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Sample records for 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl

  1. 3-Methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), enhanced differentiation in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Trosko, James E; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-05-14

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic properties. The phytochemical extract from the fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon was purified via a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, which was based on the induction of differentiation in a RCM-1 human colon cancer cell line. On the criteria of two differentiation markers (duct formation and alkaline phosphatase activity), the most potent fraction contained a compound identified as 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, based on GC retention time, EI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. Previously, the role of 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester was considered as an odor producing compound in many fruits, but this study indicates potential medical benefits of this compound. PMID:18426216

  2. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0–8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  3. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus.

    PubMed

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-04-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0-8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  4. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  9. Fatty acid ethyl esters: current facts and speculations.

    PubMed

    Laposata, M

    1999-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) play a role in ethanol-induced organ damage and may serve as long-term markers of ethanol intake. This report summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicity of FAEE, the enzymes associated with FAEE synthesis, FAEE as fatty acid supplements, the in vivo degradation of orally ingested FAEE and FAEE as markers of ethanol intake. A list of major unanswered questions in each of these categories is also included.

  10. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  11. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  6. Examination of sex differences in fatty acid ethyl ester and ethyl glucuronide hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Joey; Rao, Chitra; Koren, Gideon

    2014-06-01

    Clinical studies examining performance of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in identifying excessive alcohol consumption have been primarily conducted in male populations. An impact of hair cosmetics in producing both false-negative EtG results and false-positive FAEE results has been demonstrated, suggesting a possible bias in female populations. This study evaluates FAEE-positive hair samples (>0.50 ng/mg) from n = 199 female and n = 73 male subjects for EtG. Higher FAEE/EtG concordance was observed amongst male over female subjects. Performance of multiple proposed EtG cut-off levels were assessed; amongst female samples, FAEE/EtG concordance was 36.2% (30 pg/mg), 36.7% (27 pg/mg), and 43.7% (20 pg/mg). Non-coloured hair demonstrated a two-fold increase in concordance (41.8 v. 20.8%) over coloured hair in the female cohort. FAEE levels did not differ between male and female subjects; however they were lower in coloured samples (p = 0.046). EtG was lower in female subjects (p = 0.019) and coloured samples (p = 0.026). A total of n = 111 female samples were discordant. Amongst discordant samples (EtG-negative), 26% had evidence of recent alcohol use including consultation histories (n = 20) and detectable cocaethylene (n = 9); 29% of discordant samples were coloured. False-negative risk with ethyl glucuronide analysis in females was mediated by cosmetic colouring. These findings suggest that combined analysis of FAEE and EtG is optimal when assessing a female population and an EtG cut-off of 20 pg/mg is warranted when using combined analysis. While concordant FAEE/EtG-positive findings constitute clear evidence, discordant FAEE/EtG findings should still be considered suggestive evidence of chronic excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24817046

  7. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters.

  8. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  9. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  12. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  16. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  17. Oxidase-peroxidase enzymes of Datura innoxia. Oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanaraman, V S; Mahadevan, S; Kumar, S A

    1975-01-01

    An enzyme system from Datura innoxia roots oxidizing formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was purified 38-fold by conventional methods such as (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, negative adsorption on alumina Cy gel and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme was shown to catalyse the stoicheiometric oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester to benzoylformic acid ethyl ester and formic acid, utilizing molecular O2. Substrate analogues such as phenylacetaldehyde and phenylpyruvate were oxidized at a very low rate, and formylphenylacetonitrile was an inhilating agents, cyanide, thiol compounds and ascorbic acid. This enzyme was identical with an oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme. Another oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme which separated on DEAE-chromatography also showed formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester oxidase activity, albeit to a lesser extent. The properties of the two isoenzymes of the oxidase were compared and shown to differ in their oxidation and peroxidation properties. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was also catalysed by horseradish peroxidase. The Datura isoenzymes exhibited typical haemoprotein spectra. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was different from other peroxidase-catalysed reactions in not being activated by either Mn2+ or monophenols. The oxidation was inhibited by several mono- and poly-phenols and by catalase. A reaction mechanism for the oxidation is proposed. PMID:997

  18. Effect of ethyl esterification of phenolic acids on low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chalas, J; Claise, C; Edeas, M; Messaoudi, C; Vergnes, L; Abella, A; Lindenbaum, A

    2001-02-01

    Inhibition of copper-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by phenolic acids and their ethyl esters was investigated. LDL oxidation was evaluated by the hydroperoxide concentration and the chromatographic pattern of apoprotein fractions after fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Antiradical properties against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) were also investigated, and lipophilicity determined by thin-layer chromatography. Caffeic acid at 5 microM and sinapic acid at 10 microM protected LDL against oxidation, inhibiting both hydroperoxide formation and the increase of apoprotein negative charge. Ferulic, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic acids were ineffective. Ethyl esterification increased the lipophilicity of the five acids, and enhanced the antioxidant properties of caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids. Ethyl caffeate was protective at 1 microM. In contrast, gallic and p-hydroxy cinnamic ethyl esters were ineffective. Our results indicate that ethyl esterification of phenolic acids increases lipophilicity of their ethyl esters and may enable a better incorporation into the lipid layer of the LDL particle and the exertion of their antioxidant effect in the true site of lipoperoxidation. However, increasing lipophilicity is not the only mechanism able to potentiate preexisting antioxidant properties of molecules, and probably other mechanisms are implicated.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  8. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate.

  9. Effects of switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in a statin-treated patient with elevated triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Anurag W; Lynch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In patients with dyslipidemia, elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, or TG-rich lipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk may remain despite statin therapy. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing the ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (omega-3-acid ethyl esters; Lovaza®) or high-purity EPA ethyl ester (icosapent ethyl; Vascepa®) are TG-lowering treatments that may be administered in addition to statins. Here we describe the effects of switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters to icosapent ethyl in a 44-year-old obese man with dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The patient was receiving stable treatment with medications, including atorvastatin 40 mg/day and extended-release niacin 1000 mg/day. Owing to persistently elevated TG levels and other cardiovascular risk factors, the patient was initiated on omega-3-acid ethyl esters 4 g/day. After approximately 2 years on omega-3-acid ethyl esters, his total cholesterol (TC) level was 184 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was 81 mg/dL, TG level was elevated at 307 mg/dL despite statin therapy, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level was 144 mg/dL. After the switch to icosapent ethyl, TC level decreased by 34% to 121 mg/dL, LDL-C level decreased by 28% to 58 mg/dL, TG level decreased by 41% to 180 mg/dL, and non-HDL-C level decreased by 44% to 81 mg/dL. Switching from omega-3-acid ethyl esters containing both EPA and DHA to icosapent ethyl containing high-purity EPA resulted in beneficial and substantial changes in the lipid profile with a notable reduction of TG levels along with additional reductions in LDL-C levels in a statin-treated obese patient with persistently high TG levels. Treatment with icosapent ethyl was well tolerated. PMID:26453247

  10. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  11. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes. PMID:9435117

  12. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-04-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics.

  13. Medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters - activation of antimicrobial effects by Malassezia enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mayser, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Free medium and short chain fatty acids are known to have broad antimicrobial activity. However, their practical use in topical therapy is limited by their intensive smell and acidity. Surprisingly, a nearly identical antimicrobial effect was found with the ethyl ester derivatives of these fatty acids, but only against Malassezia (M.) yeast, not against Candida spp. Obviously, these esters are hydrolysed by M. enzymes, thus generating a selective activation of antimicrobial activity especially in areas well populated with these yeast ('targeting'). Octanoic acid ethyl ester (CAS 106-32-1) was found to be most suitable. In an agar dilution test, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against M. globosa, M. pachydermatis and M. sympodialis, respectively, ranged between ~5 and 10 mmol l(-1) after 10 days of incubation. The effect started immediately and was not delayed by other lipid sources applied simultaneously. Based on these data, fatty acid monoesters may represent a new therapeutic concept in M.-associated diseases. PMID:25676074

  14. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  15. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  16. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  17. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters by utilizing camellia oil soapstocks and diethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Xuejun

    2011-11-01

    This study was reported on a novel process for fatty acid ethyl esters preparation by transesterification and esterification from renewable low-cost feedstock camellia oil soapstocks and friendly acyl acceptor diethyl carbonate. The main components of product were 83.9% ethyl oleate, 8.9% ethyl palmitate, 4.7% ethyl linoleate and 2.1% ethyl stearate, which could be used as eco-friendly renewable resources or additives of industrial solvent and fossil fuel. The effects of molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil, lipases, organic solvent, reaction temperature and time were investigated, and process conditions were optimized. The yield was up to 98.4% in solvent-free system with molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil 3:1 and 5% Novozym 435 (based on the weight of soapstocks oil) at 50 °C and 180 rpm for 24 h. Moreover, there was no obvious loss in the yield after lipases were reused for 10 batches without treatment under optimized conditions.

  19. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  20. Oxidative decarboxylation of mandelic acid derivative by recombinant Escherichia coli: a novel method of ethyl vanillin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Xia; Li, Jing-Jing; Wang, Mei-Gui; He, Wen-Sen; Jia, Cheng-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Biao; Li, Da-Li; Zeng, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    The benzoylformate decarboxylase gene (mdlC) from Pseudomonas putida was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant strain together with E. coli/pET30a-mdlB converted (S)-3-ethoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (S-EMA) into ethyl vanillin without ethyl vanillin degradation. 4 g ethyl vanillin/l was obtained from 10 g EMA/l within 12 h at 30 °C. This is the first report on the biotransformation of (S)-EMA to ethyl vanillin.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  3. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  4. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  5. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  7. Bis(tetra-ethyl-ammonium) bis-(hydrogen l-tartrate) l-tartaric acid monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, M; Indirajith, R; Gopalakrishnan, R; Ramamurthi, K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2011-06-01

    In the title compound, 2C(8)H(20)N(+)·2C(4)H(5)O(6) (-)·C(4)H(6)O(6)·H(2)O, the presence of the two tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations is balanced by two hydrogen l-tartrate anions. Also present in the asymmetric unit are a mol-ecule of l-tartaric acid and a water mol-ecule. The various components are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, two-dimensional networks are formed via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O inter-actions involving the water mol-ecule, the hydrogen l-tartrate anions and the l-tartaric acid mol-ecules. These layers, which stack along [001], are separated by tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations. The latter are also involved in C-H⋯O inter-actions with the anions and the l-tartaric acid and water mol-ecules participating in the two-dimensional network.

  8. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  9. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Burger, Pascal; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Reulbach, Udo; Bleich, Stefan; Hastedt, Martin; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated headspace solid phase microextraction method in combination with GC-MS was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 500 ng/g was applied for interpretation. A new and simple method was developed and validated for quantification of EtG from 10-20 mg meconium with D(5)-EtG as internal standard consisting of 30 min. extraction with methanol/water (1:1, v/v), evaporation of methanol, filtration of the aqueous solution through a cellulose filter and injection into LC-MS-MS. The limits of detection and quantification for EtG were 10 and 30 ng/g, the recovery 86.6 to 106.4% and the standard deviation of the concentrations ranged from 13% at 37 ng/g to 5% at 46,700 ng/g (N = 6). FAEE above the cut-off were found in 43 cases (7.1%) with cumulative concentrations between 507 and 22,580 ng/g and with one outlier of about 150,000 ng/g (EtG not detected). EtG was detected in 97 cases (16.3%) and concentrations between LOD and 10,200 ng/g with another outlier of 82,000 ng/g (FAEE 10,500 ng/g). Optimal agreement between the two markers was obtained with a cut-off for EtG of 274 ng/g and 547 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-negative, 33 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-positive, nine cases with FAEE-positive and EtG-negative, and seven cases with FAEE-negative and EtG-positive. Differences in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties and in the pharmacokinetic behavior are discussed as reasons for the deviating cases. In none of the 602 cases, serious alcohol consumption was reported by the mothers and no evidence for gestational ethanol exposure was observed in the medical investigation of the newborns. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG in meconium as markers for fetal

  10. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  11. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined.

  12. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined. PMID:10231172

  13. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  14. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  16. [Degradation of urea and ethyl carbamate in Chinese Rice wine by recombinant acid urease].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianli; Kang, Zhen; Liu, Qingtao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.

  17. [Degradation of urea and ethyl carbamate in Chinese Rice wine by recombinant acid urease].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianli; Kang, Zhen; Liu, Qingtao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important eliminate urea that is the precursors of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed degraded urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease also has degradation catalytic activity on EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.7147 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC. PMID:27363200

  18. Rationale for prescription omega-3-acid ethyl ester therapy for hypertriglyceridemia: a primer for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2008-03-01

    Very high triglyceride (TG) levels may cause pancreatitis. Elevated TG levels are also often, but not always, a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the oil of fish and other seafood that, when consumed, lower TG levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Prescription omega-3-acid (P-OM3) ethyl ester is a fish oil formulation that has undergone the rigorous regulatory steps required to obtain US Food and Drug Administration approval as a prescription drug. P-OM3 is derived from marine fish, which are high in omega-3 fatty acids. While omega-3 fatty acids may sometimes increase low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels are often decreased. This has clinical significance because: 1) non-HDL-C sums the cholesterol carried by atherogenic lipoproteins beyond that of LDL-C alone; 2) non-HDL-C is a better predictor of atherogenic risk compared to LDL-C alone; and 3) after LDL-C treatment goals have been reached, non-HDL-C is a recommended secondary lipid treatment target in patients with persistent TG > or = 200 mg/dl. This paper reviews the U.S. treatment indications for P-OM3, clinical evaluation of hypertriglyceridemic patients, importance of elevated TG levels, relevant TG biochemistry and metabolism, illustrative genetic dyslipidemias, lipid treatment recommendations, fat and fatty acid biochemistry, omega-3 fatty acid biochemistry, and the basis behind recommending omega-3 fatty acids to reduce cardiovascular risk. Finally, this review examines P-OM3's lipid and cardiovascular effects, safety, and tolerability, as well as its practical role in patient management. PMID:18536782

  19. A novel collector 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifeng; Zhong, Hong; Tang, Qing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel collector, 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. The flotation performance and adsorption mechanism of EHHA to ilmenite were investigated by micro-flotation tests, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, FTIR spectra, zeta potential and solution chemistry analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that EHHA exhibited superior flotation performance compared to isooctyl hydroximic acid (IOHA) and octyl hydroxamic acid (OHA), and floated out 84.03% ilmenite at pH 8.0 with 250 mg/L dosage. The analyses of FTIR spectra and zeta potential demonstrated that EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. The solution chemistry analyses further inferred that at pH 6.3-10.5, both Fe and Ti species on ilmenite surfaces could chelate EHHA. DFT calculation results implied EHHA owned the strongest affinity to ilmenite among the three C8 hydroximic acids. To discern the sharply improving floatability of ilmenite at pH 8-10, a schematic co-adsorption molecule-ion model of EHHA on ilmenite surfaces was suggested.

  20. Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the treatment of very high triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Richard; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2009-07-01

    Triglyceride (TG) levels can increase for numerous reasons, including a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet, especially one rich in refined carbohydrates, and comorbidities. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the normal TG level is < 150 mg/dL. Patients with very high TG (VHTG) levels (> or = 500 mg/dL) should be promptly managed and treated to reach lipid treatment goals, as determined by the NCEP. Lowering TG levels is the primary management goal in these patients, while lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are secondary goals. Therapeutic lifestyle changes are often recommended initially for patients with elevated TGs; however, concomitant drug therapy is often required. Data show that intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can significantly decrease serum TGs, along with plasma concentrations of certain lipoproteins. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are available by prescription or as dietary supplements. Clinical trials in adult patients with VHTGs show that four 1 g capsules of prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which contain 465 mg of EPA and 375 mg of DHA per capsule, can effectively decrease TG levels by up to 45%, and is generally well tolerated. PMID:19641280

  1. Method for the purification of bis (2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1974-02-19

    Foreign products including the neutral organophosphorous compounds and the iron salts normally present in commercial bis(2ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid(HDEHP), and the radiolytic degradation products of HDEHP on exposure of HDEHP to beta and gamma irradiation are removed from HDEHP containing one or more of such products by contacting the said foreign product containing HDEHP with a macroreticular anion exchange resin in base form whereby the DEHP- ion of HDEHP exchanges with the anion of the resin and is thus adsorbed on the resin and the said foreign products are not adsorbed and will pass through a bed of particles of the resin. The adsorbed DEHP- ion is then eluted from the resin and acidified to form and recover the purified HDEHP. (auth)

  2. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  3. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Nipecotic acid ethyl ester: a cholinergic agonist that may differentiate muscarinic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, S.H.; Duman, R.S.; Enna, S.J.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.; Micheletti, R.; Giraldo, E.; Giachetti, A.

    1986-03-05

    Reports indicate that nipecotic acid ethyl ester (NAEE) displays cholinomimetic properties in vivo. In the present study a series of physiological and biochemical tests were conducted to characterize this action. NAEE had a negative inotropic effect on the guinea pig atrium, and stimulated contraction of the guinea pig ileum and isolated mouse stomach strip at concentrations similar to bethanechol (BCH). The atrial and ilial effects were reversed by atropine. Unlike BCH, NAEE had no effect on basal acid secretion in the isolated mouse stomach at concentrations < 100 ..mu..M. NAEE was more potent than carbachol (CCH) in displacing /sup 3/H-ONB binding from rat brain membranes. The potency of NAEE to inhibit antagonist binding in rat heart membranes was enhanced by Mg/sup + +/ (Hill coefficient < 1.0) and reduced by Gpp(NH)p. Like CCH, NAEE inhibited GTP-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat brain striatal membranes. As compared to CCH, NAEE had little effect (< 5%) as a stimulator of inositol phosphate (IP) production in rat brain slices. The results indicate that NAEE is a direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonist. Moreover, its differential effects on acid secretion, IP accumulation, and adenylate cyclase suggest that it may be useful for defining cholinergic receptor subclasses.

  9. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  12. Effects of the addition of dimer acid alkyl esters on the properties of ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we synthesized dimer acid (DA) esters, having short to long alkyl chains, (DA-Cn) by the Diels-Alder reaction and subsequent esterification reaction of fatty acids that were prepared by the hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil. It was found that the DA-Cn were thermally more stable than common petroleum-based plasticizer DOP. When the DOP, DA, or DA-Cn with short alkyl chains were added to ethyl cellulose (EC), the optical clarity and SEM images of the samples showed their good miscibility with those additives in a micro-scale. It was also found that the rubbery modulus of the EC decreased with increasing amount of additives; the type of the additives did not affect the rates of the decrease in the rubbery modulus. The main transition temperatures of the EC containing either DA or DA-C1 or DA-C4 decreased with increasing amounts of those additives and were comparable to that of the DOP-containing EC. The above findings suggested that the DA and its esters with short alkyl chains could act as effective plasticizer and, thus, could be used instead of the DOP. In addition, the results obtained from tensile testing and leaching experiments implied that the DA might be better plasticizer than the DA-C1 and DA-C4, at least in some cases, because of hydrogen-bonding with the EC.

  13. Thermal tolerance and survival of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    The thermal tolerance Cronobacter sakazakii was examined in sterile powdered infant formula (PIF) rehydrated at 58 °C in water or apple juice supplemented with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid. All three compounds decreased thermal tolerance during-rehydration and the lowest decimal reduction time (D-value, 0.19 ± 0.01 min) was measured in PIF rehydrated in apple juice supplemented with 20 mM vanillic acid. At this level of supplementation no C. sakazakii were detected in PIF stored for 48 h at 10 and 24 h at 21 °C subsequent to a sublethal heat treatment. Thermal tolerance during rehydration and survival in reconstituted PIF were influenced by compound type, concentration, and temperature. Supplementation of PIF with vanillin, ethyl vanillin, or vanillic acid could enhance the safety of PIF or other dehydrated foods contaminated with C. sakazakii.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: an emphasis on omega-3-acid ethyl esters 90 for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    A number of epidemiological/observational studies, as well as large-scale randomized intervention studies, have been conducted to provide evidence for the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acids against atherosclerotic diseases. Currently, ω-3 fatty acids are commercially available in many parts of the world containing the same active ingredients as Lotriga(®) (ω-3-acid ethyl esters 90 [O3AE highly concentrated ω-3 fatty acid ethyl esters, consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid-ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid-ethyl ester [EPA-E/DHA-E]). A recent head-to-head comparative study of O3AEE90 versus EPA-E demonstrated that O3AEE90 4g/day led to a significantly greater reduction in triglycerides (TG) than EPA-E 1.8g/day and that O3AEE90 2g/day produced comparable effects on TG to those with EPA-E 1.8g/day. While both agents were shown to be useful in lowering TG, the hallmark feature of O3AEE90, that is, the presence of the DHA-E component versus its absence in EPA-E, needs to be further examined for its clinical implications.

  15. A new pure ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia: the MARINE trial.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Terry A

    2012-06-01

    ω-3 fatty acids reduce triglyceride (TG) levels, but corresponding increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels may compromise achievement of lipid goals in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. AMR101 is an investigational agent containing ≥96% of pure icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid). The Phase III Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, 12-Week Study with an Open-Label Extension (MARINE) investigated the efficacy and safety of AMR101 in 229 patients with very high TG levels (≥500 mg/dl). AMR101 4 g/day significantly reduced median placebo-adjusted TG levels from baseline by 33.1% (p < 0.0001), and AMR101 2 g/day reduced TG levels by 19.7% (p = 0.0051). Changes in LDL-C were minimal and nonsignificant. AMR101 may offer substantial TG lowering without increases in LDL-C levels. PMID:22894624

  16. Simulated moving bed chromatography for the separation of ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under nonlinear conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Bao, Zongbi; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2015-12-18

    In this study, ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were separated with simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography, where the stationary phase was C18 silica gel with particle size of 10μm packed in eight columns, and the mobile phase was pure methanol. The Henry constants, transport parameters and total porosity were measured from pulse response chromatographic experiments using a single column. The Henry constants were obtained from the first moment analysis. The transport parameters including axial dispersion coefficients and effective mass transfer coefficients were obtained from the second moment analysis. Nonlinear adsorption equilibrium isotherms for the pure components and their mixture were determined from adsorption-desorption method. The Langmuir model was used to fit the experimental data, and the corresponding parameters were further used to predict the competitive adsorption equilibria of the mixture. The validity of mathematical model parameters was checked by a frontal chromatography experiment. The simulated results of the SMB process using these parameters agreed well with the experimental results. At the feed concentration of 100g/L, the SMB separation was able to produce both solutes with relative purity above 99%, productivity of 13.11g/L adsorbent/h, and solvent consumption of 0.46L/g. PMID:26620595

  17. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  18. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  19. Effect of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid on the growth and heat resistance of Cronobacter species.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Gökçe Polat; Pagotto, Franco; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2011-12-01

    Preservatives could be part of an effective intervention strategy for the control of Cronobacter species in foods, but few compounds with the desired antimicrobial properties have been identified to date. We examined the antibacterial activity of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid against seven Cronobacter spp. in quarter-strength tryptic soy broth with 5 g/liter yeast extract (TSBYE) adjusted to pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 at 10, 21, and 37°C. All compounds exhibited pH- and temperature-dependant bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. MICs of vanillin and ethyl vanillin consistently increased with decreasing pH and temperature, but vanillic acid had little activity at pH values of 6.0 and 7.0. The MICs for all temperatures, pH values, and bacterial strains tested were 2 mg/ml ethyl vanillin, 3 mg/ml vanillin, and >8 mg/ml vanillic acid. MBCs also were influenced by pH, although significantly higher concentrations were needed to inactivate the bacteria at 21°C than at 10 or 37°C. Survivor curves for Cronobacter sakazakii strains at the MBCs of each compound revealed that all treatments resulted in immediate loss of cell viability at 37°C. Measurements of propidium iodide uptake indicated that the cell membranes were damaged by exposure to all three compounds. The thermal resistance of C. sakazakii was examined at 58°C in TSBYE supplemented with MBCs of each compound at pH 5.0 and 6.0. D-values at pH 5.0 were reduced from 14.56 ± 0.60 min to 0.93 ± 0.01, 0.63 ± 0.01, and 0.98 ± 0.02 min for vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid, respectively. These results suggest that vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and vanillic acid may be useful for the control of Cronobacter spp. in food during preparation and storage.

