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Sample records for 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol 4-nitro-m-cresol pnmc

  1. Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lubing; Ma, Sihui; Han, Yu; Wang, Yuhan; Guo, Yan; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-01-01

    4-pentylphenol (PP) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), two important components of vehicle emissions, have been shown to confer toxicity in splenocytes. Certain natural products, such as those derived from walnuts, exhibit a range of antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the effects of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE) on immunotoxicity induced by PP and PNMC in murine splenic lymphocytes. Treatment with WPE was shown to significantly enhance proliferation of splenocytes exposed to PP or PNMC, characterized by increases in the percentages of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3+ T cells) and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), as well as the production of T cell-related cytokines and granzymes (interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and granzyme-B) in cells exposed to PP or PNMC. These effects were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by changes in OH, SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA levels. The total phenolic content of WPE was 34,800 ± 200 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, consisting of at least 16 unique phenols, including ellagitannins, quercetin, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that walnut polyphenols significantly attenuated PP and PNMC-mediated immunotoxicity and improved immune function by inhibiting oxidative stress. PMID:27187455

  2. Molecular modeling and spectral comparison for the change in methyl position of nitrophenol compounds 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol: a density functional theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Siva Priya, M; Usha Rani, N; James, C

    2013-04-15

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNOC) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) were recorded and analyzed in the solid phase in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. Molecular modeling of the compounds PNOC and PNMC were done by the density functional theoretical (DFT) method using Becke's three parameter exchange functional combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional with 6-31G(d) as basis set. Vibrational assignments of the two compounds have been carried out with the help of Normal coordinate analyses (NCA) followed by the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field calculations (SQMFF). Intra-molecular charge transfer and delocalization within the molecule is confirmed with the aid of natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). PNOC and PNMC are similar compounds with same functional groups, only the position of the methyl group is different. The effect of the position change of the methyl group was interpreted with the vibrational spectra.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of 3-Methyl-4-nitrophenol Degradation in Burkholderia sp. Strain SJ98.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun; Lu, Yang; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Several strains have been reported to grow on 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (3M4NP), the primary breakdown product of the excessively used insecticide fenitrothion. However, the microbial degradation of 3M4NP at molecular and biochemical levels remains unknown. Here, methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MBQ) and methylhydroquinone (MHQ), rather than catechol proposed previously, were identified as the intermediates before ring cleavage during 3M4NP degradation by Burkholderia sp. strain SJ98. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the pnpABA1CDEF cluster involved in para-nitrophenol (PNP) and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) catabolism was also likely responsible for 3M4NP degradation in this strain. Purified PNP 4-monooxygenase (PnpA) is able to catalyze the monooxygenation of 3M4NP to MBQ and exhibited an apparent K m value of 20.3 ± 2.54 μM for 3M4NP, and pnpA is absolutely necessary for the catabolism of 3M4NP by gene knock-out and complementation. PnpB, a 1,4-benzoquinone reductase catalyzes the reduction of MBQ to MHQ, and also found to enhance PnpA activity in vitro in the conversion of 3M4NP to MBQ. By sequential catalysis assays, PnpCD, PnpE, and PnpF were likely involved in the lower pathway of 3M4NP catabolism. Although NpcCD, NpcE, and NpcF are able to catalyze the sequential conversion of MHQ in vitro, these enzymes are unlikely involved in 3M4NP catabolism because their coding genes were not upregulated by 3M4NP induction in vivo. These results revealed that the enzymes involved in PNP and 2C4NP catabolism were also responsible for 3M4NP degradation in strain SJ98. This fills a gap in our understanding of the microbial degradation of 3M4NP at molecular and biochemical levels and also provides another example to illustrate the adaptive flexibility in microbial catabolism for structurally similar compounds.

