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Sample records for 3-minute step test

  1. A simple semipaced 3-minute chair rise test for routine exercise tolerance testing in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Aguilaniu, Bernard; Roth, Hubert; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Jondot, Marie; Maitre, Jocelyne; Denis, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The functional work capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is usually assessed with walk tests such as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) or the shuttle test. Because these exercise modalities require a controlled environment which limits their use by pulmonologists and severely restricts their use among general practitioners, different modalities of a short (1 minute or less) sit-to-stand test were recently proposed. In this study, we evaluated a new modality of a semipaced 3-minute chair rise test (3CRT) in 40 patients with COPD, and compared the reproducibility of physiological responses and symptoms during the 3CRT and their interchangeability with the 6MWT. The results demonstrate that physiological variables, heart rate, pulse oxygen saturation, work done, and symptoms (Borg dyspnea and fatigue scores), during the 3CRT were highly reproducible, and that the physiological responses and symptoms obtained during the 3CRT and the 6MWT were interchangeable for most patients. Moreover, these preliminary data suggest that patients able to perform more than 50 rises during 3 minutes had no significant disability. The simplicity and ease of execution of the 3CRT will facilitate the assessment of exercise symptoms and disability in COPD patients during routine consultations with pulmonologists and general practitioners, and will thus contribute to the improved management of COPD patients. PMID:25285001

  2. Perception of breathlessness by a 3-minute respiratory exerciser test predicts asthma exacerbations: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loh, Li-Cher; Teh, Pek-Ngor

    2009-08-01

    We prospectively evaluated the use of a simple 3-Minute Respiratory Exerciser Test (3MRET) that estimates perception of dyspnea to identify patients at risk of asthma exacerbations. A total of 146 stable asthmatics (42 under-perceivers, 69 normal perceivers, and 35 over-perceivers) received follow-up for 12 months. The mean (SD) unscheduled visits to doctors among under-, normal, and over-perceivers were 1.8 (1.2), 2.2 (1.8), and 3.1 (2.3), respectively (p = 0.008). The mean (SD) hospital admissions among the groups were 1.3 (0.5), 1.2 (0.6), and 1.7 (1.3), respectively (p = 0.026). Compared to normal perceivers, over-perceivers had increased risks of unscheduled visits (OD: 5.12; 95% CI = 1.59 to 16.47) and hospital admissions (OD: 0.31; 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.41), defined as > or =2 events in 12 months. The association between over-perceiver and unscheduled visits remained significant after adjusting for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). Sensitivity and specificity of over-perceivers are 77% and 47%, respectively, for unscheduled visits and 37% and 78%, respectively, for hospital admissions, with significantly better area under ROC for unscheduled visits (0.67 [95% CI = 0.56 to 0.77]; p = 0.003) than for hospital admissions (0.58 [0.471 to 0.70]; p = 0.127). We conclude that the 3MRET may have a role in identifying asthmatic patients with over-perception of dyspnea at risk of clinically important asthma exacerbations.

  3. Memory Testing: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.

    Neuropsychology combines psychometrics and the study of brain processes. There are two approaches to neuropsychology. The neurologic approach uses brief tests flexibly. The psychometric approach uses standardized graded scales in a set battery. Cortical testing in the form of intellectual abilities testing is 70 years old, yet psychometric…

  4. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  5. HIV Testing on Campus: The Next Step.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Joanna

    1994-01-01

    Sees first phase in human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention on many campuses to be focused on education. Calls second phase HIV testing for early diagnosis. Explains steps taken to implement HIV testing program on suburban campus and discusses student program evaluation. (Author/NB)

  6. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Benoit; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Hélène; Jensen, Dennis; Maltais, François

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST) to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort) after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7), % predicted) performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg)/salbutamol (2.5 mg) and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results A total of 37 (92.5%), 36 (90%), 34 (85%) and 27 (67.5%) patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01) and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01); however, no statically significant differences were observed between treatments at 20 and 24 steps/min (both P>0.05). Conclusion The 3-MST, when performed at 14 and 16 steps/min, was responsive to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea after acute bronchodilation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. PMID:27942208

  7. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p < 0.05). To determine whether there was a relationship between peak and recovery HR (HRpeak, HRrecov) and VO2(VO2peak, VO2recov) variables, Pearson product moment correlations were used. Differences due to gender or group (pre- professionals versus professionals) were explored with MANOVAs for HRpeak, VO2peak, HRrecov, VO2recov, and fitness category. The 112 step test produced higher HRpeak and VO2peak values than the 96 step test, reflecting a greater workload (p < 0.001). For HRpeak, there were high correlations (r = 0.71) and for HRrecov, moderate correlations (r = 0.60) between the 112 step test and treadmill test. For VO2peak and VO2recov, there were moderate correlations between the 112 step test and treadmill test (r = 0.65 and 0.73). No differences between genders for VO2peak values were found for either step test, but males displayed lower HRpeak values for both step tests and higher VO2peak values during the treadmill test (p < 0.001). Recovery HR was lower in males for the 96 and 112 step tests (p < 0.05). This was reflected in higher

  8. The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.

  9. Making Knowledge Delivery Failsafe: Adding Step Zero in Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xia; Zhou, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of statistical analysis is increasingly important for professionals in modern business. For example, hypothesis testing is one of the critical topics for quality managers and team workers in Six Sigma training programs. Delivering the knowledge of hypothesis testing effectively can be an important step for the incapable learners or…

  10. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  11. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students’ interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students’ physical fitness. PMID:27065556

  12. Step stress testing of receiver/transmitter units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steve; Huch, David; James, Larry; Mueller, Stephen; Tran, Peggy

    1993-02-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize a test validation effort for an accelerated life testing model which uses a wide parametric Bayesian Analysis Methodology. Step stress testing was performed on seven Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class 1 synthesizer detector, radio frequency assemblies. Failure data and analyses are provided. The report addresses issues concerning how to demonstrate high reliability (Mean-Time-Between-Failure values of 10,000 hours or more) on procured Air Force systems without incurring excessive testing costs.

  13. Step stress testing of receiver/transmitter units, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Steve; Huch, David; James, Larry; Mueller, Stephen; Tran, Peggy

    1993-02-01

    This report has been prepared to summarize a test validation effort for an accelerated life testing model which uses a wide parametric Bayesian Analysis Methodology. Step stress testing was performed on seven Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class 1 synthesizer detector, radio frequency assemblies. Failure-data and analyses are provided. The report addresses issues concerning how to demonstrate high reliability (Mean-Time-Between-Failure values of 10,000 hours or more) on procured Air Force systems without incurring excessive testing costs.

  14. Step Stress Testing of Receiver/Transmitter Units. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    area of contact is made with R4 body. The conformal coating on C4 is darker than other tantalum capacitors and is a light caramel brown in color . 13...uniform throughout. Stresses to LEVEL 10 have discolored coating to a light caramel brown. Coating in contact with lC’s Ull-U14, and components U15...pnor to Step-Stress test. 6 Conformal coating covering R4 has turned to a darkened caramel brown color . 7 Deep test probe marks found at R33. R34. 44

  15. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing for Solar Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.; Elmore, R.; Lee, J.; Kennedy, C.

    2011-09-01

    To meet the challenge to reduce the cost of electricity generated with concentrating solar power (CSP) new low-cost reflector materials are being developed including metalized polymer reflectors and must be tested and validated against appropriate failure mechanisms. We explore the application of testing methods and statistical inference techniques for quantifying estimates and improving lifetimes of concentrating solar power (CSP) reflectors associated with failure mechanisms initiated by exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. In general, a suite of durability and reliability tests are available for testing a variety of failure mechanisms where the results of a set are required to understand overall lifetime of a CSP reflector. We will focus on the use of the Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) as a testing device for assessing various degradation patterns attributable to accelerated UV exposure. Depending on number of samples, test conditions, degradation and failure patterns, test results may be used to derive insight into failure mechanisms, associated physical parameters, lifetimes and uncertainties. In the most complicated case warranting advanced planning and statistical inference, step-stress accelerated degradation (SSADT) methods may be applied.

  16. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  17. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  18. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test, you must follow these steps to begin the confirmation test process: (a) You must carry out a requirement for a waiting period before the confirmation test, by taking the following steps: (1) You...

  19. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test, you must follow these steps to begin the confirmation test process: (a) You must carry out a requirement for a waiting period before the confirmation test, by taking the following steps: (1) You...

  20. Estimating V0[subscript 2]max Using a Personalized Step Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Carrie; Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Hager, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a step test with a personalized step rate and step height to predict cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 college-aged males and females using the self-reported perceived functional ability scale and data collected during the step test. Multiple linear regression analysis yielded a model (R = 0.90, SEE = 3.43…

  1. Empathy in Preschool Children: The Development of the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Alexandra; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Brown, Antony; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a new instrument: the Southampton Test of Empathy for Preschoolers (STEP). The test incorporated 8 video vignettes of children in emotional scenarios, assessing a child's ability to understand (STEP-UND) and share (STEP-SHA) in the emotional experience of a story protagonist. Each vignette included 4 emotions (angry,…

  2. Conducting High Cycle Fatigue Strength Step Tests on Gamma TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad; Draper, Sue; Pereira, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue strength testing of gamma TiAl by the step test method is investigated. A design of experiments was implemented to determine if the coaxing effect occurred during testing. Since coaxing was not observed, step testing was deemed a suitable method to define the fatigue strength at 106 cycles.

  3. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation...

  4. Transistor step stress testing program for JANTX2N2905A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the transistor JANTX2N2905A manufactured by Texas Instruments and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests outlined in Table 2 after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point.

  5. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  6. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N759A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to a variety of voltage regulating diodes manufactured by Texas Instruments and Siemens was investigated. Test requirements are described and results are tabulated. Failure modes are discussed.

  7. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N972B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect was studied of power/temperature step stress when applied to the zener diode JANTX1N972B manufactured by Siemens and Motorola. The power/temperature stress tests are presented, and failure analyses are included.

  8. Tank Tests of Models of Flying Boat Hulls Having Longitudinal Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, John M; Ward, Kenneth E

    1936-01-01

    Four models with longitudinal steps on the forebody were developed by modification of a model of a conventional hull and were tested in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) tank. Models with longitudinal steps were found to have smaller resistance at high speed and greater resistance at low speed than the parent model that had the same afterbody but a conventional V-section forebody. The models with a single longitudinal step had better performance at hump speed and as low high-speed resistance except at very light loads. Spray strips at angles from 0 degrees to 45 degrees to the horizontal were fitted at the longitudinal steps and at the chine on one of the two step models having two longitudinal steps. The resistance and the height of the spray were less with each of the spray strips than without; the most favorable angle was found to lie between 15 degrees and 30 degrees.

  9. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  10. Effects of Step Length, Age, and Fall History on Hip and Knee Kinetics and Knee Co-contraction during the Maximum Step Length Test

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Brian W.; Jongprasithporn, Manutchanok; Hart-Hughes, Stephanie J.; Bulat, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Background Maximum step length is a brief clinical test involving stepping out and back as far as possible with the arms folded across the chest. This test has been shown to predict fall risk, but the biomechanics of this test are not fully understood. Knee and hip kinetics (moments and powers) are greater for longer steps and for younger subjects, but younger subjects also step farther. Methods To separate effects of step length, age, and fall history on joint kinetics; 14 healthy younger, 14 older non-fallers, and 11 older fallers (27(5), 72(5), 75(6) years respectively) all stepped to the same relative target distances of 20-80% of their height. Knee and hip kinetics and knee co-contraction were calculated. Findings Hip and knee kinetics and knee co-contraction all increased with step length, but older non-fallers and fallers utilized greater stepping hip and less stepping knee extensor kinetics. Fallers had greater stepping knee co-contraction than non-fallers. Stance knee co-contraction of non-fallers was similar to young for shorter steps and similar to fallers for longer steps. Interpretation Age had minimal effects and fall history had no effects on joint kinetics of steps to similar distances. Effects of age and fall history on knee co-contraction may contribute to age-related kinetic differences and shorter maximal step lengths of older non-fallers and fallers, but step length correlated with every variable tested. Thus, declines in maximum step length could indicate declines in hip and knee extensor kinetics and impaired performance on similar tasks like recovering from a trip. PMID:23978310

  11. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  12. "Tailored" submaximal step test for VO2max prediction in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bellotti, Cecilia; Paterson, Donald H

    2014-04-01

    The authors developed and validated a "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test (tA-R) and a new equation for VO2max prediction in older adults (OA). Sixty subjects (age 68 ± 4 yr, 30 male, 30 female) performed their tA-R step test (5-min, 30-cm step, tailored stepping rate) and an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. VO2max was (a) predicted using the standard A-R equation (predicted VO2max), (b) predicted based on the authors' new multiple linear equation (equation VO2max), and (c) directly measured by incremental cycling test (direct VO2max). Agreement among values of VO2max was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. The predicted VO2max was not significantly different from the direct VO2max, yet with relatively large imprecision. The equation VO2max allowed more precise as well as accurate predictions of VO2max compared with standard A-R prediction. The "tailored" version of the Astrand-Rhyming step test and the new prediction equation appear suitable for a rapid (5-min), safe (submaximal), accurate, and precise VO2max prediction in healthy OA.

  13. Comparison and age-level differences among various step tests for evaluating balance ability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sohee; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the difficulty among various step tests (place step, forward single step, forward double step, forward right single step and stairs step) in evaluating the dynamic balance in the elderly and their age level differences. Thirty-two healthy elderly people (age 71.4+/-6.4 years) and twenty young people performed step tests for 10 s to the pace of a metronome (120 bpm). Evaluation parameters were the time difference between the metronome sound and the time when each foot hit the ground as well as the stride time. The forward single step test had significantly larger values for both of the above parameters than the other tests. A significant age level difference was found in the forward single step test for the time difference and in the forward single step and stairs step tests for the stride time, being longer in the elderly. It was concluded that the forward single step test has larger age-level differences and is more difficult to carry out than the other step tests.

  14. Comparison between the six-minute walk test and the six-minute step test in post stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Stroke remains one of the major chronic diseases worldwide, and is considered a major cause of disability, which results not only in persistent neurological deficits, but also in the high physical deconditioning, nevertheless there are not many forms of assessing functional capacity in this population. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of the Six Minute Walk Teste and the Six-Minute Step Test (6MST) in post-stroke patients and compare the behavior of physiological variables during the 6MST and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), by correlating the functional performance obtained in both tests. Method The 6MWT was carried out according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the 6MST was performed in six minutes in order to compare it to the 6MWT in a 20 cm step. Was included post-stroke individuals able to walk without aid. All of them did the 6MWT and the 6MST. Results 12 patients participated in the study. There was no statistical difference in the parameters analyzed when tests were compared. There was poor correlation between the functional performance in both tests. Conclusion The 6MWT and the 6MST is feasible for post-stroke patients and physiological responses are equal during the performance of both tests. However, there was no correlation with respect to functional performance, which was assessed by the distance walked in the 6MWT and by the number of steps climbed in the 6MST. PMID:23924407

  15. The Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the OSU Step Test for College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, D. L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The O.S.U. Step Test was administered to 68 male university students to determine the objectivity of three methods of monitering heart rate--subjects count, investigator's count, and ECG records--with results indicating that the investigator was significantly more accurate in heart rate determination than were the subjects. (MB)

  16. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N3031B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the zener diode JANTX1N3031B manufactured by Siemens and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  17. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N3016B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to a variety the zener diode JANTX2N3016B manufactured by Siemens and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  18. Diode step stress testing program for JANTX1N2989B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the zener diode JANTX2N2989 manufactured by Siemens and General Semiconductor is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parameteric testing.

  19. Using constant head step tests to determine hydraulic apertures in fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patryk M; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2011-09-25

    The initial step in the analysis of contaminant transport in fractured rock requires the consideration of groundwater velocity. Practical methods for estimating the average linear groundwater velocity (v¯) in fractured rock require determination of hydraulic apertures which are commonly calculated by applying the cubic law using transmissivity (T) values and the number of hydraulically active fractures in the test interval. High-resolution, constant-head step injection testing of cored boreholes in a 100 m thick fractured dolostone aquifer was conducted using inflatable packers to isolate specific test intervals from the rest of the borehole. The steps in each test interval were gradually increased from very low to much higher injection rates. At smaller injection rates, the flow rate vs. applied pressure graph projects through the origin and indicates Darcian flow; non Darcian flow is evident at higher injection rates. Non-Darcian flow results in significantly lower calculated T values, which translates to smaller hydraulic aperture values. Further error in the calculated hydraulic aperture stems from uncertainty in the number of hydraulically active fractures in each test interval. This estimate can be inferred from borehole image and core logs, however, all of the fractures identified are not necessarily hydraulically active. This study proposes a method based on Reynolds number calculations aimed at improving confidence in the selection of the number of active fractures in each test interval.

  20. Rapid one step urine test for human chorionic gonadotrophin in evaluating suspected complications of early pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, J C; Kelly, T; MacLean, A B; McAllister, E J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the ability of a sensitive one step urine test to detect human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with suspected complications of early pregnancy. DESIGN--Test on women presenting to accident and emergency department with gynaecological problems over six months. Results were validated using a quantitative assay for human chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. SETTING--Accident and emergency department and gynaecology wards of a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--130 unselected women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin by one step test, presence of ectopic pregnancy, and results of quantitative analysis of chorionic gonadotrophin in serum and urine. RESULTS--79 women had a positive urine test result and 51 a negative result. All 12 women with ectopic pregnancy had a positive test result, although urinary concentration varied from 191 IU/l to 47,800 IU/l. Only one woman, who had a faintly positive result, was found not to be pregnant on subsequent examination. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of the urine test were 100% respectively. 33 women were sent home from the accident and emergency department with normal clinical findings after a negative urine test result. All these women had undetectable concentrations of chorionic gonadotrophin in matched samples of urine and serum. CONCLUSIONS--A simple, rapid one step test for chorionic gonadotrophin should be available for the initial evaluation of emergency gynaecological problems. The additional cost of the test is offset by not admitting those patients whose clinical findings are normal and who have a negative urine test result and by reducing the number of women requiring quantitative assays of chorionic gonadotrophin. Images FIG 1 PMID:2059687

  1. Two-step sensitivity testing of parametrized and regionalized life cycle assessments: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Mutel, Christopher L; de Baan, Laura; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Comprehensive sensitivity analysis is a significant tool to interpret and improve life cycle assessment (LCA) models, but is rarely performed. Sensitivity analysis will increase in importance as inventory databases become regionalized, increasing the number of system parameters, and parametrized, adding complexity through variables and nonlinear formulas. We propose and implement a new two-step approach to sensitivity analysis. First, we identify parameters with high global sensitivities for further examination and analysis with a screening step, the method of elementary effects. Second, the more computationally intensive contribution to variance test is used to quantify the relative importance of these parameters. The two-step sensitivity test is illustrated on a regionalized, nonlinear case study of the biodiversity impacts from land use of cocoa production, including a worldwide cocoa products trade model. Our simplified trade model can be used for transformable commodities where one is assessing market shares that vary over time. In the case study, the highly uncertain characterization factors for the Ivory Coast and Ghana contributed more than 50% of variance for almost all countries and years examined. The two-step sensitivity test allows for the interpretation, understanding, and improvement of large, complex, and nonlinear LCA systems.

  2. A step test to assess exercise-related oxygen desaturation in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dal Corso, S; Duarte, S R; Neder, J A; Malaguti, C; de Fuccio, M B; de Castro Pereira, C A; Nery, L E

    2007-02-01

    A 6-min step test (6MST) may constitute a practical method for routinely assessing effort tolerance and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation (ERD) in the primary care of patients with interstitial lung disease. In total, 31 patients (19 males) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 25) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia were submitted, on different days, to two 6MSTs. Physiological responses were compared with those found on maximal and submaximal cycle ergometer tests at the same oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))). Chronic breathlessness was also determined, as measured by the baseline dyspnoea index (BDI). Responses to 6MST were highly reproducible: 1.3+/-2.0 steps x min(-1), +/-5 beats x min(-1) (cardiac frequency), +/-50 mL x min(-1) (V'(O(2))), +/-7 L x min(-1) (minute ventilation) and +/-2% (arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2)))). The number of steps climbed in 6 min was correlated to peak V'(O(2)) and the BDI. There were significant associations among the tests in relation to presence (change in S(p,O(2)) between rest and exercise > or = 4%) and severity (S(p,O(2)) <88%) of ERD. Four patients, however, presented ERD only in response to 6MST. Resting diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference were the independent predictors of the number of steps climbed. A single-stage, self-paced 6-min step test provided reliable and reproducible estimates of exercise capacity and exercise-related oxyhaemoglobin desaturation in interstitial lung disease patients.

  3. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  4. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood.

    PubMed

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-05-01

    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  5. STEP: Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle. Report on the phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, J. P.; Bye, M.; Cavallo, G.; Damour, T.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Hedin, A.; Hellings, R. W.; Jafry, Y.; Laurance, R.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    During Phase A, the STEP Study Team identified three types of experiments that can be accommodated on the STEP satellite within the mission constraints and whose performance is orders of magnitude better than any present or planned future experiment of the same kind on the ground. The scientific objectives of the STEP mission are to: test the Equivalence Principle to one part in 10(exp 17), six orders of magnitude better than has been achieved on the ground; search for a new interaction between quantum-mechanical spin and ordinary matter with a sensitivity of the mass-spin coupling constant g(sub p)g(sub s) = 6 x 10(exp -34) at a range of 1 mm, which represents a seven order-of-magnitude improvement over comparable ground-based measurements; and determine the constant of gravity G with a precision of one part in 10(exp 6) and to test the validity of the inverse square law with the same precision, both two orders of magnitude better than has been achieved on the ground.

  6. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABAA receptor (GABAAR) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABAAR modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABAAR was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABAAR expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABAA-modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABAAR activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABAAR modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  7. Bayesian Analysis of Step-Stress Accelerated Life Test with Exponential Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Pan, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we propose a general Bayesian inference approach to the step-stress accelerated life test with type II censoring. We assume that the failure times at each stress level are exponentially distributed and the test units are tested in an increasing order of stress levels. We formulate the prior distribution of the parameters of life-stress function and integrate the engineering knowledge of product failure rate and acceleration factor into the prior. The posterior distribution and the point estimates for the parameters of interest are provided. Through the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrate a nonconjugate prior case using an industrial example. It is shown that with the Bayesian approach, the statistical precision of parameter estimation is improved and, consequently, the required number of failures could be reduced.

  8. Responsiveness of the ten-metre walk test, Step Test and Motor Assessment Scale in inpatient care after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Responsiveness of a measurement tool is its ability to detect change over time. The aim of this study was to determine the responsiveness and floor/ceiling effects of the ten-metre walk test (10mWT), Step Test and Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) lower limb items. Methods An inception cohort study was conducted, including 190 stroke survivors admitted to a comprehensive stroke unit. The 10mWT, Step Test and MAS were administered within 48 hours of admission and repeated in the 48 hours before discharge. Responsiveness was analysed with Effect Size (ES), Standardised Response Mean (SRM) and a median-based Effect Size (mES). Floor/ceiling effects were calculated as the percentage of participants scoring the lowest/highest possible scores. Results Responsiveness of each outcome measure varied according to the statistic used. Values for the 10mWT were ES 1.44, SRM 0.93, mES 0.45; the step test ES 1.99, SRM 0.88, mES 0.36; MAS sit-to-stand (item 4) score ES 1.27, SRM 1.00, mES 0.50; and for MAS item 5 (walking) ES 1.43, SRM 1.10, mES 0.50. The MAS item 3 (sitting balance) was moderately responsive in all analyses (ES 0.72, SRM 0.71, mES 0.50). The MAS mobility score (summed items 3-5) consistently showed large responsiveness (ES 1.42, SRM 1.16, mES 0.92). The Step Test had the highest proportion of participants who didn’t change (46%) and item 4 of the MAS showed the largest ceiling effect on discharge (44%). Conclusions Most measures were able to detect change in motor performance during inpatient stroke rehabilitation but the MAS mobility score was the only measure that demonstrated large responsiveness and no marked floor or ceiling effects. PMID:24934859

  9. Design and test of two-step solar oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Taylor, R. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Ruiz, R.

    1981-09-01

    A design of a two step solar retort, the logic for the design, and the results from a preliminary test of the design at the White Sands Solar Furnace, New Mexico are presented. Solar retorting of oil shale is a technically feasible process where focused solar energy can displace fossil energy in the production of liquid fuels. The predicted result is a 10 to 40% improvement in the exportable fuel (oil + gas) production per ton of raw shale. Greater improvements are achieved with the lower grade shales where with nonsolar processes a larger fraction of the fuel content has to be used in the processing.

  10. Tank tests of two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The results of tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank on two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step are given graphically. The step of N.A.C.A. model 11-C was ventilated in several different ways and it was found that the resistance of the normal form is not appreciably affected by artificial ventilation in any of the forms tried. Further tests made with the depth of the step of model 11-C reduced likewise show no appreciable effect on the resistance from ventilation of the step. Tests were made on a model of the hull of the Navy P3M-1 flying-boat hull both with and without ventilation of the step. It was found that the discontinuity which is obtained in the resistance curves of this model is eliminated by ventilating the step.

  11. Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X

    2014-11-01

    In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers.

  12. Evaluating the fall risk among elderly population by choice step reaction test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants’ electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater

  13. Evaluating the fall risk among elderly population by choice step reaction test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Yuliang; Zhu, Wenfei; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Falls during daily activities are often associated with injuries and physical disabilities, thereby affecting quality of life among elder adults. Balance control, which is crucial in avoiding falls, is composed of two elements: muscle strength and central nervous system (CNS) control. A number of studies have reported that reduced muscle strength raises the risk of falling. However, to date there has been only limited research focused on the relationship between fall risk and the CNS. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CNS and risk of falling among the elderly. A total of 140 elderly people (92 females and 48 males) were divided into faller and nonfaller groups based on questionnaire responses concerning falls in their daily life. Participants undertook a choice step reaction test in which they were required to respond to random visual stimuli using foot movements as fast as possible in the left or right directions. Response time was quantified as premotor time (PMT) and motor time (MT). In addition, the participants' electro-myography data were recorded during the choice step reaction test. A maximal isokinetic torque test was also performed. PMT was greater in the fallers than in the nonfallers group. There was a significant difference between fall status and direction on PMT. PMT of the left limb in nonfallers was faster than the right, but in fallers there was no difference between left and right limbs. A similar phenomenon was also observed for MT. There were significant differences between fallers and nonfallers in maximum isokinetic torque at knee and ankle joints. The correct rate of PMT was higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater PMT

  14. A novel test of planning ability: great apes can plan step-by-step but not in advance of action.

    PubMed

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2013-11-01

    The ability to identify an appropriate sequence of actions or to consider alternative possible action sequences might be particularly useful during problem solving in the physical domain. We developed a new 'paddle-box' task to test the ability of different ape species to plan an appropriate sequence of physical actions (rotating paddles) to retrieve a reward from a goal location. The task had an adjustable difficulty level and was not dependent on species-specific behaviours (e.g. complex tool use). We investigated the planning abilities of captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) using the paddle-box. In experiment 1, subjects had to rotate one or two paddles before rotating the paddle with the reward on. Subjects of both species performed poorly, though orangutans rotated more non-food paddles, which may be related to their greater exploratory tendencies and bolder temperament compared with bonobos. In experiment 2 subjects could always rotate the paddle with the reward on first and still succeed, and most subjects of both species performed appropriate sequences of up to three paddle rotations to retrieve the reward. Poor performance in experiment 1 may have been related to subjects' difficulty in inhibiting the prepotent response to act on the reward immediately.