  20. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  5. Yarrowia lipolytica lipase Lip2: an efficient enzyme for the production of concentrates of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Meunchan, Muchalin; Cot, Marlène; Duquesne, Sophie; Bordes, Florence; Marty, Alain

    2014-06-20

    The production of Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) rich in cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was studied using lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of a mixture of ethyl esters from tuna oil. Lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica (YLL2), Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Candida rugosa (CRL1, CRL3 and CRL4) were tested. C. rugosa lipases discriminated esters on the basis of their chain length, with less affinity for γ-linolenate, 11-eicosenoate, arachidonate, EPA, DPA and DHA ethyl esters. However, YLL2 and TLL improved discrimination towards DHA, as enzyme selectivity was shown to be mainly based on the position of the double bond closest to the carboxylic group. From the point of view of kinetics, purity and yield, YLL2 was the most effective lipase for DHA purification. Using this enzyme in an open reactor process resulted in the highest concentrations of DHA ethyl ester (77%) and ω-3 esters (81%) with a recovery of 94% and 77% respectively. PMID:24657346

  6. Switching from EPA + DHA (Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters) to High-Purity EPA (Icosapent Ethyl) in a Statin-Treated Patient with Persistent Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day. Approximately 28 months after switching to icosapent ethyl, her LDL-C decreased by 69% to 52 mg/dL, triglycerides decreased by 35% to 119 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased by 63% to 76 mg/dL, total cholesterol decreased by 44% to 137 mg/dL, and HDL-C increased by 45% to 61 mg/dL. Total and small dense LDL particle concentrations decreased by 60 and 59%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, with improvements maintained over two years. PMID:27478390

  7. Switching from EPA + DHA (Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters) to High-Purity EPA (Icosapent Ethyl) in a Statin-Treated Patient with Persistent Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Crandell, James R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day. Approximately 28 months after switching to icosapent ethyl, her LDL-C decreased by 69% to 52 mg/dL, triglycerides decreased by 35% to 119 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased by 63% to 76 mg/dL, total cholesterol decreased by 44% to 137 mg/dL, and HDL-C increased by 45% to 61 mg/dL. Total and small dense LDL particle concentrations decreased by 60 and 59%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, with improvements maintained over two years. PMID:27478390

  8. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  9. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  11. Miscibility and in vitro osteocompatibility of biodegradable blends of poly[(ethyl alanato) (p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] and poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Jiang, Tao; Krogman, Nicholas R.; Singh, Anurima; Allcock, Harry R.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2007-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the ability of ethyl glycinato substituted polyphosphazenes to neutralize the acidic degradation products and control the degradation rate of poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) by blending. In this study, blends of high strength poly[(50% ethyl alanato) (50% p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] (PNEA50PhPh50) and 85:15 poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) were prepared using a mutual solvent approach. Three different solvents, methylene chloride (MC), chloroform (CF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were studied to investigate solvent effects on blend miscibility. Three different blends were then fabricated at various weight ratios namely 25:75 (BLEND25), 50:50 (BLEND50), and 75:25 (BLEND75) using THF as the mutual solvent. The miscibility of the blends was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Among these, BLEND25 was miscible while BLEND50 and BLEND75 were partially miscible. Furthermore, BLEND25 formed apatite layers on its surface as evidenced in a biomimetic study performed. These novel blends showed cell adhesion and proliferation comparable to PLAGA. However, the PNEA50PhPh50 component in the blends was able to increase the phenotypic expression and mineralized matrix synthesis of the primary rat osteoblasts (PRO) in vitro. Blends of high strength poly[(50% ethyl alanato) (50% p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] (PNEA50PhPh50) and 85:15 poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are promising biomaterials for a variety of musculoskeletal applications. PMID:17942150

  12. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  13. Polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquids with acidic counteranion (DMRImH 2PO 4, R = ethyl, butyl and octyl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Sekhon, S. S.

    2006-07-01

    Ionic liquids with acidic counteranion and having composition: 2,3-dimethyl-1-alkylimidazolium dihydrogenphosphate (DMRImH 2PO 4, R = ethyl, butyl, octyl) have been prepared and the effect of alkyl (R) sidechain length on the conductivity and viscosity behavior has been studied. DMEtImH 2PO 4 with highest conductivity (0.07 S/cm at 120 °C) has been incorporated in polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) to obtain polymer electrolytes in the membrane form. The conductivity of membranes has been found to depend upon the concentration of ionic liquid, phosphoric acid and temperature. Polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids are thermally stable up to 225 °C and can be used as high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  14. Catalysis of the hydrolysis of ethyl mandelate and esterification of alpha-bromopropionic acid by lipase in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Liu, J; Li, Z

    1993-01-01

    Candida cyclindracea lipase (CCL) was added to "sodium dodecyl sulfonate (AS)/n-butanol/n-octane/n-octane" water-in-oil microemulsion to catalyze the hydrolysis of ethyl mandelate and the esterification of alpha-bromopropionic acid with n-butanol, respectively. The catalytic activity of CCL in the above microemulsions was higher than that in the traditional oil/water biphasic systems. After hydrolysis for 48 h, the conversion rate of the reaction reached 90% and S-mandelic acid, [alpha]D20-149.8 (C10; H2O), optical purity ca. 97%, was isolated. While after esterification for 6 h, the conversion rate of the reaction reached 45%, and butyl-(R)-alpha-bromopropionate, [alpha]D20 18.2 (Cl; CHCl3), optical purity ca. 99%, was obtained.

  15. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  16. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  17. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  18. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  19. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  20. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.001) within the 1st to 5th hours at 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg, po inhibited leukocyte migration into air pouch model (p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) increased total thiol concentration and decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations, NO, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. In the CFA-induced arthritis, FAEE 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the edema and the elevation paw time, a joint disability parameter, since second hour after arthritis induction (p < 0.001). FAEE presented rat joint protective activity in radiographic records (p < 0.001). The data suggest that the FAEE exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Two-step synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from soybean oil catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica lipase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step catalysis of soybean oil, hydrolysis followed by esterification, with Yarrowia lipolytica lipase is reported in this paper. Results First, soybean oil was hydrolyzed at 40°C by 100 U of lipase broth per 1 g of oil with approximately 30% to 60% (vol/vol) water. The free fatty acid (FFA) distilled from this hydrolysis mixture was used for the esterification of FFA to fatty acid ethyl ester by immobilized lipase. A mixture of 2.82 g of FFA and equimolar ethanol (addition in three steps) were shaken at 30°C with 18 U of lipase per 1 gram of FFA. The degree of esterification reached 85% after 3 hours. The lipase membranes were taken out, dehydrated and subjected to fresh esterification so that over 82% of esterification was maintained, even though the esterification was repeated every 3 hours for 25 batches. Conclusion The two-step enzymatic process without glycerol released and solvent-free demonstrated higher efficiency and safety than enzymatic transesterification, which seems very promising for lipase-catalyzed, large-scale production of biodiesel, especially from high acid value waste oil. PMID:21366905

  2. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, ... and ticlopidine (Ticlid); aspirin or aspirin-containing products; beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol ( ...

  3. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  4. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 180.217 - Ammoniates for [ethylenebis-(dithiocarbamato)] zinc and ethyl-enebis [dithiocarbamic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammoniates for zinc and ethyl-enebis... for zinc and ethyl-enebis bimolecular and trimolecular cyclic anhydrosulfides and disulfides... mixture of 5.2 parts by weight of ammoniates of zinc with 1 part by weight ethylenebis bimolecular...

  16. Corrosion Mitigation of Copper in Acidic Chloride Pickling Solutions by 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2010-08-01

    Corrosion of copper in acidic chloride pickling solutions of 0.5 M HCl and its mitigation by 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AETDA) have been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight-loss measurements. The study was also complemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy investigations. The presence of AETDA and the increase of its concentration in the chloride solutions greatly decreased the corrosion rate and increased the surface and polarization resistances of copper as indicated by the electrochemical measurements. Weight-loss data also indicated that AETDA decreases the dissolution of copper coupons in the studied chloride solution. SEM/EDX investigations showed that AETDA molecules are strongly adsorbed onto copper surface. The UV-Visible absorption spectra confirmed that AETDA molecules suppress the corrosion of copper via their interactions with the copper surface via their adsorption then formation of AETDA-Cu complex.

  17. Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters in mammalian tissues after ethanol exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Matlow, Jeremy N; Natekar, Aniket; Koren, Gideon

    2013-08-01

    The ability to undergo non-oxidative metabolism from ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) varies greatly among tissues and organs. To gain a greater understanding of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism to FAEE, we aimed to collect all published data on FAEE synthesis in mammalian organs and tissues to identify all tissues, organs, and enzymes that are known to, or likely possess FAEE-synthetic activity. A systematic search for relevant papers was performed and two independent reviewers examined potentially relevant abstracts (articles on FAEEs that pertain to ethanol exposure) to determine whether they met the inclusion criteria. Information on FAEE synthesis was retrieved from papers meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria and summarized by organ/tissue/matrix examined. The systematic search through four databases yielded 78 articles that investigated FAEE synthesis by tissues, tissue fractions and cell lines, and 29 articles that attempted to purify and/or characterize the enzymes involved in FAEE synthesis. Two enzyme activities have been studied: FAEE synthase (FAEES, which conjugates ethanol and free fatty acid) and acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT, which conjugates ethanol and fatty acyl-CoA). Both activities are expressed by a variety of different enzymes. FAEES activity is the most widely studied and has been purified from several tissues and shown to be associated with several well-known enzymes, while the identity of enzymes possessing AEAT activity remains unknown. The organs and tissues that have been shown to synthesize FAEEs are discussed, with special emphasis on the studies that attempted to elucidate the enzymology of FAEE synthesis in those tissues.

  18. Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters in mammalian tissues after ethanol exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Matlow, Jeremy N; Natekar, Aniket; Koren, Gideon

    2013-08-01

    The ability to undergo non-oxidative metabolism from ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) varies greatly among tissues and organs. To gain a greater understanding of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism to FAEE, we aimed to collect all published data on FAEE synthesis in mammalian organs and tissues to identify all tissues, organs, and enzymes that are known to, or likely possess FAEE-synthetic activity. A systematic search for relevant papers was performed and two independent reviewers examined potentially relevant abstracts (articles on FAEEs that pertain to ethanol exposure) to determine whether they met the inclusion criteria. Information on FAEE synthesis was retrieved from papers meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria and summarized by organ/tissue/matrix examined. The systematic search through four databases yielded 78 articles that investigated FAEE synthesis by tissues, tissue fractions and cell lines, and 29 articles that attempted to purify and/or characterize the enzymes involved in FAEE synthesis. Two enzyme activities have been studied: FAEE synthase (FAEES, which conjugates ethanol and free fatty acid) and acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT, which conjugates ethanol and fatty acyl-CoA). Both activities are expressed by a variety of different enzymes. FAEES activity is the most widely studied and has been purified from several tissues and shown to be associated with several well-known enzymes, while the identity of enzymes possessing AEAT activity remains unknown. The organs and tissues that have been shown to synthesize FAEEs are discussed, with special emphasis on the studies that attempted to elucidate the enzymology of FAEE synthesis in those tissues. PMID:23713893

  19. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  1. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  5. Effects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Dicklin, Mary R; Kaden, Valerie N; Schild, Arianne L; Rains, Tia M; Marshall, John W

    2011-04-01

    This double-blind, randomized crossover study investigated the effects of 6 weeks of treatment with prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (POM3, 4 g/day) versus placebo (soy oil) on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other aspects of the fasting lipid profile in 31 men and women with primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C 130-220 mg/dL and triglycerides less than 150 mg/dL while free of lipid-altering therapies). Mean ± standard error of the mean baseline concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were 229 ± 3, 146 ± 3, 60 ± 2, 23 ± 2, and 113 ± 8 mg/dL, respectively. POM3 produced a modest increase from baseline in LDL-C (3.4%) versus the placebo response (-0.7%, P = 0.010). Significant changes (P < 0.05) for POM3 (placebo-corrected) were observed for very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-18.8%), triglycerides (-18.7%), and HDL-C (3.3%). Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined very-low-density lipoprotein particle concentration and size and HDL particle concentration decreased significantly more with POM3 versus placebo, whereas LDL and HDL particle sizes increased significantly more with POM3 versus placebo. Total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins A1 and B, and LDL particle concentration responses did not differ between treatments. These results did not confirm the hypothesis that POM3 treatment would lower LDL-C in primary, isolated hypercholesterolemia. Effects on other variables were consistent with prior results in mixed dyslipidemia. PMID:21297494

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion in obese men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Annette T Y; Chan, Dick C; Ooi, Esther M M; Ng, Theodore W K; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2013-07-01

    Dysregulated VLDL-TAG (very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol) metabolism in obesity may account for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and increased cardiovascular disease. ω-3 FAEEs (omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters) decrease plasma TAG and VLDL concentrations, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we carried out a 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled study to examine the effect of high-dose ω-3 FAEE supplementation (3.2 g/day) on the metabolism of VLDL-TAG in obese men using intravenous administration of d5-glycerol. We also explored the relationship of VLDL-TAG kinetics with the metabolism of VLDL-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100 and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I. VLDL-TAG isotopic enrichment was measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were derived using a multicompartmental model. Compared with placebo, ω-3 FAEE supplementation significantly lowered plasma concentrations of total (-14%, P<0.05) and VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.05), as well as hepatic secretion of VLDL-TAG (-32%, P<0.03). The FCR (fractional catabolic rate) of VLDL-TAG was not altered by ω-3 FAEEs. There was a significant association between the change in secretion rates of VLDL-TAG and VLDL-apoB-100 (r=0.706, P<0.05). However, the change in VLDL-TAG secretion rate was not associated with change in HDL-apoA-I FCR (r=0.139, P>0.05). Our results suggest that the TAG-lowering effect of ω-3 FAEEs is associated with the decreased VLDL-TAG secretion rate and hence lower plasma VLDL-TAG concentration in obesity. The changes in VLDL-TAG and apoB-100 kinetics are closely coupled. PMID:23356247

  7. Engineering of chromosomal wax ester synthase integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for improved biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made to engineer robust microbes for overproducing biochemical products from renewable resources. These accomplishments have to a large extend been based on plasmid based methods. However, plasmid maintenance may cause a metabolic burden on the host cell and plasmid-based overexpression of genes can result in genetically unstable strains, which contributes to loss in productivity. Here, a chromosome engineering method based on delta integration was applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which can be directly used as biodiesel and would be a possible substitute for conventional petroleum-based diesel. An integration construct was designed and integrated into chromosomal delta sequences by repetitive transformation, which resulted in 1-6 copies of the integration construct per genome. The corresponding FAEE production increased up to 34 mg/L, which is an about sixfold increase compared to the equivalent plasmid-based producer. The integrated cassette in the yeast genome was stably maintained in nonselective medium after deletion of RAD52 which is essential for efficient homologous recombination. To obtain a further increase of FAEE production, genes encoding endogenous acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1) and a bacterial NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapN) were overexpressed in the final integration strain, which resulted in another 40% percent increase in FAEE production. Our integration strategy enables easy engineering of strains with adjustable gene copy numbers integrated into the genome and this allows for an easy evaluation of the effect of the gene copy number on pathway flux. It therefore represents a valuable tool for introducing and expressing a heterologous pathway in yeast. PMID:24752598

  8. Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Leonard, Brian E; Horrobin, David F

    2004-03-01

    Omega (n)-3 and n-6 fatty acids are important membrane components of neurons and immune cells, and related to psychiatric and inflammatory diseases. Increased ratio of n-6/n-3 in the blood has been reported in depressed patients and in students following stress exposure. The n-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA) suppresses inflammation and has antidepressant properties. Interleukin (IL)-1beta can stimulate corticosterone secretion, induce anxiety and stress-like behavior and inflammatory responses. This study was to evaluate the effect of diets enriched with coconut oil, ethyl-EPA and soybean oil on central IL-1beta induced stress and anxiety-like behavior, induced changes in the concentration of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and corticosterone and the release of IL-10. Groups of rats were fed with either 5% coconut oil (as control diet), 0.2% EPA with 4.8% coconut oil or 1% EPA with 4% coconut oil and 5% soybean oil for 7 weeks. The central administration of IL-1beta induced sickness, stress and anxiety-like behavior as indicated by a reduction in body weight, decreased time spent, and the number of entries, into the open arms of the elevated plus maze and decreased exploration and entry into the central zone of the "open field" apparatus. IL-1beta also increased PGE2 and corticosterone concentrations and decreased the release of IL-10 from leucocytes. Food enriched with ethyl-EPA but not soybean oil, significantly attenuated most of these changes. These results demonstrate that ethyl-EPA has anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects in rats.

  9. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Del Bravo, Ester; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Favretto, Donata

    2014-09-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. The performance of hair FAEEs as a biomarker that can discriminate null or moderate drinking from risky, excessive drinking was verified by evaluating the relationship between self-reported daily alcohol intake and FAEE concentration in hair. The study subjects were 160 healthy volunteers (52% female) that included teetotallers, moderate/social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).The estimated daily alcohol intake (EDAI) was assessed by a specific written questionnaire aimed at estimating the measure and the frequency of alcohol drinking and at excluding confounding factors. FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) were extracted from the hair matrix by overnight incubation in n-hexane/dimethylsulphoxide, purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring and Electron ionization (EI) mode, using pentadeuterated internal standards. Hair samples exhibited FAEE concentrations (expressed as the sum of the four esters, CFAEE ) ranging from 0.01 to 10.78 ng/mg (average 1.16 and median 0.60 ng/mg). The EDAI was from 0 to 246 g of ethanol per day, average 28 g/day and median 15 g/day. A cut-off of 0.5 ng/mg in 3 cm of a proximal hair segment was adopted to discriminate social drinking from excessive ethanol consumption. False positive samples were identified in subjects using ethanol-containing hair lotions and women on estroprogestin therapy. Specificity of 87% was reached when the identified false positives were excluded from data elaboration. CFAEE in hair at a predetermined cut-off can be used to discriminate between moderate and excessive drinking only when confounding factors are meticulously removed.

  10. Common and distinct gene expression patterns induced by the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pasquer, Frédérique; Ochsner, Urs; Zarn, Jürg; Keller, Beat

    2006-12-01

    In wheat, herbicides are used to control weeds. Little is known about the changes induced in the metabolism of tolerant plants after herbicide treatment. The impact of three herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl] on the wheat transcriptome was studied using cDNA microarrays. Gene expression of plants grown in a controlled environment or in the field was studied between 24 h and 2 weeks after treatment. Under controlled conditions, 2,4-D induced genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway soon after treatment. Cinidon-ethyl triggered peroxidase and defence-related gene expression under controlled conditions, probably because reactive oxygen species are released by photo-oxidation of protoporphyrin-IX. The same genes were upregulated in the field as under controlled conditions, albeit at a weaker level. These results show that cinidon-ethyl specifically induces genes involved in plant defence. Under controlled conditions, tribenuron-methyl did not change the expression profile immediately after treatment, but defence-related genes were upregulated after 1 week. Sulfonylurea compounds such as tribenuron-methyl specifically inhibit acetolactate synthase and are rapidly detoxified, but the activity of some of the resulting metabolites could explain later changes in gene expression. Finally, overexpression of the isopropylmalate synthase gene, involved in branched-chain amino acid synthesis, and of defence-related genes was observed in the field after sulfonylurea treatment. PMID:17054088

  11. Carrier transport and luminescence properties of nanocomposites of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] and dehydrated nanotubes titanic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Ran; Teng, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Xu, Xurong

    2007-12-01

    The carrier transport capability and luminescence efficiency of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) films are enhanced by doping with dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid (DNTA). MEH-PPV molecules, either wrapped on the outer surface of or encapsulated into DNTA pores, have a more open, straighter conformation than undoped molecules, which induces a longer conjugated backbone and stronger interchain interactions, thereby, enhancing carrier mobility. MEH-PPV molecules within DNTA pores have higher exciton recombination efficiency owing to quantum confinement and the antenna effect.

  12. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  13. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  14. Cytotoxicity of copper(II)-complexes with some S-alkyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid. Crystal structure of the binuclear copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Miloš V.; Mijajlović, Marina Ž.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Ratković, Zoran R.; Novaković, Slađana B.; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Milovanović, Jelena; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Stojanović, Bojana; Trifunović, Srećko R.; Radić, Gordana P.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopically predicted structure of the obtained copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid was confirmed by X-ray structural study and compared to previously reported crystal structure of the Cu complex with S-methyl derivative. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurements were obtained by slow crystallization from a water solution. Cytotoxic effects of S-alkyl (R = benzyl (L1), methyl (L2), ethyl (L3), propyl (L4) and butyl (L5)) derivatives of thiosalicylic acid and the corresponding binuclear copper(II)-complexes on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, CT26 and CT26.CL25 and human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 were reported here. The analysis of cancer cell viability showed that all the tested complexes had low cytotoxic effect on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, but several times higher cytotoxicity on normal human colon carcinoma cells.

  15. Modulation of ultraviolet light-, ethyl methanesulfonate-, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis by retinol and retinoic acid in the primary rat hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Budroe, J.D.; Shaddock, J.G.; Casciano, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of retinol and retinoic acid on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes were studied in the presence and absence of know chemical and physical mutagens. Neither retinol or retinoic acid caused a significant increase in UDS over solvent control at concentrations ranging from 1 ..mu..M to 50 ..mu..M. Retinol and retinoic acid did not significantly affect 200..mu..g/mL ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)- or 32 J/m/sup 2/ ultraviolet light (UV)-induced UDS at concentrations ranging from 1..mu..M to 50 ..mu..M. In contrast, retinol and retinoic acid significantly inhibited 2.5 ..mu..g/mL and 5.0 ..mu..g/mL 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)-anthracene(DMBA)-induced UDS at concentrations of 1..mu..M or greater. Retinol-and retinoic acid-induced hepatocytotoxicity was studied in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release as an indicator of cytoxicity. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused significant increases in LDH release over solvent control 3 hours after treatment, whereas retinol caused a biologically significant increase in LDH release 24 hours posttreatment at concentrations of 50 ..mu..M and 100 ..mu..M. These data suggest that nontoxic concentrations of retinol and retinoic acid do not inhibit the DNA excision repair process but apparently affect the effective DNA adduct load due to the ultimate species of DMBA metabolite responsible for hepatocellular DNA damage.

  16. Modulation of ultraviolet light-, ethyl methanesulfonate-, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis by retinol and retinoic acid in the primary rat hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Budroe, J.D.; Shaddock, J.G.; Casciano, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of retinol and retinoic acid on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes were studied in the presence and absence of known chemical and physical mutagens. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused a significant increase in UDS over solvent control at concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 50 microM. Retinol and retinoic acid did not significantly affect 200 micrograms/mL ethyl methanesulfonate(EMS)- or 32 J/m2 ultraviolet light(UV)-induced UDS at concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 50 microM. In contrast, retinol and retinoic acid significantly inhibited 2.5 micrograms/mL and 5.0 micrograms/mL 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced UDS at concentrations of 1 microM or greater. Retinol- and retinoic acid-induced hepatocytotoxicity was studied in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release as an indicator of cytoxicity. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused significant increases in LDH release over solvent control 3 hours after treatment, whereas retinol caused a biologically significant increase in LDH release 24 hours posttreatment at concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. These data suggest that nontoxic concentrations of retinol and retinoic acid do not inhibit the DNA excision repair process but apparently affect the effective DNA adduct load due to the ultimate species of DMBA metabolite responsible for hepatocellular DNA damage.

  17. Assessing the Potential Content of Ethyl Carbamate in White, Red, and Rosé Wines as a Key Factor for Pursuing Urea Degradation by Purified Acid Urease.

    PubMed

    Cerreti, Martina; Fidaleo, Marcello; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Tamborra, Pasquale; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The ethyl carbamate (EC) content of a wine after a given temperature-time storage was theoretically predicted from the potential concentration of ethyl carbamate (PEC), as determined via an accelerated EC formation test. Such information was used to decide whether an enzymatic treatment was needed to reduce the wine urea level before bottling/aging. To this end, 6 white, red, and rosé wines, manufactured in Italy as such or enriched with urea, were tested for their PEC content either before or after enzymatic treatment using a purified acid urease preparation derived from Lactobacillus fermentum. The treatment was severely affected by the total phenolic content (TP) of the wine, the estimated pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constant for NH3 formation reducing by a factor of approximately 2000 as the TP increased from 0 to 1.64 g L(-1) . Such a sensitivity to TP was by far greater than that pertaining to a killed cell-based enzyme preparation used previously. Urea hydrolysis was successful at reducing EC concentration in wines with low levels of TP and other EC precursors.

  18. Laccase-catalysed oxidation of ferulic acid and ethyl ferulate in aqueous medium: a green procedure for the synthesis of new compounds.

    PubMed

    Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Chevalot, Isabelle; Jasniewski, Jordane; Paris, Cédric; Scher, Joël; Muniglia, Lionel

    2014-02-15

    The enzymatic oxidation of ferulic acid (FA) and ethyl ferulate (EF) with Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, as biocatalyst, was performed in aqueous medium using an eco-friendly procedure to synthesize new active molecules. First, the commercial laccase was ultrafiltrated allowing for the elimination of phenolic contaminants and increasing the specific activity by a factor of 2. Then, kinetic parameters of this laccase were determined for both substrates (FA, EF), indicating a higher substrate affinity for ethyl ferulate. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to the synthesis of a FA-major product, exhibiting a molecular mass of 386 g/mol and a EF-major product with a molecular mass of 442 g/mol. Structural analyses by mass spectrometry allowed the identification of dimeric derivatives. The optical properties of the oxidation products showed the increase of red and yellow colours, with FA-products compared to EF-products. Additionally, enzymatic oxidation led to a decrease of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to initial substrates. Consequently, this enzymatic procedure in aqueous medium could provide new compounds presenting optical, antioxidant and cytotoxic interest.

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of [2-[2-(N, N-disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)-acylamino] thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Oznur; Gürsoy, Aysel; Altintaş, Handan; Otük, Gülten; Birteksöz, Seher

    2003-03-01

    [2-[2-(N, N-Disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)acylamino ]thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters (3a-x) were synthesized by the reaction of potassium salts of N, N-disubstituted dithiocarbamoic acids with [2-(2-chloroalkanoyl)amino-thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, UV, IR, (1)H-NMR, and EI mass spectral data. The antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were investigated by microbroth dilution technique using Mueller-Hinton broth and Mueller-Hinton agar. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AT CC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 and Candida albicans ATCC10231 were used as test microorganisms. Among the tested compounds 3a, d, e, f, h, k, w activity against S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 (MIC: 156 mg/L, 78 mg/L, 62.5 mg/L, 78 mg/L, 62.5 mg/L, 312 mg/L, 250 mg/L, respectively), compound 3d had some activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC: 156 mg/L) and C. albicans ATCC 10231(MIC: 156 mg/L). Compounds 3l, 3x also evaluated for antituberculosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system and BACTEC 12B medium. The preliminary results indicated that all of the tested compounds were inactive against the test organism. PMID:12666252

  20. 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt): unsuccessful search for a marker of combined cannabis and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Bleeck, Simona; Schräder, Johannes; Bork, Wolf-Rainer; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    11-Nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D(3)-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0.30-2.16 mg/g) and THC-COOH (15-252 ng/mL) as well as to 12 hair samples from drug fatalities which were both positive for THC (0.09-2.04 ng/mg) and fatty acid ethyl esters as markers of chronic alcohol abuse (0.70-6.3 ng/mg). In none of these samples THC-COOEt could be found with limits of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in plasma and 2 pg/mg in hair in 11 samples using GC-NCI-MS and 0.2 pg/mg in one sample using GC-NCI-MS. Therefore, the use of this compound as a marker for combined cannabis and alcohol consumption could not be achieved. PMID:20074877

  1. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. 721.10019 Section 721.10019 Protection of Environment...-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester (PMN P-01-563; CAS No. 174489-76-0) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. 721.10019 Section 721.10019 Protection of Environment...-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester (PMN P-01-563; CAS No. 174489-76-0) is subject to...

