-08-01

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins are characterized by a sequence-specific RNA-binding domain. This unique single-stranded RNA recognition module, whose sequence specificity can be reprogrammed, has been fused with functional modules to engineer protein factors with various functions. We summarize the advances made with respect to developing RNA regulatory tools, as well as opportunities for the future.

  7. The University of Iowa Automated Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, E. C.; Mutel, R. L.

    We describe a CCD-based automated telescope system in operation at the University of Iowa. Observers initiate observing programs using a simple free-format scripting language for preparing observing requests. The schedule file describes sources, durations, filters and other observing parameters. A telescope scheduling program generates an ordered master observing list for a given night based on priority telescope control daemon then reads the sorted schedule file and issues commands to the hardware control daemons. All CCD images are calibrated (bias, thermal, flat) by default and pattern matched to the Guide Star Catalog, with accurate WCS coordinates written to the FITS header. Additional post-processing tools include an interactive image display and analysis program which supports photometry and astrometry, batch tools to automate supernova searches and time-sequenced photometry, and a stand-alone world coordinate calibration tool. Additional details are available {http://inferno.physics.uiowa.edu} on the WWW.

  8. Fresnel phasing of segmented mirror telescopes.

    PubMed

    Chanan, Gary; Troy, Mitchell; Surdej, Isabelle; Gutt, Gary; Roberts, Lewis C

    2011-11-20

    Shack-Hartmann (S-H) phasing of segmented telescopes is based upon a physical optics generalization of the geometrical optics Shack-Hartmann test, in which each S-H lenslet straddles an intersegment edge. For the extremely large segmented telescopes currently in the design stages, one is led naturally to very large pupil demagnifications for the S-H phasing cameras. This in turn implies rather small Fresnel numbers F for the lenslets; the nominal design for the Thirty Meter Telescope calls for F=0.6. For such small Fresnel numbers, it may be possible to eliminate the lenslets entirely, replacing them with a simple mask containing a sparse array of clear subapertures and thereby also eliminating a number of manufacturing problems and experimental complications associated with lenslets. We present laboratory results that demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  9. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  10. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-05-11

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  11. TCS software for the SONG telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Ren, Changzhi

    2014-07-01

    Stellar Observations Network Group, SONG, is a Danish led international collaboration project to construct a global network of small 1m telescope around the globe. The second 1 meter SONG node telescope designed by NIAOT is installed at Delingha site in west China. TCS hardware is based on PC, UMAC, tape encoder, motor and driver. TCS software is developed in powerful Qt Creator environment under stable Debian 6.0 operation system. The design rules are modularity and simplification. Several software modules work together to realize telescope usual function . Tracking algorithm is comprised of two parts. One is UMAC motion program, another is tracking thread in PC program. Communication between TCS and OCS is complicated. The method to process remote command is described.

  12. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    DOEpatents

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  13. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  14. Spacelab 2 infrared telescope cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J. B.; Karr, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a cryogenic helium system to provide cooling to a scanning infrared telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission. The infrared optical/detector system and related electronics are being developed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona. A superfluid helium dewar and porous plug phase separator permit gas cooling of the infrared focal plane assembly to about 2.5 K, and of the two telescope sections to 8 K and 60 K. The design of the cryogenic system,including a commandable vacuum cover, and the prelaunch liquid helium servicing and maintenance approach were discussed. It is concluded that the system will satisfy the Infrared Telescope requirements, and the superfluid helium system shall be capable of satisfying cryogenic helium cooled requirements for the next several years.

  15. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  16. Asteroid observations with NCSFCT's AZT-8 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhukhov, O. M.; Maigurova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    The asteroid observations of the small Solar System bodies were carried out with the AZT-8 telescope (D = 0.7 m, f/4) of the National Center of Space Facilities Control and Testing (NCSFCT) during 2010-2013. The telescope is located near Yevpatoria, the observatory code according IAU is B17. The observational program included perturbed main belt asteroids and NEO's for the GAIA FUN-SSO Company. The MPC database contains more than 4500 asteroids positions and magnitudes obtained during this period at AZT-8 telescope. The article presents analysis of the positional accuracy of B17 observations obtained from the comparison with the JPL HORIZONS ephemeris, and data from AstD-yS-2 and NEODyS-2 web services.