  15. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ontweka, Lameck N.; Deng, Lul O.; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K.; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Bior, Bior K.; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A.; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4–6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5–95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4–100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2–93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8–85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7–100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5–100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited. PMID:27992488

  16. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture.

    PubMed

    Ontweka, Lameck N; Deng, Lul O; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A; Wamala, Joseph F; Bior, Bior K; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Page, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4-6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5-95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4-100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2-93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8-85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7-100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5-100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited.

  17. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  18. Analysis/test correlation using VAWT-SDS on a step-relaxation test for the rotating Sandia 34 m test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Argueello, J.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.; Veers, P.S.

    1993-11-01

    The combined analysis/test effort described in this paper compares predictions with measured data from a step-relaxation test in the absence of significant wind-driven aerodynamic loading. The process described here is intended to illustrate a method for validation of time domain codes for structural analysis of wind turbine structures. Preliminary analyses were performed to investigate the transient dynamic response that the rotating Sandia 34 m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) would undergo when one of the two blades was excited by step-relaxation. The calculations served two purposes. The first was for pretest planning to evaluate the relative importance of the various forces that would be acting on the structure during the test and to determine if the applied force in the step-relaxation would be sufficient to produce an excitation that was distinguishable from that produced by the aerodynamic loads. The second was to provide predictions that could subsequently be compared to the data from the test. The test was carried out specifically to help in the validation of the time-domain structural dynamics code, VAWT-SDS, which predicts the dynamic response of VAWTs subject to transient events. Post-test comparisons with the data were performed and showed a qualitative agreement between pretest predictions and measured response. However, they also showed that there was significantly more damping in the measurements than included in the predictions. Efforts to resolve this difference, including post-test analyses, were undertaken and are reported herein. The overall effort described in this paper represents a major step in the process of arriving at a validated structural dynamics code.

  19. Modified Six-Minute Walk Test: Number of Steps per Second

    PubMed Central

    Burioka, Naoto; Imada, Akari; Kiyohiro, Akiko; Sugitani, Fumika; Fujii, Takenori; Hosaka, Akari; Nakamoto, Sachiko; Amisaki, Takashi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 6-min walk test (6MWT) has been used to examine subjective dyspnea, predict mortality and measure clinical outcomes in studies of patients with chronic pulmonary or heart disease. Although the 6MWT is useful to assess the general ability to perform daily physical activity, it is difficult to evaluate time-dependent responses. To improve the 6MWT, we devised a new index, which is the number of steps walked per second (NSPS). We performed the 6MWT in 11 healthy subjects and 7 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and calculated the NSPS. The mean NSPS was significantly higher in the healthy subjects than in the COPD patients, while the coefficient of variation of the NSPS was significantly smaller in healthy subjects compared with COPD patients. Calculation of the NSPS was useful to evaluate the walking pattern. This modified 6MWT may be helpful for assessing the efficacy of rehabilitation and drug therapy for COPD. PMID:25067880

  20. One-step brazing process for CFC monoblock joints and mechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, V.; Salvo, M.; Murdaca, S.; Ferraris, M.

    2009-09-01

    A new method of joining CFC to copper (CFC/Cu) and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy (CFC/Cu/CuCrZr) was previously developed for the flat-type configuration. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC, Cu and CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same non-active brazing alloy. The composite surface was previously modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The feasibility of this process also for monoblock geometry is described in this work. The thermal fatigue resistance of the joined samples (quenching from 450 °C to RT; 50 cycles) was tested and the joints were characterized by apparent shear tests before and after thermal fatigue. The apparent shear strength of the CFC/Cu/CuCrZr joined samples was unaffected after these thermal fatigue tests.

  1. Application of step-drawdown test for planning agricultural groundwater well maintenance in S. Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Sun

    2015-04-01

    Well efficiency decreases with time after development and the pumping rate is reduced sharply at a certain point. However, the rapid decrease of the efficiency definitely depends upon the physical characteristics of the aquifer, chemical properties of groundwater, pore clogging by adsorptive/precipitable materials, and use of groundwater well. In general, it is expected that an adequate and ongoing maintenance for the well is effective in extension of operating periods because major maintenance frequency requirement at municipal wells placed in the crystalline rock aquifer is known to be relatively longer. The proportion of agricultural wells (583,748) against the total groundwater ones (1,380,715) is 42.3% in 2011, S. Korea. Groundwater use accounts for 1.9 billion m3/year which indicates 48.9% of total amount available groundwater resources. Approximate 69% of the total agricultural public wells placed in crystalline rock aquifer have passed more than 10 years after development. In this study, the increase of well efficiency before and after the well disinfection/cleaning for agricultural groundwater wells in the mountains, plains, and coastal aquifer with the data of step-drawdown test was evaluated, respectively. With the concept of critical yield, the increase of available amount of groundwater was quantitatively analyzed after treatment. From the results, well efficiency increased approximately 1.5 to 4 times depending on pumping rate when the proper disinfection/cleaning methods to the wells were applied. In addition, it showed that the pumping rate of approximate 4-8% with the critical yield from step-drawdown test increased and these effects were the highest in wells which are more than 10 years elapsed. Therefore, it would be concluded that the well disinfection/cleaning methods for the purpose of increasing the efficiency are more effective for the wells that are older than 10 years.

  2. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  3. Laypersons can successfully place supraglottic airways with 3 minutes of training. A comparison of four different devices in the manikin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Supraglottic airway devices have frequently been shown to facilitate airway management and are implemented in the ILCOR resuscitation algorithm. Limited data exists concerning laypersons without any medical or paramedical background. We hypothesized that even laymen would be able to operate supraglottic airway devices after a brief training session. Methods Four different supraglottic airway devices: Laryngeal Mask Classic (LMA), Laryngeal Tube (LT), Intubating Laryngeal Mask (FT) and CobraPLA (Cobra) were tested in 141 volunteers recruited in a technical university cafeteria and in a shopping mall. All volunteers received a brief standardized training session. Primary endpoint was the time required to definitive insertion. In a short questionnaire applicants were asked to assess the devices and to answer some general questions about BLS. Results The longest time to insertion was observed for Cobra (31.9 ± 27.9 s, range: 9-120, p < 0.0001; all means ± standard deviation). There was no significant difference between the insertion times of the other three devices. Fewest insertion attempts were needed for the FT (1.07 ± 0.26), followed by the LMA (1.23 ± 0.52, p > 0.05), the LT (1.36 ± 0.61, p < 0.05) and the Cobra (1.45 ± 0.7, p < 0.0001). Ventilation was achieved on the first attempt significantly more often with the FT (p < 0.001) compared to the other devices. Nearly 90% of the participants were in favor of implementing supraglottic airway devices in first aid algorithms and classes. Conclusion Laypersons are able to operate supraglottic airway devices in manikin with minimal instruction. Ventilation was achieved with all devices tested after a reasonable time and with a high success rate of > 95%. The use of supraglottic airway devices in first aid and BLS algorithms should be considered. PMID:22024311

  4. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems--Teacher-Report Version (Step-T): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…

  5. Step Process for Selecting and Testing Surrogates and Indicators of Afrotemperate Forest Invertebrate Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Charmaine; Hamer, Michelle; Slotow, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs) potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating) and temporal (seasonal) effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season). The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana) showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. Conclusions/Significance Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest) being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type) requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species). This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study. PMID:20161757

  6. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  7. Low Earth Orbital Mission Aboard the Space Test Experiments Platform (STEP-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES) is presented in vugraph form. The discussion is divided into three sections: (1) a description of SAMMES; (2) a SAMMES/STEP-3 mission overview; and (3) SAMMES follow on efforts. The SAMMES/STEP-3 mission objectives are as follows: assess LEO space environmental effects on SDIO materials; quantify orbital and local environments; and demonstrate the modular experiment concept.

  8. The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Carlos Henrique Silva de; Cianci, Reinaldo Giovanini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal

    2012-01-01

    Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.

  9. Comparing two independent groups: a test based on a one-step M-estimator and bootstrap-t.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, A Fırat

    2013-05-01

    A new test is proposed for the problem of comparing two independent groups in terms of some measure of location. The proposed test () uses a one-step M-estimator and a bootstrap-t method with the procedure proposed by Özdemir and Kurt (2006). Eight methods were compared in terms of actual Type I error and power when the underlying distributions differ in skewness and kurtosis under heterogeneity of variances. For the 21 theoretical distributions, the Yuen test with the bootstrap-t method was the most favourable, followed by test. For the five real data sets, the proposed test and percentile bootstrap method with the one-step M-estimator performed best.

  10. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Alsamadi, Silvana C.

    2012-01-01

    Score reliability and validity of parent responses concerning their 10- to 17-year-old students were analyzed using the Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P), which assesses a variety of emotional problems classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Score reliability, convergent, and…

  11. Evaluation by step response tests of prototype relief valves designed for YF-12 inlet stability bleed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Two stability bleed system relief valves were tested in a special dynamic test facility. These poppet valves are prototypes for a stability bleed system designed for use in a YF-12 flight inlet. One valve is unshielded, while the other has a special shield to eliminate the flow effect pressures on the piston. The tests determined the size of a damping orifice to be used during wind tunnel tests of the bleed system and verified an analog simulation of the valves. The effects of initial pressure level, pressure step size, and spring rate were investigated.

  12. Systematic Pilot Testing as a Step in the Instructional Design Process of Corporate Training and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bethany S.; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of pilot testing instructional materials focuses on a survey that determined the extent to which pilot tests are conducted in identified corporate training environments and ascertains reasons pilot tests were not implemented. Considers factors that influence the decision to pilot test products and suggest further research. (Author/LRW)

  13. The motivation for drug abuse treatment: testing cognitive and 12-step theories.

    PubMed

    Bell, D C; Montoya, I D; Richard, A J; Dayton, C A

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two models of behavior change: cognitive theory and 12-step theory. Research subjects were drawn from three separate, but parallel, samples of adults. The first sample consisted of out-of-treatment chronic drug users, the second consisted of drug users who had applied for treatment at a publicly funded multiple-provider drug treatment facility, and the third consisted of drug users who had applied for treatment at an intensive outpatient program for crack cocaine users. Cognitive theory was supported. Study participants applying for drug abuse treatment reported a higher level of perceived problem severity and a higher level of cognitive functioning than out-of-treatment drug users. Two hypotheses drawn from 12-step theory were not supported. Treatment applicants had more positive emotional functioning than out-of-treatment drug users, and one treatment-seeking sample had higher self-esteem.

  14. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  15. The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Pam C.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

  16. Steps toward More Effective Implementation of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is to improve testing practices, but their impact on practice appears spotty. Self-regulation clearly fails in some instances. The establishment of an external agency to oversee testing practices and adherence to the Standards would face substantial hurdles, and the ambiguity of…

  17. A novel two-step laser ranging technique for a precision test of the theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2003-01-01

    All powered spacecraft experience residual systematic acceleration due to anisotropy of the thermal radiation pressure and fuel leakage. The residual acceleration limits the accuracy of any test of gravity that relies on the precise determination of the spacecraft trajectory. We describe a novel two-step laser ranging technique, which largely eliminates the effects of non-gravity acceleration sources and enables celestial mechanics checks with unprecedented precision.

  18. Validity of the six-minute step test of free cadence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruna V.; Arcuri, Juliano F.; Labadessa, Ivana G.; Costa, Joyce N. F.; Sentanin, Anna C.; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A. Pires

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the concurrent validity of the six-minute step test (6MST) in assessing exercise capacity of COPD patients using the six-minute walk test (6MWT) as a gold-standard. The predictive validity of the 6MST was assessed to determine a cut-off point for identification of low exercise capacity. Method: thirty-two COPD patients (50-87 years old) with mild to very severe obstruction performed the 6MST and 6MWT twice. Results: Concurrent validity: a strong positive correlation (Pearson) between the number of ascents on the first (T1), second (T2) and the best of both (T1 or T2) tests during the 6MWT was observed. Although a moderate negative correlation with BODE index and FEV1 was found, it was considered insufficient to test the validity, therefore ROC curves were not applied. The predictive validity (ROC) of the 6MST to identify low physical capacity (compared with the 6MWT) using the performance of T1 or T2, or solely T1 was considered accurate, and the area under the curve was 0.8 (IC95% 0.62-0.98) and 0.85 (IC95% 0.70-0.99), respectively. To classify patients, the cut-off points of 86 and 78 steps were chosen, with both values showing 90% of sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 68% for T1 or T2, or solely T1, respectively. Conclusion: The number of steps on the 6MST was valid to verify exercise capacity in COPD patients and the cut-off point of 78 steps was able to identify patients with poor exercise tolerance. Values under this cut-off point are considered to identify patients with a poorer prognosis. PMID:25003275

  19. A simple test of choice stepping reaction time for assessing fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tijsma, Mylou; Vister, Eva; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine (a) the discriminant validity for established fall risk factors and (b) the predictive validity for falls of a simple test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method People with MS (n = 210, 21-74y) performed the CSRT, sensorimotor, balance and neuropsychological tests in a single session. They were then followed up for falls using monthly fall diaries for 6 months. Results The CSRT test had excellent discriminant validity with respect to established fall risk factors. Frequent fallers (≥3 falls) performed significantly worse in the CSRT test than non-frequent fallers (0-2 falls). With the odds of suffering frequent falls increasing 69% with each SD increase in CSRT (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.27-2.26, p = <0.001). In regression analysis, CSRT was best explained by sway, time to complete the 9-Hole Peg test, knee extension strength of the weaker leg, proprioception and the time to complete the Trails B test (multiple R(2  )= ( )0.449, p < 0.001). Conclusions A simple low tech CSRT test has excellent discriminative and predictive validity in relation to falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful in documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Good choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is required for maintaining balance. A simple low-tech CSRT test has excellent discriminative and predictive validity in relation to falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions.

  20. Design of a new automated multi-step outflow test apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, J.; Gribb, M. M.; McNamara, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Modeling flow and transport in the vadose zone requires knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties. Laboratories studies involving vadose zone soils typically include use of the multistep outflow method (MSO), which can provide information about wetting and drying soil-moisture and hydraulic conductivity curves from a single test. However, manual MSO testing is time consuming and measurement errors can be easily introduced. A computer-automated system has been designed to allow convenient measurement of soil-water characteristic curves. Computer-controlled solenoid valves are used to regulate the pressure inside Tempe cells to drain soil samples, and outflow volumes are measured with a pressure transducer. The electronic components of the system are controlled using LabVIEW software. This system has been optimized for undisturbed core samples. System performance has been evaluated by comparing results from undisturbed samples subjected first to manual MSO testing and then automated testing. The automated and manual MSO tests yielded similar drying soil-water characteristic curves. These curves are further compared to in-situ measurements and those obtained using pedotransfer functions for a semi-arid watershed.

  1. Test-set reduction in the screening step definition of a chiral separation strategy in polar organic solvents chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ates, Hasret; Desmedt, Bart; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2012-12-01

    The last decades, many efforts have been made to design and develop chiral separation strategies for different analytical techniques. To ensure that these strategies are broadly applicable rather large test-sets of molecules with very diverse molecules are used. The most enantioselective and complementary separation systems are then used as screening conditions in separation strategies. Potential changes in conditions e.g. implementation of new chiral selectors, requires screening of the entire set to retain the most enantioselective systems. A rational reduction of the test-sets may open new perspectives for developing and updating separation strategies. In the present work, it is investigated whether the screening step of an existing separation strategy in polar organic solvents chromatography can be reconstructed based on reduced test-set results Therefore, the structures of the 58 molecules of the test-set are digitally drawn and their optimal geometrical conformations calculated. From these conformations 3D-molecular descriptors are calculated. The test-set reduction is performed using the Kennard and Stone algorithm: compounds with the most diverse descriptors are selected. The test-sets are gradually reduced with 10% starting from 90% to 30% of the initial size. The results pointed out that with some reduced test-sets the same chromatographic systems are selected. A test-set reduction with 30% (41 remaining compounds) seems possible without losing information on the global enantioselectivity and complementarity of the tested chiral stationary phases.

  2. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  3. Cooperative Collision Avoidance Step 1 - Technology Demonstration Flight Test Report. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office sponsored a cooperative collision avoidance flight demonstration program for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This flight test was accomplished between September 21st and September 27th 2005 from the Mojave Airport, Mojave, California. The objective of these flights was to collect data for the Access 5 Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Work Package simulation effort, i.e., to gather data under select conditions to allow validation of the CCA simulation. Subsequent simulation to be verified were: Demonstrate the ability to detect cooperative traffic and provide situational awareness to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to track the detected cooperative traffic and provide position information to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate the ability to determine collision potential with detected cooperative traffic and provide notification to the ROA pilot; Demonstrate that the CCA subsystem provides information in sufficient time for the ROA pilot to initiate an evasive maneuver to avoid collision; Demonstrate an evasive maneuver that avoids collision with the threat aircraft; and lastly, Demonstrate the ability to assess the adequacy of the maneuver and determine that the collision potential has been avoided. The Scaled Composites, LLC Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle (OPV) was chosen as the test platform. Proteus was manned by two on-board pilots but was also capable of being controlled from an Air Vehicle Control Station (AVCS) located on the ground. For this demonstration, Proteus was equipped with cooperative collision sensors and the required hardware and software to place the data on the downlink. Prior to the flight phase, a detailed set of flight test scenarios were developed to address the flight test objectives. Two cooperative collision avoidance sensors were utilized for detecting aircraft in the evaluation: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and

  4. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry – hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO – uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques – precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially ‘weak-embryotoxic’ and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as ‘non-embryotoxic’. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for

  5. Developing and Testing Twelve-Step Facilitation for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder: Manual Development and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Yeterian, Julie D.; Cristello, Julie V.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kahler, Christopher W.; Timko, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF) intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF) treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents (M age 17 years [SD = 1.4]; 52.8% white) with DSM-IV substance use disorder recruited from the community. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at three and six months. Participants completed 6 of 10 sessions on average (8 participants completed all 10). Notable treatment developments were the inclusion of “in-services” led by Marijuana Anonymous members, including parents in a portion of individual sessions to provide a rationale for TSF, and use of a Socratic therapeutic interaction style. Acceptability and feasibility of the treatment were excellent (treatment satisfaction was 4.29 [SD = 0.59] out of 5). In keeping with TSF theory, the intervention substantially increased 12-step participation, and greater participation related to greater abstinence. iTSF is a replicable manualized treatment that can be implemented and tested in outpatient settings. Given the widespread compatibility of iTSF with the current adolescent treatment, if found efficacious, iTSF could be relatively easily adopted, implemented, and sustained and could provide an evidence-based option that could undergird current practice. PMID:27429548

  6. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  7. The effect of an active arm action on heart rate and predicted VO(2max) during the Chester step test.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Dave; Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2008-04-01

    This study examined whether the predictive outcomes of the Chester step test (CST) would be influenced by arm dynamics. Participants completed the CST on two separate occasions, once using active arms and once using passive arms. Results revealed that when compared to the passive arm protocol, the use of active arms led to a mean increase in heart rate of approximately 7 beats per minute across all of the incremental stages. However, this increase had little impact upon predicted VO(2max). Consequently, these results indicate that when performing the CST, participants are able to adopt an arm action that is compatible with personal preference.

  8. Use of cognitive question testing methodologies in participant action research: implementing the Three-Step Test-Interview Method in Indian county.

    PubMed

    Pavkov, Thomas W; Priest, Jacob; Fox, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the use of cognitive question testing methods to pretest a Web-based questionnaire designed to gather information from American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth between the ages of 18 and 25. The questionnaire included items related to risk and resiliency factors as well as potentially sensitive topics of victimization and delinquency. Question testing was completed with a sample of 15 youth living in three different regions of the United States. The Three Step Test Interview Method was modified to collect information related to interface usability, cognitive response, and cultural interpretation of survey items. Data collected from the question testing process resulted in questionnaire changes that included query wording, the inclusion and exclusion of survey items based on cultural input, the reordering and rendering of survey items, and improvements in interface usability. Implications for survey research with the AI/AN youth population are discussed.

  9. Report on errors in pretransfusion testing from a tertiary care center: A step toward transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Meena; Meenia, Renu; Akhter, Naveen; Sawhney, Vijay; Irm, Yasmeen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the process of pretransfusion testing for blood transfusion can occur at any stage from collection of the sample to administration of the blood component. The present study was conducted to analyze the errors that threaten patients’ transfusion safety and actual harm/serious adverse events that occurred to the patients due to these errors. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was conducted in the Department Of Transfusion Medicine, Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh Hospital, Government Medical College, Jammu, India from January 2014 to December 2014 for a period of 1 year. Errors were defined as any deviation from established policies and standard operating procedures. A near-miss event was defined as those errors, which did not reach the patient. Location and time of occurrence of the events/errors were also noted. Results: A total of 32,672 requisitions for the transfusion of blood and blood components were received for typing and cross-matching. Out of these, 26,683 products were issued to the various clinical departments. A total of 2,229 errors were detected over a period of 1 year. Near-miss events constituted 53% of the errors and actual harmful events due to errors occurred in 0.26% of the patients. Sample labeling errors were 2.4%, inappropriate request for blood components 2%, and information on requisition forms not matching with that on the sample 1.5% of all the requisitions received were the most frequent errors in clinical services. In transfusion services, the most common event was accepting sample in error with the frequency of 0.5% of all requisitions. ABO incompatible hemolytic reactions were the most frequent harmful event with the frequency of 2.2/10,000 transfusions. Conclusion: Sample labeling, inappropriate request, and sample received in error were the most frequent high-risk errors. PMID:27011670

  10. Single step modified ink staining for Tzanck test: quick detection of herpetic giant cells in Tzanck smear.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Akeda, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2012-02-01

    Tzanck test has been recently re-evaluated as a method for the diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Giemsa staining for the Tzanck test is time-consuming and laborious. There is a need to develop simple and quick staining methods for bedside diagnosis of this disease. We report a single step and quick method for staining herpes giant cells in Tzanck smears using routinely available inks and physiological saline. A keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured on a slide glass and stained with various commercially available blue, blue-black and black inks serially diluted with physiological saline. Clinical smear samples from herpes lesions were also stained with these solutions without specific pretreatment. The nuclei of HaCaT were clearly stained showing high contrast with the cytoplasm using 5% Parker-Quink blue-black ink saline solution. Concentration of ink solution higher or lower than 5% resulted in less contrast. Blue or black inks or other manufacturers' inks can also be used, but staining of the cultured keratinocytes was less clear. Smear of clinical samples from herpes lesions were also stained with 5% ink solution. The nuclei of the multinucleated giant cells were clearly stained, and the sample could be immediately used for microscopic examination. One step staining of Tzanck smear using this diluted ink solution is an inexpensive and a convenient bedside diagnostic tool for the dermatologist.

  11. New steps in testing the Tidal Downsizing hypothesis for planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, S.

    2013-09-01

    Broadly speaking, there are two opposite views on how planet formation proceeds. The first of these is the Core Accretion (CA), a well established theory in which assembly of all planets occurs in the bottom-up direction. The second one is a modified gravitational disc in- stability model, which originally was thought to form only giant gaseous planets at large distances from the tar (e.g., Rafikov 2005). Now it emerges that migrating gaseous clumps may form not only giant planets but also terrestrial-like planets if dust sediments into the cores and the clumps' gas is removed by tidal disruption (Boley et al 2010, Nayakshin 2010; also reviewed in the upcoming PPVI by Helled et al 2013). This top-down scenario is referred to as "Tidal Downsizing" (TD) hypothesis. While TD hypothesis may potentially explain all of planet populations at any separation from the parent star (as planets migrate from 100 AU all the way to their disruption at ˜0.1 AU; Nayakshin and Lodato 2012), this scenario is currently in the embryonic state and needs further detailed calculations. Here we present several new calculations aimed at testing the theory with observations of exoplanets and young accreting stars possibly in the process of planet formation. (1) Nayakshin (2011) proposed that young massive "hot jupiters" may actually be tidally disrupted by the gravity of their parent stars if they migrate inward too quickly. If a significant fraction of dust grains managed to sediment into the centres of these gas clumps before they are disrupted, the solid cores are left behind as hot super-Earths and "hot neptunes". The discplanet interaction before and during planet disruption was modelled in detail by Nayakshin and Lodato (2012), who showed that the process of tidal disruption produces FU-Ori like accretion events onto the parent star. This model thus may account for both the hot planets observed and episodic accretion of young stars (Dunham and Vorobyov 2012). Another crucial prediction

  12. Comparison of effects of dry versus wet swallowing on Eustachian tube function via a nine-step inflation/deflation test.

    PubMed

    Adali, M Kemal; Uzun, Cem

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of swallowing type (dry versus wet) on the outcome of a nine-step inflation/deflation tympanometric Eustachian tube function (ETF) test in healthy adults. Fourteen normal healthy volunteers, between 19 and 28 years of age, were included in the study. The nine-step test was performed in two different test procedures: (1) test with dry swallows (dry test procedure) and (2) test with liquid swallows (wet test procedure). If the equilibration of middle-ear (ME) pressure was successful in all the steps of the nine-step test, ETF was considered 'Good'. Otherwise, the test was considered 'Poor', and the test was repeated at a second session. In the dry test procedure, ETF was 'Good' in 21 ears at the first session and in 24 ears after the second session (p > 0.05). However, in the wet test procedure, ETF was 'Good' in 13 ears at the first session and in 21 ears after the second session (p < 0.05). At the first session, ETF was 'Good' in 21 and 13 ears in the dry and wet test procedures, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, after the second session, the overall number of ears with 'Good' tubal function was almost the same in both test procedures (24 ears at dry test procedures versus 21 ears at wet test procedures;p > 0.05). Dry swallowing seems to be more effective for the equilibration of ME pressure. Thus, a single-session dependent evaluation of ETF may be efficient for the dry test procedure of the nine-step test. Swallowing with water may be easier for subjects, but a repetition of the test at a second session may be necessary when the test result is 'Poor'.