  3. [Allosteric regulation of glucosamine synthetase activity by naphthoquinone derivatives and ethyl ester of di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sharaev, P N; Bogdanov, N G; Sarycheva, I K; Zhukova, E E

    1981-02-01

    The effects of derivatives of naphthoquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K1), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), 3-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (vicasol), derivatives of naphthohydroxyquinone, e.g. 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1-monoacetate, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthohydroxyquinone 1,4-diacetate and the oxycumarine derivative di-(4-oxycumarinyl-3)-acetate ethyl ester (pelentan) on the activity of purified glutamine synthetase (EC 5.3.1.19) from rat liver were studied. The enzyme activity was increased under effects of vitamins K1 and K3 and was inhibited by pelentan. The data obtained are indicative of the allosteric effect of these compounds on the enzyme. PMID:7195738

  4. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate, but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1beta administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Horrobin, David

    2004-06-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta can cause cognitive impairment, activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impair monoaminergic neurotransmission in the rat. IL-1beta has also been shown to increase the concentration of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood. Omega (n)-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are components of fish oil, have been shown to reduce both the proinflammatory cytokines and the synthesis of PGE2. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary supplements of EPA would attenuate the inflammation-induced impairment of spatial memory by centrally administered IL-1beta. Rats were fed with a diet of coconut oil (contained a negligible quantity of fatty acids), soybean oil (contained mainly n-6 fatty acids), or a diet of coconut oil enriched with ethyl-EPA (E-EPA). The rats were then injected intracerebroventricularly with IL-1beta or saline. The results of this study demonstrated that the IL-1-induced deficit in spatial memory was correlated with an impairment of central noradrenergic and serotonergic (but not dopaminergic) function and an increase in the serum corticosterone concentration. IL-1beta also caused an increase in the hippocampal PGE2 concentration. These effects of IL-1 were attenuated by the chronic administration of E-EPA. By contrast, rats fed with the soybean oil diet showed no effect on the changes induced by the IL-1 administration.

  6. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall. PMID:26665980

  7. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  8. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall.

  9. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  10. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  11. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  12. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  13. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  14. Active-Site Engineering of ω-Transaminase for Production of Unnatural Amino Acids Carrying a Side Chain Bulkier than an Ethyl Substituent

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Woo; Park, Eul-Soo; Dong, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    ω-Transaminase (ω-TA) is a promising enzyme for use in the production of unnatural amino acids from keto acids using cheap amino donors such as isopropylamine. The small substrate-binding pocket of most ω-TAs permits entry of substituents no larger than an ethyl group, which presents a significant challenge to the preparation of structurally diverse unnatural amino acids. Here we report on the engineering of an (S)-selective ω-TA from Ochrobactrum anthropi (OATA) to reduce the steric constraint and thereby allow the small pocket to readily accept bulky substituents. On the basis of a docking model in which l-alanine was used as a ligand, nine active-site residues were selected for alanine scanning mutagenesis. Among the resulting variants, an L57A variant showed dramatic activity improvements in activity for α-keto acids and α-amino acids carrying substituents whose bulk is up to that of an n-butyl substituent (e.g., 48- and 56-fold increases in activity for 2-oxopentanoic acid and l-norvaline, respectively). An L57G mutation also relieved the steric constraint but did so much less than the L57A mutation did. In contrast, an L57V substitution failed to induce the improvements in activity for bulky substrates. Molecular modeling suggested that the alanine substitution of L57, located in a large pocket, induces an altered binding orientation of an α-carboxyl group and thereby provides more room to the small pocket. The synthetic utility of the L57A variant was demonstrated by carrying out the production of optically pure l- and d-norvaline (i.e., enantiomeric excess [ee] > 99%) by asymmetric amination of 2-oxopantanoic acid and kinetic resolution of racemic norvaline, respectively. PMID:26231640

  15. Influences of process parameters on preparation of microparticle used as a carrier system for omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters used in supplementary nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, A; Schäfer, U; Lehr, C M

    2001-01-01

    Microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation to encapsulate eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-EE) for incorporation into foods as a nutrition supplement. Gelatin and acacia were used in the coacervation process. With an increasing oil/polymer ratio, both yield and encapsulation rate decreased; with an increasing homogenization time, the yield remained constant while the encapsulation rate slightly increased. Several particle hardening techniques were examined and their influence on particle structure, yield and encapsulation rate were examined. Ethanol hardening was compared to cross-linking with dehydroascrobic acid with respect to both yield and encapsulation rate. The particle diameters for both formulations were similar (ethanol: 38.4 +/- 4.1 microm; cross-linking: 41.8 +/- 3.0 microm). Spray-drying of the coacervates led to the smallest particles (5.2 +/- 1.1 microm), lowest yield and encapsulation rate. All microencapsulation products were assayed for their storage stability over 4 weeks with respect to the oxidation of the encapsulated omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ester inside the particles. Hardening with ethanol showed the lowest amount of peroxides: particle wall cross-linking by dehydroascorbic acid and spray-drying were observed to be less protective. All microparticles were characterized for their internal structure with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after fluorescence labelling of the polymers, in order to localize the oil phase and visualize the distribution of the polymers in the coacervates. With increasing homogenization time, the internal structure changed stepwise from a capsule structure (core/wall) towards a matrix structure. For all experiments, a homogeneous distribution for both polymers, gelatin and acacia was observed inside the particle wall. No influence of the different particle hardening procedures on the polymer distribution was found.

  16. 1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carb oxylic acid, a new fluorinated compounds of oxacin family with high broad-spectrum antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Stefancich, G; Artico, M; Corelli, F; Massa, S; Panico, S; Simonetti, N

    1985-04-01

    The synthesis of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)quinoline-3-carboxy lic acid, a new fluorinated high broad-spectrum antibacterial agent related to nalidixic acid is described. The title compound has been prepared by the reaction of 4-fluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, cyclization of the malonate obtained to the quinolinecarboxylate ester, ethylation of the ester, followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The new derivative proved very active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Its activities in comparison with those of nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid, piromidic acid and enoxacin were found to be greatly superior with regard to the unfluorinated compounds and somewhat superior also to enoxacin. The known 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinoline-3- carboxylic acid, here prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of the pyrrole moiety of the title compound, has been found to be less active as an antibacterial agent. PMID:3926533

  17. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal behaviour, antibacterial activity and DFT calculation on N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N'-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Bharty, M K; Dani, R K; Kushawaha, S K; Prakash, Om; Singh, Ranjan K; Sharma, V K; Kharwar, R N; Singh, N K

    2015-06-15

    Two new compounds N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide {Hbmshb (1)} and N'-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester {H2mbhce (2)} have been synthesized and characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in orthorhombic and monoclinic systems with space group Pna21 and P21/n, respectively. Inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding link two molecules and provide linear chain structure. In addition to this, compound 2 is stabilized by CH⋯π and NH⋯π interactions. Molecular geometry from X-ray analysis, geometry optimization, charge distribution, bond analysis, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis and non-linear optical (NLO) effects have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional. The bioefficacy of compounds has been examined against the growth of bacteria to evaluate their anti-microbial potential. Compounds 1 and 2 are thermally stable and show NLO behaviour better than the urea crystal. PMID:25767993

  19. Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide: A ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of serotonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, J.R.; Scheffel, U.A.; Musachio, J.L.; Stathis, M.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Radioiodinated D-(+)-N1-ethyl-2-iodolysergic acid diethylamide ((125I)-EIL) has been evaluated as a ligand for in vitro and in vivo studies of cerebral serotonin 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. (125I)-EIL exhibited high affinity for 5-HT{sub 2} receptors with a high degree of specific binding in membranes from rat prefrontal cortex. The regional distribution of (125I)-EIL binding in vivo to seven areas of mouse brain correlated significantly with known densities of 5-HT{sub 2} receptors. In vivo specificity, defined by tissue to cerebellum radioactivity ratios, reached a maximum for frontal cortex at 6 hr (21.2) and persisted through 16 hr (8.8). Ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist, fully inhibited binding in a dose dependent fashion in all brain regions except cerebellum. By contrast, blockers for dopamine D{sub 2}, {alpha}- or {beta}-adrenergic receptors did not significantly inhibit radioligand binding in any region. (125I)-EIL selectively labels 5-HT{sub 2} receptors in vivo with the highest specificity of any serotonergic ligand reported to date, indicating that (123I)-EIL should prove applicable to single photon emission computed tomography studies in living brain.

  20. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method.

  1. Ethyl oleate-containing nanostructured lipid carriers improve oral bioavailability of trans-ferulic acid ascompared with conventional solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Gang; Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Jihui; Hu, Rongfeng; Feng, Nianping

    2016-09-10

    trans-Ferulic acid (TFA) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects, but its poor solubility in water results in unsatisfactory oral bioavailability when administered conventionally at a standard dosage. However, the limited bioavailability of TFA can be overcome by delivering it in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). In this study, a microemulsion (ME)-based method was used to prepare NLCs with ethyl oleate as the liquid lipid component and glyceryl behenate as the solid lipid component. These NLCs and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were then used as vehicles for TFA. Their entrapment efficiencies (EE), stability during storage, in vitro release profiles, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were compared. The NLC formulation afforded a drug entrapment efficiency that was significantly greater than that of the SLN formulation, which was made using a single solid lipid. Furthermore, the TFA that was dispersed in the disordered binary lipid matrix of the NLC formulation was more stable than that in the SLN formulation, and thus showed less expulsion from the vehicle during storage. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the NLC TFA formulation yielded a greater Cmax and AUC than that produced by the SLN formulation and an aqueous TFA suspension. This showed that the oral bioavailability of TFA was markedly improved by packaging in NLCs. NLCs are thus a promising vehicle for oral TFA administration, with significant advantages over SLNs. PMID:27374194

  2. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  3. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week.

  4. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-Like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nikki A.; Rossi, Emily L.; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W.; Hidaka, Brandon H.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Carlson, Susan E.; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A.; Fabian, Carol J.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza®) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable to women taking Lovaza 4 g/day) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly impact Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the pro-tumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. PMID:26100521

  5. Ring-closing metathesis-based synthesis of (3R,4R,5S)-4-acetylamino-5-amino-3-hydroxy- cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid ethyl ester: a functionalized cycloalkene skeleton of GS4104.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Yao, Zhu-Jun

    2006-07-01

    (3R,4R,5S)-4-Acetylamino-5-amino-3-hydroxy-cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, a functionalized cyclohexene skeleton of GS4104, was diastereoselectively synthesized. A major advantage of this synthesis is the use of readily available L-serine to replace frequently used (-)-shikimic acid or (-)-quinic acid as the starting material. Ring-closing metathesis and diastereoselective Grignard reactions successfully served as the key steps. Absolute configurations of the key intermediates were confirmed by corresponding two-dimensional NMR studies.

  6. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  7. Assessment of multicomponent hydrogel scaffolds of poly(acrylic acid-2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)/gelatin for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena

    2013-03-01

    The article describes the design of the multicomponent hydrogel system of poly(acrylic acid-HEMA)/gelatin for tissue engineering application. Derivative of polycaprolactone-diol (polycaprolactone diacrylate (PCL-DAr)) was used to cross-link acrylate monomers whereas gelatin was kept free for cell proliferation. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an anti-oxidant phytochemical, was loaded by diffusion method. Its in vitro release study in PBS (pH 6.5) at 37 ± 0.2°C (75 rpm) revealed a sustained release profile upto 20 days. Fitting of drug release data in Korsmeyer-Peppas model equation revealed probable release mechanism through the value of release coefficient (n), which was found to depend on formulations composition. Drug-polymer interaction, thermal behavior, and surface morphology were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM). Swelling behavior of hydrogel in PBS (pH 6.5 and 7.4, 0.2 M) and in distilled water was found to increase with increasing AAc/HEMA ratio. Compression modulus decreased from 203 ± 3.7 KPa to 11.6 ± 1.1KPa, at 30% strain, whereas displacement values significantly increased from 3.2 ± 0.2 to 4.7 ± 0.6 mm at 20 N force (p < 0.05), with increasing AAc/HEMA ratio. Percentage cell viability was analyzed using indirect 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazo-liumbromide (MTT) assay with fibroblast L929 cells; showed ≥92.3% cell viability after 24 h incubation. Cell proliferation on the scaffold surface was found to increase with incorporation of HEMA in P(AAc)/G cross-linked hydrogel matrix upto a certain extent. These biocompatible, elastic, and swellable hydrogels can serve as a matrix for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  8. Effects of adding prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters to simvastatin (20 mg/day) on lipids and lipoprotein particles in men and women with mixed dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; McKenney, James M; Reeves, Matthew S; Lubin, Barry C; Dicklin, Mary R

    2008-08-15

    Prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) are commonly used for treatment of very high triglyceride levels, often in combination with a statin, to lower persistent hypertriglyceridemia. This randomized, crossover trial evaluated 6 weeks of combination therapy with simvastatin 20 mg/day plus P-OM3 4 g/day or placebo in 39 men and women (average age 58 years) with a triglyceride concentration 200 to 600 mg/dl and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol greater than their National Cholesterol Education Program treatment goals after a 5-week diet lead-in. Non-HDL cholesterol decreased from baseline (209 mg/dl) by 40% for P-OM3 + simvastatin compared with 34% for placebo + simvastatin (p <0.001). Favorable changes for P-OM3 + simvastatin versus placebo + simvastatin were also observed for very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (-42% vs -22%), triglyceride (-44% vs -29%), total cholesterol (-31% vs -26%), HDL cholesterol (+16% vs +11%), apolipoprotein B (-32% vs -28%), total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio (-39% vs -33%), triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio (-51% vs -37%), and systolic (-5.0 vs 0.3 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.3 vs -1.8 mm Hg) blood pressures (p <0.05 for all). VLDL particle concentration and size decreased and LDL particle size increased significantly more with P-OM3 + simvastatin than with placebo + simvastatin (all p <0.05). Changes in LDL cholesterol, LDL particle concentration, HDL particle size and concentration, and apolipoprotein A-I did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, P-OM3 + simvastatin appears to be a useful therapeutic option for the management of mixed dyslipidemia. PMID:18678300

  9. Baseline lipoprotein lipids and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to prescription omega-3 acid ethyl ester added to Simvastatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Dicklin, Mary R; Davidson, Michael H; Doyle, Ralph T; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2010-05-15

    The present post hoc analysis of data from the COMBination of prescription Omega-3 with Simvastatin (COMBOS) study investigated the predictors of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol response to prescription omega-3 acid ethyl ester (P-OM3) therapy in men and women with high (200 to 499 mg/dl) triglycerides during diet plus simvastatin therapy. Subjects (n = 256 randomized) received double-blind P-OM3 4 g/day or placebo for 8 weeks combined with diet and open-label simvastatin 40 mg/day. The percentage of changes from baseline (with diet plus simvastatin) in lipids was evaluated by tertiles of baseline LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The baseline LDL cholesterol tertile was a significant predictor of the LDL cholesterol response (p = 0.022 for the treatment by baseline tertile interaction). The median LDL cholesterol response in the P-OM3 group was +9.5% (first tertile, <80.4 mg/dl), -0.9% (second tertile), and -6.4% (third tertile, > or =99.0 mg/dl). Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride responses did not vary significantly by baseline LDL cholesterol tertile. The reductions in very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were greater than the increases in LDL cholesterol, where present, resulting in a net decrease in the concentration of cholesterol carried by atherogenic particles (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in all baseline LDL cholesterol tertiles. In conclusion, these results suggest that the increase in LDL cholesterol that occurred with the addition of P-OM3 to simvastatin therapy in subjects with mixed dyslipidemia was confined predominantly to those with low LDL cholesterol levels while receiving simvastatin monotherapy. PMID:20451686

  10. Quantum chemical computational studies on 5-(4-bromophenylamino)-2-methylsulfanylmethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokatlı, Ahmet; Özen, Emrah; Ucun, Fatih; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2011-03-01

    The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR shift values of 5-(4-bromophenylamino)-2-methylsulfanylmethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester have been calculated by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. The optimized molecular geometric parameters were presented and compared with the data obtained from X-ray diffraction. In order to fit the calculated harmonic wavenumbers to the experimentally observed ones, scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQM FF) methodology was proceeded. Correlation factors between the experimental and calculated 1H chemical shift values of the title compound in vacuum and in CHCl 3 solution by using the conductor-like screening continuum solvation model (COSMO) were reported. The calculated results showed that the optimized geometry well reproduces the crystal structure. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shifts are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In solvent media the energetic behavior of the title compound was also examined by using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) basis set, applying the COSMO model. The obtained results indicated that the total energy of the title compound decreases with increasing polarity of the solvent. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbital (NBO) and frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the title compound were performed by the B3LYP/LANL2DZ method, and also thermodynamic parameters for the title compound were calculated at all the HF and B3LYP levels.

  11. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  12. Mechanisms of chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for improving oral absorption of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Miao; Rong, Wen-Ting; Hou, Jie; Wang, Dong-Fang; Lu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Yu, Shu-Qin; Xu, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Chitosan-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (CHI/PLGA NPs) loaded with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), named CHI/PLGA/SN-38 NPs, were successfully prepared using an oil-in-water (O/W) solvent evaporation method. The physicochemical properties of the novel NPs were characterized by DLS, Zeta potential, SEM, DSC, XRD, and FTIR. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading content were 71.83 (±2.77)% and 6.79 (±0.26)%, respectively. In vitro drug release in the simulated gastric juice was lower than that in the intestinal juice. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies indicated a dramatic improvement of drug absorption as a result of the synergistic effect between CHI and PLGA on P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition. CHI/PLGA NPs showed high cellular uptake and low efflux for drugs in Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that CHI/PLGA NPs had a transient effect on the membrane integrity, but did not have an influence on cell viability. Based on the in vitro release studies, SPIP, and intracellular drug accumulation and transport investigations, we speculate rationally that CHI/PLGA NPs were mainly internalized in the form of intact NPs, thus escaping the recognition of enterocyte Pgp and avoiding efflux into the apical part of the enterocytes. After partial release of drugs inside the enterocytes, CHI/PLGA interfered with the microenvironment of Pgp and further weakened the Pgp-mediated efflux. Then, the drug-loaded NPs exited via the exocytose effect from the basal part of the enterocytes and entered the blood circulation. These results showed that CHI/PLGA NPs would be smart oral delivery carriers for antineoplastic agents that are also Pgp substrates.

  13. Ethyl-bridged hybrid column as an efficient alternative for HPLC analysis of plasma amino acids by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Van Eendenburg, Cecile Van; Gubern, Carme; Sanchez, Juan M

    2016-09-01

    Conventional C18 silica columns have proven to be useful for the analysis of amino acids (AA) from protein hydrolysates but undesirable peak overlapping is usually found when analyzing body fluids given that a large number of AAs are present in the samples. As an alternative to silica packings, an ethyl-bridged packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of derivatized AAs with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) has been evaluated. The new packing material improves the separation efficiency allowing better separations when analyzing biological fluids. Moreover, this packing has advantages for routine AA analysis, such as a decrease in the total running time and an increase in the life-time of the columns. The pH of the mobile phase has a significant effect on the elution behavior of the AQC hydrolysis product (AMQ) and on the AA derivatives. It is not possible to elute AMQ before detecting the first AA derivative, which requires an accurate adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.30-5.35 to obtain good separation and resolution for the most polar compounds. Under the conditions proposed, it is possible to separate all AAs except the Gly-Gln pair, which is not a problem when hydrolyzed samples are analyzed. The AMQ-Ser pair requires either the use of a different mobile phase pH for its baseline separation or the use of fluorescence detection. Two different procedures for protein removal from plasma samples have been evaluated, solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) and it has been found that UF gives better results as no significant losses of AAs were observed. The validation of the proposed method with UV detection gives method detection limits in the range of 8-12μM, with repeatability values<8% (n=6) and inter-day precision in plasma samples ranging from 4 to 13% (n=4).

  14. Ethyl-bridged hybrid column as an efficient alternative for HPLC analysis of plasma amino acids by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Van Eendenburg, Cecile Van; Gubern, Carme; Sanchez, Juan M

    2016-09-01

    Conventional C18 silica columns have proven to be useful for the analysis of amino acids (AA) from protein hydrolysates but undesirable peak overlapping is usually found when analyzing body fluids given that a large number of AAs are present in the samples. As an alternative to silica packings, an ethyl-bridged packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of derivatized AAs with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) has been evaluated. The new packing material improves the separation efficiency allowing better separations when analyzing biological fluids. Moreover, this packing has advantages for routine AA analysis, such as a decrease in the total running time and an increase in the life-time of the columns. The pH of the mobile phase has a significant effect on the elution behavior of the AQC hydrolysis product (AMQ) and on the AA derivatives. It is not possible to elute AMQ before detecting the first AA derivative, which requires an accurate adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.30-5.35 to obtain good separation and resolution for the most polar compounds. Under the conditions proposed, it is possible to separate all AAs except the Gly-Gln pair, which is not a problem when hydrolyzed samples are analyzed. The AMQ-Ser pair requires either the use of a different mobile phase pH for its baseline separation or the use of fluorescence detection. Two different procedures for protein removal from plasma samples have been evaluated, solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) and it has been found that UF gives better results as no significant losses of AAs were observed. The validation of the proposed method with UV detection gives method detection limits in the range of 8-12μM, with repeatability values<8% (n=6) and inter-day precision in plasma samples ranging from 4 to 13% (n=4). PMID:27428457

  15. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and citric acid in primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Bapna, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root canal irrigants are considered momentous in their tissue dissolving property, eliminating microorganisms, and removing smear layer. The present study was aimed to compare the removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and citric acid solutions with saline as a control in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary anterior teeth were chosen for the study. The teeth were distributed into three groups having ten teeth each. Following instrumentation, root canals of the first group were treated with 17% EGTA and the second group with 6% citric acid. Only saline was used as an irrigant for the control group. Then, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The scale given by Rome et al. for the smear layer removal was used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the SEM showed that among the tested irrigants, 17% EGTA + 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) group showed the best results when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The results advocate that the sequential irrigation of the pulp canal walls with 17% EGTA followed by 5% NaOCl produced efficacious and smear-free root canal walls. PMID:27307670

  16. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  17. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  18. Dietary supplementation with ethyl ester concentrates of fish oil (n-3) and borage oil (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids induces epidermal generation of local putative anti-inflammatory metabolites.

    PubMed

    Miller, C C; Tang, W; Ziboh, V A; Fletcher, M P

    1991-01-01

    Clinical reports have attributed the amelioration of chronic inflammatory skin disorders to the presence of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in dietary oils. To test the hypothesis of a local modulatory effect of these PUFA in the epidermis, the basal diet of normal guinea pigs was supplemented with ethyl esters of either fish oil [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or borage oil [rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)]. Our data demonstrated that dietary oils influence the distribution of PUFA in epidermal phospholipids and the epidermal levels of PUFA-derived hydroxy fatty acids. Specifically, animals supplemented with ethyl esters of fish oil markedly incorporated EPA and DHA into epidermal phospholipids, which paralleled the epidermal accumulation of 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE) and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDoHE). Similarly, animals supplemented with esters of borage oil preferentially incorporated dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA), the epidermal elongase product of GLA, into the epidermal phospholipids, which also was accompanied by epidermal accumulation of 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE). By factoring the epidermal levels of the 15-lipoxygenase products and their relative inhibitory potencies, we evolved a measure of the overall potential of dietary oils to exert local anti-inflammatory effect. For example, the leukotriene inhibition potentials (LIP) of both fish oil and borage oil were greatly enhanced when compared to controls. Thus, the altered profiles of epidermal 15-lipoxygenase products generated from particular dietary oils may be responsible, at least in part, for reported ameliorative effects of oils on chronic inflammatory skin disorders.

  19. Simultaneous determination of myristyl nicotinate, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide in rabbit plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using methyl ethyl ketone as a deproteinization solvent.

    PubMed

    Catz, Paul; Shinn, Walter; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Kim, Hyuntae; Kim, Moonsun; Jacobson, Elaine L; Jacobson, Myron K; Green, Carol E

    2005-12-27

    Myristyl nicotinate (Nia-114) is an ester prodrug being developed for delivery of nicotinic acid (NIC) into the skin for prevention of actinic keratosis and its progression to skin cancer. To facilitate dermal studies of Nia-114, a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) as a deproteinization solvent was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Nia-114, NIC, and nicotinamide (NAM) in rabbit plasma. NAM is the principal metabolite of NIC, which is also expected to have chemopreventive properties. The analytes were chromatographically separated using a Spherisorb Cyano column under isocratic conditions, and detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode with a run time of 9 min. The method utilized a plasma sample volume of 0.2 ml and isotope-labeled D4 forms of each analyte as internal standards. The method was linear over the concentration range of 2-1000, 8-1000, and 75-1000 ng/ml, for Nia-114, NIC, and NAM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day assay accuracy and precision were within +/-15% for all analytes at low, medium, and high quality control standard levels. The relatively high value for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of NAM was demonstrated to be due to the high level of endogenous NAM in the rabbit plasma (about 350 ng/ml). Endogenous levels of NIC and NAM in human, dog, rat, and mouse plasma were also determined, and mean values ranged from <2 ng/ml NIC and 38.3 ng/ml NAM in human, to 233 ng/ml NIC and 622 ng/ml NAM in mouse. Nia-114 was generally unstable in rabbit plasma, as evidenced by loss of 44-50% at room temperature by 2 h, and loss of 64-70% upon storage at -20 degrees C for 1 week, whereas it was stable (<7% loss) upon storage at -80 degrees C for 1 month.