  4. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles promote the growth of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Chie; Suzuki, Akira K.; Watanabe, Gen; Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-08-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause many adverse health problems, and reports indicate increased risk of breast cancer in men and women through exposure to gasoline and vehicle exhaust. However, DEPs include vast numbers of compounds, and the specific compound(s) responsible for these actions are not clear. We recently isolated two nitrophenols from DEPs-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol; PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP)-and showed that they had estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Here, we tried to clarify the involvement of these two nitrophenols in promoting the growth of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. First, comet assay was used to detect the genotoxicity of PNMC and PNMPP in a CHO cell line. At all doses tested, PNMC and PNMPP showed negative genotoxicity, indicating that they had no tumor initiating activity. Next, the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to assess cell proliferation. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was stimulated by PNMC, PNMPP, and estradiol-17{beta} and the anti-estrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182,780 inhibited the proliferation. To further investigate transcriptional activity through the estrogen receptor, MCF-7 cells were transfected with a receptor gene that allowed expression of luciferase enzyme under the control of the estrogen regulatory element. PNMC and PNMPP induced luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner at submicromolar concentrations. ICI 182,780 inhibited the luciferase activity induced by PNMC and PNMPP. These results clearly indicate that PNMC and PNMPP do not show genotoxicity but act as tumor promoters in an estrogen receptor {alpha}-predominant breast cancer cell line.

  5. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles regulate steroidogenic gene expression and steroid synthesis in the human H295R adrenocortical cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Chie; Noda, Shiho; Li Chunmei; Suzuki, Akira K; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-05-15

    Studies of nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) have revealed that these chemicals possess estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro and in vivo and that PNMC accumulate in adrenal glands in vivo. However, the impacts of exposure to these compounds on adrenal endocrine disruption and steroidogenesis have not been investigated. To elucidate the non-receptor mediated effects of PNMC and PNMPP, we investigated the production of the steroid hormones progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} and modulation of nine major enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP17, CYP19, 17{beta}HSD1, 17{beta}HSD4, CYP21, 3{beta}HSD2, StAR) in human adrenal H295R cells supplied with cAMP. Exposure to 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} M PNMC and 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17{beta} levels and increased progesterone secretion. At 10{sup -5} M, PNMC with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulated expression of the 17{beta}HSD4 and significantly suppressed expression of 3{beta}HSD2. In comparison, 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} M PNMPP with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased concentrations of estradiol-17{beta}, increased progesterone levels, but did not affect testosterone and cortisol secretion due to the significant suppression of CYP17 and the non-significant but obvious suppression of CYP19. Our results clarified steroidogenic enzymes as candidates responsible for the inhibition or stimulation for the production of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic pathway, thus providing the first experimental evidence for multiple mechanisms of disruption of endocrine pathways by these nitrophenols.

  6. Decomposition of 14C-fenitrothion under the influence of UV and sunlight under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Zayed, S M A D; Mahdy, F

    2008-02-01

    The decomposition of (14)C-fenitrothion on silica gel chromatoplates as well as in polar and non polar solvents under sunlight and ultraviolet light was investigated, Its stability to sunlight on leaf surfaces of bean plants and on different surfaces (such as glass, quartz and plastic) was also determined. The main photoproducts were identified as carboxyfenitrothion, fenitrooxon, carboxyfenitrooxon and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and a small amount 3-caboxy-4-nitrophenol and methyl parathion. The addition of carbaryl and deltamethrin insecticides slightly accelerated the photodecomposition of fenitrothion on silica gel plates and in solution.

  7. Oxidation of aminonitrotoluenes by 2,4-DNT dioxygenase of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT.

    PubMed

    Leungsakul, Thammajun; Keenan, Brendan G; Mori, Masa-aki; Morton, Martha D; Stuart, James D; Smets, Barth F; Wood, Thomas K

    2006-02-05

    Aminonitrotoluenes form rapidly from the reduction of dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) which are priority pollutants and animal carcinogens. For example, 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4A2NT) and 2A4NT accumulate from the reduction of 2,4-DNT during its aerobic biodegradation. Here, we show that 2,4-DNT dioxygenase (DDO) from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT oxidizes the aminonitrotoluenes 2A3NT, 2A6NT, 4A3NT, and 5A2NT to 2-amino-3-nitrobenzylalcohol, 2-amino-4-nitro-m-cresol and 3-amino-5-nitro-p-cresol, 4-amino-3-nitrobenzylalcohol and aminonitrocresol, and 2-amino-5-nitro-o-cresol, respectively. 2A5NT and 3A4NT are oxidized to aminonitrocresols and/or aminonitrobenzylalcohols, and 4A2NT is oxidized to aminonitrocresol. Only 2A4NT, a reduced compound derived from 2,4-DNT, was not oxidized by DDO or its three variants. The alpha subunit mutation I204Y resulted in two to fourfold faster oxidization of the aminonitrotoluenes. Though these enzymes are dioxygenases, they acted like monooxygenases by adding a single hydroxyl group, which did not result in the release of nitrite.