  13. A colorimetric probe based on desensitized ionene-stabilized gold nanoparticles for single-step test for sulfate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, Viktoriya V.; Apyari, Vladimir V.; Dmitrienko, Stanislava G.

    2015-03-01

    Desensitized ionene-stabilized gold nanoparticles have been prepared and applied as a colorimetric probe for the single-step test for sulfate ions at the relatively high concentration level. The approach is based on aggregation of the nanoparticles leading to the change in absorption spectra and color of the solution. These nanoparticles are characterized by the decreased sensitivity due to both electrostatic and steric stabilization, which allows for simple, and rapid direct single-step determination of sulfate at the relatively high concentration level in real water samples without sample pretreatment or dilution. Influence of different factors (the time of interaction, pH, the concentrations of sulfate ions and the nanoparticles) on the aggregation and analytical performance of the procedure was investigated. The method allows for the determination of sulfate ions in the mass range of 0.2-0.4 mg with RSD of 5% from the sample volume of less than 2 mL. It has a sharp dependence of the colorimetric response on the concentration of sulfate, which makes it prospective for indicating deviations of the sulfate concentration regarding some declared value chosen within the above range. The time of the analysis is 2 min. The method was applied to the analysis of mineral water samples.

  14. Security: Step by Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…

  15. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (<60 min). The device showed a broad dynamic range of detection and high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 9.5 × 104 copies ml‑1 for human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce.

  16. Three-dimensional paper-based slip device for one-step point-of-care testing

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kwi Nam; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kwon, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new type of paper-based analytical device (PAD), the three-dimensional (3D) slip-PAD, to detect infectious human norovirus for global healthcare. The 3D configuration of the papers combined with a slip design provides unique features and versatility that overcome the limitations of fluidic manipulation and sensitivity in point-of-care (POC) tests. The assay can be carried out in a single step based on a moveable slip design, making it suitable for unskilled users. The 3D fluidic network developed by layered construction of wax-patterned papers provides different fluidic paths for the sequential delivery of multiple fluids without the need for peripheral equipment. The release and mixing of enhancement reagents on the device improved the sensitivity and detection limit. The assay results could be visualized by naked eye within 10 min, with subsequent amplification of the signal over time (<60 min). The device showed a broad dynamic range of detection and high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 9.5 × 104 copies ml−1 for human norovirus. These results demonstrate that the 3D slip-PAD is a sensitive diagnostic assay for detecting human norovirus infection that is particularly suitable for POC testing in regions where resources are scarce. PMID:27174731

  17. The Association of Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion With Hip and Knee Kinematics During the Lateral Step-down Test.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Alon; Portnoy, Sigal; Kozol, Zvi

    2016-11-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Altered hip and knee kinematics have been associated with several knee disorders, including anterior cruciate ligament tear, patellofemoral pain, and iliotibial band syndrome. Limited ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM), which has been linked with some of these disorders, has also been associated with altered knee kinematics. Objective To explore the association of ankle DF ROM with hip and knee kinematics during a step-down task. Methods Thirty healthy participants underwent a 3-D analysis of hip and knee kinematics during a lateral step-down test, followed by measurement of ankle DF ROM in weight bearing (WB) and non-weight bearing (NWB). Participants were dichotomized using the median values into low- and high-DF subgroups within both WB and NWB. Hip and knee kinematics were compared between the low- and high-DF subgroups. Results Participants in the low-DF subgroups exhibited greater peak hip adduction (WB, P = .02; NWB, P<.01) and greater peak knee external rotation (WB, P = .02; NWB, P<.01) compared with participants in the high-DF subgroups. In addition, participants in the low-DF WB subgroup exhibited decreased peak knee flexion compared with participants in the high-DF WB subgroup (P<.01). Conclusion Individuals with lower ankle DF ROM exhibited hip and knee kinematics previously associated with several knee disorders, suggesting that this impairment may be involved in the pathogenesis of the same disorders. Assessment of ankle DF ROM may be useful as part of a preparticipation screening. Furthermore, deficits in ankle DF ROM may need to be addressed in individuals with altered movement patterns. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(11):-1. Epub 29 Sep 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6621.

  18. A Novel Two-Step Laser Ranging Technique for a Precision Test of the Theory of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2004-09-01

    All powered spacecraft experience residual systematic acceleration due to anisotropy of the thermal radiation pressure and fuel leakage. The residual acceleration limits the accuracy of any test of gravity that relies on the precise determination of the spacecraft trajectory. We describe a novel two-step laser ranging technique, which largely eliminates the effects of non-gravity acceleration sources and enables celestial mechanics checks with unprecedented precision. A passive proof mass is released from the mother spacecraft on a solar system exploration mission. Retro-reflectors attached to the proof mass allow its relative position to the spacecraft to be determined using optical ranging techniques. Meanwhile, the position of the spacecraft relative to the Earth is determined by ranging with a laser transponder. The vector sum of the two is the position, relative to the Earth, of the proof mass, the measurement of which is not affected by the residual accelerations of the mother spacecraft. We also describe the mission concept of the Dark Matter Explorers (DMX), which will demonstrate this technology and will use it to test the hypothesis that dark matter congregates around the sun. This hypothesis implies a small apparent deviation from the inverse square law of gravity, which can be detected by a sensitive experiment. We expect to achieve an acceleration resolution of ˜ 10-14m/s2. DMX will also be sensitive to acceleration towards the galactic center, which has a value of ˜ 10-10m/s2. Since dark matter dominates the galactic acceleration, DMX can also test whether dark matter obeys the equivalence principle to a level of 100 ppm by ranging to several proof masses of different composition from the mother spacecraft.

  19. Reliability and minimal detectable change of three functional tests: forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Siles, Carmen; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomas; Jímenez-Rejano, Jose Jesus; de-la-Orden, Susana Granados; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; López-Illescas-Ruiz, Africa; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Martín-Casas, Patricia; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the intrasession and intersession reliability and the absolute reliability of three functional dynamic tests—forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests—using computerized dynamic posturography. [Subjects and Methods] An intra-test and test-retest, repeated measure study was designed. Forty-five healthy subjects twice carried out the forward-lunge test, step-up-over test, and sit-to-stand test on two days, one week apart. The intrasession and intersession reliabilities as judged by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the minimal detectable change of the three functional tests were calculated. [Results] Excellent to very good intrasession reliability of the forward-lunge test (ICC range of 0.9–0.8) was found. Very good to good intrasession reliability of the step-up-over test (ICC range of 0.9–0.5) was found and very good intrasession reliability of the sit-to-stand test (ICC range of 0.8–0.7) was found. The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level of most of the measures was lower than 30%. [Conclusion] The forward-lunge, step-up-over and sit-to-stand tests are reliable measurement tools. PMID:28174457

  20. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, M.; Muglach, K.; Hoeksema, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is carrying the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with 1" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SAO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." Our presentation will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO/HMI.

  1. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Muglach, Karin; Welsch, Brian; Hageman, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The imminent launch of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will carry the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with I" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SDO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." This talk will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO /HMI.

  2. Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ≥ 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ≥ 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS

  3. A logical progression of steps for implementation and testing of the 7-equation, two-phase model into a computational framework

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    A seven-step progression is given for the implementation of the seven-equation model, employed in the new RELAP-7 thermal hydraulics system analysis code, within the MOOSE-compatible framework. The model is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flow in a one-dimensional, variable cross-sectional area duct/pipe/component. Some appropriate tests are also outlined to benchmark the model/implementation for each step of the progression. (authors)

  4. Next Step for STEP

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Claire; Bremner, Brenda

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  5. Evaluation of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1 code with GIRAFFE Test Facility: Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, B.D.; Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgl, U.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) proposed by General Electric (GE) is an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design that utilizes passive safety systems. The PCCS is a series of heat exchangers submerged in water and open to the containment. Since the containment is inerted with nitrogen during normal operation, the PCCS must condense the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases during an accident. To model the transient behavior of the SBWR with a system code, the code should properly simulate the expected phenomena. To validate the applicability of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1, the data from three Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests at Toshiba`s Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal facility and RELAP5 calculations of these tests were compared. The comparison of the GIRAFFE data against the results from the RELAP5 calculations showed that it can predict condensation and gas purging phenomena occurring in the long-term decay heat rejection phase. In this phase of the transient, condensation in the PCCS is the only means to reject heat from the SBWR containment. In the two tests where the nitrogen purge vent line was at its deepest submergence in the Suppression Pool (SIP), the RELAP5 results mirrored the behavior of the containment pressures and of the water levels in the Horizontal Vent (HV) and the nitrogen purge line tube of the GIRAFFE data. However, in the test with the shallowest purge line submergence, there was appreciable direct contact condensation on the pool surface of the HV despite modeling efforts to deter these phenomena. This surface condensation, unobserved in the GIRAFFE tests, was a major cause of RELAP5 predicting early containment depressurization and the subsequent early rise in HV and nitrogen purge line water levels. The present RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 interfacial heat and mass transfer model does not properly degrade direct contact steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases sitting on a pool.

  6. Collagen solubility testing, a quality assurance step for reproducible electro-spun nano-fibre fabrication. A technical note.

    PubMed

    Zeugolis, D I; Li, B; Lareu, R R; Chan, C K; Raghunath, M

    2008-01-01

    Collagen is the main component of the extra-cellular matrix and has been utilised for numerous clinical applications in many forms and products. However, since collagen remains a natural animal-derived biopolymer, variation between batches should be addressed and minimised to ensure reproducibility of the fabrication process. Recently, electro-spinning of collagen has been introduced as a leading technique for the production of bio-mimetic nano-scale scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications. However, no protocols are available that would allow comparisons of the quality of different collagen raw materials prior to the electro-spinning process. In order to bridge this gap we assessed the solubility of various freeze-dried collagens in 0.5 M acetic acid and analysed the solved collagen by gel electrophoresis. We show that raw material of limited solubility in acetic acid will not render high quality electro-spun nano-fibres using hexafluoropropanol. In particular, insoluble collagen directly failed to produce nano-fibres, collagen of reduced solubility produced fused nano-fibres with limited inter-nano-fibre space, whilst purified type-I collagen of high solubility produced smooth, reproducible nano-fibres. Gel electrophoresis confirmed the amount of solubility, as well as qualitative differences in terms of collagen cross-links and collagen types. We recommend this simple and fast step to save costs and to enhance control over the electro-spinning process of collagen. Furthermore, we believe that the solubility test should be introduced prior to any collagenous matrix preparation in order to ensure reproducibility and accuracy.

  7. A General Tank Test of NACA Model 11-C Flying-boat Hull, Including the Effect of Changing the Plan Form of the Step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1935-01-01

    The results of a general tank test model 11-C, a conventional pointed afterbody type of flying-boat hull, are given in tables and curves. These results are compared with the results of tests on model 11-A, from which model 11-C was derived, and it is found that the resistance of model 11-C is somewhat greater. The effect of changing the plan form of the step on model 11-C is shown from the results of tests made with three swallow-tail and three pointed steps formed by altering the original step of the model. These results show only minor differences from the results obtained with the original model.

  8. A complete tank test of a flying-boat hull with a pointed step -N.A.C.A. Model No. 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M

    1934-01-01

    The results of a complete tank test of a model of a flying-boat hull of unconventional form, having a deep pointed step, are presented in this note. The advantage of the pointed-step type over the usual forms of flying-boat hulls with respect to resistance at high speeds is pointed out. A take-off example using the data from these tests is worked out, and the results are compared with those of an example in which the test data for a hull of the type in general use in the United States are applied to a flying boat having the same design specifications. A definite saving in take-off run is shown by the pointed-step type.

  9. Blood lactate and acid-base balance of world-class amateur boxers after three 3-minute rounds in international competition.

    PubMed

    Hanon, Christine; Savarino, Jean; Thomas, Claire

    2015-04-01

    To examine the blood metabolic responses of world-class boxers involved in international competition (Test match), 33 male boxers (mean ± SD) competing internationally across all the official weight categories were studied on 2 different occasions: Test match 1 (team A against team B) and Test match 2 (team A against team C). Blood samples were collected after the third round for both Test matches for all teams except team B. For all Test matches and boxers, mean blood lactate concentration ([BLac]), bicarbonate concentration, hemoglobin O2 saturation (SaO2), partial pressure for CO2 (PCO2), and pH were 13.6 ± 2.4 mmol·L(-1), 13.2 ± 2.3 mmol·L(-1), 95.0 ± 2.6%, 32.0 ± 5.5 mm Hg, and 7.22 ± 0.06 with 7/20 final pH values <7.20. The intermediate category (60-64 kg) was characterized by the greatest [BLac] (14.8 ± 2.9) compared with the heaviest and lighter boxers (∼12 mmol·L(-1)). During the second match (team A again team C), a significant difference between pH, PCO2, and SaO2 values was observed with no concomitant difference in [BLac] suggesting a better buffering capacity in team A. This result highlights the need for a well-developed anaerobic and buffering capacity and indicates that world-class boxers must be able to tolerate a substantial level of acidosis to produce high levels of boxing activity until the end of a match.

  10. 16 CFR 1203.13 - Test schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conditioning environment. The helmet shall be returned to the conditioning environment within 3 minutes after it was removed, and shall remain in the conditioning environment for a minimum of 2 minutes before testing is resumed. If the helmet is out of the conditioning environment beyond 3 minutes, testing...

  11. Test-retest reliability of three-dimensional kinematics using an electromagnetic tracking system during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Moriya, Érika Tiemi Uehara; Maciel, Carlos D; Serrão, Fábio V

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) has been used to analyze three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics. The single-leg squat and stepping maneuver are useful tasks to evaluate lower extremity alignment in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee 3D kinematics using an ETS during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver and compare 3D kinematics between tasks. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females) completed two test sessions 3-5 days apart. Three-dimensional kinematics using an ETS was assessed during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver. Overall, intrarater-intrasession reliability (ICCs=0.83-1.00) and intersession reliabilities (ICCs=0.82-0.97) were high during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver. The intrasession minimal detectable change (MDC) ranged from 1.3° for the knee frontal plane range of motion for single-leg squat to 6.2° for the pelvic transverse range of motion for the stepping maneuver. Intersession MDC values ranged from 1.2° for the ipsilateral trunk lean for the single-leg squat to 8.3° for hip flexion for the stepping maneuver. Healthy participants exhibited greater anterior pelvic tilt, more hip flexion, and less contralateral pelvis forward excursion (p<0.05) during single-leg squat compared with the stepping maneuver. These findings suggest that the 3D kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee using an ETS is reliable during single-leg squat and the stepping maneuver. Minimal detectable change values were low during the evaluated activities. Intertask comparisons revealed differences in hip and pelvis kinematics.

  12. Validation of a single-stage fixed-rate step test for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Jacobs, Nele; Thijs, Herbert; Dendale, Paul; Claes, Neree

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry remain in need of valid and simple submaximal exercise tests to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). Despite previous validation studies concerning fixed-rate step tests, accurate equations for the estimation of VO2max remain to be formulated from a large sample of healthy adults between age 18-75 years (n > 100). The aim of this study was to develop a valid equation to estimate VO2max from a fixed-rate step test in a larger sample of healthy adults. A maximal ergospirometry test, with assessment of cardiopulmonary parameters and VO2max , and a 5-min fixed-rate single-stage step test were executed in 112 healthy adults (age 18-75 years). During the step test and subsequent recovery, heart rate was monitored continuously. By linear regression analysis, an equation to predict VO2max from the step test was formulated. This equation was assessed for level of agreement by displaying Bland-Altman plots and calculation of intraclass correlations with measured VO2max . Validity further was assessed by employing a Jackknife procedure. The linear regression analysis generated the following equation to predict VO2max (l min(-1) ) from the step test: 0·054(BMI)+0·612(gender)+3·359(body height in m)+0·019(fitness index)-0·012(HRmax)-0·011(age)-3·475. This equation explained 78% of the variance in measured VO2max (F = 66·15, P<0·001). The level of agreement and intraclass correlation was high (ICC = 0·94, P<0·001) between measured and predicted VO2max . From this study, a valid fixed-rate single-stage step test equation has been developed to estimate VO2max in healthy adults. This tool could be employed by healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry.

  13. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alcohol test for only one employee at a time. (1) When an EBT screening test on an employee indicates an... of alcohol testing sites? 40.223 Section 40.223 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites,...

  14. A Case-Series Test of the Interactive Two-Step Model of Lexical Access: Predicting Word Repetition from Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Gary S.; Martin, Nadine; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical access in language production, and particularly pathologies of lexical access, are often investigated by examining errors in picture naming and word repetition. In this article, we test a computational approach to lexical access, the two-step interactive model, by examining whether the model can quantitatively predict the repetition-error…

  15. A step in the right direction: assessing exercise tolerance in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Balfour-Lynn, I M; Prasad, S A; Laverty, A; Whitehead, B F; Dinwiddie, R

    1998-04-01

    Exercise tolerance may be reduced in patients with cystic fibrosis, but it is not always possible to predict this from standard lung function measurements. Formal exercise testing may, therefore, be necessary, and the test should be simple and readily available. We have developed a "3-minute step test" and compared it with the standard 6-minute walking test. Subjects stepped up and down a 15-cm-high single step at a rate of 30 steps per minute for 3 minutes. The effect of the step test on spirometry was tested first in 31 children with CF (mean age, 12.0 years), who had a mean (range) baseline forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 64% (18-94%) of predicted values. The step test was then compared with the standard 6-minute walk in a further 54 patients with cystic fibrosis (mean age, 12.5 years), with mean (range) baseline FEV1 of 61% (14-103%) of predicted values. Outcome measures were minimum arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), maximum pulse rate, and the modified Borg dyspnea score. Post-step test spirometry showed mean (95% CI) changes of -1.1% (-6.0 + 3.9%) for forced vital capacity, of -1.6% (-4.2 + 1.1%) for FEV1, and +0.25% (-2.8 + 3.3%) for peak expiratory flow, although 5/31 children showed >15% drop in one or more parameters. The step and walk tests both produced significant changes (P < 0.0001) in all outcomes, with a mean (range) minimum SaO2 of 92% (75-98%) versus 92% (75-97%), a maximum pulse rate of 145 b.p.m. (116-189) versus 132 (100-161), and a Borg score of 2.5 (0-9) versus 1.0 (0-5), respectively. Comparison of the two tests showed that the step test increased breathlessness (mean change Borg score, 2.3 vs. 0.8; P < 0.0001) and pulse rate (mean change, 38% vs. 24%, P < 0.0001) significantly more than the walk, whereas the decrease in SaO2 was similar (mean change, -2.9% vs. -2.6%; P = 0.12). Some patients with a significant drop in SaO2 (>4%) would not have the decrease predicted from their baseline lung function. Reproducibility for the

  16. Examining the use of forceful language when designing exercise persuasive messages for adults: a test of conceptualizing reactance arousal as a two-step process.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Considine, Jennifer R

    2008-09-01

    This investigation tests a conceptualization of reactance as a two-step process. This conceptualization was recently tested with college students, but research testing this conceptualization among primarily adult samples does not currently exist. Psychological reactance theory (PRT) states that individuals exposed to a threat or elimination of a freedom will experience reactance and subsequently be motivated to restore the freedom. Specifically, it is hypothesized that individuals will perceive persuasive messages containing forceful language as a threat to their personal freedom, which will be followed by reactance, manifested in a latent variable composed of anger and negative cognitions. This hypothesis was tested within the context of persuasive messages aimed at encouraging members (N = 247) to participate in weight lifting or group exercise programs at a health and fitness center. Results support conceptualizing reactance as a 2-step process. In addition, results indicate that a primarily adult sample responds unfavorably to forceful persuasive messages advocating the aforementioned exercise activities. In finding support for conceptualizing reactance as a two-step process, we encourage health campaigners and PRT researchers to employ this measure to provide consistency to future PRT studies.

  17. Forelimb akinesia in the rat Parkinson model: differential effects of dopamine agonists and nigral transplants as assessed by a new stepping test.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Nikkhah, G; Bentlage, C; Björklund, A

    1995-05-01

    Methods for the assessment of akinesia in the unilateral rat Parkinson model have so far been lacking. The experiments reported here evaluate the usefulness of a new "stepping test" to monitor forelimb akinesia in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the mesencephalic dopamine (DA) system, and to assess the ability of DA-receptor agonists and fetal DA neuron transplants to reverse these deficits. The 6-OHDA lesion induced marked and long-lasting impairments in the initiation of stepping movements with the contralateral paw. Systemic injections of low doses (chosen to be subthreshold for induction of rotation) of the mixed D1 and D2 receptor agonist apomorphine, the D1-selective agonist SKF 38393, and to a lesser extent also the D2-selective agonist quinpirole were effective in reversing these deficits. Similar effects was seen after a subrotational dose of L-dopa, whereas amphetamine had no effect. Fetal nigral transplants, implanted as multiple deposits in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen and substantia nigra, restored initiation of stepping to a similar degree as the DA agonists. Nigral grafts placed in substantia nigra alone were also effective, although the improvement was less pronounced. Apomorphine, at a dose effective in the lesion-only animals, had no additive effect in the grafted rats, whereas amphetamine appeared to further improve stepping in the rats with intranigral transplants. Identical experiments were performed on skilled forelimb use in the so-called staircase test. Interestingly, neither the DA agonist drugs nor the nigral transplants had any effects on the lesion induced deficits in this more complex task. The results show that forelimb stepping is a highly useful test to monitor lesion-/and transplant-induced changes in forelimb akinesia, a behavioral parameter that may be analogous to limb akinesia and gait problems seen in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  18. Two-step intermediate fine mapping with likelihood ratio test statistics: applications to Problems 2 and 3 data of GAW15.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ritwik; Luo, Yuqun

    2007-01-01

    Construction of precise confidence sets of disease gene locations after initial identification of linked regions can improve the efficiency of the ensuing fine mapping effort. We took the confidence set inference, a framework proposed and implemented using the Mean test statistic (CSI-Mean) and improved the efficiency substantially by using a likelihood ratio test statistic (CSI-MLS). The CSI framework requires knowledge of some disease-model-related parameters. In the absence of prior knowledge of these parameters, a two-step procedure may be employed: 1) the parameters are estimated using a coarse map of markers; 2) CSI-Mean or CSI-MLS are applied to construct the confidence sets of the disease gene locations using a finer map of markers, assuming the estimates from Step 1 for the required parameters. In this article we show that the advantages of CSI-MLS over CSI-Mean, previously demonstrated when the required parameters are known, are preserved in this two-step procedure, using both the simulated and real data contributed to Problems 2 and 3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15. In addition, our result suggests that microsatellite data, when available, should be used in Step 1. Also explored in detail is the effect of the absence of parental genotypes on the performance of CSI-MLS.

  19. Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Testing in School-Going Adolescents with Initial 0-4 Millimeter Responses in a High Tuberculosis Prevalence Setting in South India

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Maitreyi; Selvam, Sumithra; Jesuraj, Nelson; Bennett, Sean; Doherty, Mark; Grewal, Harleen M. S.; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The utility of two-step tuberculin skin testing among adolescents in high tuberculosis prevalence settings is not well established. Objectives To determine the proportion and determinants of a 0-4 mm response to an initial standard tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluating 'boosting' with repeat testing. Methods Adolescents between 11 and 18 years attending schools/colleges underwent a TST; those with a response of between 0–4 mm had a repeat TST 1-4 weeks later. Results Initial TST was done for 6608/6643 participants; 1257 (19%) developed a 0-4 mm response to the initial TST. Younger age and under-nutrition were more likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response, while the presence of BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) scar and higher socio-economic class were less likely to be associated with a 0-4 mm response. On repeat testing boosting was seen in 13.2% (145/1098; ≥ 6 mm over the initial test) while 4.3% showed boosting using a more conservative cutoff of a repeat TST ≥ 10 mm with an increment of at least 6 mm (47/1098). History of exposure to a tuberculosis (TB) case was associated with enhanced response. Conclusion The proportion of adolescents who demonstrated boosting on two-step TST testing in our study was relatively low. As a result repeat testing did not greatly alter the prevalence of TST positivity. However, the two-step TST helps identify individuals who can potentially boost their immune response to a second test, and thus, prevents them from being misclassified as those with newly acquired infection, or tuberculin converters. While two-step tuberculin skin testing may have a limited role in population- level TST surveys, it may be useful where serial tuberculin testing needs to be performed to distinguish those who show an enhanced response or boosters from those who indeed have a new infection, or converters. PMID:24039716

  20. The Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT): A conceptual framework to guide the development and evaluation of persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ioni; Watson, Barry; White, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an important and timely overview of a conceptual framework designed to assist with the development of message content, as well as the evaluation, of persuasive health messages. While an earlier version of this framework was presented in a prior publication by the authors in 2009, important refinements to the framework have seen it evolve in recent years, warranting the need for an updated review. This paper outlines the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (or SatMDT) in accordance with the theoretical evidence which underpins, as well as empirical evidence which demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of, each of the framework's steps. The development and testing of the framework have thus far been based exclusively within the road safety advertising context; however, the view expressed herein is that the framework may have broader appeal and application to the health persuasion context.

  1. Tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise - NACA model 35 series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R

    1936-01-01

    The results of tank tests of three models of flying-boat hulls of the pointed-step type with different angles of dead rise are given in charts and are compared with results from tests of more conventional hulls. Increasing the angle of dead rise from 15 to 25 degrees: had little effect on the hump resistance; increased the resistance throughout the planning range; increased the best trim angle; reduced the maximum positive trimming moment required to obtain best trim angle; and had but a slight effect on the spray characteristics. For approximately the same angles of dead rise the resistance of the pointed-step hulls were considerably lower at high speeds than those of the more conventional hulls.

  2. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the testing site. (1) The only people you are to... other than BATs or other employees of the site have access to the site when an EBT is unsecured. (e) As... screening process on another employee. (3) You are not allowed to leave the alcohol testing site while...