  20. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as alcohol markers: estimating a reliable cut-off point by evaluation of 1,057 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Bossers, Lydia; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Herre, Sieglinde; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem, especially in Western countries. Therefore, it is important to have markers of alcohol consumption with validated cut-off points. For many years research has focused on analysis of hair for alcohol markers, but data on the performance and reliability of cut-off values are still lacking. Evaluating 1,057 cases from 2005 to 2011, included a large sample group for the estimation of an applicable cut-off value when compared to earlier studies on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair. The FAEEs concentrations in hair, police investigation reports, medical history, and the macroscopic and microscopic alcohol-typical results from autopsy, such as liver, pancreas, and cardiac findings, were taken into account in this study. In 80.2 % of all 1,057 cases pathologic findings that may be related to alcohol abuse were reported. The cases were divided into social drinkers (n = 168), alcohol abusers (n = 502), and cases without information on alcohol use. The median FAEEs concentration in the group of social drinkers was 0.302 ng/mg (range 0.008-14.3 ng/mg). In the group of alcohol abusers a median of 1.346 ng/mg (range 0.010-83.7 ng/mg) was found. Before June 2009 the hair FAEEs test was routinely applied to a proximal hair segment of 0-6 cm, changing to a routinely investigated hair length of 3 cm after 2009, as proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed significant differences between the groups of social drinkers and alcoholics, leading to an improvement in the postmortem detection of alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, the performance of the method was rather poor, with an area under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve AUC) of 0.745. The optimum cut-off value for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair FAEEs was 1.08 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 80 %. In relation to the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012

  1. [Changes in platelet count and mean volume of platelet after administration of icosapentaenoic acid ethyl-ester, and factors that may affect those changes].

    PubMed

    Saga, T; Aoyama, T; Takekoshi, T

    1994-07-01

    A total of 34 patients, aged 43 to 86 years old (mean 65), consisting of 26 males and 8 females, with thrombotic or arteriosclerotic diseases were orally given highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl-ester formulation (IPA-E) for 12 weeks without changing regular food intake. Changes in platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet-crit (Pct) and change of distribution width of platelet size (PDW), and factors affecting the changes were studied administration, dose of IPA-E, age, sex, smoking habits, complications of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and concomitant drugs such as calcium antagonists or diuretics. With daily administration of 1800 or 900 mg of IPA-E, PLT and Pct began to decrease after four weeks and decreased significantly after eight weeks until the completion of administration. After the 12th week, the MVP became smaller than the preadministration level, while PDW did not change significantly during the entire period of administration. The volume and rates of changes in PLT, MPV and Pct during administration for 12 weeks correlated negatively with those preadministration values. The PLT, MPV and Pct decreased significantly in both the 1800 and 900 mg groups compared to values before administration. There were no significant differences in changes between the two groups. The plasma IPA concentration in the 12th week of the 1800 mg group was significantly higher than that of the 900 mg group. The rate of changes in Pct had a significantly negative correlation with the achieved IPA concentration. The age, smoking habits, complications of diabetes mellitus, or concomitant drugs of calcium antagonists or diuretics did not affect the changes of platelet parameters significantly. The PLT and Pct in male patients decreased significantly, but no significant changes were observed in female patients. The PLT and Pct in patients with IIb and IV hyperlipidemia decreased significantly compared to those in normolipidemic or IIa

  2. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  3. Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Dyes, C

    2004-07-16

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be formed in blood and almost all human tissues after alcohol consumption and to be incorporated from sebum into hair where they can be used as long-term markers for excessive alcohol consumption. In order to examine whether skin surface lipids which consist mainly of sebum are an equally useful matrix for measurement of FAEE as alcohol abuse markers, samples were collected by a wipe-test from the forehead of 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 10 death cases with known recent alcohol misuse and five death cases without indications of alcohol misuse. The samples were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to. The ratio mFAEE/mSQ ranged between 0.16 and 1.12 ng/microg (mean 0.34 ng/microg) for the teetotallers and between 0.08 and 0.94 ng/microg (mean 0.37 ng/microg) for the social drinkers with no significant difference between both groups. For the alcoholics 2.4-24.2 ng/microg (mean 13.1 ng/microg) were found. For two volunteers the course of mFAEE/mSQ 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after a single high alcohol dose was pursued by daily wipe tests. A strong increase of mFAEE/mSQ occurred between 7 and 12 days after the drinking event. This delay can be explained by the transition time of about 8 days between sebum production and its appearance on the skin surface known from literature. For seven social drinkers skin surface lipid samples were also collected using drug of abuse patches of the firm PharmCheck. The ratios mFAEE/mSQ in these samples were in the same range as from the wipe-test. The comparison with the self-reported ethanol amounts consumed the week before and during the test gave no good correlation (R2 = 0.42). It can be

  4. Quantitation of N2-[1-(1-carboxy)ethyl]folic acid, a nonenzymatic glycation product of folic acid, in fortified foods and model cookies by a Stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Rychlik, Michael; Mayr, Anja

    2005-06-29

    A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the quantitation of N(2)-[1-(carboxy)ethyl]folic acid (CEF) has been developed by using [(2)H(4)]CEF as the internal standard. After sample cleanup by anion exchange chromatography, the three-dimensional specifity of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry enabled unequivocal determination of the nonenzymatic glycation product of folic acid (FA). When CEF was added to cornstarch, the detection limit for CEF was found to be 0.4 microg/100 g, and a recovery of 98.5% was determined. In analyses of cookies, the intra-assay coefficient of variation was 8.0% (n = 5). Application of the SIDA to commercial cookies produced from wheat flour fortified with FA revealed CEF contents of up to 7.1 microg/100 g, which accounted for approximately 10-20% of the cookies' FA content. In baby foods, multivitamin juices, and multivitamin sweets, however, CEF was not detectable. Further studies on CEF formation during baking of cookies made from fortified flour and different carbohydrates revealed that fructose was most effective in generating CEF followed by glucose, lactose, and sucrose with 12.5, 3.9, 2.5, and 2.5 microg/100 g of dry mass, respectively. During baking, approximately 50% of FA was retained for both monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and 77% as well as 85% of its initial content was retained for the disaccharides lactose and sucrose, respectively. Of the degraded amount of FA, CEF comprised 28% for fructose as well as 18, 12, and 8% for sucrose, lactose, and glucose, respectively. Therefore, CEF can be considered an important degradation product of FA in baked foods made from fructose. To retain a maximum amount of FA, products should rather be baked with sucrose than with reducing carbohydrates.

  5. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  6. Modification of Escherichia coli ribosomes with the fluorescent reagent N-[[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonic acid. Identification of derivatized L31' and studies on its intraribosomal properties.

    PubMed

    Hanas, J S; Simpson, M V

    1985-12-01

    N-[[(Iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-5-naphthylamine-1-sulfonic acid (IAEDANS) is a fluorescent reagent which reacts covalently with the free thiol groups of proteins. When the reagent is reacted with the Escherichia coli ribosome under mild conditions, gel electrophoresis shows modification of predominantly two proteins, S18 and L31', which become labeled to an equal extent. When the native (i.e., untreated) ribosome is dissociated into 30S and 50S subunits, only the 30S ribosomal protein S18 reacts with IAEDANS despite the fact that L31' is still present on the large subunit. Upon heat activation of the subunits, a procedure which alters subunit conformation, S18 plus a number of higher molecular weight proteins is modified, but not L31'; the latter reacts with IAEDANS only in the 70S ribosome or when it is free. In contrast to the relatively stable association of L31' with native or with dissociated ribosomes, dissociation of N-[(acetylamino)ethyl]-5-naphthylaminesulfonic acid (AEDANS)-treated ribosomes weakens the AEDANS-L31'/ribosome interaction, resulting, upon gel filtration analysis, in ribosomes devoid of this derivatized protein.

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  9. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  10. Discovery of (R)-2-amino-6-borono-2-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)hexanoic acid and congeners as highly potent inhibitors of human arginases I and II for treatment of myocardial reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Van Zandt, Michael C; Whitehouse, Darren L; Golebiowski, Adam; Ji, Min Koo; Zhang, Mingbao; Beckett, R Paul; Jagdmann, G Erik; Ryder, Todd R; Sheeler, Ryan; Andreoli, Monica; Conway, Bruce; Mahboubi, Keyvan; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mitschler, Andre; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Ruiz, Francesc X; Howard, Eduardo I; Podjarny, Alberto D; Schroeter, Hagen

    2013-03-28

    Recent efforts to identify treatments for myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury have resulted in the discovery of a novel series of highly potent α,α-disubstituted amino acid-based arginase inhibitors. The lead candidate, (R)-2-amino-6-borono-2-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)hexanoic acid, compound 9, inhibits human arginases I and II with IC50s of 223 and 509 nM, respectively, and is active in a recombinant cellular assay overexpressing human arginase I (CHO cells). It is 28% orally bioavailable and significantly reduces the infarct size in a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) for this novel series of inhibitors along with pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy data for compound 9 and X-ray crystallography data for selected lead compounds cocrystallized with arginases I and II.

  11. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%. PMID:16257208

  12. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%.

  13. Theoretical study of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate.

    PubMed

    Josa, Daniela; Peña-Gallego, Angeles; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate in gas phase was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods. A proposed mechanism for the reaction indicates that the ethyl side of the ester is eliminated as ethylene through a concerted six-membered cyclic transition state, and the unstable intermediate glycidic acid decarboxylates rapidly to give the corresponding aldehyde. Two possible pathways for glycidic acid decarboxylation were studied: one via a five-membered cyclic transition state, and the other via a four-membered cyclic transition state. The results of the calculations indicate that the decarboxylation reaction occurs via a mechanism with five-membered cyclic transition state.

  14. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation.

  15. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. PMID:26776045

  16. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  7. Determination of methyl and ethyl esters of methanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic and p-toluenesulfonic acids in active pharmaceutical ingredients by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to GC/SIM-MS.

    PubMed

    Colón, Ivelisse; Richoll, Stephen M

    2005-09-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an extraction method for methyl and ethyl esters of various sulfonic acids is presented. The extraction and determination of these esters in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was accomplished using solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC/MS in the SIM mode. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency are discussed. This method was validated as a limits test and allows the determination of the sulfonic esters at the 5 ppm level in APIs. The method proved to be reproducible (%R.S.D.s less than 6%) and suitable for use with external standard quantitation, and also met basic validation requirements. This method offers numerous advantages over liquid-liquid extraction methods and was also compared to other extraction techniques such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) also being developed in our laboratories.

  8. Ethyl Esterification for MALDI-MS Analysis of Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Reiding, Karli R; Lonardi, Emanuela; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl esterification is a technique for the chemical modification of sialylated glycans, leading to enhanced stability when performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS), as well as allowing the efficient detection of both sialylated and non-sialylated glycans in positive ion mode. In addition, the method shows specific reaction products for α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids, leading to an MS distinguishable mass difference. Here, we describe the ethyl esterification protocol for 96 glycan samples, including enzymatic N-glycan release, the aforementioned ethyl esterification, glycan enrichment, MALDI target preparation, and the MS(/MS) measurement. PMID:26700047

  9. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults. PMID:25428605

  10. Enantioselective Metabolism of Quizalofop-Ethyl in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Jia, Zhixin; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg−1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration of quizalofop-acid in the blood and tissues by both intragastric and intravenous administration, and quizalofop-ethyl could not be detected through the whole study which indicated a quick metabolism of quizalofop-ethyl to quizalofop-acid in vivo. In almost all the samples, the concentrations of (+)-quizalofop-acid exceeded those of (−)-quizalofop-acid. Quizalofop-acid could still be detected in the samples even at 120 h except in brain due to the function of blood-brain barrier. Based on a rough calculation, about 8.77% and 2.16% of quizalofop-acid were excreted through urine and feces after intragastric administration. The oral bioavailability of (+)-quizalofop-acid and (−)-quizalofop-acid were 72.8% and 83.6%. PMID:24964043

  11. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-02-23

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). PMID:22094014

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and structural elucidation of 5-amino-2-methoxypyridine ester amide of squaric acid ethyl ester: A new material with an infinite pseudo-layered structure and manifested NLO application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Tsonko; Koleva, Bojidarka B.; Spassov, Tony; Cherneva, Emilya; Spiteller, Michael; Mayer-Figge, Heike; Sheldrick, William S.

    2008-03-01

    The novel squaric acid derivative, 5-amino-2-methoxypyridin ester amide of squaric acid ethyl ester with second order NLO application in solution and in the bulk has been synthesized and is structure and properties elucidated in detail spectroscopic, thermally and structurally, using single crystal X-ray diffraction, linear-polarized solid state IR-spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, and TGA, DSC, DTA, MS and SHG methods. Quantum chemical calculations were used for obtain in the electronic structure, vibrational data and NLO properties. At room temperature the studied compound crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric space group Cc and exhibits a pseudo-layer structure (solid phase 1) with molecules linked by NH⋯O dbnd C intermolecular hydrogen bonds with length of 2.955 Å and NH⋯O angle of 153.41°, respectively. At 200 °C a phase transition is observed, with the solid phase 2 exhibiting new intermolecular NH⋯N interactions, as elucidated by IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The obtained large powder SHG efficiency of 609 times urea proves the NLO application of studied compound in the bulk.

  13. Effect of sodium and potassium salts on the extraction of 1-butanol from aqueous solution by the ethyl esters of soybean oil fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 0 to 0.15 M sodium chloride, sulfate, and sulfite, and potassium acid phosphate on the extraction of 0.1 to 4.1% 1-butanol from aqueous solutions (derived from fermentation of wood pulp liquors) at 25, 40, and 55 C was evaluated using a factorial experiment. The changes in distribution coefficient were small, with mild increases occurring with increasing temperature and increasing sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and potassium acid phosphate. Mild decreases in 1-butanol extraction occurred with increasing sodium sulfite. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  15. EPA dashes ethyl`s hopes for MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, K.

    1992-01-15

    Up until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington) decided to deny Ethyl`s (Richmond, VA) petition to sell manganese-based gasoline additive MMT, many on Wall Street were bullish. Bets were that MMT sales could create an up to $200 million/year sales windfall for Ethyl with $60 million/year income, and push its near $26/share price up by at least 50 cts. But EPA ruled January 8 against MMT in unleaded gas due to its potential to increase hydrocarbon emissions. What kept analysts hoping is that octane enhancer MMT`s environmental impacts are mixed. An Ethyl spokesman says that MMT cut tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxide by 20% and carbon monoxide by 7%. Ethyl also points out that MMT could save as much as 85,000 barrels/day of imported oil because of lower energy requirements in blending. And the product has sold for 13 years in Canada with no reported ill health effects. But, points out Smith, Barney (New York) analyst James Wilbur, Canada is not the congested Los Angeles basin, where the unknown effects of small amounts of heavy metal manganese would show up a lot faster if every car burnt MMT. For now, the financial effect of the decision is negligible, although at some point Ethyl may have to take a write-down on its Orangeburg, NC plant.

  16. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  17. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Auluck, S.; Chyský, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C15H12N4O2S2) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K2 for the local density approximation (Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C-H…O, C-H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C-H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C-H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å).

  18. Biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-methylamide (CA224), a nonplanar analogue of fascaplysin, inhibits Cdk4 and tubulin polymerization: evaluation of in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Sachin; Bharate, Sandip B; Manda, Sudhakar; Joshi, Prashant; Bharate, Sonali S; Jenkins, Paul R; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaudhuri, Bhabatosh

    2014-11-26

    Biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-methylamide 1 (CA224) is a nonplanar analogue of fascaplysin (2) that specifically inhibits Cdk4-cyclin D1 in vitro. Compound 1 blocks the growth of cancer cells at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. It also blocks the cell cycle at G2/M phase, which is explained by the fact that it inhibits tubulin polymerization. Additionally, it acts as an enhancer of depolymerization for taxol-stabilized tubulin. Western blot analyses of p53-positive cancer cells treated with compound 1 indicated upregulation of p53, p21, and p27 proteins together with downregulation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1. Compound 1 selectively induces apoptosis of SV40 large T-antigen transformed cells and significantly reduces colony formation efficiency, in a dose-dependent manner, of lung cancer cells. It is efficacious at 1/10th of the MTD against human tumors derived from HCT-116 and NCI-H460 cells in SCID mouse models. The promising efficacy of compound 1 in human xenograft models as well as its excellent therapeutic window indicates its potential for clinical development. PMID:25368960

  19. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  20. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  1. Features of the Thermodynamics of Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Distribution Reactions by Tri-n-Octylphosphine Oxide and Bis(2-EthylHexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Travis S. Grimes; Peter R. Zalupski

    2014-11-01

    A new methodology has been developed to study the thermochemical features of the biphasic transfer reactions of trisnitrato complexes of lanthanides and americium by a mono-functional solvating ligand (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide - TOPO). Stability constants for successive nitrato complexes (M(NO3)x3-x (aq) where M is Eu3+, Am3+ or Cm3+) were determined to assist in the calculation of the extraction constant, Kex, for the metal ions under study. Enthalpies of extraction (?Hextr) for the lanthanide series (excluding Pm3+) and Am3+ by TOPO have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The observed ?Hextr were found to be constant at ~29 kJ mol-1across the series from La3+-Er3+, with a slight decrease observed from Tm3+-Lu3+. These heats were found to be consistent with enthalpies determined using van ’t Hoff analysis of temperature dependent extraction studies. A complete set of thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, ?S) was calculated for Eu(NO3)3, Am(NO3)3 and Cm(NO3)3 extraction by TOPO and Am3+ and Cm3+ extraction by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). A discussion comparing the energetics of these systems is offered. The measured biphasic extraction heats for the transplutonium elements, ?Hextr, presented in these studies are the first ever direct measurements offered using two-phase calorimetric techniques.

  2. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  4. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  5. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Llamas, Jenny; Connelly, John; Cerna, David; Tropea, Joseph E.; Onda, Akikazu; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Kondapaka, Sudhir; Zhang, Guangtao; Caplen, Natasha J.; Cardellina, II, John H.; Yoo, Stephen S.; Monks, Anne; Self, Christopher; Waugh, David S.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Pommier, Yves

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.

  6. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  7. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  8. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  9. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  10. Temperature Independent Catalytic Two-Electron Reduction of Dioxygen by Ferrocenes with a Tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine-Copper(II) Catalyst in the Presence of Perchloric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipanwita; Lee, Yong-Min; Ohkubo, Kei; Nam, Wonwoo; Karlin, Kenneth D.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Selective two-electron plus two-proton (2e−/2H+) reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide by ferrocene (Fc) or 1,1′-dimethylferrocene (Me2Fc) in the presence of perchloric acid is catalyzed efficiently by a mononuclear copper(II) complex, [CuII(tepa)]2+ {tepa = tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine} (1) in acetone. The E1/2 value for [CuII(tepa)]2+ as measured by cyclic voltammetry is 0.07 V vs Fc/Fc+ in acetone, being significantly positive, which makes it possible to use relatively weak one-electron reductants such as Fc and Me2Fc for the overall two-electron reduction of O2. Fast electron transfer from Fc or Me2Fc to 1 affords the corresponding CuI complex, [CuI(tepa)]+ (2), which reacts at low temperature (193 K) with O2, however only in presence of HClO4 to afford the hydroperoxo complex, [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3). The detailed kinetic study on the homogeneous catalytic system reveals the rate-determining step to be the O2-binding process in the presence of HClO4 at lower temperature as well as at room temperature. The O2-binding kinetics in the presence of HClO4 were studied, demonstrating that the rate of formation of the hydroperoxo complex (3) as well as the overall catalytic reaction remained virtually the same with changing temperature. The apparent lack of an activation energy for the catalytic two-electron reduction of O2 is shown to result from the existence of a pre-equilibrium between 2 and O2 prior to the formation of the hydroperoxo complex 3. No further reduction of [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3) by Fc or Me2Fc occurred, and instead 3 is protonated by HClO4 to yield H2O2 accompanied by regeneration of 1, thus completing the catalytic cycle for the two-electron reduction of O2 by Fc or Me2Fc. PMID:23394287

  11. Temperature-independent catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen by ferrocenes with a copper(II) tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine catalyst in the presence of perchloric acid.

    PubMed

    Das, Dipanwita; Lee, Yong-Min; Ohkubo, Kei; Nam, Wonwoo; Karlin, Kenneth D; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-02-20

    Selective two-electron plus two-proton (2e(-)/2H(+)) reduction of O(2) to hydrogen peroxide by ferrocene (Fc) or 1,1'-dimethylferrocene (Me(2)Fc) in the presence of perchloric acid is catalyzed efficiently by a mononuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu(II)(tepa)](2+) (1; tepa = tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine) in acetone. The E(1/2) value for [Cu(II)(tepa)](2+) as measured by cyclic voltammetry is 0.07 V vs Fc/Fc(+) in acetone, being significantly positive, which makes it possible to use relatively weak one-electron reductants such as Fc and Me(2)Fc for the overall two-electron reduction of O(2). Fast electron transfer from Fc or Me(2)Fc to 1 affords the corresponding Cu(I) complex [Cu(I)(tepa)](+) (2), which reacts at low temperature (193 K) with O(2), however only in the presence of HClO(4), to afford the hydroperoxo complex [Cu(II)(tepa)(OOH)](+) (3). A detailed kinetic study on the homogeneous catalytic system reveals the rate-determining step to be the O(2)-binding process in the presence of HClO(4) at lower temperature as well as at room temperature. The O(2)-binding kinetics in the presence of HClO(4) were studied, demonstrating that the rate of formation of the hydroperoxo complex 3 as well as the overall catalytic reaction remained virtually the same with changing temperature. The apparent lack of activation energy for the catalytic two-electron reduction of O(2) is shown to result from the existence of a pre-equilibrium between 2 and O(2) prior to the formation of the hydroperoxo complex 3. No further reduction of [Cu(II)(tepa)(OOH)](+) (3) by Fc or Me(2)Fc occurred, and instead 3 is protonated by HClO(4) to yield H(2)O(2) accompanied by regeneration of 1, thus completing the catalytic cycle for the two-electron reduction of O(2) by Fc or Me(2)Fc.

  12. The mode of action of ethyl lactate as a treatment for acne.

    PubMed

    Prottey, C; George, D; Leech, R W; Black, J G; Howes, D; Vickers, C F

    1984-04-01

    We have shown that an alcoholic lotion containing ethyl lactate when applied topically to rat skin under occlusion became localized in the follicles and sebaceous glands. When applied to human facial skin the ethyl lactate was hydrolysed to ethanol and lactic acid, and thereby lowered the skin pH. Under such conditions the growth of recoverable skin bacteria, in particular the anaerobe Propionibacterium acnes, was inhibited, and the hydrolysis of sebum to free fatty acids by lipase derived from the bacteria was greatly impaired. These effects of ethyl lactate would account for its observed clinical efficacy in acne vulgaris.

  13. Identification of an antioxidant, ethyl protocatechuate, in peanut seed testa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiow Chyn; Yen, Gow-Chin; Chang, Lee-Wen; Yen, Wen-Jye; Duh, Pin-Der

    2003-04-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of the antioxidant component of peanut seed testa were investigated. The antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa was studied in the linoleic acid model system by using the ferric thiocyanate method. Among the five organic solvent extracts, the ethanolic extracts of peanut seed testa (EEPST) produced higher yields and stronger antioxidant activity than other organic solvent extracts. EEPST was separated into 17 fractions on silica gel column chromatography. Fraction 17, which showed the largest yield and significant antioxidant activity, was separated by thin-layer chromatography. Four major antioxidative subfractions were present. Subfraction 17-2 was found to be effective in preventing oxidation of linoleic acid. This subfraction was further fractionated and isolated and characterized by UV, MS, IR, and (1)H NMR techniques. The active compound was identified as ethyl protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester).

  14. Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

  15. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  16. Labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine in hepatic RNA of mice given[ethyl-1,2(-3)H or ethyl-1(-14)C]ethyl carbamate (urethan).