  17. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, Jacob W.

    1998-07-01

    The LMT is a 50 m diameter telescope for operation to a wavelength of 1 mm from a high mountain site in central Mexico at a latitude of 19 degrees. The telescope is designed to address fundamental questions about the origin and formation of galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as stars and planets. It is a joint project of the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Tonantzintla, Puebla and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The telescope is in the Critical Design phase and completion of the basic assembly at the site is scheduled for the end of 2000. We describe historical and organizational aspects of the Project and present the major technical specifications and plans for realization.

  18. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave; McEnery, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Gamma Ray Astronomy as enhanced by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope and Radio Astronomy as a synergistic relationship. Gamma rays often represent a significant part of the energy budget of a source; therefore, gamma-ray studies can be critical to understanding physical processes in such sources. Radio observations offer timing and spatial resolutions vastly superior to anything possible with gamma-ray telescopes; therefore radio is often the key to understanding source structure. Gamma-ray and radio observations can complement each other, making a great team. It reviews the Fermi Guest Investigator (GI) program, and calls for more cooperative work that involves Fermi and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of ten radio telescopes.

  19. The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) top box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Janes, Clinton C.; Montgomery, John W.; Ouellette, David B.; Sharp, Frank H.

    1986-01-01

    So named because it resides on top of the focal plane instrument, the MMT top box is a two-level optical bench with many remotely controlled features which can be configured for experimental use of the MMT. It houses the relay optics and television cameras for focusing, coaligning and guiding the six telescopes of the MMT, as well as the integrating sphere, filter wheel, Hartmann mask wheel, and relay optics of the comparison source for instrumental calibration. It also provides a rigid mounting platform for research instruments as well as special fixtures for telescope tests and collimation. In accommodating these tasks the top box incorporates several novel features which may interest designers of other large telescopes.

  20. Heat flux measurements of Tb3M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. C. B.; Lombardi, G. A.; dos Reis, R. D.; Freitas, H. E.; Cardoso, L. P.; Mansanares, A. M.; Gandra, F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb3M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb3Co and Tb3Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R3M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb3Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, -∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb3Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ0∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R3M materials.

  1. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  2. Double L{sub 3}M ionization of Pd induced by impact with medium-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Schenker, J.-L.; Kavcic, M.; Zitnik, M.

    2011-02-15

    The electron-induced L{sub 3}M two-step double ionization cross sections of metallic Pd were determined experimentally for incident electron beam energies ranging from the double ionization threshold up to 18 keV. The double L{sub 3}M ionization cross sections were derived from the intensity ratios (I{sub L{alpha}M}:I{sub L{alpha}}) of the resolved M satellites to the parent diagram lines. The sample was bombarded with monoenergetic electrons from an energy-tunable 20-kV electron gun. The diagram and M-satellite x-ray lines were measured by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy, using a reflection-type von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer. The two-step partial cross sections were determined by subtracting from the measured total double ionization cross sections the contributions due to the shake process and L{sub 1}-L{sub 3}M{sub 4,5} Coster-Kronig transitions. Despite the thick target employed in the present study, the dependence of the two-step cross sections on the incoming electron energy could be derived using a target slice decomposition method. It is shown that the obtained energy dependence can be well reproduced by the semiempirical parametrization model of Pattard and Rost.