  8. An estimation of the exposure to organophosphorus pesticides through the simultaneous determination of their main metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Sancho, J V; Pozo, O J

    2004-09-05

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of 4-nitrophenol (PNP) (parathion and methyl-parathion metabolite) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (3-Me-PNP) (fenitrothion metabolite) in human urine by coupled-column liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-LC-MS/MS). The LC-LC-MS/MS approach allows the determination at sub-ppb level of free metabolites by injecting the urine directly into the system and the total metabolites after a simple enzymatic hydrolysis. The method has been validated, obtaining limits of detection of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L for 4-nitrophenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, respectively. Additionally, a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method is proposed in order to evaluate the levels of other parathion and methyl parathion metabolites. This approach allows the simultaneous determination of dimethyl phosphate (DMP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), 4-nitrophenolsulphate and 4-nitrophenolglucuronide without tedious sample treatments. The applicability of both methods is demonstrated by applying them to various urine samples from an unexposed population and a grower who applied methyl parathion. The combination of both methods allows a general overview on the presence of different metabolites (free and conjugated) and the concentration ratios between them, giving useful information on organophosphorus pesticides metabolism and excretion.

  9. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Hanne, L.F.; Kirk, L.L.; Appel, S.M.; Narayan, A.D.; Bains, K.K. )

    1993-10-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW 17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol, p-cresol, or m-nitrophenol. A. aurescens TW17 initially degraded PNP to hydroquinone and nitrite. Nocardia sp. strain TW2 initially converted PNP to hydroquinone or 4-nitrocatechol, depending upon the inducing compound.

  10. Behavior of phenols and phenoxyacids on a bisphenol-A imprinted polymer. Application for selective solid-phase extraction from water and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernández, Eliseo; Carabias-Martínez, Rita; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnacion

    2011-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), obtained by precipitation polymerisation with 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and bisphenol-A (BPA) as template, was prepared. The binding site configuration of the BPA-MIP was examined using Scatchard analysis. Moreover, the behaviour of the BPA-MIP for the extraction of several phenolic compounds (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F, 4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol) and phenoxyacid herbicides such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and 2,4,5-TP has been studied in organic and aqueous media in the presence of other pesticides in common use. It was possible to carry out the selective preconcentration of the target analytes from the organic medium with recoveries of higher than 70%. In an aqueous medium, hydrophobic interactions were found to exert a remarkably non-specific contribution to the overall binding process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the BPA-MIP were evaluated to achieve the selective preconcentration of phenols and phenoxyacids from aqueous samples. The possibility of using the BPA-MIP as a selective sorbent to preconcentrate these compounds from other samples such as urine and river water was also explored.

  11. Wet deposition of pesticides and nitrophenols at two sites in Denmark: measurements and contributions from regional sources.

    PubMed

    Asman, Willem A H; Jørgensen, Andreas; Bossi, Rossana; Vejrup, Karl V; Mogensen, Betty Bügel; Glasius, Marianne

    2005-05-01

    The concentrations of selected pesticides, of some of their degradation products and nitrophenols in rain were measured at two stations in Denmark in the period January 2000-July 2001. Forty compounds were quantified at least at one station during at least one sampling period. Additionally 17 compounds could be detected but not quantified, and 22 compounds could not be detected at all. The highest depositions of pesticides were observed for pendimethalin and desethylterbuthylazine, which is a degradation product of terbuthylazine. The deposition of the nitrophenols 2,4-dinitrophenol, DNOC, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol was much higher than that of pesticides. The deposition of 2,4-dinitrophenol was e.g. up to a factor of 40 higher than that of pendimethalin. Atrazine, chloridazon, 2,4-D, dieldrin, disulfoton, fenitrothion, isoproturon, lenacil, metazachlor and propachlor were found in precipitation, although these pesticides are not allowed in Denmark. It can therefore be concluded that they came from abroad and have been transported over at least 60-80 km. For some of these compounds the transport distance is much longer.