    PubMed

    Ribovich, M L; Miller, J A; Miller, E C; Timmins, L G

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a single dose of[ethyl-1,2(-3)H]or[ethyl-1(-14C]- ethyl carbamate into 12-day old male[C57BL/6 x C3H/He]F1 mice or of[ethyl-1,2(-3H]ethyl carbamate into adult male A/Jax mice resulted in the formation of labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine adducts in the hepatic RNA. These adducts were characterized by comigration on h.p.l.c. of 3H or 14C in enzymatic hydrolysates of the RNA with synthetic standards. Both the ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine were further characterized by their conversion to acetylated products that comigrated with acetylated synthetic standards. The ethenoadenosine was also converted by anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid to a product that comigrated with synthetic 1,N6-ethenoadenine. The levels of adducts in the hepatic RNA 12 h after a single injection of 0.5-0.6 mg of ethyl carbamate/g body weight were 6-10 and 2-3 pmol/mg RNA of ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine, respectively. No labeled ethenoadenosine or ethenocytidine could be detected in the hepatic RNA of mice given[1-14C]ethanol, an enzymatic hydrolysis product of ethyl carbamate. These data indicate that ethyl carbamate may be metabolically activated by dehydrogenation to vinyl carbamate and subsequent epoxidation of the latter compound as previously proposed. Vinyl carbamate epoxide may form etheno derivatives in a manner analogous to that demonstrated for chloroethylene oxide, an electrophilic metabolite of vinyl chloride. Vinyl carbamate has been shown to have the same spectrum of tumor induction as ethyl carbamate but to be much more active than the latter carcinogen. PMID:6178529

  17. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit. PMID:20801232

  18. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  19. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

  20. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown. PMID:27632919

  1. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  6. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  7. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  8. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  9. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  10. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  11. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  12. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  13. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  14. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  15. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  16. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  17. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  18. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  19. Folic acid-enhanced synergy for the combination of trimetrexate plus the glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase inhibitor 4-[2-(2-amino-4-oxo-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-pyrimidino[5,4,6][1,4]thiazin -6-yl)-(S)-ethyl]-2,5-thienoylamino-L-glutamic acid (AG2034): comparison across sensitive and resistant human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Faessel, H M; Slocum, H K; Rustum, Y M; Greco, W R

    1999-03-01

    Folic acid (PteGlu)-enhanced intense synergy has been observed between nonpolyglutamylatable dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors and polyglutamylatable inhibitors of other folate-requiring enzymes, such as glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT) and thymidylate synthase. Since this phenomenon is potentially therapeutically useful, we explored its universality by examining the combined action of a DHFR inhibitor, trimetrexate (TMQ), with a GARFT inhibitor, 4-[2-(2-amino-4-oxo-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-pyrimidino[5,4,6][1,4]++ +thiazin-6-yl)-(S)-ethyl]-2,5-thienoylamino-L-glutamic acid (AG2034), in eight human cultured cell lines. Using a 96-well plate cell growth inhibition assay, four ileocecal adenocarcinoma cell lines [HCT-8, HCT-8/DW2 (Tomudex-resistant), HCT-8/DF2 (Tomudex-/FdUrd-resistant), and HCT-8/50 (adapted to 50 nM PteGlu)], three head and neck carcinoma cell lines [A253, FaDu, and Hep-2/500 (FdUrd-resistant)], and a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line [H460] were treated for 96 hr with TMQ + AG2034 in the presence of 23 or 40 microM PteGlu. Cell growth was measured with the sulforhodamine B assay at the end of this period. Drug interactions were assessed by fitting a 7-parameter model including a synergism parameter, alpha, to data with weighted nonlinear regression. Isobologram analysis was also applied. At 23 microM PteGlu, cells exhibited similar intensities of Loewe synergy for the combination of TMQ + AG2034. Loewe synergy was abolished in HCT-8/50 cells cultured and studied in 50 nM PteGlu. At 40 microM PteGlu, the intensity of the combined action in all cell lines was increased However, the most intense Loewe synergy was seen with HCT-8, HCT-8/DF2, H460, FaDu, A253, and Hep-2/500 cells, whereas the HCT-8/50 subculture showed less of the phenomenon, and PteGlu enhancement was the least with HCT-8/DW2, a subline deficient in folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). The universality of the PteGlu-enhanced intense synergy phenomenon

  20. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system.

  1. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system.

  2. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  3. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  4. Microbial Community Dynamics during the Bioremediation Process of Chlorimuron-Ethyl-Contaminated Soil by Hansschlegelia sp. Strain CHL1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25689050

  5. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  6. Characterization of the Antiallergic Drugs 3-[2-(2-Phenylethyl) benzoimidazole-4-yl]-3-hydroxypropanoic Acid and Ethyl 3-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2-phenylethyl)benzoimidazol-4-yl]propanoate as Full Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Morales, José Luis; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Perdew, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates most of the toxic effects of numerous chlorinated (e.g., TCDD) and nonchlorinated polycyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). Studies in AhR null mice suggested that this receptor may also play a role in the modulation of immune responses. Recently, two drugs, namely, M50354 and M50367 (ethyl ester derivative of M50354), were described as AhR ligands with high efficacy toward reducing atopic allergic symptoms in an AhR-dependent manner by skewing T helper cell differentiation toward a TH1 phenotype [Negishi et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175 (11), 7348–7356]. Surprisingly, these drugs were shown to have minimal activity toward inducing classical dioxin responsive element-driven AhR-mediated CYP1A1 transcription. We synthesized and reevaluated the ability of these drugs to regulate AhR activity. In contrast to previously published data, both M50354 and M50367 were found to be potent inducers of several AhR target genes, namely, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A2. M50367 was a more effective agonist than M50354, perhaps accounting for its higher bioavailability in vivo. However, M50354 was capable of displacing an AhR-specific radioligand more effectively than M50367. This is consistent with M50354 being the active metabolite of M50367. In conclusion, two selective inhibitors of TH2 differentiation are full AhR agonists. PMID:18179178

  7. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism in rabbit myocardium: purification to homogeneity of fatty acyl ethyl ester synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Mogelson, S.; Lange, L.G.

    1984-08-28

    Fatty acyl ethyl esters arise from an esterification of free fatty acids with ethanol in the absence of ATP and coenzyme A. This study was designed to purify the enzyme(s) in rabbit myocardium that catalyze(s) this reaction. Enzyme activity in homogenates of myocardium, as assayed by the rate of synthesis of ethyl (/sup 14/C)oleate from 0.4 mM (/sup 14/C)oleic acid and 0.2 M ethanol, was 31 nmol/ (g x h), and was recovered in the 48400g supernatant. This soluble ethyl ester synthase activity bound to DEAE-cellulose at pH 8, and elution with a NaCl gradient (0-0.25 M0 separated two enzyme activities accounting for 13 and 87% of recovered synthase activity. The major enzyme activity was purified over 5000-fold to homogeneity. Gel electrophoresis showed a single polypeptide with M/sub r/ 26,000, and gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions indicated a M/sub r/ of 50,000 for the active enzyme. Kinetic analyses indicated that greatest rates of synthesis were observed with unsaturated octadecanoic fatty acid substrates. K/sub m/'s for these fatty acids were essentially identical and equal to 0.2 mM; substrate specificity resulted from varying K/sub m/'s for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol, while V/sub max/ was constant at approximately 1.5 nmol/(mg x s). The amino acid analysis of this synthase distinguishes it from typical cholesterol esterases. When the enzyme is maximally active with respect to ethyl ester synthesis, it does not hydrolyze cholesterol oleate. Fatty acid ethyl esters are synthesized in myocardium primarily by a soluble dimeric enzyme comprised of two nearly identical subunits which esterifies free fatty acids with ethanol to produce a nonoxidative metabolite.

  8. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the..., and its metabolites, 2- phenoxy]propanoic acid and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one, calculated as... metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities in the table in this paragraph in connection with use...

  9. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  10. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  15. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-01

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected π* shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  16. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  17. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water.

  18. Organosolv pretreatment of Sitka spruce wood: conversion of hemicelluloses to ethyl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    A range of Organosolv pretreatments, using ethanol:water mixtures with dilute sulphuric acid, were applied to Sitka spruce sawdust with the aim of generating useful co-products as well as improving saccharification yield. The most efficient of the pretreatment conditions, resulting in subsequent saccharification yields of up to 86%, converted a large part of the hemicellulose sugars to their ethyl glycosides as identified by GC/MS. These conditions also reduced conversion of pentoses to furfural, the ethyl glycosides being more stable to dehydration than the parent pentoses. Through comparison with the behaviour of model compounds under the same reaction conditions it was shown that the anomeric composition of the products was consistent with a predominant transglycosylation reaction mechanism, rather than hydrolysis followed by glycosylation. The ethyl glycosides have potential as intermediates in the sustainable production of high-value chemicals. PMID:24269088

  19. Fate of 14C-ethyl prothiofos insecticide in canola seeds and oils.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Hegazi, Bahira

    2010-02-01

    Canola plants were treated with (14)C- prohiofos under conditions simulating local agricultural practices. (14)C-residues in seeds were determined at different time intervals. At harvest time about 32 % of (14)C-activity was associated with oil. The methanol soluble (14)C-residues accounted for 12 % of the total seed residues after further seeds extraction, while the cake contained about 49 % of the total residues. About 69 % of the (14)C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. Chromatographic analysis of crude and refined oil revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three metabolites which were identified as prothiofos oxon, O-ethyl phosphorothioate and O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate, besides one unknown compound. While methanol extract revealed the presence of despropylthio prothiofos and O-ethyl phosphoric acid as free metabolites acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract yielded 2, 4-dichlorophenole which was detected by color. When rats were fed the extracted cake for 72 hours, the bound residues were found to be bioavailable. The main excretion route was via the expired air (42 %), while the (14)C-residues excreted in urine and feces were 30 % and 11 %, respectively. The radioactivity detected among various organs accounted to 7.5 %.Chromatographic analysis of urine indicated the presence of prothiofos oxon, O-ethyl phosphoric acid and 2, 4-dichlorophenole as main degradation products of prothiofos in free and conjugated form.

  20. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  1. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  2. The Benzenesulfoamide T0901317 [N-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide] Is a Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor-α/γ Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Solt, Laura A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Istrate, Monica A.; Busby, Scott A.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) regulate a variety of physiological processes including hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, and immune function. Here we present the first high-affinity synthetic ligand for both RORα and RORγ. In a screen against all 48 human nuclear receptors, the benzenesulfonamide liver X receptor (LXR) agonist N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) inhibited transactivation activity of RORα and RORγ but not RORβ. T0901317 was found to directly bind to RORα and RORγ with high affinity (Ki = 132 and 51 nM, respectively), resulting in the modulation of the receptor's ability to interact with transcriptional cofactor proteins. T0901317 repressed RORα/γ-dependent transactivation of ROR-responsive reporter genes and in HepG2 cells reduced recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-2 by RORα at an endogenous ROR target gene (G6Pase). Using small interference RNA, we demonstrate that repression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in HepG2 cells by T0901317 is ROR-dependent and is not due to the compound's LXR activity. In summary, T0901317 represents a novel chemical probe to examine RORα/γ function and an excellent starting point for the development of ROR selective modulators. More importantly, our results demonstrate that small molecules can be used to target the RORs for therapeutic intervention in metabolic and immune disorders. PMID:19887649

  3. Tropane ethyl esters in illicit cocaine: isolation, detection, and determination of new manufacturing by-products from the clandestine purification of crude cocaine base with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Casale, John F; Boudreau, Danielle K; Jones, Laura M

    2008-05-01

    Seven ethyl homologues of known tropane esters have recently been detected as impurities in the gas chromatographic signature profiles of authentic Peruvian illicit cocaine base and hydrochloride exhibits. Peruvian cocaine base processors are now known to use ethanol for the purification of crude cocaine base. This process is referred to as the "base lavada" or "washed base" process and is a recent substitute method for the potassium permanganate oxidation purification methodology. Seven ethyl ester homologues were formed in illicit cocaine from the transesterification of known tropane methyl esters or possibly ethyl esterification of their respective tropane C-2 carboxylic acids in the presence of ethanol. Exhibits containing these compounds were subjected to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses to determine their identity and were subsequently synthesized to verify their structures. Quantitative determinations were obtained from ion-pair chromatography isolation followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Specifically, hexanoylecgonine ethyl ester, cocaethylene, cis-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, trans-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, 3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoylecgonine ethyl ester, cis-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, and trans-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester were detected and characterized. When present, these compounds were detected at levels ranging from 8.6 x 10(-4) to 9.3 x 10(-1)% relative to cocaine. PMID:18471211

  4. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive is a cellulose ether having the...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  7. [Clinical evaluation of a topical ethyl lactate treatment of acne vulgaris (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grosshans, E; Fourtanier, A; Guibaud, B

    1978-10-01

    The efficacy of a lotion containing 10 p. 100 ethyl lactate was evaluated in a double-blind clinical trail during 8 weeks. Test subjects were 45 male and female patients with polymorphous juvenile acne. They were divided into three groups and received the following treatments: Group A: oral antibiotic + topical placebo lotion. Group B: oral antibiotic + topical ethyl lactate lotion. Group C: topical ethyl lactate lotion only. The lotions were applied twice daily with a swab of cotton-wool. The antibiotic doses (tetracycline hydrochloride) were decreased as the trial progressed. Patients were examined before the trial, then after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. At each visit, comedones, microcysts, pustules and nodules were counted on a skin surface of 9 cm2. Colour photographs were taken before and at the end of the trial and served for counting inflammatory lesions. Also, at each visit, skin lipids were sampled and analysed by I. R. spectrophotometry in order to asses the effect of the treatments on the free fatty acid/triglyceride ratio. The treatments showed similar effectiveness as regards comedones and microcysts, but only treatments A and B succeeded in reducing the number of inflamed lesions. With respect to the latter, the combined treatment B (oral antibiotic + topical ethyl lactate lotion) was more effective than treatment A (oral antibiotic + topical placebo); both treatments were more effective than treatment C (topical ethyl lactate lotion only). At the end of the trial, all three groups of patients showed significant overall improvement, but acne scores (total number of lesions) did not differ significantly between treatments. When comparing these results with literature data concerning the effects of vitamin A acid and benzoyl peroxide, it appears that ethyl lactate is slightly less effective for topical treatment of acne than vitamin A acid, but slightly more effective than benzoyl peroxide. It should be underlined that ethyl lactate is well tolerated by

  8. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  9. Computer assisted modeling of ethyl sulfate pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Halter, Claudia C; Aderjan, Rolf; Auwaerter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-30

    For 12 volunteers of a drinking experiment the concentration-time-courses of ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethanol were simulated and fitted to the experimental data. The concentration-time-courses were described with the same mathematical model as previously used for ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The kinetic model based on the following assumptions and simplifications: a velocity constant k(form) for the first order formation of ethyl sulfate from ethanol and an exponential elimination constant k(el). The mean values (and standard deviations) obtained for k(form) and k(el) were 0.00052 h(-1) (0.00014) and 0.561 h(-1) (0.131), respectively. Using the ranges of these parameters it is possible to calculate minimum and maximum serum concentrations of EtS based on stated ethanol doses and drinking times. The comparison of calculated and measured concentrations can prove the plausibility of alleged ethanol consumption and add evidence to the retrospective calculation of ethanol concentrations based on EtG concentrations. PMID:19913378

  10. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value.

  11. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  12. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22phox, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21Waf1/Cip pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  13. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  14. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  15. Optimization of ethyl ester production assisted by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Noipin, K; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the continuous flow potassium hydroxide-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl ester from palm oil with ultrasonic assistance. The process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology. The independent variables considered were ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ultrasonic amplitude; and the response was ethyl ester yield. The results show that ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic amplitude have positive effect on ethyl ester yield, whereas reaction temperature has negative influence on ethyl ester yield. Second-order models were developed to predict the responses analyzed as a function of these three variables, and the developed models predicts the results in the experimental ranges studied adequately. This study shows that ultrasonic irradiation improved the ethyl ester production process to achieve ethyl ester yields above 92%. PMID:25116594

  16. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  19. Production of 10(S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic and 7,10(S,S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic ethyl esters by Novozym 435 in solvent-free media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novozym 435, lipase B from Candida antarctica, was used in this study for the production of ethyl esters. For the first time, trans-hydroxy-fatty acid ethyl esters were synthesized in vitro in solvent-free media. We studied the effects of the substrate–ethanol molar ratio and enzyme synthetic stabil...

  20. Ethyl Lithiodiazoacetate: Extremely Unstable Intermediate Handled Efficiently in Flow.

    PubMed

    Müller, Simon T R; Hokamp, Tobias; Ehrmann, Svenja; Hellier, Paul; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-08-16

    Ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) is one of the most prominent diazo reagents. It is frequently used in metal-carbene-type reactions. However, EDA can also be used as a nucleophile under base catalysis. Whilst the addition of EDA to aldehydes can be performed using organic bases, the addition of EDA to other carbonyl electrophiles requires the use of organometallics such as lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). The generated ethyl lithiodiazoacetate is highly reactive and decomposes rapidly, even at low temperatures. Herein, we report a continuous flow protocol that overcomes the problems associated with the instantaneous decomposition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate. The addition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate to ketones provides direct access to tertiary diazoalcohols in good yields.

  1. A green approach to ethyl acetate: quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). PMID:23136053

  2. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Kritikos, Minos; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures. Although creatine seems to facilitate cognition on some tasks, these results require replication using objective measures of compliance. The improvement is discussed in the context of research examining the influence of brain energy capacity on cognitive performance. PMID:19773644

  3. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G. P; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24716175

  4. The effect of fluorine atom on the synthesis and composition of gametocidal ethyl oxanilates.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Jernej; Titan, Primož; Meglič, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Three derivatives of ethyl oxanilate were synthesized in order to test their application as gametocides on the hermaphrodite plants like common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A substituent at para position (F, Br, CN) of aniline defined its reactivity towards diethyl oxalate 2. Classical reaction in toluene was not selective and amidation occurred also at the second carbonyl groups of 2. Alternative synthesis under solvent-free conditions with application of low pressure for removal of EtOH provided selectively with ethyl oxanilate 3a and 3b. 4-Cyanoaniline did not react selectively and the corresponding ethyl oxanilate 3c was prepared from mono acid chloride of oxalic acid. Fluoro derivative 3a was found to be the only one that gives stable aqueous suspension for its application as chemical hybridizing agent for common wheat, while bromo- 3b and cyano- 3c analogues were not soluble enough and suspension was stable for less than 2 hours. Fluoro derivative had shown the best induction of male sterility, while in comparison with standard chemical hybridizing agent they were substantially less toxic for plant.

  5. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive...

  6. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  7. Electronic structure and normal vibrations of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate ion pair.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2011-04-21

    Electronic and structural properties of the ion pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate are studied using density functional methods. Three locally stable conformers of the ion pair complex are considered to analyze molecular interactions between its cation and anion. Manifestations of these interactions in the vibrational spectra are discussed and compared with experimental IR and Raman spectroscopy data. NBO analysis and difference electron density coupled with molecular electron density topography are used to interpret the frequency shifts of the normal vibrations of the ion pair, compared to the free anion and cation. Excitation energies of low-lying singlet excited states of the conformers are also studied. The density functional theory results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental UV/vis absorption spectra.

  8. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483 O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide O-...

  9. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them. PMID:27664648

  10. Photoincorporation of puromycin and N-(ethyl-2-diazomalonyl)puromycin into Escherichia coli ribosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, B S; Jaynes, E N; Brunswick, D J; Luddy, M A

    1975-01-01

    [3H]Puromycin and N-(ethyl-2-diazomalonyl)[3H]puromycin are incorporated into E. coli ribosomes on irradiation at 253.7 nm. Both compounds incorporate into both protein and nucleic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of ribosomal protein shows that L23 is the major protein labeled by puromycin. Although incorporation is clearly a complex process, evidence is presented that L23 is labeled via an affinity labeling process, thus placing L23 at the aminoacyl-tRNA receptor (A) site. N-(ethyl-2-diazomalonyl)puromycin is a ribosomal ligand, as shown by its inhibition of two ribosomal assays, but it is not a good puromycin analog, and it is unclear whether its incorporation, which proceeds via both carbene-dependent and carbene-independent processes, results from affinity labeling. PMID:1103130

  11. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ping; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Chuan-Yong Xu, Ling

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Ethyl pyruvate inhibits liver cancer. • Promotes apoptosis. • Decreased the expression of HMGB1, p-Akt. - Abstract: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) was recently identified as a stable lipophilic derivative of pyruvic acid with significant antineoplastic activities. The high mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1)–receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and the protein kinase B (Akt) pathways play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and development of many malignant tumors. We tried to observe the effects of ethyl pyruvate on liver cancer growth and explored its effects in hepatocellular carcinoma model. In this study, three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were treated with ethyl pyruvate. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the effects of EP on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays were used to analyze apoptosis. Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence demonstrated ethyl pyruvate reduced the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways. The results of hepatoma orthotopic tumor model verified the antitumor effects of ethyl pyruvate in vivo. EP could induce apoptosis and slow the growth of liver cancer. Moreover, EP decreased the expression of HMGB1, RAGE, p-AKT and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ethyl pyruvate induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in G phase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, plays a critical role in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Mechanistic insight into alkylation of the ethyl acetoacetate anion with different ethyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, S.; Đurđević, J.; Vukosavljević, M.; Petrović, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The alkylation reactions of the ambident ethyl acetoacetate anion with C2H5X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) in the O2, C3, and O4 positions of the anion were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G( d,p) level of theory. It was found that the ethylation reaction does not occur in the position O4, as well as with ethyl fluoride in any position of the anion, due to very high activation energies and thermodynamic instability of the hypothetic products. The activation energies for the reactions in the position O2 are lower in comparison to the position C3, but the products of the reactions in the C3 position are more stable than those in the position O4, implying that the C/O products ratio is controlled by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, leading to the O2-product with the chloride, and C3-product with the iodide as leaving group.

  13. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  14. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  19. Ethyl carbamate levels resulting from azodicarbonamide use in bread.

    PubMed

    Cañas, B J; Diachenko, G W; Nyman, P J

    1997-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA), a dough conditioner, is an additive approved in the US up to a maximum of 45 mg/kg in flour. The addition of 45 mg/kg of ADA was investigated and found to increase the ethyl carbamate (EC) content of commercially prepared breads by 1-3 micrograms/kg. A similar increase in EC was observed in breads baked in the laboratory with a bread machine. The increase in EC levels appears to depend on a variety of factors, most notably the concentration of ADA added and the time of fermentation. The addition of 20 mg/kg ADA caused only a slight increase, if any, in commercial products but a 2.3 micrograms/kg increase of EC in breads baked with a bread machine. When 100 mg/kg of ascorbic acid was added along with ADA, smaller EC increases were observed. Addition of urea was also found to enhance the EC content of the bread. Toasting, which was previously shown to increase EC levels, caused even larger increases when ADA or urea had been added.

  20. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles: clarithomycin encapsulation and eradication of H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Banlunara, Wijit; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2014-08-30

    The extreme acidic environment of the stomach, its regular voidance of contents and the restricted access to the mucus covered habitat combined with the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria, all contribute to the poor success in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infections. Here, we demonstrate that by encapsulating clarithromycin into ethyl cellulose (EC) nanoparticles, the efficiency of H. pylori clearance in C57BL/6 mice infected with these bacteria was significantly improved. Clarithomycin-loaded EC nanoparticles were prepared via a simple yet effective anti-solvent particle induction method, to yield sub-micron sized particles with 22.3 ± 0.17% (w/w) clarithromycin loading at 86 ± 0.5% (w/w) encapsulation efficiency. The particles dispersed well in water and simulated gastric fluid and gave a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.09-0.18 μg/ml against four strains of H. pylori. Encapsulation into EC particles not only enhanced the anti-adhesion activity of clarithromycin when tested with H. pylori and Hep-2 cells, but also gave significant enhancement of H. pylori clearance in the stomach of C57BL/6 mice infected with the bacteria.

  1. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by Acinetobacter sp. CW17.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Du, Liangwei; Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaomao; Tan, Huihua; Bai, Lianyang; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2012-03-01

    The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, designated as CW17, was isolated from contaminated soil near the warehouse of the factory producing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Changsha city, China. The strain CW17 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. based on analyses of 94 carbon source utilization or chemical sensitivity in Biolog microplates, conventional phenotypic characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was provided as the sole carbon source, the effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH, and temperature on biodegradation were examined. The degradation rates of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at initial concentrations of 5.0, 20.0, and 50.0 mg/L were 48.0%, 77.0%, and 32.6%, respectively, after inoculation for 7 days. The growth of the strain was inhibited at low pH buffers. The chemical degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 30°C was faster than those at 20 and 37°C by CW17 strains. Two metabolites of degradation were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Based on the identified products, strain CW17 seemed to be able to degrade pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. PMID:22388979

  2. Synthesis of dipeptide precursors with an immobilized thermolysin in ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Nagayasu, T; Miyanaga, M; Tanaka, T; Sakiyama, T; Nakanishi, K

    1994-05-01

    N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (Z-AspPheOMe), a precursor of the aspartame, and N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-Lphenylalanine methyl ester (Z-PhePheOMe) were synthesized from the respective amino acid derivatives with an immobilized thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.4) in ethyl acetate. Various factors affecting the synthesis of these dipeptide precursors were clarified. The initial synthetic rate was the highest at the water content of 3.5% for both reactions. The substrate concentration dependencies of the initial synthetic rate of Z-AspkPheOMe and Z-PhePheOMe with the immobilized enzyme in ethyl acetate were different from those in an aqueous buffer solution saturated with ethyl acetate but similar to those in the aqueous/organic biphasic system using the free enzyme. Particularly, the initial synthetic rate of Z-AspPhOMe increased in order higher than first order with respect to the concentration of L-phenylalanine methyl ester (PheOMe), whereas it decreased sharply with the concentration of N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartic acid (Z-Asp). Such kinetic behavior could be explained by regarding the inside of the immobilized enzyme as being a biphasic mode composed from the organic phase and aqueous phase where the enzymatic reaction takes place. The reaction in the aqueous/organic biphasic system using the free enzyme could be simulated by taking into consideration the partition of the substrate and the initial rate of synthesis in the aqueous buffer saturated with ethyl acetate. Based on this analysis, the rate of reaction with the immobilized enzyme in ethyl acetate could also be predicted. Z-AsPheOMe and Z-PhePheOMe were synthesized by the fed-batch method where the acid component of the substrate was intermittently added during the course of reaction and by the batch method. In the synthesis of Z-AspPheOMe, the synthetic rate and maximum yield of reaction as well as the stability of the immobilized enzyme were higher in the fed

  3. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  4. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  5. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  6. Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rats of Two New Ethyl-Carbamates with Ixodicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Abrego-Reyes, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Female and male Wistar rats were used to determine the subchronic oral toxicities of two new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activities (ethyl-4-bromphenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorphenyl-carbamate). The evaluated carbamates were administered in the drinking water (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Exposure to the evaluated carbamates did not cause mortality or clinical signs and did not affect food consumption or weight gain. However, exposure to these carbamates produced alterations in water consumption, hematocrit, percentages of reticulocytes, plasma proteins, some biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, cholinesterase, and creatinine activities), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative weight of the spleen. Histologically, slight pathological alterations were found in the liver that were consistent with the observed biochemical alterations. The nonobserved adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of the evaluated carbamates were 12.5 mg/kg/day for both the female and male rats. The low severity and reversibility of the majority of the observed alterations suggest that the evaluated carbamates have low subchronic toxicity. PMID:24818142

  7. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fenton’s system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100 μg/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20 mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed and tested to meet the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping for a head of water at... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  9. Multidimensional chromatographic approach applied to the identification of novel aroma compounds in wine. Identification of ethyl cyclohexanoate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate.