  3. Deposition of LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al)-Oriented Films by Spray Combustion Flame Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Hiromichi; Shiwa, Yuzo; Nagano, Masamitsu

    1994-10-01

    LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films were prepared on sintered alumina, sapphire (001) and MgO(100) at 500 900°C by spraying ultrasonically atomized aqueous solutions of nitrates into a combustion flame (spray combustion flame technique). LaNiO3 and LaCoO3 on MgO(100) crystallized in high-temperature phases (cubic) while LaCrO3 and LaAlO3 crystallized in room-temperature phases. LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr,Al) films on MgO(100) were highly oriented to (100), (100), (001) and (100), respectively, while the films on sintered alumina and sapphire were not. The electric resistivities of the dense LaMO3 (M=Ni,Co,Cr) films were as low as those of bulk ceramics. LaNiO3 film deposited on MgO above 700°C showed the lowest resistivity of about 6×10-6 Ω m. It was suggested that the reactivities of the constituent metal atoms with OH in the flame are associated with the preferred phase and the morphology of the films.

  4. Anti-CD3 mAb treatment cures PDL1-/-.NOD mice of diabetes but precipitates fatal myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mfarrej, Bechara; Keir, Mary; Dada, Shirine; Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Sharpe, Arlene H; Guleria, Indira

    2011-07-01

    Anti-CD3 mAb is an effective therapy that can reverse diabetes in NOD mice and has therapeutic potential in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We administered anti-CD3 to PDL1-/-.NOD mice in order to determine whether this treatment would reverse the development of diabetes in these mice. Mice injected with anti-CD3 mAb neonatally were protected from T1D. However, all of these anti-CD3 mAb treated PDL1-/-.NOD mice developed a wasting disease between 12 and 20 weeks of age with sudden deterioration and weight loss, leading to death within 3-5 days of development of illness. Histology revealed severe inflammation in the heart and skeletal muscles. These results suggest that deficiency of PDL1 in NOD background has the potential to lead to immune-mediated tissue damage in organs other than the pancreas, but this cannot be appreciated in PDL1-/-.NOD mice as the mice develop T1D at an early age and die from diabetes prior to manifesting other autoimmune diseases.

  5. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  6. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  7. Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael; Cleveland, Paul; Durand, Dale; Klavins, Andy; Muheim, Daniella; Paine, Christopher; Petach, Mike; Tenerelli, Domenick; Tolomeo, Jason; Walyus, Keith

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program funded an effort to develop a system cooling technology, which is applicable to all future infrared, sub-millimeter and millimeter cryogenic space telescopes. In particular, this technology is necessary for the proposed large space telescope Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) mission. This technology will also enhance the performance and lower the risk and cost for other cryogenic missions. The new paradigm for cooling to low temperatures will involve passive cooling using lightweight deployable membranes that serve both as sunshields and V-groove radiators, in combination with active cooling using mechanical coolers operating down to 4 K. The Cooling Technology for Large Space Telescopes (LST) mission planned to develop and demonstrate a multi-layered sunshield, which is actively cooled by a multi-stage mechanical cryocooler, and further the models and analyses critical to scaling to future missions. The outer four layers of the sunshield cool passively by radiation, while the innermost layer is actively cooled to enable the sunshield to decrease the incident solar irradiance by a factor of more than one million. The cryocooler cools the inner layer of the sunshield to 20 K, and provides cooling to 6 K at a telescope mounting plate. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 7 will be achieved by the active cooling technology following the technology validation flight in Low Earth Orbit. In accordance with the New Millennium charter, tests and modeling are tightly integrated to advance the technology and the flight design for "ST-class" missions. Commercial off-the-shelf engineering analysis products are used to develop validated modeling capabilities to allow the techniques and results from LST to apply to a wide variety of future missions. The LST mission plans to "rewrite the book" on cryo-thermal testing and modeling techniques, and validate modeling techniques to scale to future space telescopes such as SAFIR.