  3. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the testing site. (1) The only people you are to... other than BATs or other employees of the site have access to the site when an EBT is unsecured. (e) As... screening process on another employee. (3) You are not allowed to leave the alcohol testing site while...

  4. Test Equity for People Who Are Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification Steps for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saladin, Shawn P.; Reid, Christine; Shiels, John

    2011-01-01

    The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) has taken a proactive stance on perceived test inequities of the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor (CRC) exam as it relates to people who are prelingually deaf and hard of hearing. This article describes the process developed and implemented by the CRCC to help maximize test equity…

  5. THE TWELVE PROMISES OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS: PSYCHOMETRIC MEASURE VALIDATION AND MEDIATIONAL TESTING AS A 12-STEP SPECIFIC MECHANISM OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical support for the recovery utility of 12-step mutual-help organizations (MHOs) has led to increased investigation of how such organizations confer benefit. The Twelve Promises of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) feature prominently in 12-step philosophy and culture and are one of the few documented explications of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral benefits that members might accrue. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a measure of AA’s Twelve Promises and examined whether it mediated the effect of 12-step participation on abstinence. Method Young adults (N=302, M age 20.4 [1.6], range 18–25; 27% female; 95% White) enrolled in an addiction treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake and 3-, 6-, and 12-months post treatment including a 26-item, Twelve Promises Scale (TPS). Factor analyses examined the TPS’ psychometrics and lagged mediational analyses tested the TPS as a mechanism of behavior change. Results Robust principal axis factoring extraction with Varimax rotation revealed a 2-factor solution explaining 45–58% of the variance across three administrations (“Psychological Wellbeing” = 26–39%; “Freedom from Craving=17–21%); internal consistency was high (alpha = .83–.93). Both factors were found to increase in relation to greater 12-step participation, but significant mediation was found only for the Freedom from Craving factor explaining 21–34% of the effect of 12-step participation in increasing abstinence. Conclusions The TPS shows potential as a conceptually relevant, and psychometrically sound measure and may be useful in helping elucidate the extent to which the Twelve Promises emerge as an independent benefit of 12-step participation and/or explain SUD remission and recovery. PMID:24004905

  6. A Two-Step Lyssavirus Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Degenerate Primers with Superior Sensitivity to the Fluorescent Antigen Test

    PubMed Central

    Nazé, Florence; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; De Craeye, Stéphane; Kalai, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible. PMID:24822188

  7. PHOEBE - step by step manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-03-01

    An easy step-by-step manual of PHOEBE is presented. It should serve as a starting point for the first time users of PHOEBE analyzing the eclipsing binary light curve. It is demonstrated on one particular detached system also with the downloadable data and the whole procedure is described easily till the final trustworthy fit is being reached.

  8. A New Step towards Understanding Embedded Figures Test Performance in the Autism Spectrum: The Radial Frequency Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Renita A.; Dickinson, J. Edwin; Maybery, Murray T.; Badcock, Johanna C.; Badcock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The Embedded Figure Test (EFT) requires locating a simple shape embedded within a background of overlapping target-irrelevant scene elements. Observers with autism, or those with high levels of autistic-like traits, typically outperform matched comparison groups on the EFT. This research investigated the critical visual properties which give rise…

  9. Complete tank tests of two flying-boat hulls with pointed steps - N.A.C.A. Models 22-A and 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Bell, Joe W

    1934-01-01

    This note presents the results of complete tank test of N.A.C.A. Models 22-A and 35, two flying-boat hulls of the deep pointed-step type with low dead rise. Model 22-A is a form derived by modification of Model 22, the test results of which are given in N.A.C.A. Technical Note No. 488. Model 35 is a form of the same type but has a higher length-beam ratio than either Model 22 or 22-A. Take-off examples are worked out using data from these tests and a previous test of a conventional model applied to an arbitrary set of design specifications for a 15,000-pound flying boat. The comparison of these examples shows both pointed-step models to be superior to the conventional form, and Model 35 to be the better of the two. Model 35 is applied to a hypothetical 100,000-pound flying boat of the twin-hull type and performance calculations are made both for take-off and range. The results indicate that the high performance of this type of hull will enable the designer to use higher wing and power loadings than are found in current practice, with a resulting increase in range and pay load.

  10. Development of a one-step immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of sennosides A and B.

    PubMed

    Putalun, Waraporn; Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test was developed to detect sennoside A (1) and sennoside B (2) using anti-1 and anti-2 monoclonal antibodies. The qualitative assay was based on a competitive immunoassay in which the detector reagent consisted of colloidal gold particles coated with the respective sennoside antibodies. The capture reagents were 1- and 2-human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates immobilised on a nitrocellulose membrane on the test strip. The sample containing 1 and 2, together with detector reagent, passed over the zone where the capture reagents had been immobilised. The analytes in the sample competed for binding to the limited amount of antibodies in the detector reagent with the immobilised 1- and 2-HSA conjugates on the membrane and hence positive samples showed no colour in the capture spot zone. Detection limits for the strip test were 125 ng/mL for both sennosides. The assay system is useful as a rapid and simple screening method for the detection of 1 and 2 in plants, drugs and body fluids.

  11. Resting-state test-retest reliability of a priori defined canonical networks over different preprocessing steps.

    PubMed

    Varikuti, Deepthi P; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah; Schwender, Holger; Reid, Andrew T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-04-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. The measurement of neuronal activity by functional MRI, however, is impeded by various nuisance signals that reduce the stability of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to address this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we here investigated the effect of various confound removal approaches on the test-retest reliability of functional-connectivity estimates in two previously defined functional brain networks. Our results showed that gray matter masking improved the reliability of connectivity estimates, whereas denoising based on principal components analysis reduced it. We additionally observed that refraining from using any correction for global signals provided the best test-retest reliability, but failed to reproduce anti-correlations between what have been previously described as antagonistic networks. This suggests that improved reliability can come at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity. Consistent with this, we observed that reliability was proportional to the retained variance, which presumably included structured noise, such as reliable nuisance signals (for instance, noise induced by cardiac processes). We conclude that compromises are necessary between maximizing test-retest reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources.

  12. Utilization of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test in a Two-Step Process with the Tuberculin Skin Test To Evaluate Health Care Workers for Latent Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Garrett, Jodi L.; O'Neill, Jean M.; Hansen-Cain, Kristine M.; Armbrust, Amy A.; Iwen, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    A cost analysis of combining a tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-GT) to detect latent tuberculosis in newly hired health care workers was performed. An approximately 50% reduction in the cost of additional care was realized when workers with positive TST results were subsequently screened using the QFT-GT. PMID:20573876

  13. Subtractive two-frame three-beam phase-stepping interferometry for testing surface shape of quasi-parallel plates.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof; Trusiak, Maciej

    2016-12-26

    We present an effective method of testing the surface shape of quasi-parallel plates which requires only two phase-shifted three-beam interferograms. We derive a general formula for difference of two three-beam interferograms as a function of the phase shift value. The phase shift does not have to be precisely determined and uniform in the image domain. We show and compare results of extracting the fringe set and corresponding phase distribution related to the plate front surface shape using the two dimensional continuous wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform and Fourier transform methods. Simulated and experimental data is used to verify the algorithm performance and robustness.

  14. A new and inexpensive non-bit-for-bit solution reproducibility test based on time step convergence (TSC1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Chen, Xingyuan; Edwards, Jim

    2017-02-01

    A test procedure is proposed for identifying numerically significant solution changes in evolution equations used in atmospheric models. The test issues a fail signal when any code modifications or computing environment changes lead to solution differences that exceed the known time step sensitivity of the reference model. Initial evidence is provided using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5.3 that the proposed procedure can be used to distinguish rounding-level solution changes from impacts of compiler optimization or parameter perturbation, which are known to cause substantial differences in the simulated climate. The test is not exhaustive since it does not detect issues associated with diagnostic calculations that do not feedback to the model state variables. Nevertheless, it provides a practical and objective way to assess the significance of solution changes. The short simulation length implies low computational cost. The independence between ensemble members allows for parallel execution of all simulations, thus facilitating fast turnaround. The new method is simple to implement since it does not require any code modifications. We expect that the same methodology can be used for any geophysical model to which the concept of time step convergence is applicable.

  15. A new and inexpensive non-bit-for-bit solution reproducibility test based on time step convergence (TSC1.0)

    DOE PAGES

    Wan, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Rasch, Philip J.; ...

    2017-02-03

    A test procedure is proposed for identifying numerically significant solution changes in evolution equations used in atmospheric models. The test issues a fail signal when any code modifications or computing environment changes lead to solution differences that exceed the known time step sensitivity of the reference model. Initial evidence is provided using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5.3 that the proposed procedure can be used to distinguish rounding-level solution changes from impacts of compiler optimization or parameter perturbation, which are known to cause substantial differences in the simulated climate. The test is not exhaustive since it does not detect issues associatedmore » with diagnostic calculations that do not feedback to the model state variables. Nevertheless, it provides a practical and objective way to assess the significance of solution changes. The short simulation length implies low computational cost. The independence between ensemble members allows for parallel execution of all simulations, thus facilitating fast turnaround. The new method is simple to implement since it does not require any code modifications. We expect that the same methodology can be used for any geophysical model to which the concept of time step  convergence is applicable.« less

  16. Design of the Steps to Health Study of Physical Activity in Survivors of Endometrial Cancer: Testing a Social Cognitive Theory Model

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Carmack, Cindy L.; Perkins, Heidi; Hughes, Daniel; Serice, Susan; Scruggs, Stacie; Pinto, Bernardine; Waters, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to benefit cancer survivors' physical functioning, emotional well-being, and symptoms. Physical activity may be of particular benefit to survivors of endometrial cancer because they are more likely to be obese and sedentary than the general population, as these are risk factors for the disease, and thus experience a number of related co-morbid health problems. However, there is little research systematically studying mechanisms of physical activity adherence in cancer survivor populations. This paper describes the design of the Steps to Health study, which applies a Social Cognitive Theory-based model of endometrial cancer survivors' adoption and maintenance of exercise in the context of an intervention to increase walking or other moderate intensity cardiovascular activity. In Steps to Health we will test the influence of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on adherence to exercise recommendations, as well as studying the determinants of self-efficacy. Endometrial cancer survivors who are at least 6 months post-treatment are provided with an intervention involving print materials and telephone counseling, and complete assessments of fitness, activity, self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and determinants of self-efficacy every two months for a six month period. In addition to testing an innovative model, the Steps to Health study employs multiple assessment methods, including ecological momentary assessment, implicit tests of cognitive variables, and ambulatory monitoring of physical activity. The study results can be used to develop more effective interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary cancer survivors by taking into account the full complement of sources of self-efficacy information and outcome expectations. PMID:21218163

  17. The MiniACcor: constructive redesign of an implantable total artificial heart, initial laboratory testing and further steps.

    PubMed

    Kwant, P B; Finocchiaro, T; Förster, F; Reul, H; Rau, G; Morshuis, M; El Banayosi, A; Körfer, R; Schmitz-Rode, T; Steinseifer, U

    2007-04-01

    The Aachen Total Artificial Heart (ACcor) has been under development at the Helmholtz Institute in Aachen over the last decade. It may serve as a bridge to transplant or as a long-term replacement of the natural heart. Based upon previous in vivo experiments with the ACcor total artificial heart, it was decided to optimize and redesign the pump unit. Smaller dimensions, passive filling and separability into three components were the three main design goals. The new design is called the MiniACcor, which is about 20% smaller than its predecessor, and weighs only 470 grams. Also its external driver/control unit was miniaturized and a new microcontroller was selected. To validate the design, it was extensively tested in laboratory mock loops. The MiniACcor was able to pump between 4.5 and 7 l/min at different pump rates against normal physiological pressures. Several requirements for the future compliance chamber and transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system were also measured in the same mock loop. Further optimization and validation are being performed in cooperation with the Heart and Diabetes Centre North Rhine-Westphalia.

  18. The influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in NEDC test and real traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.

  19. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubitz, Jody A.; Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.

    1996-01-01

    We designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point.Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. We investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m2 exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m2. Using power analysis, we found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when α = 0.10 and 1 − β = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, we designed a two-step (screening and confirmatory) bioassay, which we tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were “toxic” (significant growth inhibition when 1 − β = 0.66 and n = 5), five sediments were “nontoxic” (>90% of reference), and three sediments were “possibly toxic” (growth inhibition was insignificant). In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic (1 − β = 0.91 and n = 20), and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  20. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitz, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Besser, J.M. |

    1996-10-01

    The authors designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point. Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. They investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m{sup 2} exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m{sup 2}. Using power analysis, the authors found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when {alpha} = 0.10 and 1 {minus} {beta} = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, they designed a two-step bioassay, which they tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were toxic, five sediments were nontoxic, and three sediments were possibly toxic. In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic, and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  1. System Response Testing of HEAF Kevex 130kV Microfocus Source and Thales Flashscan Panel I. Step-wedge Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C

    2009-03-20

    In the Small Sample DR Testing series, a few questions have arisen when comparing modeled results to experimental data. It is necessary to evaluate these questions in order to validate the modeling assumptions and to ensure the validity of the test procedure in the Small Sample DR Testing. Open Questions: (1) The decay time of the scintillator elements is unknown. (2) The thickness of the Beryllium window on the source is unknown. (3) The residual effects of beam angle and scattering within the detector assembly are unknown. (4) The spectral response of the scintillator and digitizing panel are not known. (5) The spectral content of the source is unknown. Item 1 will be addressed in separate tests by measuring the output of the panel at various intervals after the source has stopped illuminating the panel. Item 2 will be determined by finding the manufacturer specifications. Item 3 will be addressed in separate tests. We cannot easily address items 4 and 5 independently. Measuring the spectral responsivity of the detector directly would require the use of a calibrated reference source, which we lack. Similarly, measuring the spectral content of the source requires spectrally and spatially calibrated detectors, which we also lack. However, we can address the combination of items 1 and 2 to deduce the product of source intensity times detector response. By measuring the X-ray transmittance of samples of known thickness, material composition and density (step wedges), we can infer the desired product and so validate and improve computer models of our system.

  2. From cutting edge to guideline: A first step in harmonization of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) by describing the most optimal test conditions and morphology scoring system.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; de Koning, Coco; Flores-Guillén, Maria-Eugenia; de Vries-Buitenweg, Selinda; Tobor-Kaplon, Marysia; van de Waart, Beppy; Emmen, Harry

    2015-08-15

    In the last couple of years, the interest in the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for use in developmental toxicity assessment has been growing exponentially. This is also evident from the recent proposal for updating the ICHS5 guideline. The methodology of the ZET used by the different groups varies greatly. To further evaluate its successfulness and to take the ZET to the next level, harmonization of procedures is crucial. In the present study, based on literature and empirical data, the most optimal study design regarding temperature, test chamber, exposure period, presence of chorion, solvent use, exposure method, choice of concentrations, and teratogenic classification is proposed. Furthermore, our morphology scoring system is reported in detail as protocol to further enhance study design harmonization.

  3. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  4. Population-wide malaria testing and treatment with rapid diagnostic tests and artemether-lumefantrine in southern Zambia: a community randomized step-wedge control trial design.

    PubMed

    Larsen, David A; Bennett, Adam; Silumbe, Kafula; Hamainza, Busiku; Yukich, Joshua O; Keating, Joseph; Littrell, Megan; Miller, John M; Steketee, Richard W; Eisele, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    Reducing the human reservoir of malaria parasites is critical for elimination. We conducted a community randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia to assess the impact of three rounds of a mass test and treatment (MTAT) intervention on malaria prevalence and health facility outpatient case incidence using random effects logistic regression and negative binomial regression, respectively. Following the intervention, children in the intervention group had lower odds of a malaria infection than individuals in the control group (adjusted odds ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24-0.90). Malaria outpatient case incidence decreased 17% in the intervention group relative to the control group (incidence rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.68-1.01). Although a single year of MTAT reduced malaria prevalence and incidence, the impact of the intervention was insufficient to reduce transmission to a level approaching elimination where a strategy of aggressive case investigations could be used. Mass drug administration, more sensitive diagnostics, and gametocidal drugs may potentially improve interventions targeting the human reservoir of malaria parasites.

  5. Step Prototype Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehls, C.; Bayart, C.; Bower, J.; Clarke, B.; Cox, C.; Gill, D.; Stricker, D.; Vora, N.; Wang, S.; Zhou, P.; Torii, R.; Worden, P.; Debra, D.; Dittus, H.; Loeffler, F.

    2008-09-01

    STEP, the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle [1], proposes to test the Equivalence Principle to a part in 1018 by comparing the free-fall acceleration of cylindrical shaped test masses [2] in Earth orbit. Magnetic bearings constrain the test mass motion to their axis of symmetry [3]. The displacement of the test masses is measured using a DC SQUID and superconducting coils [4], enabling a displacement sensitivity as small as 10-15 m. In combination with a small spring stiffness a differential acceleration sensitivity of 10-18 g is achievable. Residual satellite acceleration is reduced to better than 10-14 g by compensating satellite drag forces with thrust provided by helium gas. We report on recent progress in the development of STEP prototype flight accelerometers, in particular the development of the high precision quartz housing for the engineering inner accelerometer and the testing of SQUID and capacitive readout systems using 'brass board' accelerometer prototypes.

  6. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, George P.

    1998-01-01

    An insert which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment.

  7. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, G.P.

    1998-07-14

    An insert is described which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment. 5 figs.

  8. Test results from Siemens low-speed, high-torque HTS machine and description of further steps towards commercialisation of HTS machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nick, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Joern; Frauenhofer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    With extensive testing of the 4 MW 120 rpm HTS machine connected to a standard Siemens converter this first development stage for a basically new technology is concluded. The most innovative part of the machine, the HTS excited rotor, outperformed our expectations and demonstrated our capability to design, develop and build successfully such a technically challenging component. This could only be achieved on the base of a thorough understanding of the innovative material and its behaviour including practical handling experience, the ability to simulate 3D electromagnetics including transients, and finally transfer of the scientists' knowledge to a qualified manufacturing process. Equally important are the improved capabilities of critical component suppliers, e.g. for superconducting tapes and compact cryo-refrigerators. However, the transition of a technology into highly reliable industrial products does require more than technical mastering of the machine. Based on outstanding technical test results as presented above, the next step in future can be addressed: product development. Some thoughts will be presented regarding the needs of application fields and market oriented development, as the market is not "waiting for HTS". If HTS technology is seen as one key technology for a sustainable, material saving and energy efficient future, it certainly needs more effort, even at the 100th anniversary of superconductivity.

  9. A Novel 3D Label-Free Monitoring System of hES-Derived Cardiomyocyte Clusters: A Step Forward to In Vitro Cardiotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Steel, Daniella; Fleischer, Stephan; Seidel, Diana; Kurz, Randy; Vinz, Silvia; Dahlenborg, Kerstin; Sartipy, Peter; Robitzki, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected adverse effects on the cardiovascular system remain a major challenge in the development of novel active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). To overcome the current limitations of animal-based in vitro and in vivo test systems, stem cell derived human cardiomyocyte clusters (hCMC) offer the opportunity for highly predictable pre-clinical testing. The three-dimensional structure of hCMC appears more representative of tissue milieu than traditional monolayer cell culture. However, there is a lack of long-term, real time monitoring systems for tissue-like cardiac material. To address this issue, we have developed a microcavity array (MCA)-based label-free monitoring system that eliminates the need for critical hCMC adhesion and outgrowth steps. In contrast, feasible field potential derived action potential recording is possible immediately after positioning within the microcavity. Moreover, this approach allows extended observation of adverse effects on hCMC. For the first time, we describe herein the monitoring of hCMC over 35 days while preserving the hCMC structure and electrophysiological characteristics. Furthermore, we demonstrated the sensitive detection and quantification of adverse API effects using E4031, doxorubicin, and noradrenaline directly on unaltered 3D cultures. The MCA system provides multi-parameter analysis capabilities incorporating field potential recording, impedance spectroscopy, and optical read-outs on individual clusters giving a comprehensive insight into induced cellular alterations within a complex cardiac culture over days or even weeks. PMID:23861955

  10. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  11. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  12. Identifying opportunities to increase HIV testing among mexican migrants: a call to step up efforts in health care and detention settings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current "treatment as prevention" strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities.

  13. Identifying Opportunities to Increase HIV Testing among Mexican Migrants: A Call to Step Up Efforts in Health Care and Detention Settings

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current “treatment as prevention” strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  14. Step proof mass dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, M.; Scheithauer, S.; Theil, S.

    2004-05-01

    The Satellite Test of Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint European-US project to investigate one of the most fundamental principles in physics, the Equivalence of inertia and passive gravitational mass. As STEP matures into a flight program, the development of a precise spacecraft dynamics simulator becomes crucial. The simulator is primarily needed for design, test and verification of the drag-free control (DFC) system and the flight software. The drag-free concept involves centering the proof mass located inside a satellite. As the proof mass is free of external disturbances (drag free), it follows a purely gravitational orbit. Since the satellite is forced to follow the proof mass, it too follows the same gravitational orbit, canceling all non-gravitational forces. For the STEP Mission, the DFC system is required to attenuate any disturbance forces acting on the spacecraft to achieve residual acceleration at location of the accelerometer of less than 3×10 -14 m/s2 (rms) across the measurement bandwidth. While the simulator is based on a high-fidelity six-degree-of-freedom numerical simulation, a simplified model is used to analyze the proof mass dynamics. The stability analysis of the proof mass motion is performed by transformation of the simplified model into the standard form of the Mathieu differential equation. The stability regions of the solution are applied to choose proper values for parameters like coupling forces between satellite and proof mass as a function of spacecraft rotation. The paper describes the calculation of the spacecraft/payload dynamics and the assumptions used to derive the underlying algorithms with a special emphasis on numerical precision issues.

  15. Influence of intracerebroventricular administration of histaminergic drugs on morphine state-dependent memory in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad R; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Rezayat, S Mehdi; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Djahanguiri, Bijan

    2005-05-01

    The effects of histaminergic drugs on morphine state-dependent memory of a passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training administration of morphine (5 mg/kg) led to state-dependent learning with impaired memory recall on the test day which was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the opioid. The pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the H(1) blocker (pyrilamine) prevented the restoration of memory by morphine. The H(2) blocker (ranitidine) was ineffective in this regard and the H(3) blocker (clobenpropit) potentiated the effect of morphine on memory recall. The pre-test i.c.v. administration of histamine alone (5, 10, and 20 microg/mouse) not only mimicked the effect of pre-test morphine treatment, but also increased this action of the opioid. The effect of histamine on memory recall was not changed by the pre-test administration of mu-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. In conclusion, the improvement of memory recall by morphine treatment, on the test day, seems to be, at least in part, through the release of histamine followed by the stimulation of H(1) receptors. Histamine by itself, when administered on the test day, mimicked morphine-induced memory improvement by a mechanism independent of the mu-opioid receptors.

  16. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  17. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  18. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  19. Analysis of plasticizers in poly(vinyl chloride) medical devices for infusion and artificial nutrition: comparison and optimization of the extraction procedures, a pre-migration test step.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Lise; Cueff, Régis; Bourdeaux, Daniel; Breysse, Colette; Sautou, Valérie

    2015-02-01

    Medical devices (MDs) for infusion and enteral and parenteral nutrition are essentially made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The first step in assessing patient exposure to these plasticizers, as well as ensuring that the MDs are free from di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), consists of identifying and quantifying the plasticizers present and, consequently, determining which ones are likely to migrate into the patient's body. We compared three different extraction methods using 0.1 g of plasticized PVC: Soxhlet extraction in diethyl ether and ethyl acetate, polymer dissolution, and room temperature extraction in different solvents. It was found that simple room temperature chloroform extraction under optimized conditions (30 min, 50 mL) gave the best separation of plasticizers from the PVC matrix, with extraction yields ranging from 92 to 100% for all plasticizers. This result was confirmed by supplemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and gravimetric analyses. The technique was used on eight marketed medical devices and showed that they contained different amounts of plasticizers, ranging from 25 to 36% of the PVC weight. These yields, associated with the individual physicochemical properties of each plasticizer, highlight the need for further migration studies.

  20. Testing the Validity of the Comprehensive Model of Educational Effectiveness: A Step towards the Development of a Dynamic Model of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the methods and the main results of the 6 studies which were conducted in order to test the validity of the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. The synthesis of these studies reveals that some support to the model has been provided. It is also demonstrated that 2 characteristics of the comprehensive model…

  1. Step by Step: Avoiding Spiritual Bypass in 12-Step Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Clarke, Philip B.; Graves, Elizabeth G.

    2009-01-01

    With spirituality as a cornerstone, 12-step groups serve a vital role in the recovery community. It is important for counselors to be mindful, however, of the potential for clients to be in spiritual bypass, which likely will undermine the recovery process.

  2. A Step Circuit Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Aerobics instructors can use step aerobics to motivate students. One creative method is to add the step to the circuit workout. By incorporating the step, aerobic instructors can accommodate various fitness levels. The article explains necessary equipment and procedures, describing sample stations for cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength,…

  3. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    PubMed

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2015-08-11

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  4. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Reg

    2014-01-06

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  5. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    Beer, Reg

    2016-07-12

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  6. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  7. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    PubMed

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  8. Development of radioactive beams at LAMPF for a high precision test of the standard model and as a step towards an IsoSpin Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, D.; Chamberlin, E.; Preston, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Producing high yields of isotopically pure beams of radioactive heavy ions is the technical challenge facing the IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL). The main objective of this project is to design, fabricate, install, and make operational a thin-target, He- jet system at LAMPF to provide high-intensity {sup 125-139}Cs isotopes for an atomic parity nonconservation (PNC) experiment and as a robust production source for radioactive beams. The Cs-PNC experiment itself would take several years beyond the successful completion of the developments outlined in this project. The experiment outlined in this project. The experiment seeks to measure the 6S-7S PNC transition rate for this series of Cs isotopes. From the ratios of these rates measured in the different isotopes, a fundamental test of the standard model can be made at the level of 0. 2{percent}. Herein, we describe the successful operation of a thin- target, He-jet system operating at primary beam intensities of up to 700 {mu}A with production yields of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a wide range of nonvolatile and Cs radioisotopes. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  10. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures.