    PubMed

    Campo, E; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2006-12-29

    A multidimensional chromatographic strategy has been developed and optimized with the purpose of identifying different odorants potentially relevant to the aroma and flavor of aged wines from Madeira or Sherry. Different techniques of extraction and fractionation were studied in order to get clear olfactometric and spectrometric signals from the target odorants. The best results were obtained with a dynamic headspace extraction followed by a fractionation on a normal phase medium pressure liquid chromatography on a silicagel column. Large volumes (50 microl) of the concentrated fractions were further analyzed in a dual gas chromatography-mass spectrometric system (GC-MS) equipped with two olfactometric ports. The strategy made it possible to identify in wine by first time the presence of the powerful strawberry-smelling compound, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and of two other novel fruity esters, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate. Some other unidentified odorants could be isolated and their mass spectra are given. PMID:17069823

  10. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods.

  11. Experimental study of the autoignition of C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2} ethyl and methyl esters in a motored engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Boehman, Andre L.

    2010-03-15

    Autoignition of two biodiesel surrogates, methyl heptanoate and ethyl hexanoate, was studied in a motored CFR engine at an equivalence ratio of 0.25 and an intake temperature of 155 C. The engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) occurred. Within the test range of this work, both of the two esters exhibited evident cool flame behavior. At the same compression ratio, methyl heptanoate was observed to have both an earlier onset and a higher magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) than ethyl hexanoate, indicating that methyl heptanoate is more reactive in the low temperature region than ethyl hexanoate. GC-MS analyses of the reaction intermediates from the oxidation of the two esters showed that the alkyl chain of fatty acid esters experiences the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence. Based on the observations from GC-MS analyses, major low temperature oxidation pathways of ethyl hexanoate are proposed in this work. Also, it is observed that the abstraction of H-atoms on the {alpha}-carbon of the ester carbonyl group plays an important role in the oxidation of fatty acid esters. In addition, the identification of hexanoic acid among the reaction intermediates from low temperature oxidation of ethyl hexanaoate together with the observation of more fuel carbon being converted to C{sub 2}H{sub 4} during ethyl hexanoate oxidation than during methyl heptanoate oxidation provide evidence for the existence of the six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction during low temperature oxidation of ethyl esters. (author)

  12. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  13. Phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 improves greengram performance in quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop amended soil.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2010-02-01

    The quizalafop-p-ethyl- and clodinafop-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 isolated from the rhizospheric soils of mustard was used to determine its phosphate-solubilizing activity and other plant-growth-promoting traits both in the presence and absence of technical grade quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop under in vitro conditions. Quizalafop-p-ethyl (at 40, 80, and 120 ppb) and clodinafop (at 400, 800, and 1200 ppb) reduced the P-solubilizing activity, synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, and siderophores progressively with increasing concentrations of each herbicide. Hydrogen cyanide and ammonia synthesisized by this strain, however, did not change. Furthermore, the effects of three concentrations each of quizalafop-p-ethyl [40 (recommended dose), 80, and 120 ppb] and clodinafop [400 (recommended dose), 800, and 1200 ppb] were evaluated on plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 inoculated greengram plants, grown in sandy clay loam soil. Generally, all of the concentrations of both quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop showed phytotoxicity and severely affected the growth, symbiosis, grain yield, and nutrient uptake by greengram plants. The toxicity of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop enhanced gradually with the increase in the dose rate of herbicides. Quizalafop-p-ethyl was more toxic than clodinafop. In contrast, herbicide-tolerant P. aeruginosa strain PS1 when used with herbicides increased the measured parameters at all concentrations. Both quizalafop-p-ethyl at 120 ppb and clodinafop at 400 ppb increased total chlorophyll content, leghemoglobin, root N, shoot N, root P, shoot P, seed yield, and seed protein, relative to the uninoculated control. The study suggests that the phytotoxicity of herbicides to legumes could be reduced by applying the growth-promoting herbicide-tolerant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1. PMID:19756846

  14. Development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic bioprocess for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Menelaou, Maria; Nicolaou, Evrydiki N

    2014-08-01

    This work explores the potential for the development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic process for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste. Cheese whey was used in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus batch cultures to produce ethanol and lactic acid respectively. Subsequently, the fermentation products were transferred into an organic phase through liquid-liquid extraction and ethyl lactate was formed in an esterification reaction catalyzed by lipases. The production of ethanol and lactic acid achieved under different conditions was 23gL(-1) and 29gL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of various organic solvents for the esterification reaction was evaluated and toluene was chosen for application in the process. The effect of water content was determined aiming to maximize the product yield and 40mgml(-1) was the optimal enzyme concentration. The bioprocess achieved maximum conversion of 33% constituting a valuable alternative to the application of energy demanding chemically derived methods. PMID:24785788

  15. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively.

  16. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26646219

  17. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].

    PubMed

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

  18. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2 = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R2 = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID

  20. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  1. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid.

  2. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. PMID:26926564

  3. Assistance of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in the interpretation of postmortem ethanol findings.

    PubMed

    Krabseth, Hege; Mørland, Jørg; Høiseth, Gudrun

    2014-09-01

    Postmortem ethanol formation is a well-known problem in forensic toxicology. The aim of this study was to interpret findings of ethanol in blood, in a large collection of forensic autopsy cases, by use of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS). In this study, according to previously published literature, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in EtS-negative cases. Among 493 ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, collected during the study period, EtS was not detected in 60 (12 %) of the cases. Among cases with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of ≤ 0.54 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 38 % of the cases, while among cases with a BAC of ≥ 0.55 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 2.2 % of the cases. For all cases where ethanol was measured at a concentration >1.0 g/kg, EtS was detected. The highest blood ethanol concentration in which EtS was not detected was 1.0 g/kg. The median concentrations of EtG and EtS in blood were 9.5 μmol/L (range: not detected (n.d.) 618.1) and 9.2 μmol/L (range: n.d. 182.5), respectively. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between concentration levels of ethanol and of EtG (Spearman's rho=0.671, p<0.001) and EtS (Spearman's rho=0.670, p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that in a large number of ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, ethanol was not ingested before the time of death, particularly among cases where ethanol was present in lower blood concentrations. Routine measurement of EtG and EtS should therefore be recommended, especially in cases with BAC below 1 g/kg. PMID:24935750

  4. Blood kinetics of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in heavy drinkers during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Morini, Luca; Polettini, Aldo; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-07-01

    Studies of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) blood kinetics have so far been performed on healthy volunteers with ingestion of low to moderate doses of ethanol. These data are not necessarily transferable to heavy drinkers where the consumed doses of ethanol are much higher. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of EtG and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in blood in heavy drinkers after termination of alcohol ingestion. Sixteen patients from an alcohol withdrawal clinic were included directly after admission. Time of end of drinking, estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) and medical history were recorded. Three to five blood samples over 20-43 h were collected from each patient subsequent to admission. The median EDI was 172 g (range 60-564). The first sample was collected median 2.5 h after end of drinking (range 0.5-23.5). Two patients had levels of EtG and EtS below LOQ in all samples, the first collected 19.25 and 23.5 h after cessation of drinking, respectively. Of the remaining 14 patients, one subject, suffering from both renal and hepatic disease, showed concentrations of EtG and EtS substantially higher than the rest of the material. This patient's initial value of EtG was 17.9 mg/L and of EtS 5.9 mg/L, with terminal elimination half lives of 11.9 h for EtG and 12.5 h for EtS. Among the remaining 13 patients, the initial median values were 0.7 g/L (range 0-3.7) for ethanol, 1.7 mg/L (range 0.1-5.9) for EtG and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.1-1.9) for EtS. Elimination occurred with a median half-life of 3.3 h for EtG (range 2.6-4.3) and 3.6 h for EtS (range 2.7-5.4). In conclusion, elimination of EtG in heavy drinkers did not significantly differ from healthy volunteers, and EtS appeared to have similar elimination rate. In the present work, there was one exception to this, and we propose that this could be explained by the patient's renal disease, which would delay excretion of these conjugated metabolites. PMID:19395207

  5. Highly Cross-Linked Epoxy Nanofiltration Membranes for the Separation of Organic Chemicals and Fish Oil Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Chad M; Bowden, Ned B

    2016-09-14

    Membrane separations are highly desired for the chemical industry because they are inexpensive, avoid the use of heat, can be applied to the purification of a wide range of chemicals, and can be scaled to industrial levels. Separating chemicals with molecular weights between 100 and 300 g mol(-1) remains a significant challenge in the field of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) due to their similar sizes and rotational flexibility. In this work, we report the fabrication of poly(epoxy) membranes that show excellent selectivity of over 100:1 for chemicals in this range. The membranes are easily tuned to obtain different flux and selectivity by using interchangeable amine and epoxide monomers. These membranes were used to separate the important nutritional omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester (EPA-EE) and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE) from each other, despite a small difference in molecular weight (26 g mol(-1)). This is the first example of a separation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE using a membrane process.

  6. Highly Cross-Linked Epoxy Nanofiltration Membranes for the Separation of Organic Chemicals and Fish Oil Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Chad M; Bowden, Ned B

    2016-09-14

    Membrane separations are highly desired for the chemical industry because they are inexpensive, avoid the use of heat, can be applied to the purification of a wide range of chemicals, and can be scaled to industrial levels. Separating chemicals with molecular weights between 100 and 300 g mol(-1) remains a significant challenge in the field of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) due to their similar sizes and rotational flexibility. In this work, we report the fabrication of poly(epoxy) membranes that show excellent selectivity of over 100:1 for chemicals in this range. The membranes are easily tuned to obtain different flux and selectivity by using interchangeable amine and epoxide monomers. These membranes were used to separate the important nutritional omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters eicosapentaenoic ethyl ester (EPA-EE) and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (DHA-EE) from each other, despite a small difference in molecular weight (26 g mol(-1)). This is the first example of a separation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE using a membrane process. PMID:27552234

  7. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  8. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... plant growth regulator, trinexapac-ethyl and its primary metabolite CGA-179500, in or on grass, forage... Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 4, 2010, (75 FR 46925) (FRL-8834- 9), EPA issued a notice... Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this...

  9. Higher permeability for water than for ethyl alcohol in Nitella.

    PubMed

    OSTERHOUT, W J V

    1950-03-01

    If we apply water at one end of a Nitella cell, A, and place at the other end, B, a solution of a substance which does not penetrate, such as sucrose, water enters the cell at A, passes along inside the cell, and escapes at B. But if in place of sucrose we use a substance which penetrates such as ethyl alcohol the flow of water is lessened and this fact makes it possible to measure the amount of alcohol which enters. (An increase in the size of cells placed in solutions of alcohol does not necessarily indicate that the number of mols of alcohol entering is greater than the number of mols of water leaving the cell.) The permeability for water is more than 18 times as great as for ethyl alcohol. The behavior of the 2 substances was compared in the same individual cell with a driving force which at the start was the same for both substances. The number of mols entering per second per cm.(2) of surface with a driving force of 1 atmosphere at 25 degrees C. is 0.772 (10(-6)) for water and 0.042 (10(-6)) for ethyl alcohol. The experiments indicate that the non-aqueous substance at the surface of the protoplasm has a higher partition coefficient for water than for ethyl alcohol, although the protoplasmic surface is composed of materials not miscible with water.

  10. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  11. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35801) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...- ethyl. C. Revisions to Petitioned-for Tolerances In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, ] October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  12. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.429 Section 180.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., field, forage 0.5 Corn, field, grain 0.01 Corn, field, stover 2.0 Grain, aspirated fractions 3.0...

  13. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  14. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical.

  15. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...-ethyl in or on barley, bran; sugarcane, molasses; and wheat, bran under the Federal Food, Drug, and... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  16. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  17. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene in... identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate... less than 0.920 nor more than 0.935, as determined by ASTM method D1505-68 (Reapproved 1979),...

  18. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

  19. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  20. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  8. Determination of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, 1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy-3-phenyl-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (KR-62980) in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Sun; Song, Jin Sook; Roh, Hyeongjin; Park, Jong-Shik; Ahn, Jin Hee; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae

    2011-01-01

    A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, KR-62980, was determined by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in rat plasma. In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of KR-62980, a reliable, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantification of KR-62980 in rat plasma. KR-62980 and imipramine (IS) were separated on Hypersil GOLD C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium formate (10mM) (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase. The ion transitions monitored were m/z 437.2 → 114.2 for KR-62980, m/z 281.3 → 86.1 for imipramine in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The percent recoveries of KR-62980 and imipramine were 90.1 and 98.4% from rat plasma, respectively. The linear dynamic range extended from 0.01 to 10 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.99 and the lower limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/ml. The mean of intra- and inter-assay precisions was 2.1 and 9.3%. The method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of KR-62980 in rat.

  9. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  10. [A study on the mechanism of reductive alkylation for preparing 3-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl-sulfonyl) N-ethyl aniline with HPLC/MS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Wu, Z W; Lin, L S; Yang, H Y

    2000-11-01

    Hydrogenating 3-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl-sulfonyl)-aniline and acetaldehyde in the presence of Raney Nickel as a catalyst, 3-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl-sulfonyl)-N-ethyl-aniline was obtained with 98% conversion and 95% monoalkylation selectivity under optimum conditions. By using high performance liquid chromatography/mass selective detection technique to characterize the structures of the products, the mechanism of reductive alkylation is proposed. From the intermediates determined, it is shown that the reaction mechanism would go via an unstable N-alpha-hydroxyethylaniline derivative and Schiff base stage. After hydrogenation of Schiff base, finally the product 3-(beta-hydroxyethyl-sulfonyl)-N-ethyl aniline was formed.

  11. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates.

  12. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure.

  13. Effect of ethyl oleate on drying characteristics of mulberries.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim; Pala, Mehmet

    2003-10-01

    In this study, air-drying experiments in thin layers of mulberry grown in Istanbul, Turkey, were conducted. The effect of ethyl oleate solution on drying time of mulberry samples was investigated in a pilot air-dryer. When ethyl oleate was used as pretreatment solution, the drying time of samples was decreased. Drying curves were obtained using the Page model. The effective diffusivity varied from 2.326 x 10(-10) to 1.809 x 10(-9) m2/s the temperature range. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity coefficient was described by the Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energy for moisture diffusion was found to be 50.87 kJ/mol for treated samples and 51.85 kJ/mol for untreated samples. PMID:14609084

  14. [Influence of ethyl alcohol on diabetes pathogenesis type].

    PubMed

    Zasimowicz, Elzbieta; Wolszczak, Blanka; Zasimowicz, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Relations between metabolism of carbohydrates and ethyl alcohol consumption became a subject of many research because they occur very frequently amongst alcoholics. One of the most often and dangerous effects of abusing ethanol is hypoglycemia. It is caused by hepatic gluconeogenesis disturbed by ethyl alcohol. Chronic result of abusing alcohol is chronic pancreas inflammation (PZT), what causes disorders of exo- and endocrine function of pancreas. Endocrine function is secretion of insulin and the glucagon what regulates metabolism of absorbed compounds. Failure of beta cells of Langerhans islets causes diabetes demanding insulin therapy. The ethanol can cause recurring diabetes resulting from damage of cells of Langerhans islets but can be also the risk factor of diabetes type 2.

  15. Structural analysis of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kohara, Shinji; Suzuya, Kentaro

    2003-01-01

    The structure of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride (EMImF · HF) melt has been analyzed at 333 K by a high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction method. The total correlation function of the EMImF · HF melt was similar to that of the solid state, indicating that not only the short range but also the intermediate-range ordering in the solid are partially preserved in the liquid state. The intra-molecular F-F correlation in the anions clearly appears in the total correlation function of the EMImF · HF melt, whereas prominent peaks are not observed in the case of a room temperature molten salt, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium fluorohydrogenate.

  16. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  17. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  18. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659633

  19. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659644

  20. Phylogeny-guided isolation of ethyl tumonoate A from the marine cyanobacterium cf. Oscillatoria margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Choi, Hyukjae; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Byrum, Tara; Villa, Francisco A; Cao, Zhengyu; Murray, Thomas F; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H

    2011-08-26

    The evolutionary relationships of cyanobacteria, as inferred by their SSU (16S) rRNA genes, were used as predictors of their potential to produce varied secondary metabolites. The evolutionary relatedness in geographically distant cyanobacterial specimens was then used as a guide for the detection and isolation of new variations of predicted molecules. This phylogeny-guided isolation approach for new secondary metabolites was tested in its capacity to direct the search for specific classes of new natural products from Curaçao marine cyanobacteria. As a result, we discovered ethyl tumonoate A (1), a new tumonoic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory activity of calcium oscillations in neocortical neurons.

  1. Removal of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations with bacterial biosorbents from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Won, Sung Wook; Choi, Sun Beom; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-01-15

    This study aims to determine whether biosorption can be used for the removal of ionic liquids (ILs), especially their cationic parts, from aqueous media. As a model IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) was used. Five types of bacterial biosorbents were prepared from fermentation wastes through chemical modification of the bacterial surface. Screening study was performed to compare the cationic [EMIM] biosorption capacity among the bacterial biosorbents, indicating that the succinated Escherichia coli biomass (SB-E) was the best biosorbent for removing [EMIM] cations. The [EMIM] biosorption performance of SB-E was evaluated in detail through various experiments. The optimal pH range for [EMIM] biosorption was from 7 to 10, and biosorption equilibrium was reached within 10 min. The maximum uptake of SB-E was also estimated to be 72.6 mg/g. Moreover, [EMIM] cations were easily desorbed from [EMIM]-sorbed SB-E by adding acetic acid. PMID:23246948

  2. [Detection and application of ethyl glucuronide in forensic toxicology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhuo, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-hua

    2009-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology. PMID:19397218

  3. The interaction of ethyl alcohol and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hills, B W; Venable, H L

    1982-01-01

    A serious, relatively unrecognized, occupational health problem involves the interaction of ethyl alcohol and chemical agents used in industry. Workers who drink alcohol and are exposed to certain chemical agents may experience adverse health effects such as nausea, dizziness, headache, and liver damage. This report reviews the synergistic interactions of ethanol with compounds such as the thiurams, amides, oximes, halogenated hydrocarbons, and metals. Also discussed is the effect of ethanol as a cofactor with vinyl chloride in the etiology of cancer.

  4. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  5. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm.

  6. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  7. Single and combined supplementation of glutamine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on host tolerance and tumour response to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin (CPT-11)/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in rats bearing Ward colon tumour.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongyu; Le Roy, Séverine; Sawyer, Michael B; Field, Catherine J; Dieleman, Levinus A; Baracos, Vickie E

    2009-08-01

    Prior reports suggest that during irinotecan (7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin; CPT-11) chemotherapy in laboratory rats, the anti-tumour efficacy and diarrhoea toxicity could be modulated by n-3 PUFA and glutamine, respectively. We further examined how these two dietary elements, when provided individually and in combination, would affect the efficacy of a cyclical regimen of CPT-11/5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an accepted combination regimen for colorectal cancer. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, diets enriched either with glutamine (2 %, w/w total diet) or n-3 PUFA (0.88 %, w/w total diet) alone, inhibited Ward colon tumour growth (P < 0.05). These diets also completely or partially normalized the changes in peripheral leucocyte counts associated with the tumour-bearing state (e.g. neutrophil proportion/concentration and lymphocyte proportion). During chemotherapy, either glutamine- or n-3 PUFA-enriched diet enhanced tumour chemo-sensitivity, and reduced body weight loss, anorexia and muscle wasting (v. animals fed control diet, P < 0.05). Surprisingly, providing both glutamine and n-3 PUFA together did not confer a greater benefit on tumour inhibition either in the presence or absence of chemotherapy; individual benefits associated with single treatments, particularly in respect to host nutritional status (i.e. body weight, food intake and muscle weight) and immune (peripheral leucocyte counts) features were instead partially or completely lost when these two nutrients were combined. These results draw into question the common assumption that there are additive or synergistic benefits of combinations of nutrients, which are beneficial on an individual basis, and suggest that co-supplementation with glutamine and n-3 PUFA is not indicated during chemotherapy with CPT-11 and 5-FU.

  8. Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†

    PubMed Central

    Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2002-01-01

    During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter−1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using α-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for α-naphthyl acetate were 18 μM and 48.1 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter−1. PMID:12039716

  9. Potential cerebral perfusion agents: synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated vinylalkylbarbituric acid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Callahan, A.P.; Cunningham, E.B.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    A new iodinated barbiturate has been prepared. Treatment of 5-chloropentyne and propargyl bromide with diethyl 2-ethyl-2-sodiomalonate (DESM) provided diethyl 2-ethyl-2-(1-pentyn-5-yl)malonate (3) and diethyl 2-ethyl-2-propargylmalonate (4), respectively. Similar condensation of DESM with (E)-(5-iodo-1-penten-1-yl)boronic acid (9) or the reaction of catecholborane with 3 provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-borono-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (8). The direct sodium iodide-chloramine-T iodination of 8 or the treatment of (E)-1,5-diiodo-1-pentene (10) with DESM provided diethyl (E)-2-ethyl-2-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)malonate (11). The condensation of functionalized malonates 3, 4, and 11 with urea in the presence of a base provided the corresponding barbiturates, 5-ethyl-5-(1-pentyn-5-yl)-(5), 5-ethyl-5-propargyl- (6), and (E)-5-ethyl-5-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)barbituric acid (12), respectively. (E)-6-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylic acid (13) was isolated as the hydrolytic byproduct of 11. Compound 13 decarboxylated under vacuum to provide ethyl (E)-1-iodo-1-octene-6-carboxylate (14). The /sup 125/I-labeled congeners of 12 and 13 were synthesized in the same manner and evaluated in rats. The barbiturate 12 exhibited significant brain uptake (approximately 1% dose after 5 min), demonstrating that iodinated barbiturates freely cross the intact blood-brain barrier.

  10. Investigations into the chemistry, toxicology, metabolism and possible mode of action of O-ethyl S-methyl ethylphosphonothioate

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical and metabolic oxidation of O-ethyl S-methyl ethylphosphonthioate (1) as a model compound was studied. This compound has the following toxicological properties: LD{sub 50} (rat) 4.6 mg/kg, LD{sub 50}(HF) 14.0 ug/g; k{sub i}(BAChE) {equals} 303, k{sub i}(HFAChE) {equals} 623. {sup 13} C- and {sup 31}P-NMR were mainly used in this study. The chemical oxidation of 1 with m-CPBA in CDCl{sub 3} resulted in the formation of O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid (2), O-ethyl ethylphosphinyloxymethylsulfonate (3) and O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid anhydride (4). However, oxidation reaction of the model compound 1 with MPPA in D{sub 2}O gave 2 and methylsulfonic acid. 1 was incubated in vitro with rat liver microsomal oxidase, and 2 and methylsulfenic acid were observed along with 1. For the in vivo study, a number of houseflies were treated with 14ug/g (LD{sub 50} level) of 1. Analysis of the extracts of metabolic products provided evidence of the formation of 2. The existence of 1 S-oxide was demonstrated by use of a trapping method and the observation of oxidation products. The S-oxide has been proposed as a possible active intermediate responsible for the high toxicity of 1 to animals. However, owing to its instability it is unlikely that the S-oxide intermediate would persist in an aqueous biological environment long enough to attack the target enzyme. 4 was shown to have high toxicity to the rat and housefly and was also a potent anticholinesterase against BAChE and HFAChE . The presence of 4 was observed directly by the monitoring experiments during the chemical oxidation in aqueous conditions. This provided evidence that this metabolite is stable enough to attack the target site in biological systems. The anhydride 4 is proposed as the active metabolite in in vivo systems, responsible for high toxicity of 1.

  11. H sub 3 PMo sub 12 O sub 40 -doped polyacetylene as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pozniczek, J.; Bielanski, A. ); Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Zagorska, M. ); Kruczala, K.; Dyrek, K. ); Pron, A. )

    1991-12-01

    A new and highly efficient catalyst was obtained by exploiting the unique ability of polyacetylene to incorporate heteropolyanions (HPA) of the Keggin type via oxidative doping. 12-Molybdophosphoric acid, 20.8 wt%, was introduced into the polymer. A uniform distribution of HPA over the cross section of the polymer film was found. However, the concentration of HPA seemed to be higher at the surface of the polymer fibers than in their bulk. The conversion of ethyl alcohol was used as a catalytic test reaction. The catalyst exhibited both acid-base activity (formation of ethylene and diethyl ether) as well as redox activity (formation of acetaldehyde). The acid-base activity was 10 times higher than that of unsupported H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, and the redox activity was about 40 times higher.