  8. Enclosure of the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinari, Piero; Hill, John M.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the enclosure of the Large Binocular Telescope, now in a detailed design phase. The enclosure is co-rotating with the telescope, includes a service floor carrying all telescope utilities, and is characterized by two large portal shutters, which open laterally leaving the air flow at the front and at the back of the telescope essentially unobstructed. Large louvers on the side walls and wind shields with variable permeability at the front and back openings are used to control the air flow in different wind conditions. The inner and outer surfaces of the enclosure are designed to obtain short thermal time constant and close equilibrium with ambient air. Forced air circulation in the outer skin of the enclosure is used for better heat exchange and, with electrical heaters, for melting snow. The interaction of the whole building with the natural air flow in conditions representative of those encountered at the specific site on Mt. Graham was the subject of extensive water channel measurements on a model of the building and of the surrounding environment. The flow patterns obtained in the simulations show no mixing of lower air layers with those at the level of the primary mirrors or above. The handling scheme for large equipment, including the primary mirror cells and the bell-jar for aluminizing of the mirrors on board the telescope, is based on a large bridge crane that can transfer instruments and maintenance equipment to the telescope and to the service floor from the storage and maintenance area at ground level.

  9. SETI Observations of Exoplanets with the Allen Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, G. R.; Richards, Jon; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Wimberly, M. K. R.; Ross, John; Barott, W. C.; Ackermann, R. F.; Blair, Samantha

    2016-12-01

    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). Observations were made over about 19000 hr from 2009 May to 2015 December. This search focused on narrowband radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their habitable zones. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1 to 9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrowband (0.7-100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from -0.3 to 0.3 m s-2. A total of 1.9 × 108 unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 × 106 star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extraterrestrial technology exceeding our frequency-dependent sensitivity threshold of 180-310 × 10-26 W m-2.

  10. VALIDATION OF OBSERVATIONS OBTAINED WITH A LIQUID MIRROR TELESCOPE BY COMPARISON WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2015-06-15

    The results of a search for peculiar astronomical objects using very low resolution spectra obtained with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory (NODO) 3 m diameter liquid mirror telescope (LMT) are compared with results of spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The main purpose of this comparison is to verify whether observations taken with this novel type of telescope are reliable. This comparison is important because LMTs are an inexpensive novel type of telescope that is very useful for astronomical surveys, particularly surveys in the time domain, and validation of the data taken with an LMT by comparison with data from a classical telescope will validate their reliability. We start from a published data analysis that classified as peculiar only 206 of the 18,000 astronomical objects observed with the NODO LMT. A total of 29 of these 206 objects were found in the SDSS. The reliability of the NODO data can be seen through the results of the detailed analysis that, in practice, incorrectly identified less than 0.3% of the 18,000 spectra as peculiar objects, most likely because they are variable stars. We conclude that the LMT gave reliable observations, comparable to those that would have been obtained with a telescope using a glass mirror.

  11. Validation of Observations Obtained with a Liquid Mirror Telescope by Comparison with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, E. F.

    2015-06-01

    The results of a search for peculiar astronomical objects using very low resolution spectra obtained with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory (NODO) 3 m diameter liquid mirror telescope (LMT) are compared with results of spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The main purpose of this comparison is to verify whether observations taken with this novel type of telescope are reliable. This comparison is important because LMTs are an inexpensive novel type of telescope that is very useful for astronomical surveys, particularly surveys in the time domain, and validation of the data taken with an LMT by comparison with data from a classical telescope will validate their reliability. We start from a published data analysis that classified as peculiar only 206 of the 18,000 astronomical objects observed with the NODO LMT. A total of 29 of these 206 objects were found in the SDSS. The reliability of the NODO data can be seen through the results of the detailed analysis that, in practice, incorrectly identified less than 0.3% of the 18,000 spectra as peculiar objects, most likely because they are variable stars. We conclude that the LMT gave reliable observations, comparable to those that would have been obtained with a telescope using a glass mirror.

  12. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  13. Telescope Automation and Remote Observing System (TAROS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G.; Czezowski, A.; Hovey, G. R.; Jarnyk, M. A.; Nielsen, J.; Roberts, B.; Sebo, K.; Smith, D.; Vaccarella, A.; Young, P.