  11. Influence of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent learning in the step-down passive avoidance test.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Malekmohammadi, Nazanin; Fazli-Tabaei, Soheila

    2006-07-15

    Effects of morphine- or apomorphine-induced sensitization on histamine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Pre-training intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) decreased the learning of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-test administration of histamine (10 and 20 microg/mouse) reversed amnesia induced by pre-training of histamine, with maximum response at 20 microg/mouse. Pre-training histamine-induced amnesia was also reversed in morphine- or apomorphine-sensitized mice that had previously received once daily injections of morphine (20 and 30 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) for 3 days. The reversion of histamine-induced amnesia in morphine-sensitized mice was decreased by once daily administration of naloxone (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), SCH 23390 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or sulpiride (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) prior to injection of morphine (30 mg/kg/day, 3 days). Furthermore, once daily administration of sulpiride (50 and 100 mg/kg) but not SCH 23390 (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) prior to apomorphine (1 mg/kg, for 3 days) decreased the reversion of pre-training histamine-induced amnesia by apomorphine. The results suggest that apomorphine or morphine sensitization affects the impairment of memory induced by histamine and thus it is postulated that opioid and dopamine receptors may play an important role in this effect.

  12. Step-wise temperature decreasing cultivates a biofilm with high nitrogen removal rates at 9°C in short-term anammox biofilm tests.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Mandel, Anni; Kroon, Kristel; Seiman, Andrus; Mihkelson, Jana; Tenno, Taavo; Tenno, Toomas

    2016-08-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitritation-anammox (deammonification) processes are widely used for N-rich wastewater treatment. When deammonification applications move towards low temperature applications (mainstream wastewater has low temperature), temperature effect has to be studied. In current research, in a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor a maximum total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) of 1.5 g N m(-2 )d(-1) (0.6 kg N m(-3 )d(-1)) was achieved. Temperature was gradually lowered by 0.5°C per week, and a similar TNRR was sustained at 15°C during biofilm cultivation. Statistical analysis confirmed that a temperature decrease from 20°C down to 15° did not cause instabilities. Instead, TNRR rose and treatment efficiency remained stable at lower temperatures as well. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed an increase in Candidatus Brocadia quantities from 5 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(7) anammox gene copies g(-1) total suspended solids (TSS) despite temperature lowered to 15°C. Fluctuations in TNRR were rather related to changes in influent [Formula: see text] concentration. To study the short-term effect of temperature on the TNRR, a series of batch-scale experiments were performed which showed sufficient TNRRs even at 9-15°C (1.24-3.43 mg N g(-1 )TSS h(-1), respectively) with anammox temperature constants (Q10) ranging 1.3-1.6. Experiments showed that a biofilm adapted to 15°C can perform N-removal most sufficiently at temperatures down to 9°C as compared with biofilm adapted to higher temperature. After biomass was adapted to 15°C, the decrease in TNRR in batch tests at 9°C was lower (15-20%) than that for biomass adapted to 17-18°C.

  13. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    PubMed Central

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field. PMID:27065817

  14. Nanomechanical Analysis of a UV Treated Ag Thin Film Based on a Three-Step Oxidation Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Joon; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-03-01

    Nanoindentation was used as the main method to measure the change in nanomechanical properties on the surface of an Ag thin film due to UV treatment. The 4-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to measure the electrical, crystallographic, and morphological properties, respectively. During a UV treatment time of between 1 and 3 minutes, the sheet resistance increased dramatically to 0.55 Ω/sq. (the sheet resistance was 0.16 Ω/sq. prior to UV treatment) and these results were supported by a proportional decreased in XRD intensity. Thereafter, the sheet resistance decreased and the XRD intensity increased in response to increases in UV treatment time. These results were related to a change in crystal structure from Ag to AgOx, which could also have caused the change in sheet resistance. Based on these results, we propose a 3-step oxidation model of an Ag thin film according to UV treatment time. This proposal has been proven by nanoindentation testing.

  15. Information on stepping motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fongarland, G.

    1982-04-01

    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  16. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  17. CEIP Next Steps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Energy Incentive Program (CEIP) next steps document details the EPA’s outreach strategy for stakeholder input on the design and implementation of the CEIP. Additionally, this document lists provisions on the CEIP where stakeholder input is sought

  18. Detection of Steps in Single Molecule Data

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Tanuj; Materassi, Donatello; Davison, Robert; Hays, Thomas; Salapaka, Murti

    2013-01-01

    the impact of probe dynamics on step detection. Importantly, we have also developed a comprehensive set of tools to evaluate various existing step detection techniques. We quantify the performance and limitations of various step detection methods using novel evaluation scales. We show that under these scales, our method provides much better overall performance. The method is validated on different simulated test cases, as well as experimental data. PMID:23956798

  19. "GIANT" Steps to Create Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Online orientation is provided due to the flexibility of online learning. The online orientation consists of the GIANT steps which stands for Get support, Identify your curriculum, Assemble your program, Navigate students through the pilot project and Test students.

  20. Step energy and step interactions on the reconstructed GaAs(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Rita; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rosini, Marcello

    2014-09-01

    Using ab initio total energy calculations we have studied the relation between the step atomic configuration and its properties (step energy, donor/acceptor behavior, and step interaction) on a β2(2×4) reconstructed GaAs (001) surface. The results have been tested against the widely used elastic dipole model for the step energy and step interaction considered valid for stress-free surfaces. We have found that acceptor-behaving steps have an attractive interaction and donor-behaving steps have a repulsive interaction in contrast with the elastic dipole model which predicts always a repulsive interaction between like-oriented steps. To account for the attractive interaction we consider the electrostatic dipole interaction having the L-2 scaling with the step distance L and therefore compatible with the standard elastic model. Using a model charge distribution with localized point charges at the step based on the electron counting model we show that the electrostatic step interaction can indeed be generally attractive and of the same order of magnitude of the negative elastic dipole interaction. Our results show however that the usually employed dipole model is unable to account for the repulsive/attractive step interaction between donorlike/acceptorlike steps. Therefore, the ab initio results suggest an important electronic contribution to the step interaction, at least at the short step distances accessible to the first-principles study. Our results explain qualitatively many experimental observations and provide an explanation to the step bunching phenomenon on GaAs(001) induced by doping or by critical growth conditions as due to the stabilization of attractively interacting step structures. These ideas would lead to the development of a bottom-up surface step engineering.

  1. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20–45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance. PMID:26717568

  2. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  3. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  4. Tank tests to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls II : effect of varying depth of step, angle of after- body keel, length of afterbody chine, and gross load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Mckann, Robert; Hay, Elizabeth S

    1946-01-01

    The second part of a series of tests made in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the effect of varying design parameters of planing-tail hulls is presented. Results are given to show the effects on resistance characteristics of varying angle of afterbody keel, depth of step, and length of afterbody chine. The effect of varying the gross load is shown for one configuration. The resistance characteristics of planing-tail hulls are compared with those of a conventional flying-boat hull. The forces on the forebody and afterbody of one configuration are compared with the forces on a conventional hull. Increasing the angle of afterbody keel had small effect on hump resistance and no effect on high-speed resistance but increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Increasing the depth of step increased hump resistance, had little effect on high-speed resistance, and increased free-to-trim resistance at intermediate speeds. Omitting the chines on the forward 25 percent of the afterbody had no appreciable effect on resistance. Omitting 70 percent of the chine length had almost no effect on maximum resistance but broadened the hump and increased spray around the afterbody. Load-resistance ratio at the hump decreased more rapidly with increasing load coefficient for the planing-tail hull than for the representative conventional hull, although the load-resistance ratio at the hump was greater for the planing-tail hull than for the conventional hull throughout the range of loads tested. At speeds higher than hump speed, load-resistance ratio for the planing-tail hull was a maximum at a particular gross load and was slightly less at heavier and lighter gross loads. The planing-tail hull was found to have lower resistance than the conventional hull at both the hump and at high speeds, but at intermediate speeds there was little difference. The lower hump resistance of the planing-tail hull was attributed to the ability of the afterbody to carry a greater percentage of the

  5. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  6. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-12-15

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  7. The digital step edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The facet model was used to accomplish step edge detection. The essence of the facet model is that any analysis made on the basis of the pixel values in some neighborhood has its final authoritative interpretation relative to the underlying grey tone intensity surface of which the neighborhood pixel values are observed noisy samples. Pixels which are part of regions have simple grey tone intensity surfaces over their areas. Pixels which have an edge in them have complex grey tone intensity surfaces over their areas. Specially, an edge moves through a pixel only if there is some point in the pixel's area having a zero crossing of the second directional derivative taken in the direction of a non-zero gradient at the pixel's center. To determine whether or not a pixel should be marked as a step edge pixel, its underlying grey tone intensity surface was estimated on the basis of the pixels in its neighborhood.

  8. Simple and Inexpensive CD-ROM Networking: A Step-by-Step Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, upgradeable, CD-ROM network and gives a step-by-step description of the installation process, including inventorying assets, learning about network components, selecting a network, installing adapter boards, attaching cabling, installing software, testing, configuring the server, installing search software, installing a menu,…

  9. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1)…

  10. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  11. Steps to the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Dale, Alvin E.

    1976-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, man walked on the surface of the Moon and began a new chapter of his studies that will eventually disclose the geologic nature of the Earth's nearest neighbor. Although he has finally reached the Moon and sampled its substance, much work and study remain before he will know the full scientific significance of the first landing. This booklet briefly summarizes the steps man has taken to understand the Moon and what he thinks he has learned to date as a result of his centuries-long speculations and studies.

  12. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  13. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. Objectives In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. Results The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. Conclusions This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public

  14. Transistor step stress program for JANTX2N4150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Reliability analysis of the transistor JANTX2N4150 manufactured by General Semiconductor and Transitron is reported. The discrete devices were subjected to power and temperature step stress tests and then to electrical tests after completing the power/temperature step stress point. Control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. Results are presented.

  15. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  16. Accuracy of Step Recording in Free-Living Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara K.; Fields, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how accurately free-living adults record their pedometer steps on step logs. Researchers used three different methods to examine the accuracy of participant-recorded steps: tests of equivalence, correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman plots. Findings indicate that participant-recorded steps…

  17. Stair-stepped Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003

    This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  18. A Few Easy Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Examines tested techniques that can keep a school's carpeting in good condition. Cleaning with hot water extraction, removing spills and spots, handling emergency cleanups, and cleaning soft surface flooring are addressed. (GR)

  19. Green Schools Energy Project: A Step-by-Step Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Gwen

    This publication contains a step-by-step guide for implementing an energy-saving project in local school districts: the installation of newer, more energy-efficient "T-8" fluorescent tube lights in place of "T-12" lights. Eleven steps are explained in detail: (1) find out what kind of lights the school district currently uses;…

  20. One-step microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  1. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  2. 1992 STEP Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Tony

    The year 1992 marks the quincentenary jubilee of the famous voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World, a trip which initiated sustained contact between Europe and the American continent. Courageous explorations often lead to advancement of mankind, be they in uncharted territory or science. As much as Columbus was unaware of what lay in store for his voyage, we were just as poorly informed about what lay beyond our home planet when we began space exploration about three decades ago. There is much similarity among the pioneering spirits characteristic of both endeavors. It is thus fitting to celebrate this quincentenary occasion by declaring 1992 International Space Year (ISY).In conjunction with the COSPAR Meeting and the International Convention of the World Space Congress to be held in Washington, D.C., from August to September 1992, a 4-day symposium on the initial results from the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP) Facilities and Theory Campaigns will be held at Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., August 24-27. 1992.

  3. STEPS: JPL's Astrometric Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart; Pravdo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Presentation topics include: STEPS ground-based astrometry at Hale Telescope; the instrument; why astronomy and why M-dwarfs; motion of center of light about center of mass in photocentric orbit; photocentric motion vs. fractional mass; high-resolution imaging of STEPS targets; GU 802 p one possible orbit plotted with data, Keplerian frame; GJ 802 results; STEPS future; and a bibliography of STEPS papers.

  4. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  5. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-03-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.

  6. Powerlessness Reinterpreted: Reframing Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan L.

    The 12 steps of the well-known mutual help group, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), begin with Step One, admitting powerlessness. Although Step One has helped many problem drinkers and other addicts, its spiritual concepts have been criticized. The possibility of reconceptualizing powerlessness as empowering, not only within AA and its offshoot programs,…

  7. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  8. The effect of step climbing exercise on balance and step length in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of step climbing exercise on the walking ability of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Among hospitalized stroke patients, 24 were selected based on the study criteria and randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 patients) and a control group (12 patients). The patients in both groups participated in 15-minute exercise sessions three times a week for eight weeks. To analyze the effect of the exercise, muscle strength, the Timed Up and Go test, and step length were measured before and after the exercise. [Results] step climbing exercise improved the muscle strength in the lower limbs of the stroke patients, as well as their Timed Up and Go results and step lengths. [Conclusion] The effects were similar to a stair gait exercise, and thus, step climbing may be more broadly applied to the treatment of stroke patients.

  9. The effect of step climbing exercise on balance and step length in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of step climbing exercise on the walking ability of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Among hospitalized stroke patients, 24 were selected based on the study criteria and randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 patients) and a control group (12 patients). The patients in both groups participated in 15-minute exercise sessions three times a week for eight weeks. To analyze the effect of the exercise, muscle strength, the Timed Up and Go test, and step length were measured before and after the exercise. [Results] step climbing exercise improved the muscle strength in the lower limbs of the stroke patients, as well as their Timed Up and Go results and step lengths. [Conclusion] The effects were similar to a stair gait exercise, and thus, step climbing may be more broadly applied to the treatment of stroke patients. PMID:26696728

  10. STEP Status Tool for the Environmental Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Test Purposes Only” - STEP -> View Projects AMCA!Ioat AMCAF-09=C02 N.tCAF ema11 test 9 1evel 6 SC Compliance PEN Leva I 5 -Installation Approval...Authority NACA!Ioat />J,1CAF-09=C04 SC Fundmg Test With CAT Compliance PEN Leva I 2- Adm1n1strator AMCA!Ioat N.ICAF-09·C05 ~~~t ProjCat-CMP·NRSM...Compliance PEN Leva I 2- Administrator NACA!Ioat At.ICAF-09-GOS Test Protect at LevelS compliance PEN Leval 5 -Installation Approval Authonty NACA

  11. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Methods Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. Results All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both). The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the

  12. Data Wise: A Step by Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning. Revised and Expanded Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudett, Kathryn Parker, Ed.; City, Elizabeth A., Ed.; Murnane, Richard J., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Data Wise: A Step-by-Step Guide to Using Assessment Results to Improve Teaching and Learning" presents a clear and carefully tested blueprint for school leaders. It shows how examining test scores and other classroom data can become a catalyst for important schoolwide conversations that will enhance schools' abilities to capture…

  13. Step-gradient capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, M R; Gilligan, D; Johnson, C M; Bartle, K D

    1997-10-01

    The analytical benefits of using a step-gradient in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are demonstrated. The application of step-gradient CEC to the analysis of six diuretics of widely differing lipophilicities was evaluated and shown to result in a marked reduction in the analysis time and an improvement in the peak shape for later-eluting lipophilic components. When the step-gradient approach was performed in an automated mode, the retention time RSD for repeated injections was below 1%.

  14. Step by Step to Smoke-Free Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.; Roberts, H. Earl

    1989-01-01

    This ERIC digest discusses ways of effectively banning smoking in schools so that controversies do not continue after implementation of the policy. By advocating a process approach, the document cites steps taken by the Lake Forest School Board to prohibit smoking in and around school grounds. Step one involved committee planning involving…

  15. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  16. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  17. Changing step width alters lower extremity biomechanics during running.

    PubMed

    Brindle, Richard A; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2014-01-01

    Step width is a spatiotemporal parameter that may influence lower extremity biomechanics at the hip and knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical response of the lower extremity joints to step width changes during running. Lower extremity data from 30 healthy runners, half of them male, were collected during running in three step width conditions: preferred, wide, and narrow. Dependent variables and step width were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA and pairwise t-tests for post hoc comparisons. Step width was successfully altered in the wide and narrow conditions. Generally, frontal plane peak values decreased as step width increased from narrow to preferred to wide. Peak hip adduction and rearfoot eversion angles decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Peak knee abduction moment and knee abduction impulse also decreased as step width increased from narrow to wide. Although men and women ran differently, gender only influenced the effect of step width on peak rearfoot inversion moment. In conclusion, step width influences lower extremity biomechanics in healthy runners. When step width increased from narrow to wide, peak values of frontal plane variables decreased. In addition to previously reported changes at the rearfoot, the hip and knee joint biomechanics were also influenced by changes in step width.

  18. 6 Steps to a Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeTendre, Brenda Guenther

    2000-01-01

    Getting answers to questions about schools and student learning requires that educators know how to collect, analyze, and interpret data. Six critical steps in this process include: posing questions, establishing judgment criteria, making a plan, gathering data, analyzing data, and interpreting results. These steps can serve as a beginning guide…

  19. Physical modeling of stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams are becoming popular for addressing the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those situated in the urban landscape. Stepped spillways are typically placed over the existing embankment, which provides for minimal disturbance to the original ...

  20. Transistor step stress program for JANTX2N2060

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the dual transistor JANTX2N2060 manufactured by Raytheon and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point. Results are given.

  1. Transistor step stress program for JANTX2N2219A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Power/temperature step stress was applied to the dual transistor JANTX2N2219A manufactured by Texas Instruments and National Semiconductor. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to electrical tests after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point.

  2. Transistor step stress program for JANTX2N2432A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Power/temperature step stress was applied to the transistor JANTX2N2432A manufactured by Crystalonics and Texas Instruments. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process outlined. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point.

  3. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N5615

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to the switching diode JANTX1N5615 manufactured by Semtech and Micro semiconductor was examined. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. All test samples were subjected to the electrical tests after completing the prior power/temperature step stress point. Results are presented.

  4. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  5. Luminosity progression in dart-stepped leader step formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Takagi, N.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Using a high-speed optical imaging system, we have observed the step formation bright pulse discharges occurring at the tip of dart-stepped leaders of rocket triggered lightning with a time resolution of 0.1 µs and a spatial resolution of about 1.4 m. Each of the step formation pulse discharges appeared to initiate at a location immediately below the bottom of its previous pulse discharge and to propagate in bidirectional (upward and downward) waves with a speed on the order of 107 m/s. The downward waves of the pulse discharges tended to slow down significantly after they propagated a distance of about 2 m. Based on the results observed in this study and those published in literatures, we propose a conceptual view of leader step formation.

  6. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Katherine C. Morris (kc@cme.nist.gov) Factory Automation System Division National Institute of Standards and Technology "Any meaningful exchange of...Industrial Automation Systems (1C 184) Subcommittee on Manufacturing Data and Languages (SC4).[NCGA90] [Smith89] 2. The Omnibus Trade Act of 1988 changed the...Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this

  7. Step-by-step growth of complex oxide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Cullen, David A.; Sharma, Jaswinder K.

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. We developed a solution phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica titania hybrid microstructures by exploiting the emulsion droplet based shape control and step by step growth. The strategy is robust and can be extended to make complex hybrid structures made of two or more materials while each having its own shape.

  8. Sweat electrolytes test

    MedlinePlus

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  9. Dissipating Step Bunches during Crystallization under Transport Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hong; Yau, S.-T.; Vekilov, Peter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In studies of crystal formation by the generation and spreading of layers, equidistant step trains are considered unstable---bunches and other spatiotemporal patterns of the growth steps are viewed as ubiquitous. We provide an example to the opposite. We monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of steps and the resulting step patterns during crystallization of the proteins ferritin and apoferritin using the atomic force microscope. The variations in step velocity and density are not correlated, indicating the lack of a long-range attraction between the steps. We show that (i) because of its coupling to bulk transport, nucleation of new layers is chaotic and occurs at the facet edges, where the interfacial supersaturation is higher; (ii) step bunches self-organize via the competition for supply from the solution; and, (iii) bunches of weakly interacting steps decay as they move along the face. Tests by numerical modeling support the conclusions about the mechanisms underlying our observations. The results from these systems suggest that during crystallization controlled by transport, with weakly or noninteracting growth steps, the stable kinetic state of the surface is an equidistant step train, and step bunches only arise during nucleation of new layers. Since nucleation only occurs at a few sites on the surface, the surface morphology may be controllably patterned or smoothened by locally controlling nucleation.

  10. The Multipole Structure of Earth's STEP Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    If there is an interaction in physical law which differentially accelerates the test bodies in a STEP satellite, then the di.erent elements that compose the Earth will most likely have source strengths for this interaction which are not proportional to their mass densities. The rotational flattening of Earth and geographical irregularities of our planet's crust then produces a multipole structure for the Equivalence Principle violating force field which differs from the multipole structure of Earth's ordinary gravity field. Measuring these differences yields key information about the new interaction in physical law which is not attainable by solely measuring differences of test body accelerations.

  11. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  12. The Effects of Multiple-Step and Single-Step Directions on Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Grammar Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerik, Matthew B.

    2006-01-01

    The mean scores of English Language Learners (ELL) and English Only (EO) students in 4th and 5th grade (N = 110), across the teacher-administered Grammar Skills Test, were examined for differences in participants' scores on assessments containing single-step directions and assessments containing multiple-step directions. The results indicated no…

  13. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  14. 3. Southeast corner of Building 202, looking northwest from steps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Southeast corner of Building 202, looking northwest from steps on hillside near water tank. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  16. Writing a Simulation Scenario: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is becoming a widely used method of helping nurses learn and maintain competency in the clinical area for both staff educators in clinical settings and nursing faculty in academic settings. Designing an effective simulation experience requires thoughtful planning, knowledge of educational principles, and knowledge of best practices in both simulation and clinical practice. An evidence-based strategy for writing a simulation scenario for nurses and other health care providers in any setting is described. A step-by-step process is outlined that incorporates best practices. Examples and suggestions are provided to help readers create quality simulation experiences.

  17. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, Holger; Plate, Stephen; Berg, J.Scott; Tarrant, Jason; Bross, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  18. Optimizing step gauge measurements and uncertainties estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, F.; Coorevits, T.; Vincent, R.

    2017-02-01

    According to the standard ISO 10360-2 (2001 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines (CMM)—part 2: CMMs used for measuring size (ISO 10360-2:2001)), we verify the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) performance against the manufacturer specification. There are many types of gauges used for the calibration and verification of CMMs. The step gauges with parallel faces (KOBA, MITUTOYO) are well known gauges to perform this test. Often with these gauges, only the unidirectional measurements are considered which avoids having to deal with a residual error that affects the tip radius compensation. However the ISO 10360-2 standard imposes the use of a bidirectional measurement. Thus, the bidirectional measures must be corrected by the residual constant offset probe. In this paper, we optimize the step gauge measurement and a method is given to mathematically avoid the problem of the constant offset of the tip radius. This method involves measuring the step gauge once and to measure it a second time with a shift of one slot in order to obtain a new set of equations. Uncertainties are also presented.

  19. Step by Step: Using Kodaly To Build Vocal Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach elementary students about vocal improvisation using the Kodaly-based approach. Discusses the three steps involved in this technique: (1) develop familiar singing patterns; (2) use a question and answer format; and (3) begin improvisation. Includes examples of solfege patterns and a vocal question and answer. (CMK)

  20. A Step-by-Step Guide to Personalize Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Barbara; McClaskey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    It is known that every learner is unique and that one-size-fits-all instruction does not work for most. How can a classroom environment be created that gives each learner voice and choice? The co-founders of Personalize Learning, LLC, offer a detailed six-step approach. This article provides the background on what is and what is not Personalized…

  1. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  2. [Web-based education: learning surgical procedures step-by-step with 3D visualization].

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Susanne; Maljers, Jaap; Wiggers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more uniform, structured education focused on surgical procedures. We offer a standardized, step-by-step, web-based procedural training method with which surgeons can train more interns efficiently. The basis of this learning method is formed by 3D films in which surgical procedures are performed in clearly defined steps and the anatomic structures behind the surgical operating planes are further dissected. This basis is supported by online modules in which, aside from the operation, preparation and postoperative care are also addressed. Registrars can test their knowledge with exams. Trainers can see what the registrars studied, how they scored and how they progressed with their clinical skills. With the online portfolio we offer building blocks for certification and accreditation. With this clearly structured research method of constant quality, registrars are less dependent on the local trainer. In addition, through better preparation, the operation capacity can be used more efficiently for the training.

  3. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    PubMed Central

    Yulan, Wang; Yaohua, Sheng; Jinhua, Tao; Min, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco) performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP). Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents’ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 ± 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 ± 17.58 vs. 55.41 ± 37.59, P = 0.021). Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 ± 1.2% in total (10.8 ± 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 ± 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference). Conclusion: The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely. PMID:24178407

  4. Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kook

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

  5. Seven Steps to Successful Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Jerry

    This report highlights the experiences of the Lighthouse Project, which successfully included students with disabilities in elementary, middle, and high school general education classes in a school district in southwest Tennessee. Drawing on findings from the Lighthouse Project, the report describes the following seven steps that must be present…

  6. Ten Steps to "TQM Plus."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Hirumi, Atsusi

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management Plus (TQM) goes beyond customer satisfaction to consider quality of life, environmental conditions, crime rates, and health and well-being. Steps to integrate such concerns into the TQM process include being ready for challenges, creating a quality system to collect performance data, defining the ideal school and world…

  7. Design of converging stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Unobtainable land rights, topographic features, and land use changes caused by ...

  8. Evaluation of Florida's STEP Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    Project STEP (Short Term Elective Program) is an outdoor-educational program that, through teaching wilderness survival skills and affording a necessity for their use, provides juvenile delinquents with a feeling of self-reliance and self-worth. The program is designed for committed youths, primarily males, at least 13 to 14 years of age, but…

  9. Ten Steps for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a

    2005-01-01

    This brief guide is for parents and teachers who seek to nurture the values of compassion and good will in their children?s lives. It describes ten steps or actions to promote peace and goodwill in the home, in family activities, and in school.

  10. One-Step Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Steam injection improves yield and quality of product. Single step process for liquefying coal increases liquid yield and reduces hydrogen consumption. Principal difference between this and earlier processes includes injection of steam into reactor. Steam lowers viscosity of liquid product, so further upgrading unnecessary.

  11. Direct tests of muscle cross-bridge theories: predictions of a Brownian dumbbell model for position-dependent cross-bridge lifetimes and step sizes with an optically trapped actin filament.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A

    1998-01-01

    Force and displacement events from a single myosin molecule interacting with an actin filament suspended between optically trapped beads (Finer, J. T., R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich. 1994. Nature. 368:113-119) can be interpreted in terms of a generalized cross-bridge model that includes the effects of Brownian forces on the beads. Steady-state distributions of force and displacement can be obtained directly from a generalized Smoluchowski equation for Brownian motion of the actin-bead "dumbbell," and time series from Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding Langevin equation. When the frequency spectrum of Brownian motion extends beyond cross-bridge transition rates, the inverse mean lifetimes of force/displacement pulses are given by cross-bridge rate constants averaged over a Boltzmann distribution of Brownian noise. These averaged rate constants reflect the strain-dependence of the rate constants for the stationary filament, most faithfully at high trap stiffness. Hence, measurements of the lifetimes and displacements of single events as a function of the resting position of the dumbbell can provide a direct test of different cross-bridge theories of muscle contraction. Quantitative demonstrations are given for Huxley models with 1) faster binding or 2) slower dissociation at positive cross-bridge strain. Predictions for other models can be inferred from the averaging procedure. PMID:9826619

  12. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration.