  12. Influence of Gilbert's syndrome on the formation of ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Laura M; Gunsilius, Leonie; Lardi, Christelle; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Thierauf-Emberger, Annette

    2015-09-01

    A drinking experiment with participants suffering from Gilbert's syndrome was performed to study the possible influence of this glucuronidation disorder on the formation of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). Gilbert's syndrome is a rather common and, in most cases, asymptomatic congenital metabolic aberration with a prevalence of about 5 %. It is characterized by a reduction of the enzyme activity of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform 1A1 up to 80 %. One of the glucuronidation products is EtG, which is formed in the organism following exposure to ethanol. EtG is used as a short-term marker for ethyl alcohol consumption to prove abstinence in various settings. After 2 days of abstinence from ethanol and giving a void urine sample, 30 study participants drank 0.1 L of sparkling wine (9 g ethanol). 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after drinking, urine samples were collected. 3 hours after drinking, an additional blood sample was taken, in which liver enzyme activities, ethanol, hematological parameters, and bilirubin were measured. EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS), another short-term marker of ethanol consumption, were determined in the urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); creatinine was measured photometrically. In all participants, EtG and EtS were detected in concentrations showing a wide range (EtG: 3 h sample 0.5-18.43 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.67-13.8 mg/L; EtS: 3 h sample 0.87-6.87 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.29-4.48 mg/L). No evidence of impaired EtG formation was found. Thus, EtG seems to be a suitable marker for ethanol consumption even in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. PMID:25680552

  13. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  14. Ethyl alcohol boiling heat transfer on multilayer meshed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dåbek, Lidia; Kapjor, Andrej; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the problem of heat transfer enhancement with the application of multilayer metal mesh structures during boiling of ethyl alcohol at ambient pressure. The preparation of samples involved sintering fine copper meshes with the copper base in the reduction atmosphere in order to prevent oxidation of the samples. The experiments included testing up to 4 layers of copper meshes. Significant augmentation of boiling heat transfer is possible, however, considerable number of meshes actually hinders heat transfer conditions and leads to the reduction in the heat flux transferred from the heater surface.

  15. Rapid method for the determination of coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin in vanilla extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Laila; Perfetti, Gracia; Diachenko, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    A method is described for determining coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin in vanilla extract products. A product is diluted one-thousand-fold and then analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of 55% acetonitrile-45% aqueous acetic acid (1%) solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Peaks are detected with a UV detector set at 275 nm. Vanilla extracts were spiked with 250, 500, and 1000 microg/g each of coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin. Recoveries averaged 97.4, 97.8, and 99.8% for coumarin, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin, respectively, with coefficient of variation values of 1.8, 1.3, and 1.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed among the 3 spiking levels. A survey of 23 domestic and imported vanilla extract products was conducted using the method. None of the samples contained coumarin. The surveyed samples contained between 0.4 to 13.1 and 0.4 to 2.2 mg/g vanillin and ethyl vanillin, respectively.

  16. The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.

    PubMed

    Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics.

  17. Rapid syntheses of dehydrodiferulates via biomimetic radical coupling reactions of ethyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fachuang; Wei, Liping; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John

    2012-08-29

    Dehydrodimerization of ferulates in grass cell walls provides a pathway toward cross-linking polysaccharide chains limiting the digestibility of carbohydrates by ruminant bacteria and in general affecting the utilization of grass as a renewable bioresource. Analysis of dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates) in plant cell walls is useful in the evaluation of the quality of dairy forages as animal feeds. Therefore, there has been considerable demand for quantities of diferulates as standards for such analyses. Described here are syntheses of diferulates from ethyl ferulate via biomimetic radical coupling reactions using the copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] complex as oxidant or catalyst. Although CuCl(OH)-TMEDA oxidation of ethyl ferulate in acetonitrile produced mixtures composed of 8-O-4-, 8-5-, 8-8- (cyclic and noncyclic), and 5-5-coupled diferulates, a catalyzed oxidation using CuCl(OH)-TMEDA as catalyst and oxygen as an oxidant resulted in better overall yields of such diferulates. Flash chromatographic fractionation allowed isolation of 8-8- and 5-5-coupled diferulates. 8-5-Diferulate coeluted with 8-O-4-diferulate but was separated from it via crystallization; the 8-O-4 diferulate left in the mother solution was isolated by rechromatography following a simple tetrabutylammonium fluoride treatment that converted 8-5-diferulate to another useful diferulate, 8-5-(noncyclic) diferulate. Therefore, six of the nine (5-5, 8-O-4, 8-5-c, 8-5-nc, 8-5-dc, 8-8-c, 8-8-nc, 8-8-THF, 4-O-5) diferulic acids that have to date been found in the alkaline hydrolysates of plant cell walls can be readily synthesized by the CuCl(OH)-TMEDA catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction and subsequent saponification described here. PMID:22846085

  18. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  19. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, Gerd; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Pieroh, Philipp; Debebe, Tewodros; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  20. Cloning, Overexpression, and Mutagenesis of the Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429 Gene Encoding a New Aldehyde Reductase, Which Catalyzes the Stereoselective Reduction of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate to Ethyl (S)-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Keiko; Fukura, Takanobu; Nakase, Koh-Ichi; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding an NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (ARII) in Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429, which reduces ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (4-COBE) to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. The ARII gene is 1,032 bp long, is interrupted by four introns, and encodes a 37,315-Da polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited significant levels of similarity to the amino acid sequences of members of the mammalian 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase–plant dihydroflavonol 4-reductase superfamily but not to the amino acid sequences of members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily or to the amino acid sequence of an aldehyde reductase previously isolated from the same organism (K. Kita, K. Matsuzaki, T. Hashimoto, H. Yanase, N. Kato, M. C.-M. Chung, M. Kataoka, and S. Shimizu, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2303–2310, 1996). The ARII protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli about 2,000-fold compared to the production in the original yeast cells. The enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and had the same catalytic properties as ARII purified from S. salmonicolor. To examine the contribution of the dinucleotide-binding motif G19-X-X-G22-X-X-A25, which is located in the N-terminal region, during ARII catalysis, we replaced three amino acid residues in the motif and purified the resulting mutant enzymes. Substrate inhibition of the G19→A and G22→A mutant enzymes by 4-COBE did not occur. The A25→G mutant enzyme could reduce 4-COBE when NADPH was replaced by an equimolar concentration of NADH. PMID:10583966

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  2. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  3. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  4. Highly active gold-based catalyst for the reaction of benzaldehyde with ethyl diazoacetate.

    PubMed

    Fructos, Manuel R; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Pérez, Pedro J

    2009-09-14

    The gold complex [IPrAu(NCMe)]BF(4) catalyzes the reaction of ethyl diazoacetate with benzaldehyde to give mixtures of ethyl 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate and ethyl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylacrylate in the first example of a group 11 metal-based catalyst for this transformation; the catalyst activity is improved by a factor of 2500 compared to those of previously reported iron-based catalysts.

  5. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  6. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  7. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  8. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  9. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment of new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Vázquez-Valadez, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Salazar, Ana María; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test was used on the peripheral blood of Wistar rats exposed to two new ethyl-carbamates: ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate (LQM 919) and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate (LQM 996) to analyze their genotoxic potential. The mitotic index and cell proliferation kinetics in human lymphocyte cultures in the presence of these ethyl-carbamates were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytostaticity respectively. Exposure to greater acute doses (300mg/kg) and to all of the subchronic doses (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg daily for 90 days) of these ethyl-carbamates induced an increased frequency (p<0.05) of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) compared with rats not exposed to the ethyl-carbamates. Increases in MN-PCE was higher in males than in females exposed to LQM 996 50mg/Kg (p<0.05). All observed changes in rats return 21days after suspending ethyl-carbamate exposure. The highest concentration (0.3mM) of both ethyl-carbamates in lymphocyte cultures increased the percentage of cells in first division metaphase and decreased the percentage of cells in third division metaphase, indicating an increase in cell cycle length or a possible cell cycle arrest in metaphase (cytostatic effect). The results of this study show that the evaluated ethyl-carbamates may induce genotoxic damage in rats and alterations in the human lymphocyte cell cycle. PMID:27542710

  10. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment of new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Vázquez-Valadez, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Salazar, Ana María; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test was used on the peripheral blood of Wistar rats exposed to two new ethyl-carbamates: ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate (LQM 919) and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate (LQM 996) to analyze their genotoxic potential. The mitotic index and cell proliferation kinetics in human lymphocyte cultures in the presence of these ethyl-carbamates were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytostaticity respectively. Exposure to greater acute doses (300mg/kg) and to all of the subchronic doses (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg daily for 90 days) of these ethyl-carbamates induced an increased frequency (p<0.05) of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) compared with rats not exposed to the ethyl-carbamates. Increases in MN-PCE was higher in males than in females exposed to LQM 996 50mg/Kg (p<0.05). All observed changes in rats return 21days after suspending ethyl-carbamate exposure. The highest concentration (0.3mM) of both ethyl-carbamates in lymphocyte cultures increased the percentage of cells in first division metaphase and decreased the percentage of cells in third division metaphase, indicating an increase in cell cycle length or a possible cell cycle arrest in metaphase (cytostatic effect). The results of this study show that the evaluated ethyl-carbamates may induce genotoxic damage in rats and alterations in the human lymphocyte cell cycle.

  11. Application of ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and octadecanol for wax based floating solid dispersion pellets.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; He, Jian-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop and optimize the wax based floating sustained-release dispersion pellets for a weakly acidic hydrophilic drug protocatechuic acid to achieve prolonged gastric residence time and improved bioavailability. This low-density drug delivery system consisted of octadecanol/microcrystalline cellulose mixture matrix pellet cores prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique, coated with drug/ethyl cellulose 100cp solid dispersion using single-step fluid-bed coating method. The formulation-optimized pellets could maintain excellent floating state without lag time and sustain the drug release efficiently for 12h based on non-Fickian transport mechanism. Observed by SEM, the optimized pellet was the dispersion-layered spherical structure containing a compact inner core. DSC, XRD and FTIR analysis revealed drug was uniformly dispersed in the amorphous molecule form and had no significant physicochemical interactions with the polymer dispersion carrier. The stability study of the resultant pellets further proved the rationality and integrity of the developed formulation.

  12. Application of ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and octadecanol for wax based floating solid dispersion pellets.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; He, Jian-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop and optimize the wax based floating sustained-release dispersion pellets for a weakly acidic hydrophilic drug protocatechuic acid to achieve prolonged gastric residence time and improved bioavailability. This low-density drug delivery system consisted of octadecanol/microcrystalline cellulose mixture matrix pellet cores prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique, coated with drug/ethyl cellulose 100cp solid dispersion using single-step fluid-bed coating method. The formulation-optimized pellets could maintain excellent floating state without lag time and sustain the drug release efficiently for 12h based on non-Fickian transport mechanism. Observed by SEM, the optimized pellet was the dispersion-layered spherical structure containing a compact inner core. DSC, XRD and FTIR analysis revealed drug was uniformly dispersed in the amorphous molecule form and had no significant physicochemical interactions with the polymer dispersion carrier. The stability study of the resultant pellets further proved the rationality and integrity of the developed formulation. PMID:27185125

  13. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  14. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  15. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  16. Preoperative treatment of a parotid hemangioma with 100% ethyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2008-01-01

    Hemangiomas are one of the most common childhood neoplasms, occurring in approximately 12% of infants younger than one year of age. The lesions typically appear shortly after birth, increase in size over the first year and characteristically regress over the next decade. Because hemangiomas can be visible during an important stage of a child’s social development, numerous authors have pursued alternative treatment strategies to avoid or reduce this lengthy involution process. Unfortunately, no effective medical treatment has been reported for children with large, deforming hemangiomas of the parotid gland and overlying cheek. In the present case, a patient with a large parotid hemangioma was treated preoperatively with an intralesional injection of 100% ethyl alcohol solution to reduce the size of the mass. The mass was removed 28 days later with no major postoperative complications. PMID:19949507

  17. Effects of acetone on methyl ethyl ketone peroxide runaway reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Fu; Tseng, Jo-Ming; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Shu, Chi-Min

    2008-05-30

    Runaway reactions by methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) are an important issue in Asia, due to its unstable structure and extensive heat release during upset situations. This study employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to draw the experimental data for MEKPO 31 mass% and with acetone 99 mass% on three types of heating rate of 2, 4, and 10 degrees C/min; the kinetic and safety parameters were then evaluated via curve fitting. Through the reproducible tests in each condition, the results show that acetone is not a contaminant, because it could increase the activation energy (Ea) and onset temperature (To) when combined with MEKPO, which differs from the hazard information of the material safety data sheet (MSDS).

  18. Inhibition of dual-specificity phosphatase 26 by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin: Ethyl-3,4-dephostatin as a multiphosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate protein function by dephosphorylating phosphorylated proteins in many signaling cascades and some of them have been targets for drug development against many human diseases. There have been many reports that some chemical inhibitors could regulate particular phosphatases. However, there was no extensive study on specificity of inhibitors towardss phosphatases. We investigated the effects of ethyl-3,4-dephostatin, a potent inhibitor of five PTPs including PTP-1B and Src homology-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), on thirteen other PTPs using in vitro phosphatase assays. Of them, dual-specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26), which inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53 tumor suppressor and is known to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, was inhibited by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies with ethyl-3,4-dephostatin and DUSP26 revealed competitive inhibition, suggesting that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin binds to the catalytic site of DUSP26 like other substrate PTPs. Moreover, ethyl-3,4-dephostatin protects DUSP26-mediated dephosphorylation of p38, a member of the MAPK family, and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin functions as a multiphosphatase inhibitor and is useful as a therapeutic agent for cancers overexpressing DUSP26. PMID:27209699

  19. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  1. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States.... This determination is to be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol... CBERA-beneficiary countries. The base quantity to be used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in...

  2. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  8. Novel in vivo active anti-malarials based on a hydroxy-ethyl-amine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Claire-Lise; Siegrist, Romain; Aissaoui, Hamed; Marx, Léo; Racine, Sophie; Meyer, Solange; Binkert, Christoph; de Kanter, Ruben; Fischli, Christoph; Wittlin, Sergio; Boss, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    A novel series of anti-malarials, based on a hydroxy-ethyl-amine scaffold, initially identified as peptidomimetic protease inhibitors is described. Combination of the hydroxy-ethyl-amine anti-malarial phramacophore with the known Mannich base pharmacophore of amodiaquine (57) resulted in promising in vivo active novel derivatives. PMID:23260352

  9. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively).

  10. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    PubMed

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  11. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    PubMed

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. PMID:25455446

  12. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  13. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  14. Isolation of the fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE)-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. T1, and cloning of FE hydrolase gene feh.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Tao, Jian; Shen, Wenjing; Liu, Juan; Li, Jingquan; Li, Yongfeng; Cao, Hui; Cui, Zhongli

    2011-10-01

    An enrichment culture which completely degraded fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) was acquired by using FE as sole carbon source. An efficient FE-degrading strain T1 was isolated from the enrichment culture and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Strain T1 could degrade 94% of 100 mg L(-1) FE within 24 h and the metabolite fenoxaprop acid (FA) was identified by HPLC/MS analysis. This strain converted FE by cleavage of the ester bond, but could not further degrade FA. Strain T1 could also efficiently degrade haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl, cyhalofop-butyl and clodinafop-propargyl. FE hydrolase capable of hydrolysing FE to FA was found in the cell-free extract of strain T1 by zymogram analysis. A novel gene feh encoding FE hydrolase was cloned by shotgun library construction and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli.

  15. Metabolite analysis of human fecal water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with ethyl chloroformate derivatization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xianfu; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Martin, Jean-François; Galan, Pilar; Juste, Catherine; Jia, Wei; Sebedio, Jean-Louis

    2009-10-15

    Fecal water is a complex mixture of various metabolites with a wide range of physicochemical properties and boiling points. The analytical method developed here provides a qualitative and quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, with high sensitivity and efficiency, coupled with derivatization of ethyl chloroformate in aqueous medium. The water/ethanol/pyridine ratio was optimized to 12:6:1, and a two-step derivatization with an initial pH regulation of 0.1M sodium bicarbonate was developed. The deionized water exhibited better extraction efficiency for fecal water compounds than did acidified and alkalized water. Furthermore, more amino acids were extracted from frozen fecal samples than from fresh samples based on multivariate statistical analysis and univariate statistical validation on GC/MS data. Method validation by 34 reference standards and fecal water samples showed a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 for each of the standards, and the limit of detection (LOD) was from 10 to 500pg on-column for most of the standards. The analytical equipment exhibited excellent repeatability, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 4% for standards and lower than 7% for fecal water. The derivatization method also demonstrated good repeatability, with the RSD lower than 6.4% for standards (except 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and lower than 10% for fecal water (except dicarboxylic acids). The qualitative means by searching the electron impact (EI) mass spectral database, chemical ionization (CI) mass spectra validation, and reference standards comparison totally identified and structurally confirmed 73 compounds, and the fecal water compounds of healthy humans were also quantified. This protocol shows a promising application in metabolome analysis based on human fecal water samples. PMID:19573517

  16. Distribution and organoleptic impact of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate enantiomers in wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The enantiomers of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were assayed in several wines using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Analyses of 37 commercial red wines from various vintages and origins revealed the almost exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. The average concentration was ∼50 μg/L, but the oldest samples were found to contain higher ethyl 2-methylbutanoate levels than the youngest wines. The olfactory threshold of a racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (50:50, m/m) in dilute alcohol solution was 2.60 μg/L, almost twice that of the S-form, which was 1.53 μg/L. Ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and the racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate had different aromatic nuances: the former was mainly defined by fruity descriptors, such as green apple (Granny Smith) and strawberry, whereas the latter had an unspecific, caustic, fruity, solvent odor. Sensory analysis revealed an enhancing effect of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied: the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool, consisting of esters found in red wines, in dilute alcohol solution alone was higher than that of the same mixture supplemented with 50 μg/L ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate. The sensory profiles of these aromatic reconstitutions highlighted the contribution of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate to black-berry-fruit descriptors. PMID:24844693

  17. Crystal structure of (eth­oxy­ethyl­idene)di­methyl­aza­nium ethyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Saur, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H14NO+·C2H5SO4 −, the C—N bond lengths in the cation are 1.2981 (14), 1.4658 (14) and 1.4707 (15) Å, indicating double- and single-bond character, respectively. The C—O bond length of 1.3157 (13) Å shows double-bond character, indicating charge delocalization within the NCO plane of the iminium ion. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between H atoms of the cations and O atoms of neighbouring ethyl sulfate anions are present, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870525

  18. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  19. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-03-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG only. Another nonoxidative metabolite, ethyl sulfate (EtS), which is more stable, has therefore been included in this study. We present a material of 36 deaths where postmortem formation of ethanol was suspected and where both EtG and EtS were measured in blood and urine to assist the interpretation. In 19 cases, EtG and EtS were positive in the body fluids analyzed. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in blood was 0.4 (range 0.1-23.2) and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.04-7.9), respectively. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in urine was 35.9 (range 1.0-182) and 8.5 mg/L (range 0.3-99), respectively. In another 16 cases, there was no trace of EtG or EtS in the specimens analyzed. In one case, there was inconsistency between the results of EtG and EtS; they were both positive in urine, while only EtS was positive in blood. This study showed that, out of 36 cases, antemortem ingestion of alcohol was very likely in 19 and unlikely in 16, according to EtG and EtS results. In the last case, the interpretation was more difficult. One possible explanation would be postmortem degradation of EtG in blood. PMID:19937334

  20. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method).

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gia-Sheu; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2006-04-01

    Using Novozym 435 as catalyst, the syntheses of ethyl ferulate (EF) from ferulic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy cinnamic acid) and ethanol, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) from p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol were successfully carried out in this study. A conversion of 87% was obtained within 2 days at 75 degrees C for the synthesis of EF. For the synthesis of OMC at 80 degrees C, 90% conversion can be obtained within 1 day. The use of solvent and high reaction temperature resulted in better conversion for the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives. Some cinnamic acid esters could also be obtained with higher conversion and shorter reaction times in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. The enzyme can be reused several times before significant activity loss was observed.

  2. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  3. Ethyl chitosan synthesis and quantification of the effects acquired after grafting it on a cotton fabric, using ANOVA statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Vasilica; Muresan, Augustin; Popescu, Gabriel; Balan, Mihaela; Dobromir, Marius

    2016-03-15

    Three ethyl chitosans (ECSs) have been prepared using the ethyl chloride (AA) that was obtained in situ. Each ECS was applied on a 100% cotton fabric through a pad-dry-cure technology. Using the ANOVA as statistic method, the wrinkle-proofing effects have been determined varying the concentrations of AA (0.1-2.1mmol) and chitosan (CS) (0.1-2.1mmol). Alkylation and grafting mechanisms have been confirmed by the results of FTIR, (1)H NMR, XPS, SEM, DSC and termogravimetric analyses. The performances of each ECS as wrinkle-proofing agent have been revealed through quantitative methods (taking-up degree, wrinkle-recovering angle, tensile strength and effect's durability). The ECSs confer wrinkle-recovering angle and tensile strength higher than those of the witness sample. Durability of ECSs grafted on cotton have been demonstrated by a good capacity of dyeing with non-specific (acid/anionic and cationic) dyes under severe working conditions (100°C, 60min) and a good antimicrobial capacity.

  4. Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: Statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2016-07-01

    The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30 °C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250 μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60 W/L, reaction time up to 120 min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration)×(US density), (EP concentration)×(pHo) and (EP concentration)×(time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound. PMID:26964924

  5. Ethyl chitosan synthesis and quantification of the effects acquired after grafting it on a cotton fabric, using ANOVA statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Vasilica; Muresan, Augustin; Popescu, Gabriel; Balan, Mihaela; Dobromir, Marius

    2016-03-15

    Three ethyl chitosans (ECSs) have been prepared using the ethyl chloride (AA) that was obtained in situ. Each ECS was applied on a 100% cotton fabric through a pad-dry-cure technology. Using the ANOVA as statistic method, the wrinkle-proofing effects have been determined varying the concentrations of AA (0.1-2.1mmol) and chitosan (CS) (0.1-2.1mmol). Alkylation and grafting mechanisms have been confirmed by the results of FTIR, (1)H NMR, XPS, SEM, DSC and termogravimetric analyses. The performances of each ECS as wrinkle-proofing agent have been revealed through quantitative methods (taking-up degree, wrinkle-recovering angle, tensile strength and effect's durability). The ECSs confer wrinkle-recovering angle and tensile strength higher than those of the witness sample. Durability of ECSs grafted on cotton have been demonstrated by a good capacity of dyeing with non-specific (acid/anionic and cationic) dyes under severe working conditions (100°C, 60min) and a good antimicrobial capacity. PMID:26794742

  6. Comparative study of free and immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius and its application in synthesis of ethyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Saun, Nitin Kumar; Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam Singh; Gupta, Reena

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a purified lipase from Bacillus aerius immobilized on celite matrix was used for synthesis of ethyl ferulate. The celite-bound lipase exposed to glutaraldehyde showed 90.02% binding efficiency. It took two hours to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized lipase were same as those of free enzyme i.e 9.5 and 55°C. Among different substrates both free and immobilized lipase showed maximum affinity towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). The lipase activity was found to be stimulated in the presence of Mg(2+) in case of free enzyme while Zn(2+) and Fe(3+) showed stimulatory effect on immobilized lipase whereas salt ions as well as chelating agents inhibited activity of both free and immobilized lipase. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in n-hexane as organic solvent followed by n-heptane for both free and immobilized lipase, however CCl4, acetone and benzene inhibited the enzyme activity. Moreover, all the selected detergents (SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 80 and Tween 20) had an inhibitory effect on both free and immobilized enzyme activity. The celite bound lipase (1.5%) efficiently performed maximum esterification (2.51 moles/l) of ethanol and ferulic acid (100 mM each, at a molar ratio of 1:3) when incubated at 55°C for 48 h resulting in the formation of ester ethyl ferulate. PMID:25099909

  7. Synthesis of aspartame precursor: alpha-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in ethyl acetate using thermolysin entrapped in polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Yang, C P; Su, C S

    1988-08-20

    Cross-linked polyurethane (PU) was prepared for entrapping thermolysin. Using the immobilized thermolysin (IT), Z-L-aspartic acid (ZA) was reacted with -Lphenylalanine methyl ester (L-PM) in water-saturated ethyl acetate to give only alpha-Z-L-aspartylL-phenylalanine methyl ester (alpha-ZAPM). Ninety-four percent conversion of alpha-ZAPM was obtained for 30 h of reaction at 40 degrees C when 46 mg of enzyme was entrapped. PU support prepared from polypropylene glycol (#2000) showed better properties than from polypropylene (#1000) and polyethylene (#1000). Addition of polyol could increase the gel fraction of PU. The IT PU-ll-G-3, prepared from 1/2 mole ratio of PPG (#2000)/glycerin, gave the highest gel fraction and best swelling, and 89.0% of residual activity was obtained after four times of reuse (72 h). The stability of immobilized thermolysin was good; the activity loss resulting from degradatin and leak of enzyme in each time of reuse were found only about 2%. The kinetics of immobilized thermolysin-catalyzed condensation reaction of ZA with L-PM in water-saturated ethyl acetate was found to be first order in L-PM and the Lineweaver-Burk plot of 1/V against 1/[ZA] yields a straight line, showing that the reaction involves consecutive reactions of ZA and L-PM with the immobilized enzyme and with the ZA-immobilized enzyme complex, with the second reaction being the rate determining step.