  12. Biosensor for Direct Determination of Fenitrothion and EPN Using Recombinant Pseudomonas putida JS444 with Surface Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase. 1. Modified Clark Oxygen Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Mulchandani, Priti; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a first microbial biosensor for rapid and cost-effective determination of organophosphorus pesticides fenitrothion and EPN. The biosensor consisted of recombinant PNP-degrading/oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida JS444 anchoring and displaying organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) on its cell surface as biological sensing element and a dissolved oxygen electrode as the transducer. Surface-expressed OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of fenitrothion and EPN to release 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol, respectively, which were oxidized by the enzymatic machinery of Pseudomonas putida JS444 to carbon dioxide while consuming oxygen, which was measured and correlated to the concentration of organophosphates. Under the optimum operating conditions, the biosensor was able to measure as low as 277 ppb of fenitrothion and 1.6 ppm of EPN without interference from phenolic compounds and other commonly used pesticides such as carbamate pesticides, triazine herbicides and organophosphate pesticides without nitrophenyl substituent. The applicability of the biosensor to lake water was also demonstrated.

  13. Biosensor for direct determination of fenitrothion and EPN using recombinant Pseudomonas putida JS444 with surface-expressed organophosphorous hydrolase. 2. Modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Mulchandani, Priti; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2007-03-01

    A whole cell-based amperometric biosensor for highly selective, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective determination of the organophosphate pesticides fenitrothion and ethyl p-nitrophenol thio-benzene phosphonate (EPN) is discussed. The biosensor comprised genetically engineered p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas putida JS444 anchoring and displaying organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) on its cell surface as biological sensing element and carbon paste electrode as the amperometric transducer. Surface-expressed OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of organophosphorous pesticides such as fenitrothion and EPN to release PNP and 3-methyl-4- nitrophenol, respectively, which were subsequently degraded by the enzymatic machinery of P. putida JS444 through electrochemically active intermediates to the TCA cycle. The electro-oxidization current of the intermediates was measured and correlated to the concentration of organophosphates. Operating at optimum conditions, 0.086 mg dry wt of cell operating at 600 mV of applied potential (vs Ag/AgCl reference) in 50 mM citrate phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, with 50 muM CoCl2 at room temperature, the biosensor measured as low as 1.4 ppb of fenitrothion and 1.6 ppb of EPN. There was no interference from phenolic compounds, carbamate pesticides, triazine herbicides, or organophosphate pesticides without nitrophenyl substituent. The service life of the biosensor and the applicability to lake water were also demonstrated.

  14. Fenitrothion, an organophosphorous insecticide, impairs locomotory function and alters body temperatures in Sminthopsis macroura (Gould 1845) without reducing metabolic rates during running endurance and thermogenic performance tests.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; French, Kris; Astheimer, Lee B; Buttemer, William A

    2016-01-01

    Endemic Australian mammal species are exposed to pesticides used for locust control as they occupy the same habitat as the target insect. The authors examined the impact of an ultra-low volume formulation of the organophosphorous insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl-O-[3-methyl-4-nitrophenol]-phosphorothioate) on a suite of physiological measures that affect the ability of animals to survive in free-living conditions: locomotory and thermogenic functions, metabolic performance, body mass, and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Plasma and brain cholinesterase activity in relation to time since exposure to pesticide were also determined. An orally applied dose of 90 mg kg(-1) fenitrothion reduced running endurance in the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura, by 80% the day after exposure concomitantly with a reduction of approximately 50% in plasma and 45% in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These adverse effects disappeared by 10 d postexposure. Maximal metabolic rates reached during running were unaffected by pesticide, as were body mass and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Maximal cold-induced metabolic rate (measured as peak 2 min metabolic rate attained during cold exposure), time taken to reach peak metabolic rate on cold exposure, cumulative total oxygen consumed during shivering thermogenesis, and body temperature before and after cold exposure were unaffected by fenitrothion. Dunnart rectal temperatures showed a reduction of up to 5 °C after exposure to fenitrothion but returned to pre-exposure levels by 10 d postdose. Such physiological compromises in otherwise asymptomatic animals demonstrate the importance of considering performance-based measures in pesticide risk assessments.