  13. [The central vein catheterization. 2. Procedure, step by step].

    PubMed

    Schmalz-Ott, Stéphane; Monti, Matteo; Vollenweider, Peter

    2008-10-29

    Several approaches exist for central vein catheterization. Mastery of the various steps of this procedure and understanding of the basics of asepsis are critical to prevent any complication. They also built the basis for an exhaustive communication with the patient, to obtain an informed consent. This article can in addition be used to develop a checklist in order to (self-)assess competence in procedural skills.

  14. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Patricia; Ryan, Frances; Coughlan, Michael

    Nowadays, most nurses, pre- and post-qualification, will be required to undertake a literature review at some point, either as part of a course of study, as a key step in the research process, or as part of clinical practice development or policy. For student nurses and novice researchers it is often seen as a difficult undertaking. It demands a complex range of skills, such as learning how to define topics for exploration, acquiring skills of literature searching and retrieval, developing the ability to analyse and synthesize data as well as becoming adept at writing and reporting, often within a limited time scale. The purpose of this article is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate understanding by presenting the critical elements of the literature review process. While reference is made to different types of literature reviews, the focus is on the traditional or narrative review that is undertaken, usually either as an academic assignment or part of the research process.

  15. Correction of Footdrop Due to Multiple Sclerosis Using the STIMuSTEP Implanted Dropped Foot Stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson Hart, Ingrid A.; Khan, Mansoor S.; Slade-Sharman, Diana E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Footdrop is a significant problem in multiple sclerosis, reducing the safety and efficiency of walking. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can produce dorsiflexion, correcting footdrop. The purpose of this retrospective analysis of clinical study data was to compare the effect of external and implanted FES devices for the correction of footdrop. Methods: External FES was used for a minimum of 6 months before implantation. Walking performance was assessed using 10-m walking speed, 3-minute walking distance, the Physiological Cost Index, and health- and device-related quality of life and device-use questionnaires. Assessments were made before implantation and a mean (SD) of 128 (24) days after surgery, with additional walking speed measurements at 3 years. Results: Twenty-three people with multiple sclerosis received the STIMuSTEP implant. Both devices enabled statistically significant increases in walking speed and walking distance, with a strong trend toward a reduced Physiological Cost Index, indicating that walking required less effort (P = .07). Both devices improved device-related quality of life. Walking speed gain with FES was maintained at 3 years. Three implants failed after falls, and there was one case of neuropraxia. The implant was used more days per week and was quicker to put on each day than the external FES device. Conclusions: The STIMuSTEP implanted dropped foot stimulator is an effective long-term intervention for the correction of footdrop. PMID:27803639

  16. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  17. Meissner-Effect Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed stepping motor derives torque from diamagnetic repulsion produced by Meissner effect - exclusion of magnetic field from interior of superconductor. Design of motor takes advantage of silver-doped YB2Cu3O and other compounds superconductive at temperatures as high as that of liquid nitrogen. Skin of rotor cooled below its superconducting-transition temperature by liquid nitrogen. O-rings prevent leaks of liquid nitrogen from rotor. Weight, cost, and maintenance reduced.

  18. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  19. Testing of Mortar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    test item to its prefiring position after each round is fired. d. Repeat step c for each charge appropriate for the test item. e. Repeat steps c and d...of ITOP 4-2-602 to simulate 240 kilometers of loose-cargo transport over Balgian-block raad. b. Examine the test item and fire as described in steps c and...050 2 April 1993 b. Ex:amine the test item and fire as described in steps c and d of paragraph 4.4.1.1. 4.4.3.2 D)ata rgizj . a. As collected in ITOP 1

  20. Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuiqin; Cai, Yi; Pan, Xinjian; Zeng, Xuanke; Li, Jingzhen; Li, Ying; Zhu, Tianlong; Lin, Qinggang; Xu, Shixiang

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of ultrafast optical field is critical for ultrashort pulse generation and its application. This paper combines two-step phase-shifting (TSPS) into the spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) to improve the reconstruction of ultrafast optical-fields. This novel SPIDER can remove experimentally the dc portion occurring in traditional SPIDER method by recording two spectral interferograms with π phase-shifting. As a result, the reconstructed results are much less disturbed by the time delay between the test pulse replicas and the temporal widths of the filter window, thus more reliable. What is more, this SPIDER can work efficiently even the time delay is so small or the measured bandwidth is so narrow that strong overlap happens between the dc and ac portions, which allows it to be able to characterize the test pulses with complicated temporal/spectral structures or narrow bandwidths. PMID:27666528

  1. Two-step phase-shifting SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shuiqin; Cai, Yi; Pan, Xinjian; Zeng, Xuanke; Li, Jingzhen; Li, Ying; Zhu, Tianlong; Lin, Qinggang; Xu, Shixiang

    2016-09-01

    Comprehensive characterization of ultrafast optical field is critical for ultrashort pulse generation and its application. This paper combines two-step phase-shifting (TSPS) into the spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) to improve the reconstruction of ultrafast optical-fields. This novel SPIDER can remove experimentally the dc portion occurring in traditional SPIDER method by recording two spectral interferograms with π phase-shifting. As a result, the reconstructed results are much less disturbed by the time delay between the test pulse replicas and the temporal widths of the filter window, thus more reliable. What is more, this SPIDER can work efficiently even the time delay is so small or the measured bandwidth is so narrow that strong overlap happens between the dc and ac portions, which allows it to be able to characterize the test pulses with complicated temporal/spectral structures or narrow bandwidths.

  2. Acta Clinica Croatica: progress of a journal step by step.

    PubMed

    Ramljak, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    The journal Acta Clinica Croatica (ACC) was founded in 1962 under the title Anali Bolnice Dr. M. Stojanović. In 1995, the title of the journal was changed into its present form and ever since all papers have been published in English. In 2000, the electronic (online) edition of the ACC was released in addition to the print version. The paper presents development of the journal from 1962 to 2012 based on the analysis of the following SCOPUS citation index parameters: type and number of documents published in the journal; number of citations; and number of domestic and foreign authors. The studied period was analyzed in three time segments: the period from 1995 to 1999, the period from 2000 to 2006 and the period from 2007 to 2012. The same parameters were analyzed in the Web of Science/SCI-Expanded bibliographic and citation index for the 2007-2012 period. The increasing number of documents, authors (both domestic and foreign) and citations demonstrates gradual rise in the quality, visibility and impact of the journal. The fifty years of experience show that a goal, at first very distant and almost unachievable, may be reached by progressing step by step.

  3. Fractional-step method for two-dimensional estuarine transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Holley, Edward R.

    1988-01-01

    The fractional-step method was used in this study to split the longitudinal advective transport term from the other terms in the two-dimensional, laterally-averaged equation for estuarine mass transport. The method of characteristics with spline interpolations was used to approximate the longitudinal advective transport. A general discussion of the fractional-step method, the specific algorithm developed in this investigation, and results of numerical tests are presented. Application of the fractional-step method in conjunction with the characteristic-spline scheme offers the potential for improved simulations of transport for situations in which concentration gradients are steep.

  4. Blood Lactate Response to the CF Express Step Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-18

    hypertension and migraine headaches. Beta - blockers cause a moderate decrease in blood pressure, a pro- nounced reduction in heart rate, and a slight...antihypertensive therapy with beta - blockers : submaximal exercise capa- city and metabolic effects during exercise. Int. J. Sport. Med. 8:342-347. 26

  5. Standardization of Performance Tests: A Proposal for Further Steps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    particular, concerns were voiced as to who should "lead" the effort, how it might be funded, the scheduling of future meetings, and so forth. In the...modality (visual, auditory , tactual) b. stimulus intensity/ contrast (low, high) c. stimulus quality (intact, degraded) d. stimulus content (verbal...a pedal task, an arm-strength task, a leg-strength task, a visual task, an auditory task, etc., etc. To the extent that the battery constructor is

  6. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection is called antiretroviral therapy (ART) . ART involves taking a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen ) every day. ART can’t cure HIV, but it helps people ...

  7. Step Stress Testing of Receiver/Transmitter Units. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    tjic ch- 14 23.4 d*Qg5 ch- 14 23.3 deogS U I, 14 2. d. c ch’ 15 23.9 dogC ch- 13 23.0 dsc_ Uti 16 22.9 Jeu ’_5 ch- 14 73.3 degC oh- 16 77.9 d92g5 ;If 16...0(D Z LI 0 a .1 w &a:: 2, CC CY z z’ <I~ ;$ cl co a. 0 LU in 0 w a U.W ’z a:w Cl ZZ .z. 0 - JEu a: a. !< C. ) D D( M()~ 3:c 0 C ~O:. ZI Wi-~:~ L- o...RFAMPLIFIERS SCEMTIC C1~ -15 Wde __ TO DETECTOR 1 2 G P/0 TOOFSE RI 4 L2 POTENTIOMETERS ’C4 -1 e5TO VIDEO AMPS S+ giid LOAD RESISTOR -vAUX.Vr~ _reg SUPPLY

  8. Lessons learned in stepped chute research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research on stepped chutes focused on steep gravity style stepped chutes. Today, the research trend has shifted to stepped chutes applied to more moderate slopes like those for aging embankment dams. Research contributions have been made on hydraulic properties of stepped chutes including ai...

  9. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  10. What Promotes Wisdom in 12-Step Recovery?

    PubMed

    DiGangi, Julia A; Majer, John M; Mendoza, Leslie; Droege, Jocelyn R; Jason, Leonard A; Contreras, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Research investigations on twelve-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) have addressed a number of resources associated with 12-step recovery. However, little is known about the role of wisdom, and whether aspects of 12-step participation might increase this resource among 12-step members. An exploratory analysis revealed that participants who reported having a "spiritual awakening" and considered themselves "members" of 12-step groups reported significantly higher levels of wisdom. Twelve-step meeting attendance was not significantly related to wisdom scores. Findings suggest certain aspects of 12-step involvement are associated with wisdom and may play a role in substance abuse recovery.

  11. Step-induced magnetic anisotropy in Co/stepped Cu(001) as a function of step density and Cu step decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, R.K.; Bowen, M.O.; Choi, H.J.; Escorcia-Aparicio, E.J.; Qiu, Z.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The step-induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of fcc Co/stepped Cu(001) was investigated using a curved substrate to provide a continuous range of vicinal angles from 0{degree} to 6{degree}. The anisotropy strength was found to depend linearly on the step density, indicating that the biaxial strain does not make a significant contribution to the step-induced anisotropy. Using a side growth geometry to decorate the Co step edges with Cu adsorbates, we observed that the step-induced anisotropy strength approaches zero at roughly 0.7 atomic rows of Cu, independent of step density. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Immersed Boundary Fractional Step Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Kunihiko

    2005-11-01

    We present a new formulation of the immersed boundary method for incompressible flow over moving rigid bodies. Like many existing techniques we introduce a set of interpolation points on the surface at which the no-slip boundary condition is satisfied by including a (regularized) force in the momentum equations. By introducing interpolation and regularization operators and grouping pressure and force unknowns together, the discretized Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed boundary method can be formulated with an identical structure to the traditional fractional step method, but with a modified Poisson equation whose unknowns are both the pressure and the boundary force. The method highlights the analogous roles of pressure and boundary forcing as Lagrange multipliers in order to satisfy the divergence free and no-slip constraints, respectively. The overall method is found to be a simple addition to an existing fractional step code and the extended Poisson equation is solved efficiently with the conjugate gradient method. We demonstrate convergence and present results for two-dimensional flows with a variety of moving rigid bodies.

  13. Efficacy of a step-by-step carving technique for dental students.

    PubMed

    Kilistoff, Alan J; Mackenzie, Louis; D'Eon, Marcel; Trinder, Krista

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a step-by-step carving technique that is quickly and efficiently mastered by dental students. Thirty-six final-year dental students volunteered to participate in this study. The students were given pre-prepared lower right first molar simulation teeth that had the occlusal half replaced in carving wax. The study was conducted in three time phases: pre-test (Time 1), participative learning (Time 2), and post-test (Time 3). The pre-test had the students carve the wax with no instruction. Instruction and demonstration of the technique were given at Time 2, and the post-test had the students carve the tooth again with no guidance but with training. A statistically significant increase with a nearly medium effect size was found from Time 1 to Time 2. A statistically significant increase with a medium effect size was found when comparing Time 2 to Time 3. A statistically significant increase with a large effect size was found when comparing Time 1 to Time 3. This technique has proved to be an effective method of simultaneously teaching a large cohort of predoctoral dental students. The technique is consistent with constructivist learning theory.

  14. Sensitivity of The High-resolution Wam Model With Respect To Time Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasemets, K.; Soomere, T.

    The northern part of the Baltic Proper and its subbasins (Bothnian Sea, the Gulf of Finland, Moonsund) serve as a challenge for wave modellers. In difference from the southern and the eastern parts of the Baltic Sea, their coasts are highly irregular and contain many peculiarities with the characteristic horizontal scale of the order of a few kilometres. For example, the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland is extremely ragged and contains a huge number of small islands. Its southern coast is more or less regular but has up to 50m high cliff that is frequently covered by high forests. The area also contains numerous banks that have water depth a couple of meters and that may essentially modify wave properties near the banks owing to topographical effects. This feature suggests that a high-resolution wave model should be applied for the region in question, with a horizontal resolution of an order of 1 km or even less. According to the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion, the integration time step for such models must be of the order of a few tens of seconds. A high-resolution WAM model turns out to be fairly sensitive with respect to the particular choice of the time step. In our experiments, a medium-resolution model for the whole Baltic Sea was used, with the horizontal resolution 3 miles (3' along latitudes and 6' along longitudes) and the angular resolution 12 directions. The model was run with steady wind blowing 20 m/s from different directions and with two time steps (1 and 3 minutes). For most of the wind directions, the rms. difference of significant wave heights calculated with differ- ent time steps did not exceed 10 cm and typically was of the order of a few per cents. The difference arose within a few tens of minutes and generally did not increase in further computations. However, in the case of the north wind, the difference increased nearly monotonously and reached 25-35 cm (10-15%) within three hours of integra- tion whereas mean of significant wave

  15. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  16. Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    2004-10-12

    A Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer for testing a test optic. The Wollaston prism shears light into reference and signal beams, and provides phase stepping at increased accuracy by translating the Wollaston prism in a lateral direction with respect to the optical path. The reference beam produced by the Wollaston prism is directed through a pinhole of a diaphragm to produce a perfect spherical reference wave. The spherical reference wave is recombined with the signal beam to produce an interference fringe pattern of greater accuracy.

  17. Effects of an aft facing step on the surface of a laminar flow glider wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Saiki, Neal

    1993-01-01

    A motor glider was used to perform a flight test study on the effects of aft facing steps in a laminar boundary layer. This study focuses on two dimensional aft facing steps oriented spanwise to the flow. The size and location of the aft facing steps were varied in order to determine the critical size that will force premature transition. Transition over a step was found to be primarily a function of Reynolds number based on step height. Both of the step height Reynolds numbers for premature and full transition were determined. A hot film anemometry system was used to detect transition.

  18. Analysis of one-step and two-step real-time RT-PCR using SuperScript III.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Michael J; Godard, Michael P

    2005-09-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a commonly used technique to analyze gene expression. There has been little research conducted to test if SuperScript III quantitative one-step (reverse transcription carried out in the same tube as PCR) and two-step (reverse transcription carried out in a separate reaction) RT-PCR systems provide similar real-time results. In this study, real-time reactions were set up using the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta2-microglobulin (B2M), and RNA polymerase 2 subunit A (PolR2A). Reaction efficiencies were determined by generating standard curves using total RNA isolated from human skeletal muscle and brain. Reaction efficiencies ranged from 97.7+/-0.9% to 99.4+/-1.8% for one-step and 98.0+/-0.2% to 102.6+/-1.3% for two-step RT-PCR (R2 values for all reactions>or=0.995). The sensitivities of one-step and two-step methods, as measured by cycle threshold values, were similar for GAPDH and B2M. However, for the lesser expressed PolR2A mRNA there was a 5 cycle lower threshold for one-step. In summary, both SuperScript III one-step and two-step methods yield reaction efficiencies close to 100% and produce similar, accurate, linear standard curves. However, using the one-step method with gene-specific priming may be more sensitive for quantification of certain genes such as PolR2A.

  19. Redirection of center-of-mass velocity during the step-to-step transition of human walking

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Peter G.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Simple dynamic walking models based on the inverted pendulum predict that the human body's center of mass (COM) moves along an arc during each step, with substantial work performed to redirect the COM velocity in the step-to-step transition between arcs. But humans do not keep the stance leg perfectly straight and need not redirect their COM velocity precisely as predicted. We therefore tested a pendulum-based model against a wide range of human walking data. We examined COM velocity and work data from normal human subjects (N=10) walking at 24 combinations of speed (0.75 to 2.0 m s–1) and step length. These were compared against model predictions for the angular redirection of COM velocity and the work performed on the COM during redirection. We found that the COM is redirected through angular changes increasing approximately linearly with step length (R2=0.68), with COM work increasing with the squared product of walking speed and step length (R2=0.82), roughly in accordance with a simple dynamic walking model. This model cannot, however, predict the duration of COM redirection, which we quantified with two empirical measures, one based on angular COM redirection and the other on work. Both indicate that the step-to-step transition begins before and ends after double support and lasts about twice as long – approximately 20–27% of a stride. Although a rigid leg model can predict trends in COM velocity and work, the non-rigid human leg performs the step-to-step transition over a duration considerably exceeding that of double support. PMID:19648412

  20. Toddler test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    With proper preparation prior to a test or procedure, a toddler's fear and anxiety may be reduced. Preparing a child for a test may include going through the steps of the procedure, explaining the body part ...

  1. Topographic ERP analyses: a step-by-step tutorial review.

    PubMed

    Murray, Micah M; Brunet, Denis; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-06-01

    In this tutorial review, we detail both the rationale for as well as the implementation of a set of analyses of surface-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) that uses the reference-free spatial (i.e. topographic) information available from high-density electrode montages to render statistical information concerning modulations in response strength, latency, and topography both between and within experimental conditions. In these and other ways these topographic analysis methods allow the experimenter to glean additional information and neurophysiologic interpretability beyond what is available from canonical waveform analyses. In this tutorial we present the example of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to stimulation of each hand to illustrate these points. For each step of these analyses, we provide the reader with both a conceptual and mathematical description of how the analysis is carried out, what it yields, and how to interpret its statistical outcome. We show that these topographic analysis methods are intuitive and easy-to-use approaches that can remove much of the guesswork often confronting ERP researchers and also assist in identifying the information contained within high-density ERP datasets.

  2. A Step by Step Protocol for Subretinal Surgery in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nawaiseh, Sami; Thieltges, Fabian; Liu, Zengping; Strack, Claudine; Brinken, Ralf; Braun, Norbert; Wolschendorf, Marc; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Eter, Nicole; Stanzel, Boris V.

    2016-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and other RPE related diseases are the most common causes for irreversible loss of vision in adults in industrially developed countries. RPE transplantation appears to be a promising therapy, as it may replace dysfunctional RPE, restore its function, and thereby vision. Here we describe a method for transplanting a cultured RPE monolayer on a scaffold into the subretinal space (SRS) of rabbits. After vitrectomy xenotransplants were delivered into the SRS using a custom made shooter consisting of a 20-gauge metallic nozzle with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plunger. The current technique evolved in over 150 rabbit surgeries over 6 years. Post-operative follow-up can be obtained using non-invasive and repetitive in vivo imaging such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) followed by perfusion-fixed histology. The method has well-defined steps for easy learning and high success rate. Rabbits are considered a large eye animal model useful in preclinical studies for clinical translation. In this context rabbits are a cost-efficient and perhaps convenient alternative to other large eye animal models. PMID:27684952

  3. A Step by Step Protocol for Subretinal Surgery in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawaiseh, Sami; Thieltges, Fabian; Liu, Zengping; Strack, Claudine; Brinken, Ralf; Braun, Norbert; Wolschendorf, Marc; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Eter, Nicole; Stanzel, Boris V

    2016-09-13

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and other RPE related diseases are the most common causes for irreversible loss of vision in adults in industrially developed countries. RPE transplantation appears to be a promising therapy, as it may replace dysfunctional RPE, restore its function, and thereby vision. Here we describe a method for transplanting a cultured RPE monolayer on a scaffold into the subretinal space (SRS) of rabbits. After vitrectomy xenotransplants were delivered into the SRS using a custom made shooter consisting of a 20-gauge metallic nozzle with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plunger. The current technique evolved in over 150 rabbit surgeries over 6 years. Post-operative follow-up can be obtained using non-invasive and repetitive in vivo imaging such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) followed by perfusion-fixed histology. The method has well-defined steps for easy learning and high success rate. Rabbits are considered a large eye animal model useful in preclinical studies for clinical translation. In this context rabbits are a cost-efficient and perhaps convenient alternative to other large eye animal models.

  4. A Step Towards CO2-Neutral Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Huber, Marcia L.

    2007-01-01

    An approximation method for evaluation of the caloric equations used in combustion chemistry simulations is described. The method is applied to generate the equations of specific heat, static enthalpy, and Gibb's free energy for fuel mixtures of interest to gas turbine engine manufacturers. Liquid-phase fuel properties are also derived. The fuels include JP-8, synthetic fuel, and two fuel blends consisting of a mixture of JP-8 and synthetic fuel. The complete set of fuel property equations for both phases are implemented into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver database, and multi-phase, reacting flow simulations of a well-tested liquid-fueled combustor are performed. The simulations are a first step in understanding combustion system performance and operational issues when using alternate fuels, at practical engine operating conditions.

  5. A Step Towards CO2-Neutral Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Huber, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    An approximation method for evaluation of the caloric equations used in combustion chemistry simulations is described. The method is applied to generate the equations of specific heat, static enthalpy, and Gibb's free energy for fuel mixtures of interest to gas turbine engine manufacturers. Liquid-phase fuel properties are also derived. The fuels investigated include JP-8, synthetic fuel, and two blends of JP-8 and synthetic fuel. The complete set of fuel property equations for both phases are implemented into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver database, and multiphase, reacting flow simulations of a well-tested liquid-fueled combustor are performed. The simulations are a first step in understanding combustion system performance and operational issues when using alternate fuels, at practical engine operating conditions.

  6. 46 CFR 163.003-21 - Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following approval tests must be conducted: (1) Step flexibility test. This test is performed on six....) wide. The center of the contact surface must be at the center of the step. This test is performed on... likewise not occur. (5) Step friction test. One step of each type used on a pilot ladder must be...

  7. 46 CFR 163.003-21 - Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following approval tests must be conducted: (1) Step flexibility test. This test is performed on six....) wide. The center of the contact surface must be at the center of the step. This test is performed on... likewise not occur. (5) Step friction test. One step of each type used on a pilot ladder must be...

  8. Accuracy of StepWatch™ and ActiGraph Accelerometers for Measuring Steps Taken among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Ensari, Ipek; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Klaren, Rachel E.; Balantrapu, Swathi; Riskin, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been increased interest in the objective monitoring of free-living walking behavior using accelerometers in clinical research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current investigation examined and compared the accuracy of the StepWatch activity monitor and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer for capturing steps taken during various speeds of prolonged, over-ground ambulation in persons with MS who had mild, moderate, and severe disability. Methods Sixty-three persons with MS underwent a neurological examination for generation of an EDSS score and undertook two trials of walking on the GAITRite electronic walkway. Participants were fitted with accelerometers, and undertook three modified six-minute walk (6MW) tests that were interspersed with 10–15 minutes of rest. The first 6MW was undertaken at a comfortable walking speed (CWS), and the two remaining 6MW tests were undertaken above (faster walking speed; FWS) or below (slower walking speed; SWS) the participant's CWS. The actual number of steps taken was counted through direct observation using hand-tally counters. Results The StepWatch activity monitor (99.8%–99.9%) and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer (95.6%–97.4%) both demonstrated highly accurate measurement of steps taken under CWS and FWS conditions. The StepWatch had better accuracy (99.0%) than the ActiGraph (95.5%) in the overall sample under the SWS condition, and this was particularly apparent in those with severe disability (StepWatch: 95.7%; ActiGraph: 87.3%). The inaccuracy in measurement for the ActiGraph was associated with alterations of gait (e.g., slower gait velocity, shorter step length, wider base of support). Conclusions This research will help inform the choice of accelerometer to be adopted in clinical trials of MS wherein the monitoring of free-living walking behavior is of particular value. PMID:24714028

  9. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW) as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW) to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2) over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001) such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84). Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking. PMID:22380843

  10. Stepping before standing: hip muscle function in stepping and standing balance after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kirker, S; Simpson, D; Jenner, J; Wing, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the pattern of pelvic girdle muscle activation in normal subjects and hemiparetic patients while stepping and maintaining standing balance.
DESIGN—Group comparison.
METHOD—Seventeen patients who had regained the ability to walk after a single hemiparetic stroke were studied together with 16 normal controls. Median interval between stroke and testing was 17 months. Amplitude and onset latency of surface EMG activity in hip abductors and adductors were recorded in response to sideways pushes in either direction while standing. Similar recordings were made in the same subjects during gait initiation and a single stride.
RESULTS—In the standing balance task, normal subjects resisted a sideways push to the left with the left gluteus medius (74 ms) and with the right adductor (111 ms), and vice versa. In hemiparetic patients, the amplitude of activity was reduced in the hemiparetic muscles, the onset latencies of which were delayed (gluteus medius 96 ms, adductor 144 ms). Contralateral, non-paretic, adductor activity was increased after a push towards the hemiparetic side of patients with stroke and the latency was normal (110 ms). During self initiated sideways weight shifts at gait initiation, hemiplegic muscle activation was impaired. By contrast, the pattern and peak amplitude of hip muscle activation in stepping was normal in both hemiparetic and non-hemiparetic muscles of the subjects with stroke.
CONCLUSIONS—In ambulant patients with stroke, a normal pattern of activation of hemiparetic muscles is seen in stepping whereas the response of these muscles to a perturbation while standing remains grossly impaired and is compensated by increased activity of the contralateral muscles. This suggests that hemiparetic patients should be able to step before regaining standing balance.