  8. Oxidized ethyl linoleate induces mucosal hypertrophy of the large intestine and affects cecal fermentation of dietary fiber in rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Miyashita, K; Ito, S; Kasai, T

    1996-04-01

    Oxidized ethyl linoleate (OEL) was prepared by aeration at low temperature. Peroxide value (POV, mEq/kg lipid) of OEL was 1400; the major oxidized compounds were 9-hydroperoxy-cis, trans- and 13-hydroperoxy-trans, cis-octadecadienoate. Rats fed fiber-free or sugar-beet fiber (SBF, 100g/kg diet) diets were divided into three groups for each diet, and administered OEL (high OEL group), OEL diluted with ethyl linoleate (low OEL group, POV 700) and nonoxidized ethyl linoleate (EL group) through gastric tubes each day at 1400-1600 h (2.5 g/kg body wt) for 16 d. The relative wet weight, and DNA and protein contents of the cecal mucosa were higher in the high OEL groups than in the low OEL and EL groups in rats fed the fiber-free diet and in rats fed the SBF diet except for mucosal protein content. Spermidine concentration in cecal mucosa of rats fed the fiber-free diet was greater in the high OEL group than in the EL group. These results suggest that metabolism related to mucosal proliferation of the cecum was affected by the high dose of OEL. The total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in the cecal contents of SBF-fed rats was 100% higher than the concentration in rats fed the fiber-free diet in the EL group, but the administration of low dose and high dose OEL lowered the SCFA concentration in fiber-fed rats to that of rats fed the fiber-free diet. Butyric acid concentration was markedly lowered by ingestion of OEL in a dose-dependent manner in rats fed the SBF diet. In contrast, the isobutyric acid concentration was higher in the OEL-treated groups than in the EL groups. We conclude that a low dose of OEL depresses cecal fermentation of dietary fiber with changes in SCFA composition, and that a high dose of OEL induces mucosal hypertrophy in the cecum. These data show that dietary oxidized lipids affect cecal metabolism and may be associated with colon cancer.

  9. Unfolding type gastroretentive film of Cinnarizine based on ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shakuntla; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, S K; Mishra, D N

    2014-03-01

    The present work was based on the development and characterization of unfolding type gastro retentive dosage form appropriate for controlled release of Cinnarizine (CNZ), a drug with narrow therapeutic window. The drug loaded polymer film of biological macromolecules, i.e., ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K15) was folded into hard gelatin capsules. The film was folded in different patterns for characterizing their unfolding behavior. The polymeric film revealed a fast release during the first hour followed by a more gradual drug release during a 12-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion process. Tensile strength of polymeric film was optimized using different amount (0.2-0.7 ml) of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Various physical parameters were studied for evaluating their performance as a gastroretentive dosage form. Drug and polymers were found to be compatible as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study and scanning electron micrograph (SEM) study revealed uniform dispersion of CNZ in polymeric matrices. The results indicate that unfolding type gastro retentive drug delivery system holds lots of potential for drug having stability problems in alkaline pH or are which mainly absorbed in acidic pH. PMID:24370473

  10. Cyanate as an Active Precursor of Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Galinaro, Carlos A; Ohe, Thiago H K; da Silva, Augusto C H; da Silva, Sebastião C; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-08-26

    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of ethyl carbamate (EC) formation through the reaction between cyanate and ethanol were investigated. The rate constant values for cyanate ion decay and EC formation are (8.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) and (8.9 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, at 25 °C in 48% aqueous ethanolic solution at pH 4.5. Under the investigated experimental conditions, the rate constants are independent of the ethanol and cyanate concentrations but increase as the temperature increases (ΔH1(⧧) = 19.4 ± 1 kcal/mol, ΔS1(⧧) = −12.1 ± 1 cal/K, and ΔG1(⧧) = 23.0 ± 1 kcal/mol) and decrease as the solution pH increases. According to molecular modeling (DFT) that was performed to analyze the reaction mechanism, the isocyanic acid (HNCO) is the active EC precursor. The calculated ΔG1(⧧), ΔH1(⧧), and ΔS1(⧧) values are in very good agreement with the experimental ones.

  11. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  12. Reversible Carbene Formation in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate by Vaporization and Condensation.

    PubMed

    Kar, Bishnu Prasad; Sander, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    The role of N-heterocyclic carbenes in the chemistry of ionic liquids based on imidazolium salts has long been discussed. Here, we present experimental evidence that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-ylidene (EMIm) can coexist with its protonated imidazolium cation (EMImH(+) ) at low temperatures. If the vapor of the ionic liquid [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped in solid argon or nitrogen at 9 K, only acetic acid (AcOH) and the carbene, but no ionic species, are found by IR spectroscopy. This indicates that during the evaporation of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] proton transfer occurs to form the neutral species. If the vapor of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped at 9 K as film in the absence of a host matrix, a solid consisting of EMImH(+) , EMIm, AcO(-) , and AcOH is formed. During warming to room temperature the proton transfer in the solid to form back the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] can be monitored by IR spectroscopy. This clearly demonstrates that evaporation and condensation of the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] results in a double proton transfer, and the carbene EMIm is only metastable even at low temperatures. PMID:26376583

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  14. Potentiation of 2,5-hexanedione neurotoxicity by methyl ethyl ketone

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, W.H.; Hilderbrand, R.L.; Uddin, D.E.; Andersen, M.E.; Gardier, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    Chronic oral administration of a combination of 2.2 mmol methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 2.2 mmol 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD)/kg/day, 5 days/week resulted in more rapid onset of motor deficits than did chronic dosing with 2.2 mmol 2,5-HD/kg/day alone. In kinetic studies blood time courses of 2,5-HD were determined in rats in the presence and absence of MEK. Concomitant administration of MEK reduced blood 2,5-HD clearance and increased the area under the curve (AUC) for the blood 2,5-HD. In companion experiments with 2,5-(1,6-/sup 14/C)HD as a tracer, neural and nonneural tissues were examined 72 hr following the last treatment at Weeks 1, 2, and 3 of chronic administration of 2,5-HD alone or in combination with an equimolar dose of MEK. Rats treated with 2,5-(/sup 14/C)HD alone or in combination with MEK demonstrated no difference in total or trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity in blood, in liver homogenates, or in neurofilament-enriched fractions from sciatic nerve and spinal cord. The data support a suggestion that the potentiation of hexacarbon neurotoxicity by MEK is the result of the persistence of the neurotoxic metabolite in the blood and not the enhanced metabolism of parent hexacarbon to 2,5-HD.

  15. Release behavior and kinetic evaluation of berberine hydrochloride from ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Cao, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Novel ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres (ECCMs) were prepared by the method of w/o/w emulsion and solvent evaporation. The microspheres were spherical, adhesive, and aggregated loosely with a size not bigger than 5 μm. The drug loading efficiency of berberine hydrochloride (BH) loaded in microspheres were affected by chitosan (CS) concentration, EC concentration and the volume ratio of V(CS)/ V(EC). ECCMs prepared had sustained release efficiency on BH which was changed with different preparation parameters. In addition, the pH value of release media had obvious effect on the release character of ECCMs. The release rate of BH from sample B was only a little more than 30% in diluted hydrochloric acid (dHCl) and that was almost 90% in PBS during 24 h. Furthermore, the drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models to analyze the release kinetics and the mechanism from the microspheres. The released results of BH indicated that ECCMs exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in dHCl and diffusion-controlled drug release based on Fickian diffusion in PBS. So the ECCMs might be an ideal sustained release system especially in dHCl and the drug release was governed by both diffusion of the drug and dissolution of the polymeric network.

  16. Bacterial ethane formation from reduced, ethylated sulfur compounds in anoxic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Kiene, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Trace levels of ethane were produced biologically in anoxic sediment slurries from five chemically different aquatic environments. Gases from these locations displayed biogenic characteristics, having 12C-enriched values of ??13CH4 (-62 to -86%.), ??13C2H6 (-35 to -55%.) and high ratios (720 to 140,000) of CH4 [C2H6 + C3H8]. Endogenous production of ethane by slurries was inhibited by autoclaving or by addition of the inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES). Ethane formation was stimulated markedly by ethanethiol (ESH), and, to a lesser extent, by diethylsulfide (DES). Formation of methane and ethane in ESH- or DES-amended slurries was blocked by BES. Experiments showed that ethionine (or an analogous compound) could be a precursor of ESH. Ethylamine or ethanol additions to slurries caused only a minor stimulation of ethane formation. Similarly, propanethiol additions resulted in only a minor enhancement of propane formation. Cell suspensions of a methyltrophic methanogen produced traces of ethane when incubated in the presence of DES, although the organism did not grow on this compound. These results indicate that methanogenic bacteria produce ethane from the traces of ethylated sulfur compounds present in recent sediments. Preliminary estimates of stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with sediment methane formation from dimethylsulfide was about 40%., while ethane formation from DES and ESH was only 4. 6 and 6.5%., respectively. ?? 1988.

  17. Ethyl ferulate, a component with anti-inflammatory properties for emulsion-based creams.

    PubMed

    Nazaré, Ana C; de Faria, Carolina M Q G; Chiari, Bruna G; Petrônio, Maicon S; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce H S; Corrêa, Marcos A; Isaac, Vera L B; da Fonseca, Luiz M; Ximenes, Valdecir F

    2014-06-17

    Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin.

  18. Cyanate as an Active Precursor of Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Galinaro, Carlos A; Ohe, Thiago H K; da Silva, Augusto C H; da Silva, Sebastião C; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-08-26

    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of ethyl carbamate (EC) formation through the reaction between cyanate and ethanol were investigated. The rate constant values for cyanate ion decay and EC formation are (8.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) and (8.9 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, at 25 °C in 48% aqueous ethanolic solution at pH 4.5. Under the investigated experimental conditions, the rate constants are independent of the ethanol and cyanate concentrations but increase as the temperature increases (ΔH1(⧧) = 19.4 ± 1 kcal/mol, ΔS1(⧧) = −12.1 ± 1 cal/K, and ΔG1(⧧) = 23.0 ± 1 kcal/mol) and decrease as the solution pH increases. According to molecular modeling (DFT) that was performed to analyze the reaction mechanism, the isocyanic acid (HNCO) is the active EC precursor. The calculated ΔG1(⧧), ΔH1(⧧), and ΔS1(⧧) values are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:26248556

  19. Ftorafur loading and controlled release from poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) and poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Arias, J L; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A; Delgado, A V

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, a method is described to prepare polymeric colloidal nanospheres, consisting of poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PE-2-CA) or poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA), loaded with the anticancer drug ftorafur. The method is based on the anionic polymerization procedure, often used in the synthesis of poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) nanospheres for drug delivery. A detailed investigation of the capabilities of both polymeric nanoparticles to load this drug is shown. The effect of synthesis residuals and degradation products on the absorbance of supernatants was considered in the loading and release measurement methodologies, because of their potential perturbing influence on the determination of ftorafur concentration in solution. We found the existence of two mechanisms of drug incorporation: absorption or entrapment in the polymeric network, and surface adsorption, detectable by means of zeta potential and spectrophotometric measurements. Among the factors affecting the drug incorporation to the polymer network, the type of polymer, the pH and the drug concentration are the main determining ones. Moreover, the acidity of the medium needs to be controlled in order to avoid the formation of macroaggregates of solids. The optimum loading conditions were used to perform ftorafur release evaluations from polymeric particles, and the influence of the mechanism of drug incorporation, the amount of drug loaded, and the type of polymer on the drug release were studied.

  20. Molecular structure and interactions in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Nilesh R; Noack, Kristina; Kiefer, Johannes; Kim, Hyung J

    2014-04-01

    Electronic structure theory (density functional and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman) are employed to study molecular interactions in the room-temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Different conformers of a cation-anion pair based on their molecular interactions are simulated in the gas phase and in a dielectric continuum solvent environment. Although the ordering of conformers in energy varies with theoretical methods, their predictions for three lowest energy conformers in the gas phase are similar. Strong C-H---N interactions between the acidic hydrogen atom of the cation imidazole ring and the nitrogen atom of the anion are predicted for either the lowest or second lowest energy conformer. In a continuum solvent, different theoretical methods yield the same ion-pair conformation for the lowest energy state. In both phases, the density functional method predicts that the anion is in a trans conformation in the lowest energy ion pair state. The theoretical results are compared with experimental observations from Raman scattering and IR absorption spectroscopies and manifestations of the molecular interactions in the vibrational spectra are discussed. The directions of the frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations relative to the free anion and cation are explained by calculating the difference electron density coupled with electron density topography.

  1. Human Serum Albumin Conjugates of 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sepehri, Nima; Rouhani, Hasti; Gharghabi, Mehdi; Tavassolian, Faranak; Amini, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2014-01-01

    SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-comptothecin) is a potent metabolite of irinotecan, which has been approved for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Considering the notable potency of SN38, it has been introduced as an anticancer candidate. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates of SN38 were formulated to overcome the solubility problem beside improving the active form stability and tumor tissue targeting. In this target, two different molar ratios of conjugates (SN38 : HSA 15 : 1 and 60 : 1) were prepared by derivatization of 20-hydroxyl group of SN38 with glycine, followed by addition of succinyl group to glycine through which HSA was covalently attached. The conjugates with particle size of about 100 nm revealed enhanced water solubility and were relatively stable in neutral and acidic solutions. For SN38-HSA-15 and SN38-HSA-60 IC50 values were compared with irinotecan in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, biodistribution studies of SN38-HSA conjugate resulted in proper blood concentration level within 4 h. Moreover, blood cytotoxicity assay revealed no toxicity effect on liver and spleen. Collectively, our present investigation offers a water-soluble form of SN38 attached to HSA and suggests using favorable properties as a promising anticancer agent for further preclinical and clinical investigations. PMID:24895635

  2. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl - N -heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine containing up to 20...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  5. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity studies of ethyl acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Greg R; Hansen, John F; Leung, Hon-Wing

    2003-12-01

    Rats were exposed to 0, 350, 750 or 1500 ppm of ethyl acetate by inhalation for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity tests occurred on non-exposure days during weeks 4, 8 and 13, after which tissues were microscopically examined for neuropathology. A subset of rats was monitored during a 4-week recovery period. Exposure to 750 and 1500 ppm, diminished behavioral responses to unexpected auditory stimuli during the exposure session and appeared to be an acute sedative effect. There were no signs of acute intoxication 30 min after exposure sessions ended. Rats exposed to 750 and 1500 ppm had reduced body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, which fully or partially recovered within 4 weeks. Reductions in body weight gain and feed efficiency were observed in male rats exposed to 350 ppm. The principal behavioral effect of subchronic exposure was reduced motor activity in the 1500 ppm females, an effect that was not present after the 4-week recovery period. All other FOB and motor activity parameters were unaffected, and no pathology was observed in nervous system tissues. Operant sessions were conducted in another set of male rats preconditioned to a stable operant baseline under a multiple fixed ratio-fixed interval (FR-FI) schedule of food reinforcement. FR response rate, FR post-reinforcement pause duration, and the pattern of FI responding were not affected during or after the exposure series. In contrast, within-group FI rate for the treatment groups increased over time whereas those of the controls decreased. A historical control group, however, also showed a similar pattern of increase, indicating that these changes did not clearly represent a treatment-related effect. Results from these studies indicate a LOEL of 350 ppm for systemic toxicity based on the decreased body weight gain in male rats, and a LOEL of 1500 ppm for neurotoxicity based on the transient reduction in

  7. Replication across Regioisomeric Ethylated Thymidine Lesions by Purified DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nisana; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Causal links exist between smoking cigarettes and cancer development. Some genotoxic agents in cigarette smoke are capable of alkylating nucleobases in DNA and higher levels of ethylated DNA lesions were observed in smokers than non-smokers. In this study, we examined comprehensively how the regioisomeric O2-, N3- and O4-ethylthymidine (O2-, N3- and O4-EtdT) perturb DNA replication mediated by purified human DNA polymerases (hPol) η, κ, and ι, yeast DNA polymerase ζ (yPol ζ), and the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment (Kf−) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Our results showed that hPol η and Kf− could bypass all three lesions and generate full-length replication products, whereas hPol ι stalled after inserting a single nucleotide opposite the lesions. Bypass carried out by hPol κ and yPol ζ differed markedly amongst the three lesions: Consistent with its known capability in bypassing efficiently the minor-groove N2-substituted 2′-deoxyguanosine lesions, hPol κ was able to bypass O2-EtdT, though it experienced great difficulty in bypassing N3-EtdT and O4-EtdT; yPol ζ was only modestly blocked by O4-EtdT, but the polymerase was highly hindered by O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT. LC-MS/MS analysis of the replication products revealed that DNA synthesis opposite O4-EtdT was highly error-prone, with dGMP being preferentially inserted, while the presence of O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT in template DNA directed substantial frequencies of misincorporation of dGMP and, for hPol ι and Kf−, dTMP. Thus, our results suggested that O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT may also contribute to the AT→TA and AT→GC mutations observed in cells and tissues of animals exposed to ethylating agents. PMID:24134187

  8. Ethyl-2-(3,5-Dihidroxyfenol): Phloroglucinol derivatives as potential anticancer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumaningsih, Triana; Firdaus, Maulidan; Widyo Wartono, Muhammad; Nur Artanti, Anif; Suci Handayani, Desi; Eryanto Putro, Angga

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroxyfenol) based phloroglucinol compounds have been synthesized. Ethyl-2-(3,5-dihidroksifenol) were synthesized by reacting phloroglucinol with ethyl 2-chloro acetate in excess. Phloroglucinol reaction using 2-chloro ethyl acetate was carried out under reflux for 24 hours at a temperature of 56 oC. The reaction products were identified by a thin layer chromatography and were characterized by melting point test. Analysis of the structure of the products was obtained by FTIR spectrophotometer, H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The result of the reaction between phloroglucinol and 2-chloro ethyl acetate was brownish black solid, and has a melting point of 191 oC. Based on the structural analysis by FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR, the reaction product was a mixture of compounds which is ethyl 2- (3,5-dihidroksifenol) acetate, ethyl-2-(2,4,6-trioxocyclohexyl) acetate, and the rest of phloroglucinol which can not react.

  9. Mechanism of quizalofop-ethyl selectivity in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    SciTech Connect

    Ruizzo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) susceptibility to quizalofop-ethyl herbicide was investigated under field and greenhouse conditions. Yield of cucumber cultivars was significantly reduced under field conditions with a single or repeat application of the ethyl ester of quizalofop at 0.14 or 0.28 kg ai/ha. Under greenhouse conditions, quialofop-ethyl significantly suppressed cucumber plant fresh weight with or without the presence of an adjuvant. Enhancement of herbicide activity was directly related to concentration of adjuvant. Microliter droplet application of quizalofop-ethyl at a 10/sup -3/ M concentration, inhibited the relative growth (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of the treated cucumber leaf 45% and 52%, respectively. Expression of herbicidal injury was localized on the treated leaf with no visible symptoms observed on adjacent leaves. Radiolabeled /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl was applied to leaves of cucumber and corn (Zea mays L.) to compare translocation patterns between two susceptible plant species and relate this information to the observed selectivity of the herbicide. Cucumber autoradiographs showed minimal translocation of /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl 192 hours after treatment. In contrast, corn autoradiographs showed both apoplastic and symplastic transport of quizalofop-ethyl 3 and 24 hours after treatment. Quantification of /sup 14/C in cucumber revealed 96% of absorbed /sup 14/C was confined to the treated leaf after 192h of exposure.

  10. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  11. Diastereoisomeric β-ethyl aspartate-cobalt(III) complexes: Λ(+)578- and Δ(-)578-bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)[β-ethyl (S)-aspartato]cobalt(III) bis(perchlorate) monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Hammershøi, Anders; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The structures of the diastereoisomers Λ(+)(578)-, (I), and Δ(-)(578)-bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)[β-ethyl (S)-aspartato-κ(2)N,O(1)]cobalt(III) bis(perchlorate) monohydrate, (II), both [Co(C(6)H(10)N(2)O(4))(C(2)H(8)N(2))(2)](ClO(4))(2)·H(2)O, are compared. In both structures, the ester group of the amino acid side chain is engaged only in intramolecular hydrogen bonding to coordinated amine groups. This interaction is stronger in (I) and correlates with previously observed diastereoisomeric equilibrium ratios for related metal complex systems in aqueous media. The two perchlorate anions of (II) are located on twofold axes. Both perchlorates in (I) and one of the perchlorates in (II) are affected by disorder. Both structures exhibit extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks.

  12. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  13. Estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) by gas liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-01-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide is used for post emergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of quizalofop ethyl in black gram for two seasons. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on black gram seed, foliage and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following a single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods. Application of the herbicide is quite safe from a consumer and environmental point of view.

  14. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  15. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Gauche Ethyl Alcohol: Laboratory Assignments and Interstellar Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known to possess a pair of closely spaced excited torsional substates (gauche+, gauche-) at an energy of approximately 57 K above the ground (trans) torsional substate. We report an extended analysis of some gauche - gauche+ Q-branch ((Delta)J = 0) transitions with a three-substate fixed frame axis method (FFAM) Hamiltonian. Our approach accounts for complex trans-gauche interactions for the first time. In addition, we are able to obtain intensities for perturbed rotational transitions, and to determine the trans to gauche+ separation to be 1185399.1 MHz. A complete ground state rotational-torsional partition function accounting for the previously neglected gauche substates is presented. Based on our analysis, a total of 14 U lines obtained towards Orion KL can now be assigned to gauche substates of ethanol. Analysis of these lines yields a rotational temperature of 223 K and a total (trans + gauche) column density of 7.0 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. The column density is in reasonable agreement with the recent value of 2-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm based on observations of trans-ethanol by Ohishi et al., although there is some disparity in the rotational temperatures. Eight additional U lines in the literature are assigned to transitions of gauche ethanol.

  17. The pharmacological actions of pempidine and its ethyl homologue

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, A.; Young, E. H. P.; Farrington, J. A.; Dunlop, D.

    1958-01-01

    Pempidine, and other highly active ganglion blocking agents of the polyalkylpiperidine series, were developed from tertiary alkylamines, themselves weakly active, on the hypothesis that high activity was conferred by the presence in the molecule of a sterically hindered secondary or tertiary nitrogen atom. Pempidine and its N-ethyl homologue (26539) resembled mecamylamine qualitatively. All three drugs blocked sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia; this action was slow in onset and protracted. They blocked neuromuscular transmission, but only about one hundredth as powerfully as ganglionic transmission. They caused a fall in amplitude and rate of the isolated heart, and reduced coronary flow. They had local anaesthetic properties in one of four tests used. They caused tremor. All were well absorbed when administered orally. Pempidine was about twice as active as mecamylamine on ganglia, but only about one half to one quarter as toxic as judged by death, growth, induction of tremor, or cardiotoxicity. Compound 26539 was also quantitatively superior to mecamylamine in respect of these safety margins, but unlike pempidine or mecamylamine damaged the pituitary gland and testis when administered daily for several months. The mode of action of the three drugs is discussed: the results give tentative support for the hypothesis that their action is intracellular. PMID:13618559

  18. Reactions of ruthenium hydrides with ethyl-vinyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W

    2014-03-01

    The Ru-hydride precursors (Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)2RuHCl () and (Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)2RuHCl () reacted with ethyl-vinyl-sulfide to give ((MeOCH2CH2)C3H2N2(CH2CH(OMe))RuCl(PPh3)2 () and ((MeOCH2CH2)C3Me2N2(CH2CH(OMe))RuCl(PPh3)2 (), respectively. Dissolution of () in C6D6 prompts formation of ((MeOCH2CH2)C5H6N2(CHCH)RuCl(PPh3)2 (). The analogous reactions of the bis-carbene Ru-hydride precursors (Im(OMe)2)(IMes)(PPh3)RuHCl (), (Im(OMe)2)(SIMes)(PPh3)RuHCl () and (Im(OMe)2)(IMes-Cl2)(PPh3)RuHCl () gave ((MeOCH2CH2)C3H2N2(CHCH)RuCl(PPh3)(NHC) (NHC = IMes (), SIMes (), IMes-Cl2 (), respectively. The formation of compounds () and () is thought to go through an initial insertion of the vinyl-fragment into the Ru-H prompting subsequent C-H activation and loss of diethyl sulfide. This yields () and (), while subsequent loss of methanol yields () and (-). PMID:24441082

  19. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  20. Ethyl sulphate and ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor as postmortem evidence marker for ethanol consumption prior to death.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Kempf, Jürgen; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Auwärter, Volker; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2011-07-15

    To clarify the circumstances of death, the degree of inebriation is of importance in many cases, but for several reasons the determination of the ethanol concentration in post-mortem samples can be challenging and the synopsis of ethanol and the direct consumption markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) has proved to be useful. The use of a rather stable matrix like vitreous humor offers further advantages. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of ethanol and the biomarkers in the robust matrix of vitreous humor and to compare them with the respective levels in peripheral venous blood and urine. Samples of urine, blood from the femoral vein and vitreous humor were taken from 26 deceased with suspected ethanol consumption prior to death and analyzed for ethanol, EtS and EtG. In the urine samples creatinine was also determined. The personal data, the circumstances of death, the post-mortem interval and the information about ethanol consumption prior to death were recorded. EtG and EtS analysis in urine was performed by LC-ESI-MS/MS, creatinine concentration was determined using the Jaffé reaction and ethanol was detected by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method. In general, the highest concentrations of the analytes were found in urine and showed statistical significance. The mean concentrations of EtG were 62.8mg/L (EtG100 206.5mg/L) in urine, 4.3mg/L in blood and 2.1mg/L in vitreous humor. EtS was found in the following mean concentrations: 54.6mg/L in urine (EtS100 123.1mg/L), 1.8mg/L in blood and 0.9mg/L in vitreous humor. Ethanol was detected in more vitreous humor samples (mean concentration 2.0g/kg) than in blood and urine (mean concentration 1.6g/kg and 2.1g/kg respectively). There was no correlation between the ethanol and the marker concentrations and no statistical conclusions could be drawn between the markers and matrices.