  15. Measurement of nitrophenols in rain and air by two-dimensional liquid chromatography-chemically active liquid core waveguide spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Mishra, Santosh K; Azad, Abul K; Shigihara, Ado; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Grudpan, Kate; Rappenglueck, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    We report a novel system to analyze atmospheric nitrophenols (NPs). Rain or air sample extracts (1 mL) are preconcentrated on a narrow bore (2 mm) aliphatic anion exchanger. In the absence of strong retention of NPs exhibited by aromatic ion exchangers, retained NPs are eluted as a plug by injection of 100 microL of 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) on to a short (2 x 50 mm) reverse phase C-18 column packed with 2.2 mum particles. The salt plug passes through the C-18 column unretained while the NPs are separated by an ammonium acetate buffered methanol-water eluent, compatible with mass spectrometry (MS). The eluted NPs are measured with a long path Teflon AF-based liquid core waveguide (0.15 x 1420 mm) illuminated by a 403 nm light emitting diode and detected by a monolithic photodiode-operational amplifier. The waveguide is rendered chemically active by suspending it over concentrated ammonia that permeates into the lumen. The NPs ionize to the yellow anion form (lambda(max) approximately 400 nm). The separation of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, and 2-nitrophenol (these are the dominant NPs, typically in that order, in both rain and air of Houston and Arlington, TX, confirmed by tandem MS) takes just over 5 min with respective S/N = 3 limits of detection (LODs) of 60, 12, 30, 67, and 23 pg/mL compared to MS/MS LODs of 20, 49, 11, 20, and 210 pg/mL. Illustrative air and rain data are presented.

  16. Using control charts to help manage accounts receivable.

    PubMed

    Bruch, N M; Lewis, L L

    1994-07-01

    The relative performance of a healthcare organization's accounts receivable (AR) department is a critical factor affecting an organization's financial well-being. Park Nicollet Medical Center (PNMC), Minneapolis, Minnesota, changed the way it measured its AR department's performance, switching from the rolling averages method of performance measurement to the percentage collected method of performance measurement, and was able to improve its patient accounts management effort.

  17. The impact of gate width setting and gate utilization factors on plutonium assay in passive correlated neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Santi, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  18. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  19. The Impact of Gate Width Setting and Gate Utilization Factors on Plutonium Assay in Passive Correlated Neutron Counting

    DOE PAGES

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Croft, Stephen; ...

    2015-06-15

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimummore » gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.« less

  20. Purification and sequence analysis of 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol oxygenase from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Suen, W C; Spain, J C

    1996-01-01

    4-Methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) is an intermediate in the degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by Burkholderia sp. strain DNT. In the presence of NADPH and oxygen, MNC monooxygenase catalyzes the removal of the nitro group from MNC to form 2-hydroxy-5-methylquinone. The gene (dntB) encoding MNC monooxygenase has been previously cloned and characterized. In order to examine the properties of MNC monooxygenase and to compare it with other enzymes, we sequenced the gene encoding the MNC monooxygenase and purified the enzyme from strain DNT. dntB was localized within a 2.2-kb ApaI DNA fragment. Sequence analysis of this fragment revealed an open reading frame of 1,644 bp with an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of purified MNC monooxygenase from strain DNT. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequences with those of other genes showed that DntB contains the highly conserved ADP and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding motifs characteristic of flavoprotein hydroxylases. MNC monooxygenase was purified to homogeneity from strain DNT by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single protein with a molecular weight of 60,200, which is consistent with the size determined from the gene sequence. The native molecular weight determined by gel filtration was 65,000, which indicates that the native enzyme is a monomer. It used either NADH or NADPH as electron donors, and NADPH was the preferred cofactor. The purified enzyme contained 1 mol of FAD per mol of protein, which is also consistent with the detection of an FAD binding motif in the amino acid sequence of DntB. MNC monooxygenase has a narrow substrate specificity. MNC and 4-nitrocatechol are good substrates whereas 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrocatechol, 4-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorocatechol were not. These studies suggest that MNC monooxygenase is a flavoprotein that shares some properties with

  1. Apoptosis in immunocytes induced by several types of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Harada, Takanori; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2010-03-01

    Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates and organochlorines, can induce thymocyte apoptosis, resulting in thymic atrophy and predisposing the highly sensitive fetal immune system to loss of tolerance to self-antigens and subsequent increased risk for autoimmune disease and allergies. In the studies here, mouse primary thymocytes and a human acute T-cell leukemia cell line (J45.01) were employed to examine potential thymocyte apoptosis induced by several types of chemicals, including several commonly-used pesticides. Thymocytes and J45.01 cells were treated for 4 or 8 hr with varying doses of metamidophos, parathion, PNMC, or methoxychlor; dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Apoptosis, cell viability, the proportion of Annexin-V+ cells, the activities of caspases 3/7, 8, and 9, and the levels of DNA fragmentation in both the J45.01 cells and thymocytes were then examined. The results here show that with both cell types, there was an increase in the proportion of annexin-V+ cells and levels of DNA fragmentation following exposure to parathion, PNMC, methoxychlor, or dexamethasone (positive control); however, the levels of sensitivity appeared to differ between the cell types. Furthermore, caspase-7 and -8 activities also differed between the J45.01 cells and thymocytes when treated with PNMC, methoxychlor, or dexamethasone. A more precise characterization of these inter-cellular differences is the logical next step in our studies of the effects of these (and other) pesticides on immune cell integrity. These specific types of follow-on mechanistic experiments are currently underway in our laboratories.

  2. Development of a hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction method coupled with capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry for determining nitrophenolic compounds from atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    Nitrophenolic compounds present in the atmosphere gained a lot of attention as they are known for their negative effect on human health as well as for their phytotoxity being a cause for forest decline. Moreover, nitrophenols have the ability to absorb light in the range of near ultra violet to visible light, thus they are also contributing to the so-called brown carbon. Most of the available methods for determining nitrophenols in particulate matter are using organic solvents for extraction. Those methods are not applicable if one wants to focus only on the water-soluble fraction. Therefore, a method using a three-phase hollow fibre liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) was developed to enrich nine nitrophenolic compounds (2-Nitrophenol, 3-Nitrophenol, 4-Nitrophenol, 2-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 3-Methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4-Nitrocatechol, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 3,4-Dinitrophenol) from aqueous extracts of atmospheric particles. Analysis was performed by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The background electrolyte composition was optimised to a 20 mM ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.7 containing 15% methanol (v/v). Persistent peak tailing during electrophoretic separation was observed for 4-Nitrocatechol. Flushing the capillary with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prior sample injection strongly improved the peak shape. Four extraction parameters (composition of organic liquid membrane, pH of acceptor phase, salting out effect, extraction time) and their effect on the analyte recoveries were examined. The HF-LPME consisted of 1.8 mL sample solution kept at pH 2 as donor phase and 15 µl 100 mM aqueous ammonia solution as acceptor phase inserted into a hollow fibre. Dihexyl ether was used to form a supported liquid membrane inside the pores of the hollow fibre. As a result low detection limits in the range of nmol L-1 were achieved and the developed method was found to be competitive

  3. Simulation of Rate-Related (Dead-Time) Losses In Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.G.; Norman, P.I.; Leadbeater, T.W.; Croft, S.; Philips, S.

    2008-07-01

    Passive Neutron Multiplicity Counting (PNMC) based on Multiplicity Shift Register (MSR) electronics (a form of time correlation analysis) is a widely used non-destructive assay technique for quantifying spontaneously fissile materials such as Pu. At high event rates, dead-time losses perturb the count rates with the Singles, Doubles and Triples being increasingly affected. Without correction these perturbations are a major source of inaccuracy in the measured count rates and assay values derived from them. This paper presents the simulation of dead-time losses and investigates the effect of applying different dead-time models on the observed MSR data. Monte Carlo methods have been used to simulate neutron pulse trains for a variety of source intensities and with ideal detection geometry, providing an event by event record of the time distribution of neutron captures within the detection system. The action of the MSR electronics was modelled in software to analyse these pulse trains. Stored pulse trains were perturbed in software to apply the effects of dead-time according to the chosen physical process; for example, the ideal paralysable (extending) and non-paralysable models with an arbitrary dead-time parameter. Results of the simulations demonstrate the change in the observed MSR data when the system dead-time parameter is varied. In addition, the paralysable and non-paralysable models of deadtime are compared. These results form part of a larger study to evaluate existing dead-time corrections and to extend their application to correlated sources. (authors)