 PMID:10727481

  11. Stepping Up to Science and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, Dee

    2004-01-01

    "Stepping Up to Science and Math" invites teachers to step back and rethink the way they teach both of these essential subjects. Then it illustrates how teachers can step up the pace with Standards-based activities that make learning more effective and efficient. (New lessons featuring gummy worms, school buses, or the planet Mars help teachers…

  12. STEPS: Moving from Welfare to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Ann; Cummings, Merrilyn; Kratzer, Connie; Galindo, Vickie

    Cooperative extension service faculty at New Mexico State University started the Steps to Employment and Personal Success (STEPS) program to help Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) clients qualify for and maintain full-time employment and strengthen their families for long-term success. Clients are referred to STEPS by New Mexico…

  13. CAD for 4-step braided fabric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.; Hahn, H.T.

    1994-12-31

    A general framework is provided to predict thermoelastic properties of three dimensional 4-step braided fabric composites. Three key steps involved are (1) the development of a CAD model for yarn architecture, (2) the extraction of a unit cell (3) the prediction of the thermoelastic properties based on micromechanics. Main features of each step are summarized and experimental correlations are provided in the paper.

  14. 7 CFR 60.122 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 60.122 Section 60.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.122 Production step. Production step...

  15. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  16. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means,...

  17. The Complexity of One-Step Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  18. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  19. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15... EAR by listing logical steps in § 732.2 through § 732.5 of this part that you can take in...

  20. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15... EAR by listing logical steps in § 732.2 through § 732.5 of this part that you can take in...

  1. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15... EAR by listing logical steps in § 732.2 through § 732.5 of this part that you can take in...

  2. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15... EAR by listing logical steps in § 732.2 through § 732.5 of this part that you can take in...

  3. 15 CFR 732.1 - Steps overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS STEPS FOR USING THE EAR § 732.1 Steps overview. (a)(1) Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15... EAR by listing logical steps in § 732.2 through § 732.5 of this part that you can take in...

  4. Gradiometry coexperiments to the gravity probe B and step missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, M.; Breakwell, J.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Vanpatten, R.; Worden, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B (GP-B) spacecraft, designed to test predictions of general relativity, will fly in the mid 1990s. It will carry four electrostatically suspended gyroscopes in a cryogenic environment and will have a drag-free control system to minimize disturbances on the gyroscopes. The Stanford Test of Equivalence Principle (STEP) spacecraft, to fly later, will carry a set of test masses under very similar conditions. The possibility of using differential measurements of the GP-B gyroscopes suspension forces and the STEP tests mass displacement readout to form single-axis gravity gradiometers is explored. It is shown that the noise in the suspension systems is sufficiently small in the relevant frequency range, and that enough information is collected to compensate for the spacecrafts' attitude motion. Finally, using Breakwell's flat-earth approximation, these experiments are compared to other geodesy experiments and predict the contribution they can make to the knowledge of the Earth's geopotential.

  5. STEP Tether Dynamics Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaese, John R.

    2000-01-01

    The General Tethered Object Simulation System (GTOSS) has been successfully converted to the PC environment. GTOSS has been run under Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and NT4.0 with no problems noted. Adaptation to the PC environment and definition of the 3 three body configuration required resizing some of the GTOSS internal data arrays. To allow studies of the tether dynamics accompanying electrodynamic thrust, a tether current flow model has also been developed for GTOSS. This model includes effects due to the earth's magnetic field and ionosphere, tether conductivity, temperature, motion, shape and available power. Sample cases have been defined for a proposed STEP-AIRSEDS (Space Transfer using Electrodynamic Propulsion-The Michigan Technic Corporation proposed tether missions for commercial applications) three body configuration. This required definition of a 6th power scenario for GTOSS. This power scenario allows a user to specify whether orbit raising or orbit lowering is to be performed by selecting the number of the tether. Orbit raising and orbit lowering sample cases have been run successfully. Results from these runs have been included in this report. Results have only been generated so far for a three body configuration. Only point end masses have been represented. No attitude dynamics have been included. Initial results suggest that tether current can have significant and detrimental effects on tether dynamics and provisions will have to be made for control of it. This control will have to be considered in connection with desired target orbits for electrodynamic thrusting, as well as end body attitude control, momentum management of proposed control moment gyros, solar array pointing. All of these items will interact and thus, any system simulation will have to have each of these effects modeled in sufficient detail to display these interactions.

  6. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N3893

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data for the purpose of evaluating the effect of power/temperature step stress on the diode JANTX1N3893 manufactured by Siemens and Motorola is presented. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer were submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  7. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  8. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  9. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

  10. Directivity pattern of the sound radiated from axisymmetric stepped plates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiping; Yan, Xiuli; Li, Na

    2016-08-01

    For the purpose of optimal design and efficient utilization of the kind of stepped plate radiator in air, in this contribution, an approach for calculation of the directivity pattern of the sound radiated from a stepped plate in flexural vibration with a free edge is developed based on Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis and Rayleigh integral principle. Experimental tests of directivity pattern for a fabricated flat plate and two fabricated plates with one and two step radiators were carried out. It shows that the configuration of the measured directivity patterns by the proposed analytic approach is similar to those of the calculated approach. Comparison of the agreement between the calculated directivity pattern of a stepped plate and its corresponding theoretical piston show that the former radiator is equivalent to the latter, and the diffraction field generated by the unbaffled upper surface may be small. It also shows that the directivity pattern of a stepped radiator is independent of the metallic material but dependent on the thickness of base plate and resonant frequency. The thicker the thickness of base plate, the more directive the radiation is. The proposed analytic approach in this work may be adopted for any other plates with multi-steps.

  11. Two-Step Camera Calibration Method Developed for Micro UAV'S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and continuous price reduction of unmanned systems attracted us to this research. Professional measuring systems are dozens of times more expensive and often heavier than "amateur", non-metric UAVs. For this reason, we tested the DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus UAV. Phantom's smaller mass and velocity can develop less kinetic energy in relation to the professional measurement platforms, which makes it potentially less dangerous for use in populated areas. In this research, we wanted to investigate the ability of such non-metric UAV and find the procedures under which this kind of UAV may be used for the photogrammetric survey. It is important to emphasize that UAV is equipped with an ultra wide-angle camera with 14MP sensor. Calibration of such cameras is a complex process. In the research, a new two-step process is presented and developed, and the results are compared with standard one-step camera calibration procedure. Two-step process involves initially removed distortion on all images, and then uses these images in the phototriangulation with self-calibration. The paper presents statistical indicators which proved that the proposed two-step process is better and more accurate procedure for calibrating those types of cameras than standard one-step calibration. Also, we suggest two-step calibration process as the standard for ultra-wideangle cameras for unmanned aircraft.

  12. Postural instability in Parkinson Disease: to step or not to step.

    PubMed

    Kimmell, Kristopher; Pulusu, Vinay K; Bharucha, Kersi J; Ross, Elliott D

    2015-10-15

    Postural instability is a key feature of Parkinson Disease that is associated with falls and morbidity. We designed a pull apparatus to quantitatively measure the force needed to pull subjects off-balance. Thirteen Controls and eight individuals with Parkinson Disease (PD) were evaluated. All individuals with PD reported subjective symptoms of postural instability and were symptomatic for approximately 9.4years when tested. No significant differences were found between Controls and PD subjects in the magnitude of force required to pull them off-balance. None of the Controls fell and all took a step into the direction of pull to maintain their balance. 59% of the time PD subjects fell because they did not take a step in the direction of pull to maintain their center of mass (COM) over their feet, thus indicating a deficiency in postural reflexes. If they fell on the first pull, PD subjects did not show a learning effect when pulled multiple times in the same direction. The utility of the Pull Test to detect postural instability is related to the subject's behavioral response, not the force needed to pull them off balance. Our findings may also help explain certain features of the PD gait as an attempt by subjects to avoid postural instability by not placing their COM in gravitationally unstable positions.

  13. Maximum Step Length: Relationships to Age and Knee and Hip Extensor Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Brian W.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2007-01-01

    Background Maximum Step Length may be used to identify older adults at increased risk for falls. Since leg muscle weakness is a risk factor for falls, we tested the hypotheses that maximum knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities would significantly correlate with Maximum Step Length and that the original “step out and back” Maximum Step Length would also correlate with the Maximum Step Length of its two sub-tasks: stepping “out only” and stepping “back only”. These sub-tasks will be referred to as versions of Maximum Step Length. Methods Unimpaired younger (N=11, age=24[3] years) and older (N=10, age=73[5] years) women performed the above three versions of Maximum Step Length. Knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities were determined on a separate day and regressed on Maximum Step Length and age group. Version and practice effects were quantified and subjective impressions of test difficulty recorded. Hypotheses were tested using linear regressions, analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test. Findings Maximum Step Length explained 6-22% additional variance in knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities after controlling for age group. Within- and between-block and test-retest correlation values were high (>0.9) for all test versions. Interpretation Shorter Maximum Step Lengths are associated with reduced knee and hip extension speed, strength, and power capacities after controlling for age. A single out-and-back step of maximal length is a feasible, rapid screening measure that may provide insight into underlying functional impairment, regardless of age. PMID:17434245

  14. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    PubMed

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain.

  15. Short‐term time step convergence in a climate model

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark A.; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper evaluates the numerical convergence of very short (1 h) simulations carried out with a spectral‐element (SE) configuration of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). While the horizontal grid spacing is fixed at approximately 110 km, the process‐coupling time step is varied between 1800 and 1 s to reveal the convergence rate with respect to the temporal resolution. Special attention is paid to the behavior of the parameterized subgrid‐scale physics. First, a dynamical core test with reduced dynamics time steps is presented. The results demonstrate that the experimental setup is able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the discrete solutions to the adiabatic equations of atmospheric motion. Second, results from full‐physics CAM5 simulations with reduced physics and dynamics time steps are discussed. It is shown that the convergence rate is 0.4—considerably slower than the expected rate of 1.0. Sensitivity experiments indicate that, among the various subgrid‐scale physical parameterizations, the stratiform cloud schemes are associated with the largest time‐stepping errors, and are the primary cause of slow time step convergence. While the details of our findings are model specific, the general test procedure is applicable to any atmospheric general circulation model. The need for more accurate numerical treatments of physical parameterizations, especially the representation of stratiform clouds, is likely common in many models. The suggested test technique can help quantify the time‐stepping errors and identify the related model sensitivities. PMID:27660669

  16. Stabilization of a three-dimensional limit cycle walking model through step-to-step ankle control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myunghee; Collins, Steven H

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral, below-knee amputation is associated with an increased risk of falls, which may be partially related to a loss of active ankle control. If ankle control can contribute significantly to maintaining balance, even in the presence of active foot placement, this might provide an opportunity to improve balance using robotic ankle-foot prostheses. We investigated ankle- and hip-based walking stabilization methods in a three-dimensional model of human gait that included ankle plantarflexion, ankle inversion-eversion, hip flexion-extension, and hip ad/abduction. We generated discrete feedback control laws (linear quadratic regulators) that altered nominal actuation parameters once per step. We used ankle push-off, lateral ankle stiffness and damping, fore-aft foot placement, lateral foot placement, or all of these as control inputs. We modeled environmental disturbances as random, bounded, unexpected changes in floor height, and defined balance performance as the maximum allowable disturbance value for which the model walked 500 steps without falling. Nominal walking motions were unstable, but were stabilized by all of the step-to-step control laws we tested. Surprisingly, step-by-step modulation of ankle push-off alone led to better balance performance (3.2% leg length) than lateral foot placement (1.2% leg length) for these control laws. These results suggest that appropriate control of robotic ankle-foot prosthesis push-off could make balancing during walking easier for individuals with amputation.

  17. Step-stress analysis for predicting dental ceramic reliability

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Bona, Álvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that step-stress analysis is effective to predict the reliability of an alumina-based dental ceramic (VITA In-Ceram AL blocks) subjected to a mechanical aging test. Methods Bar-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated, polished to 1µm finish and divided into 3 groups (n=10): (1) step-stress accelerating test; (2) flexural strength- control; (3) flexural strength- mechanical aging. Specimens from group 1 were tested in an electromagnetic actuator (MTS Evolution) using a three-point flexure fixture (frequency: 2Hz; R=0.1) in 37°C water bath. Each specimen was subjected to an individual stress profile, and the number of cycles to failure was recorded. A cumulative damage model with an inverse power law lifetime-stress relation and Weibull lifetime distribution were used to fit the fatigue data. The data were used to predict the stress level and number of cycles for mechanical aging (group 3). Groups 2 and 3 were tested for three-point flexural strength (σ) in a universal testing machine with 1.0 s in 37°C water. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test. Results Step-stress data analysis showed that the profile most likely to weaken the specimens without causing fracture during aging (95% CI: 0–14% failures) was: 80 MPa stress amplitude and 105 cycles. The median σ values (MPa) for groups 2 (493±54) and 3 (423±103) were statistically different (p=0.009). Significance The aging profile determined by step-stress analysis was effective to reduce alumina ceramic strength as predicted by the reliability estimate, confirming the study hypothesis. PMID:23827018

  18. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare or change ...

  19. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  20. A step-height standard for surface profiler calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, M.X.O.; Furenlid, K.; Church, E.L.

    1993-09-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of an all-silicon test pattern that is very useful for assessing the performance of all types of profiling instruments. We present examples of results obtained from applying this method to various kinds of profiling instruments, including a WYKO TOPO 3D system, Microamp Promap 512 profilers, a ZYGO Maxim 3-D system, and scanning probe AFM systems. We also present the results from a measurement of the BRDF of the step with a TMA CASI scatterometer to show the utility of the step as a potential calibration standard for scattered light measuring instruments.

  1. Access 5 - Step 1: Human Systems Integration Program Plan (HSIPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the Human System Interface (HSI) analysis, design and test activities that will be performed to support the development of requirements and design guidelines to facilitate the incorporation of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) at or above FL400 in the National Airspace System (NAS). These activities are required to support the design and development of safe, effective and reliable ROA operator and ATC interfaces. This plan focuses on the activities to be completed for Step 1 of the ACCESS 5 program. Updates to this document will be made for each of the four ACCESS 5 program steps.

  2. The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger, Matthias; Wehner, Rüdiger; Wolf, Harald

    2006-06-30

    Desert ants, Cataglyphis, navigate in their vast desert habitat by path integration. They continuously integrate directions steered (as determined by their celestial compass) and distances traveled, gauged by as-yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that navigating ants measure distances traveled by using some kind of step integrator, or "step counter." We manipulated the lengths of the legs and, hence, the stride lengths, in freely walking ants. Animals with elongated ("stilts") or shortened legs ("stumps") take larger or shorter strides, respectively, and concomitantly misgauge travel distance. Travel distance is overestimated by experimental animals walking on stilts and underestimated by animals walking on stumps.

  3. Convergence of step-by-step methods for non-linear integro-differential equations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocarsky, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    The theory of consistent step-by-step methods for solving Volterra integral equations is extended to nonsingular Volterra integro-differential equations. It is shown that standard step-by-step algorithms for these more general equations are convergent. Several numerical examples are included.

  4. A Step-by-Step Teaching Technique for Teachers with Adult Students of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Step-by-step teaching is a researcher-designed innovative process that takes the adult learner, step-by-step, from his present level of understanding to the required level. The technique is based on well-researched and accepted pedagogical practices set in their psychological, sociological, and andragogical perspectives. Using a convenience sample…

  5. A step-by-step regressed pediatric kidney depth formula validated by a reasonable index

    PubMed Central

    Hongwei, Si; Yingmao, Chen; Li, Li; Guangyu, Ma; Liuhai, Shen; Zhifang, Wu; Mingzhe, Shao; Sijin, Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In predicting pediatric kidney depth, we are especially interested in that the errors of most estimates are within a narrow range. Therefore, this study was intended to use the proportion of estimates within a range of −5 to 5 mm (P5 mm) to evaluate the formulas and tried to regress a kidney depth formula for children. The enrolled children aged from 1 to 19 years were randomly sampled into group A and group B (75% and 25% of all recruits, respectively). Using data of the group A, the test formula was regressed by nonlinear regression and subsequently Passing & Bablok regression, and validated in group B. The Raynaud, Gordon, Tonnesen, Taylor, and the test formulas were evaluated in the 2 groups. Accuracy was evaluated by bias, absolute bias, and P5 mm; and precision was evaluated by correlation coefficient. In addition, root-mean square error was used as a mixed index for both accuracy and precision. Body weight, height, and age did not have significant differences between the 2 groups. In the nonlinear regression, coefficients of the formula (kidney depth = a × weight/height + b × age) from group A were in narrower 95% confidence intervals. After the Passing & Bablok regression, biases of left and right kidney estimates were significantly decreased. In the evaluation of formulas, the test formula was obviously better than other formulas mentioned above, and P5 mm for left and right kidneys was about 60%. Among children younger than 10 years, P5 mm was even more than 70% for left and right kidney depths. To predict pediatric kidney depth, accuracy and precision of a step-by-step regressed formula were better than the 4 “standard” formulas. PMID:28353617

  6. Elastic cost of silicon step rebonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, F.; Garreau, Y.; Cheynis, F.; Croset, B.; Coati, A.; Müller, P.; Prévot, G.

    2016-01-01

    We study by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction the strain field induced by periodic double steps on a Si(1 1 15) surface that is a vicinal of a Si(001) surface misoriented by 5 .4∘ towards the <110 > direction. The best fit of the experimental structure factors is reached on the basis of the rebonded DB step edge model and the displacement field is well characterized assuming that steps are described by parallel rows of extended buried elastic dipoles. The dipole characteristics are the dipole position with respect to the step edge, the dipole amplitude (2.0 ±0.5 nN), and the lever arm Ω =5 .3∘ and force Φ =3 .7∘ orientations. We show that the dipole is dominated by a large stretch component localized between the lower and the upper corners of the step, which we assign to the presence of the rebonded atom at the step.

  7. Sage Simulation Model for Technology Demonstration Convertor by a Step-by-Step Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demko, Rikako; Penswick, L. Barry

    2006-01-01

    The development of a Stirling model using the 1-D Saga design code was completed using a step-by-step approach. This is a method of gradually increasing the complexity of the Saga model while observing the energy balance and energy losses at each step of the development. This step-by-step model development and energy-flow analysis can clarify where the losses occur, their impact, and suggest possible opportunities for design improvement.

  8. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    DOEpatents

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  9. The Hydroacoustics of Beveled Steps and Gaps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    to measure and predict the sound radiation from steps and gaps on large pales excited by turbulent boundary layers. Results are given showing the...the last few years there have been some enlightening experimental and numerical studies on the sound radiated by turbulent flow over steps and gaps...used to predict the sound radiated from steps and gaps at full scale. The purpose of this study was to develop these scaling laws by combining the

  10. Stepping community detection algorithm based on label propagation and similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Ce; Wang, Miao; Chen, Xi

    2017-04-01

    Community or module structure is one of the most common features in complex networks. The label propagation algorithm (LPA) is a near linear time algorithm that is able to detect community structure effectively. Nevertheless, when labeling a node, the LPA adopts the label belonging to the majority of its neighbors, which means that it treats all neighbors equally in spite of their different effects on the node. Another disadvantage of LPA is that the results it generates are not unique. In this paper, we propose a modified LPA called Stepping LPA-S, in which labels are propagated by similarity. Furthermore, our algorithm divides networks using a stepping framework, and uses an evaluation function proposed in this paper to select the final unique partition. We tested this algorithm on several artificial and real-world networks. The results show that Stepping LPA-S can obtain accurate and meaningful community structure without priori information.

  11. Modified pendulum model for mean step length estimation.

    PubMed

    González, Rafael C; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio M; Alvarez, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    Step length estimation is an important issue in areas such as gait analysis, sport training or pedestrian localization. It has been shown that the mean step length can be computed by means of a triaxial accelerometer placed near the center of gravity of the human body. Estimations based on the inverted pendulum model are prone to underestimate the step length, and must be corrected by calibration. In this paper we present a modified pendulum model in which all the parameters correspond to anthropometric data of the individual. The method has been tested with a set of volunteers, both males and females. Experimental results show that this method provides an unbiased estimation of the actual displacement with a standard deviation lower than 2.1%.

  12. Stilt walking: how do we learn those first steps?

    PubMed

    Akram, Sakineh B; Frank, James S

    2009-09-01

    This study examined how young healthy adults learn stilt walking. Ten healthy male university students attended two sessions of testing held on two consecutive days. In each session participants performed three blocks of 10 stilt-walking trials. Angular movements of head and trunk and the spatial and temporal gait parameters were recorded. When walking on stilts young adults improved their gait velocity through modifications of step parameters while maintaining trunk movements close to that observed during normal over-ground walking. Participants improved their performance by increasing their step frequency and step length and reducing the double support percentage of the gait cycle. Stilts are often used for drywall installation, painting over-the-head areas and raising workers above the ground without the burden of erecting scaffolding. This research examines the locomotor adaptation as young healthy adults learn the complex motor task of stilt walking; a task that is frequently used in the construction industry.

  13. [The six steps necessary in elaborating critically appraised topics].

    PubMed

    García Villar, C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of critically appraised topics (CATs) can be elaborated in diagnostic imaging: comparison of diagnostic tests, evaluation of techniques for early detection (screening), economical analyses, or therapeutic aspects, among others. Their design will vary in function of the question they aim to answer. For example, for treatment evaluation, clinical trials are the best, but if there are secondary studies (systematic reviews or meta-analyses) that synthesize information from several studies, the results will be more important and the scientific conclusions will be more relevant. Regardless of the study design used, the elaboration of a CAT will involve six steps: 1) question; 2) systematic and efficient bibliographic search; 3) levels of evidence (choosing the articles that have the best level); 4) critical reading of the articles chosen; 5) applying conclusions to the context, and 6) recommendations. In this article, we will describe these steps and the nuances for different types of studies in each step.

  14. A vibrators alternation stepping ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiamei; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2006-12-22

    A new concept of a vibrators alternation stepping ultrasonic motor, based on longitudinal vibrations of rectangular Langevin resonators, is presented. The new motor fed by a single-phase resource without feedback is capable of bi-directions step displacements without accumulative displacement error. The step angle is 1.44 degrees, when the 150 grooves on the rotor are used in positioning. The average rotation speed without load in one step is 16.49-14.65 rad/s, and the braking torque is 0.071-0.088 Nm in operating frequency 30 kHz and operation voltage 200 V.

  15. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  16. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N2970b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data for the purpose of evaluating the effect of power/temperature step stress was studied when applied to the zener diode JANTX1N2970B manufactured by Siemens and General Semiconductor, Inc. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing. The tests for determining power/temperature stresses are described, and test results are discussed. Failure analyses for power stress, and temperature stress are presented.

  17. Time to pause before the next step

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy`s development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ``demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...`` which are the important ingredients of ITER`s objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here.

  18. Space Drive Physics: Introduction and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, M. G.

    Research toward the visionary goal of propellantless ``space drives'' is introduced, covering key physics issues and a listing of roughly 2-dozen approaches. The targeted advantage of a space drive is to circumvent the propellant constraints of rockets and the maneuvering limits of light sails by using the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space for propulsion. At present, the scientific foundations from which to engineer a space drive have not been discovered and, objectively, might be impossible. Although no propulsion breakthroughs appear imminent, the subject has matured to where the relevant questions have been broached and are beginning to be answered. The critical make-break issues include; conservation of momentum, uncertain sources of reaction mass, and the net-external thrusting requirement. Note: space drives are not necessarily faster- than-light devices. Speed limits are a separate, unanswered issue. Relevant unsolved physics includes; the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, coupling of gravitation and electromagnetism, and the nature of the quantum vacuum. The propulsion approaches span mostly stages 1 through 3 of the scientific method (defining the problem, collecting data, and articulating hypotheses), while some have matured to stage 4 (testing hypotheses). Nonviable approaches include `stiction drives,' `gyroscopic antigravity,' and `lifters.' No attempt is made to gauge the prospects of the remaining approaches. Instead, a list of next-step research questions is derived from the examination of these goals, unknowns, and concepts.

  19. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  20. Magnetically suspended stepping motors for clean room and vacuum environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1994-01-01

    To answer the growing needs for super-clean or contact free actuators for uses in clean rooms, vacuum chambers, and space, innovative actuators which combine the functions of stepping motors and magnetic bearings in one body were developed. The rotor of the magnetically suspended stepping motor is suspended like a magnetic bearing and rotated and positioned like a stepping motor. The important trait of the motor is that it is not a simple mixture or combination of a stepping motor and conventional magnetic bearing, but an amalgam of a stepping motor and a magnetic bearing. Owing to optimal design and feed-back control, a toothed stator and rotor are all that are needed structurewise for stable suspension. More than ten types of motors such as linear type, high accuracy rotary type, two-dimensional type, and high vacuum type were built and tested. This paper describes the structure and design of these motors and their performance for such applications as precise positioning rotary table, linear conveyor system, and theta-zeta positioner for clean room and high vacuum use.

  1. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  2. Electron Diffraction from Surfaces with Atomic Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lent, Craig Stanley

    The presence of atomic steps on solid surfaces is important in catalysis, crystal growth and dissolution processes. Because of the decreased coordination of atoms at step edges, these sites are frequently more reactive than others. Knowledge of the step distribution on the surface is required in order to adequately incorporate the effects of steps in models of physical processes. We examine the sensitivity of electron diffraction, particularly Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), to the atomic step distribution on the surface. The RHEED instrument response length is considerably larger than other diffraction instruments, making it particularly suited for studying surface steps. Several calculations are presented to assess the effect of various step distributions on the intensity profiles of diffracted beams at various angles of incidence. The geometric distribution of steps corresponds to the limit of no interactions between step edges. A Markov matrix method of calculating the diffracted intensity from a geometric distribution of surface steps is presented. This reduces the calculation to a simple eigenvalue problem. The diffracted intensity profile is the sum of a sharp central spike, corresponding to the instrument response function, and several Lorenztians, whose widths are related to the eigenvalues of the matrix describing the distribution. The Markov approach also leads to the important distinction between reversible and irreversible step distributions. More general calculations, valid for any step distribution reveal that the separation into a central spike and step-broadened terms is retained. The shapes of the broad terms depend on the details of the distribution. The relative contributions of the step-broadened parts and the central spike vary as incident angle is changed and depend on the surface coverage. RHEED beam profiles have been measured from surfaces prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Submonolayer amounts of GaAs and AlAs were

  3. A Step Response Based Mixed-Signal BIST Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Alvernon

    2001-01-01

    A new Mixed-Signal Built-in Self-test approach that is based upon the step response of a reconfigurable (or multifunction) analog block is presented in this paper. The technique requires the overlapping step response of the Circuit Under Test (CUT) for two circuit configurations. Each configuration can be realized by changing the topology of the CUT or by sampling two CUT nodes with differing step responses. The technique can effectively detect both soft and hard faults and does not require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and/or digital-to-analog converter( DAC). It also does not require any precision voltage sources or comparators. The approach does not require any additional analog circuits to realize the test signal generator and a two input analog multiplexer for CUT test node sampling. The paper is concluded with the application of the proposed approach to a circuit found in the work of Epstein et a1 and two ITC 97 analog benchmark circuits.