    2005-12-01

    TAROS is a system that will allow for the Australian National University telescopes at a remote location to be operated automatically or interactively with authenticated control via the internet. TAROS is operated by a Java front-end GUI and employs the use of several Java technologies - such as Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the telescope and the remote observer, Java Native Interface to integrate existing data acquisition software written in C++ (CICADA) with new Java programs and the JSky collection of Java GUI components for parts of the remote observer client. In this poster the design and implementation of TAROS is described.

  14. Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (WFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Guy; Ofek, Eran Oded; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Diner, Oz; Rappaport, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Weizmann Fast Astronomical Survey Telescope (W-FAST) is an experiment designed to explore variability on sub-second time scales. When completed it will consist of two robotic 55-cm f/2 Schmidt telescopes. The optics is capable of providing $\\sim0.5$" image quality over 23 deg$^2$. The focal plane will be equipped with fast readout, low read-noise sCMOS detectors. The first generation focal plane is expected to have 6.2 deg$^2$ field of view. WFAST is designed to study occultations by solar system objects (KBOs and Oort cloud objects), short time scale stellar variability, and high resolution imaging via proper coaddition.

  15. Detectors for the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Ade, P.; Aird, K.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Benson, B.; Bleem, L.; Britton, J.; Carlstrom, J.; Cho, H.; de Haan, T.; Crawford, T.; Crites, A.; Datesman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Everett, W.; Ewall-Wice, A.; George, E.; Halverson, N.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hoover, S.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Keisler, R.; Kennedy, J.; Lee, A.; Leitch, E.; Li, D.; Lueker, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Mcmahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.; Montgomery, J.; Montroy, T.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J.; Niemack, M.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C.; Ruhl, J.; Saliwanchik, B.; Sayre, J.; Schafer, K.; Shirokoff, E.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J.; Wang, G.; Williamson, R.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, E.

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-m mm/sub-mm telescope at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It's primary science goals consist of a galaxy cluster survey for understanding Dark Energy and probing the physics of Inflation through the CMB polarization. Both science goals require exceptional sensitivity necessitating focal planes with many optical elements. The focal planes of the SPT utilize Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to build arrays of nearly 1000 detectors. In this talk, I will present the TES bolometer technology for both the first SPT focal plane and its upcoming upgrade to a polarization sensitive array.

  16. Phasing piston error in segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junlun; Zhao, Weirui

    2016-08-22

    To achieve a diffraction-limited imaging, the piston errors between the segments of the segmented primary mirror telescope should be reduced to λ/40 RMS. We propose a method to detect the piston error by analyzing the intensity distribution on the image plane according to the Fourier optics principle, which can capture segments with the piston errors as large as the coherence length of the input light and reduce these to 0.026λ RMS (λ = 633nm). This method is adaptable to any segmented and deployable primary mirror telescope. Experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility of the method.

  17. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mcmahon, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  18. High-definition video telescopic rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Tasca, I; Ceroni Compadretti, G; Romano, C

    2016-12-01

    Optical magnification has become an essential tool in rhinologic practice, especially following the popularisation of endoscopic procedures for nasal sinus surgery. We describe the use of VITOM(®) technology in rhinoplasty, which to our knowledge has not been reported in the international literature to date. This approach to rhinoplasty markedly improves visualisation of the surgical field, thereby improving the understanding of the procedures and enhancing the teaching environment. Since VITOM(®) technology works by combining the telescope with a standard endoscopic setting, video telescopic rhinoplasty may be easily and inexpensively performed in any ENT department provided with this instrumentation.

  19. Concurrent engineering of an infrared telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jason; Lang, Jeffrey; Peterson, Leslie; Roybal, Francisco; Tanzillo, Jennifer; Thomas, David; Warren, David

    2011-10-01

    A concurrent engineering approach to the design and analysis of a space-borne Electro-Optical (EO) sensor is presented. A detailed design of an infrared telescope payload is developed by an interdisciplinary team of mechanical, structural, thermal, and optical engineers using a Simulation Driven Engineering (SDE) software environment. The telescope payload design is also integrated with a conceptual level design of the space segment of a mission that incorporates the payload. The flow of the concurrent design process is described, and design outputs are provided.

  20. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.