  4. A New Hybrid STEP/Coulomb model for Aftershock Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steacy, S.; Jimenez, A.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aftershock forecasting models tend to fall into two classes - purely statistical approaches based on clustering, b-value, and the Omori-Utsu law; and Coulomb rate-state models which relate the forecast increase in rate to the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change. Recently, hybrid models combining physical and statistical forecasts have begun to be developed, for example by Bach and Hainzl (2012) and Steacy et al. (2013). The latter approach combined Coulomb stress patterns with the STEP (short-term earthquake probability) model by redistributing expected rate from areas with decreased stress to regions where the stress had increased. The chosen 'Coulomb Redistribution Parameter' (CRP) was 0.93, based on California earthquakes, which meant that 93% of the total rate was expected to occur where the stress had increased. The model was tested against the Canterbury sequence and the main result was that the new model performed at least as well as, and often better than, STEP when tested against retrospective data but that STEP was generally better in pseudo-prospective tests that involved data actually available within the first 10 days of each event of interest. The authors suggested that the major reason for this discrepancy was uncertainty in the slip models and, particularly, in the geometries of the faults involved in each complex major event. Here we develop a variant of the STEP/Coulomb model in which the CRP varies based on the percentage of aftershocks that occur in the positively stressed areas during the forecast learning period. We find that this variant significantly outperforms both STEP and the previous hybrid model in almost all cases, even when the input Coulomb model is quite poor. Our results suggest that this approach might be more useful than Coulomb rate-state when the underlying slip model is not well constrained due to the dependence of that method on the magnitude of the Coulomb stress change.

  5. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  6. Adaptive time steps in trajectory surface hopping simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spörkel, Lasse; Thiel, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Trajectory surface hopping (TSH) simulations are often performed in combination with active-space multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) treatments. Technical problems may arise in such simulations if active and inactive orbitals strongly mix and switch in some particular regions. We propose to use adaptive time steps when such regions are encountered in TSH simulations. For this purpose, we present a computational protocol that is easy to implement and increases the computational effort only in the critical regions. We test this procedure through TSH simulations of a GFP chromophore model (OHBI) and a light-driven rotary molecular motor (F-NAIBP) on semiempirical MRCI potential energy surfaces, by comparing the results from simulations with adaptive time steps to analogous ones with constant time steps. For both test molecules, the number of successful trajectories without technical failures rises significantly, from 53% to 95% for OHBI and from 25% to 96% for F-NAIBP. The computed excited-state lifetime remains essentially the same for OHBI and increases somewhat for F-NAIBP, and there is almost no change in the computed quantum efficiency for internal rotation in F-NAIBP. We recommend the general use of adaptive time steps in TSH simulations with active-space CI methods because this will help to avoid technical problems, increase the overall efficiency and robustness of the simulations, and allow for a more complete sampling.

  7. Stepped chute training wall height requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped chutes are commonly used for overtopping protection for embankment dams. Aerated flow is commonly associated with stepped chutes if the chute has sufficient length. The aeration and turbulence of the flow can create a significant amount of splash over the training wall if not appropriately...

  8. Stepped-Pin Clevis Resists Jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Pin modification allows pyrotechnic release devices to operate more smoothly. New clevis pin has stepped diameters to prevent bending as it exits yoke. In contrast, conventional unstepped clevis pin bends and jams as it is withdrawn. Stepped pin design suitable for explosive and possible hammer driven pin sullers.

  9. Inception point for embankment dam stepped spillways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams have become a common design practice with the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those experiencing a hazard classification change from low to high hazard. Previous research on stepped spillways focused on gravity dams where aerated flow ...

  10. Twelve Steps to a Winning First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers 12 steps to jumpstart a new school librarian's career. Being the information specialist will be both challenging and rewarding as one undertakes a myriad of activities. These 12 steps will help a new school librarian's first year successful.

  11. Student USMLE Step One Preparation and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chi

    This study investigated factors associated with medical students performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step One examination. The USMLE Step One emphasizes basic mechanisms and principles that are typically covered in the first 2 years of medical school. The study examined the relationship among student performance…

  12. Teachers: Recognize Important Steps to Reduce Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Teachers must walk the steps and live the steps if reducing cheating is going to occur. Teachers begin this process by being cognizant and vigilant relative to administering means of measurement and assigning written work. This process includes skill acquisition in regards to: (1) acknowledging cheating, (2) purposeful planning, (3) electronic…

  13. Smoothing out step changes of LMP

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangxing

    2008-08-15

    The locational marginal pricing methodology may lead to a step change when system load grows, creating higher financial risk, especially for small and medium-sized market participants. A proposed continuous LMP method is a straightforward solution to eliminate these step changes when load grows. (author)

  14. Steps in Performing a Communication Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; And Others

    This paper develops the step-by-step processes necessary to conduct a communication audit in order to determine the communication effectiveness of an organization. The authors stress the responsibilities of both the audit team and the organization's top management as they interact during progressive phases of the audit. Emphasis is placed on…

  15. Test Reviewing at the Buros Center for Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    The test review process used by the Buros Center for Testing is described as a series of 11 steps: (1) identifying tests to be reviewed, (2) obtaining tests and preparing test descriptions, (3) determining whether tests meet review criteria, (4) identifying appropriate reviewers, (5) selecting reviewers, (6) sending instructions and materials to…

  16. Ice cube test in children with cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Visitsuntorn, N; Tuchinda, M; Arunyanark, N; Kerdsomnuk, S

    1992-12-01

    The ice cube test performed in 24 children (6 cold urticaria, 6 healthy, 6 allergic and 6 chronic urticaria) showed that a 3 and 5-minute ice cube test was the appropriate time for the diagnosis of cold urticaria without false positive results. If the test was prolonged to 10 and 20 minutes, 17% and 33% respectively showed false positive results in chronic urticaria other than cold urticaria patients. After four weeks of cyproheptadine therapy, the ice cube test showed only 17% positive at 3 minutes and 33% at 5 minutes. When the ice cube test was performed for 10 and 20 minutes, 67% showed positive results. In conclusion, the ice cube test should be performed for 3 to 5 minutes to diagnose cold urticaria in children. The time should be increased to 10 or 20 minutes if the test shows negative results at 3 to 5 minutes after antihistamine therapy.

  17. Online mutability of step direction during rapid stepping reactions evoked by postural perturbation.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Bryan P; McIlroy, William E; Maki, Brian E

    2004-03-01

    Stepping reactions are often triggered rapidly in response to loss of balance. It has been unclear whether spatial step parameters are defined at time of step-initiation or whether they can be modulated online, during step execution, in response to sensory feedback about the evolving state of instability. This study explored the capacity to actively alter step direction subsequent to step initiation in six healthy young-adult subjects. To elicit forward-step reactions, subjects were released suddenly from a tethered forward lean. A second perturbation (medio-lateral support-surface translation) was applied at lags of 0-200 ms. Active reaction to the second perturbation was determined primarily through analysis of swing-leg hip-abductor activation. In addition, to gauge the biomechanical consequence of the changes in muscle activation, we compared the measured medio-lateral swing-foot displacement to that predicted by a simple passive mechanical model. Perturbations at 0-100 ms lag evoked active medio-lateral swing-foot deviation, allowing balance to be recovered with a single step. However, when the second perturbation occurred near foot-off (200-ms lag), there was no evidence of active alteration of step direction and subjects typically required additional steps to recover balance. The results suggest that step direction can be reparameterized during early stages of stepping reactions, but that step direction was not actively modulated in response to perturbation arising near start of swing phase.

  18. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn screening tests look for developmental, genetic, and metabolic disorders in the newborn baby. This allows steps to be taken before symptoms develop. Most of these illnesses are very rare, but can be treated if caught ...

  19. Step induced magnetic anisotropy of iron/tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Hector Cordova

    Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (SMOKE) measurements of ultrathin layers of Fe on graded-step-density W(001) are used to test essential predictions of a hysteresis loop phase diagram model reported by Zangwill et al. [1]. The one-dimensional micromagetic model produces a rich variety of hysteresis loop shapes as well as predictions of switching field strengths that depend on two parameters: Λ = normalized step length and κ = normalized step-anisotropy energy. These parameters are varied in the experiment by using a graded-step-density W(001) surface (vicinal angle α range from 0°-15°), and by reducing the step anisotropy energy with chemisorption. Spot-Profile- Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA- LEED) is used to characterize the stepped surfaces. The experiments indicate that the Zangwill model successfully accounts for general trends in hysteresis loop shapes and switching field dependencies as a function of Λ and κ. Our measured switching fields, ( Hswitch) vs vicinality for 2 monolayers thick Fe films are generally compatible with results reported by Kawakami et al. [2] over the range 0° < α < 7°, although our results over this range yield a power law of Hswitch ~ αn where n = 2.6 +/- .1, which is different from the quadratic behavior Hswitch ~ α 2 obtained from their measurements and those predicted by the Néel model [3]. Above a critical vicinal angle, αq the step-induced anisotropy becomes ineffective and the loops revert back to the square shape observed on flat surfaces. The angle αq is dependent on the oxygen dosage on the sample as well as on the film thickness. Novel two- state switching is observed at selected vicinal angles, which is related to surface-step-induced anisotropy. While both the Néel model and the Zangwill model account for general trends in step-induced magnetic anisotropy, refinements in the micromagnetic model appear to be required to explain the observed phenomena in detail.

  20. Finite element/finite volume approaches with adaptive time stepping strategies for transient thermal problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, Ram V.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive time stepping strategy for transient thermal analysis of engineering systems is described which computes the time step based on the local truncation error with a good global error control and obtains optimal time steps to be used during the analysis. Combined mesh partitionings involving FEM/FVM meshes based on physical situations to obtain numerically improved physical representations are also proposed. Numerical test cases are described and comparative pros and cons are identified for practical situations.

  1. Baseband frequency response of a graded-index fiber excited by a step-index fiber.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, T; Tanifuji, T; Tokuda, M

    1980-08-01

    Input modal power distribution and baseband frequency response of a graded-index fiber have been investigated theoretically and experimentally, when the fiber was excited by a step-index fiber. It is found that the bandwidth of the graded-index fiber is measured with good reproducibility and accuracy by using the step-index fiber as an exciter. An appropriate choice of step-index fiber parameters is made with respect to the test graded-index fiber.

  2. Infant visual attention and step responsiveness to optic flow during treadmill stepping.

    PubMed

    Moerchen, Victoria A; Saeed, Mina E

    2012-12-01

    This study examined infant treadmill stepping in two groups of pre-locomotor infants in response to terrestrial optic flow. The optic flow was provided via the treadmill belt for flow translation that was directionally consistent with the forward stepping of the infants. Twelve 2-5-month-old and twelve 7-10-month-old infants participated. Visual attention (duration and direction) and step responsiveness (frequency and step types) were coded from digital video, and visuomotor coupling was examined by temporally juxtaposing the visual attention and step data. Longer durations of visual attention to the patterned belt with increased step frequencies during periods of visual attention were observed, suggesting that the visuotactile calibration afforded by the patterned treadmill belt, increased visuomotor coupling and enhanced the frequency and complexity of stepping in prelocomotor infants. The findings are discussed with regard to sensorimotor experiences that enhance treadmill stepping in infants and that may have application to clinical populations.

  3. Group Treatment for Mothers of Incest Victims: A Step by Step Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Lynn L.; Wyre, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a step-by-step group treatment approach for mothers of incestuous families. The ten sessions provide support, help mothers identify protective plans for their children, and teach alternatives for handling significant relationships. (JAC)

  4. Local Climate Action Framework: A Step-by-Step Implementation Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance and resources for local governments to plan, implement, and evaluate climate, energy, and sustainability projects/programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change impacts.

  5. Diode step stress program for JANTX1N4570A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The effect of power/temperature step stress when applied to a variety of semiconductor devices was evaluated. Performance of the zener diode JANTX1N4570A manufactured by Siemens and Motorola is reported. A total of 48 samples from each manufacturer was submitted to the process outlined in Table 1. In addition, two control sample units were maintained for verification of the electrical parametric testing.

  6. Influence of Small Steps on Wall Pressure Fluctuation Spectra Measured on Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Golubev, A. Yu.; Rizzu, S. A.; Andersson, A. O.; Rackl, R. G.; Andrianov, E. V.

    2002-01-01

    Results of analyzing flight-test data of pressure-fluctuation fields in front of forward-facing steps and behind backward-facing steps are presented. The range of dimensionless step heights (normalized by boundary-layer displacement thickness) in the flight test was 0.042-0.236. The flight tests covered a mach-number range from 0.57 to 1.97. In the mach-number ranges covered by wind-tunnel tests (0.57 to 0.78 and 1.5 to 2) data agree very well with the flight data. Very importantly, the flight-test data fill in the gap previously existing for small-step pressure-fluctuations in the range of mach 0.78 to 1.5. Increased pressure-fluctuations were observed in the transonic region.

  7. Primes in Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Tony D.; Vos Post, Jonathan

    2005-09-01

    We search for primes in the Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step sequences, which are the natural generalizations of the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. While the Fibonacci n-step sequences are nearly devoid of primes, the Lucas n-step sequences are prime-rich. We tabulate the occurrence of primes in the first 10000 terms for n <= 100. We also state two conjectures about Diophantine equations based on these sequences.

  8. Improvement of hemocompatibility for hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal pump by optimizing step bearings.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Ryo; Yada, Toru; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamic levitation centrifugal blood pump with a semi-open impeller for a mechanically circulatory assist. The impeller levitated with original hydrodynamic bearings without any complicated control and sensors. However, narrow bearing gap has the potential for causing hemolysis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the geometric configuration of the hydrodynamic step bearing to minimize hemolysis by expansion of the bearing gap. Firstly, we performed the numerical analysis of the step bearing based on Reynolds equation, and measured the actual hydrodynamic force of the step bearing. Secondly, the bearing gap measurement test and the hemolysis test were performed to the blood pumps, whose step length were 0 %, 33 % and 67 % of the vane length respectively. As a result, in the numerical analysis, the hydrodynamic force was the largest, when the step bearing was around 70 %. In the actual evaluation tests, the blood pump having step 67 % obtained the maximum bearing gap, and was able to improve the hemolysis, compared to those having step 0% and 33%. We confirmed that the numerical analysis of the step bearing worked effectively, and the blood pump having step 67 % was suitable configuration to minimize hemolysis, because it realized the largest bearing gap.

  9. Fiber optic phase stepping system for interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    A closed loop phase control system using an all-fiber optical configuration has been developed for use in phase-stepping interferometry. This system drives the relative phase of two interfering beams through a sequence of pi/2 rad increments so that the initial relative phase of these beams can be determined. This phase-stepping system uses optical fibers to provide spatially uniform phase steps from a flexible, easily aligned optical configuration. In addition, this system uses phase feedback to eliminate phase modulator errors and to compensate for phase drifts caused by environmental disturbances.

  10. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  11. Portfolio Planner: A Step-by-Step Guide to Portfolio Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Julia

    This guide presents a step-by-step portfolio assessment method for teachers who want to implement portfolio assessment in their classrooms. Portfolio assessment is not neat or tidy in its early stages, but tidy and organized portfolios can be constructed if the outlined steps are followed. These are: (1) storage and establishing a file for each…

  12. Organizing Community-Wide Dialogue for Action and Change: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sarah vL.; Malick, Amy; Landesman, John; Barrett, Molly Holme; Leighninger, Matt; McCoy, Martha L.; Scully, Patrick L.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to organizing a study circle program to serve as a vehicle to achieve communitywide dialogue for action and change. Part 1 provides an overview of communitywide study circle programs, with special emphasis on their operation and impact. Part 2 details the following steps in organizing a communitywide study…

  13. Effects of age and step length on joint kinetics during stepping task.

    PubMed

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Buffinton, Christine

    2015-07-16

    Following a balance perturbation, a stepping response is commonly used to regain support, and the distance of the recovery step can vary. To date, no other studies have examined joint kinetics in young and old adults during increasing step distances, when participants are required to bring their rear foot forward. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in joint kinetics with increasing step distance. Twenty young and 20 old adults completed the study. Participants completed a step starting from double support, at an initial distance equal to the individual's average step length. The distance was increased by 10% body height until an unsuccessful attempt. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age on joint kinetics during the maximum step distance. A two-way, repeated measures, mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age, step distance, and their interaction on joint kinetics during the first three step distances for all participants. Young adults completed a significantly longer step than old adults. During the maximum step, in general, kinetic measures were greater in the young than in the old. As step distance increased, all but one kinetic measure increased for both young and old adults. This study has shown the ability to discriminate between young and old adults, and could potentially be used in the future to distinguish between fallers and non-fallers.

  14. An evaluation of dimensional accuracy of one-step and two-step impression technique using addition silicone impression material: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pande, Neelam A; Parkhedkar, R D

    2013-09-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, the effect of undercut of two different configurations and the elastic recovery of addition silicone impression material assessed indirectly, by measuring the dimensions on stone models recorded from the impression of the master model, using one-step and two-step impression technique, for addition silicone impression materials. Measurements are taken to evaluate horizontal or linear and vertical dimensional changes, of the abutment V and abutment C from the stainless steel model. Heavy body/light body material is used for making one-step impression technique in a custom tray. Putty/light body is used for taking two-step technique in a stock metal tray. Improved die stone is used for pouring the impression. The different 11 locations on the dies produced by two different techniques are measured microscopically on image analyzer and compared with those of stainless steel model. Anova test was applied to test the differences of mean values of inter and intra abutment measurements, to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t value. Results showed less deviation of stone models produced by one-step technique from stainless steel model, whereas the deviation of stone models produced by two-step is comparatively more. (p < 0.01). This difference of deviation is significantly less in one-step as compared to two-step technique. One-step is sufficiently dimensionally accurate than two-step technique in conjunction with addition silicone impression material. They have the best elastic recovery from the two undercut configurations.

  15. INTERACTING EFFECTS OF VARYING STEP-SIZE AND FEEDBACK IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, JOHN M., JR.

    THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED DURING THIS STUDY--(1) PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE OF CORRECT RESPONSE DOES NOT INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SMALL STEP-SIZE PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS AT ALL ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS, (2) PROVIDING KNOWLEDGE OF CORRECT RESPONSE DOES INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODERATE STEP-SIZE PROGRAMS AT ALL ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS, AND (3)…

  16. Changing Your Habits: Steps to Better Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walking... A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder Weight-loss & Nutrition Myths Helping Your Overweight Child ... Tips for Families (PDF, 1.47 MB) Binge Eating Disorder Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits ...

  17. Four Practical Steps to Buying Copiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents practical steps for avoiding overbuying when selecting copiers for university administration. Evaluating copying needs, eliminating excessive features, examining the dealer's capabilities, and being patient for the right price are discussed. (GR)

  18. Steps to Become a Green Power Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn the steps to become a GPC.

  19. Planning Educational Volunteer Forums: Steps to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken III

    2000-01-01

    Five steps that can help ensure the success of workshops, conferences, or forums for extension volunteers: constructing the steering/planning committee; contracting facilities; planning the program; arranging for food, meals, and catering; and developing the budget. (SK)

  20. Optimal time step for incompressible SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violeau, Damien; Leroy, Agnès

    2015-05-01

    A classical incompressible algorithm for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) is analyzed in terms of critical time step for numerical stability. For this purpose, a theoretical linear stability analysis is conducted for unbounded homogeneous flows, leading to an analytical formula for the maximum CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number as a function of the Fourier number. This gives the maximum time step as a function of the fluid viscosity, the flow velocity scale and the SPH discretization size (kernel standard deviation). Importantly, the maximum CFL number at large Reynolds number appears twice smaller than with the traditional Weakly Compressible (WCSPH) approach. As a consequence, the optimal time step for ISPH is only five times larger than with WCSPH. The theory agrees very well with numerical data for two usual kernels in a 2-D periodic flow. On the other hand, numerical experiments in a plane Poiseuille flow show that the theory overestimates the maximum allowed time step for small Reynolds numbers.

  1. Key Steps in the Special Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA uses this process when it has reason to believe that the use of a pesticide may result in unreasonable adverse effects on people or the environment. Steps include comprehensive risk and benefit analyses and multiple Position Documents.

  2. Dark solitons near potential and nonlinearity steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitoura, F.; Anastassi, Z. A.; Marzuola, J. L.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    We study dark solitons near potential and nonlinearity steps and combinations thereof, forming rectangular barriers. This setting is relevant to the contexts of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (where such steps can be realized by using proper external fields) and nonlinear optics (for beam propagation near interfaces separating optical media of different refractive indices). We use perturbation theory to develop an equivalent particle theory, describing the matter-wave or optical soliton dynamics as the motion of a particle in an effective potential. This Newtonian dynamical problem provides information for the soliton statics and dynamics, including scenarios of reflection, transmission, or quasitrapping at such steps. The case of multiple such steps and its connection to barrier potentials is additionally touched upon. The range of validity of the analytical approximation and radiation effects are also investigated. Our analytical predictions are found to be in very good agreement with the corresponding numerical results, where appropriate.

  3. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  4. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2013-01-03

    10/23/2013 Hearings Held by the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises Prior to Referral. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Next Steps for Credit Availability Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Velazquez, Nydia M. [D-NY-12

    2012-06-08

    07/11/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Steps to Join Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details steps organizations should take to join the Partnership.

  7. 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Sugar Numbers 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life Step 1: Learn about diabetes. Step ... diabetes care each day. Step 1: Learn about diabetes. What is diabetes? There are three main types ...

  8. VISUAL ACCESSIBILITY OF RAMPS AND STEPS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Yu, Deyue; Kallie, Christopher S.; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Gage, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The visual accessibility of a space refers to the effectiveness with which vision can be used to travel safely through the space. For people with low vision, the detection of steps and ramps is an important component of visual accessibility. We used ramps and steps as visual targets to examine the interacting effects of lighting, object geometry, contrast, viewing distance and spatial resolution. Wooden staging was used to construct a sidewalk with transitions to ramps or steps. 48 normally sighted subjects viewed the sidewalk monocularly through acuity-reducing goggles, and made recognition judgments about the presence of the ramps or steps. The effects of variation in lighting were milder than expected. Performance declined for the largest viewing distance, but exhibited a surprising reversal for nearer viewing. Of relevance to pedestrian safety, the step up was more visible than the step down. We developed a probabilistic cue model to explain the pattern of target confusions. Cues determined by discontinuities in the edge contours of the sidewalk at the transition to the targets were vulnerable to changes in viewing conditions. Cues associated with the height in the picture plane of the targets were more robust. PMID:20884503

  9. Free energy of steps using atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Rodrigo; Frolov, Timofey; Asta, Mark

    The properties of solid-liquid interfaces are known to play critical roles in solidification processes. Particularly special importance is given to thermodynamic quantities that describe the equilibrium state of these surfaces. For example, on the solid-liquid-vapor heteroepitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires the crystal nucleation process on the faceted solid-liquid interface is influenced by the solid-liquid and vapor-solid interfacial free energies, and also by the free energies of associated steps at these faceted interfaces. Crystal-growth theories and mesoscale simulation methods depend on quantitative information about these properties, which are often poorly characterized from experimental measurements. In this work we propose an extension of the capillary fluctuation method for calculation of the free energy of steps on faceted crystal surfaces. From equilibrium atomistic simulations of steps on (111) surfaces of Copper we computed accurately the step free energy for different step orientations. We show that the step free energy remains finite at all temperature up to the melting point and that the results obtained agree with the more well established method of thermodynamic integration if finite size effects are taken into account. The research of RF and MA at UC Berkeley were supported by the US National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-1105409). TF acknowledges support through a postdoctoral fellowship from the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science.

  10. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  11. One-step cell lysis suitable for quantitative bacteria detection in inhibitor-laden sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    Complexity and heterogeneity of soils often hinder effective DNA extraction from the soil matrix. In particular, conventional DNA extraction techniques require extensive purification which makes DNA extraction time-consuming and labor-intensive. Other drawbacks include lower recovery yield, degradation, and damage of DNA, which are also caused by intensive purifications during DNA extraction. Therefore a rapid and simple and yet effective DNA pretreatment method is preferred for environmental monitoring and screening. This study has evaluated the feasibility of simple physical pretreatment for effective cell lysis of bacteria in sands. Bead beating method was selected as an effective physical cell lysis method in this study. We examined the capability of this physical lysis for Pseudomonas putida seeded sands without additional chemical purification steps. The lysate from the method was analysed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and subsequently compared to that by commercial DNA extraction kit. The best lysis condition (treatment with 0.1 mm glass beads at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes) was selected. The qPCR results of bead beating treated samples showed the better performance than that of conventional DNA extraction kit. Moreover, the qPCR assay was performed to the sands laden with qPCR inhibitors (humic acids, clay, and magnesium), which generally present in environmental samples. Further experiments with the sands containing less than 10 μg/g of humic acids and 70% of clay showed successful quantification results of qPCR assay. In conclusion, the bead beating method is useful for simplified DNA extraction prior to qPCR analysis for sand samples of particular composition. It is expected that this approach will be beneficial for environmental in-situ analysis or immediate pre-screening. It also provides the groundwork for future studies with real soil samples that have various physico-chemical properties.

  12. The state of genomic health care and cancer. Are we going two steps forward and one step backward?

    PubMed

    Greco, Karen E; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    As the application of genomic information and technology crosses the horizon of health care into our everyday lives, expanding genomic knowledge continues to affect how health care services are defined and delivered. Genomic discoveries have led to enhanced clinical capabilities to predict susceptibility to common diseases and conditions such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Hundreds of genetic tests are now available that can identify individuals who carry one or more gene mutations that increase their risk of developing cancer or other common diseases. Increased availability and direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing is moving genetic testing away from trained genetics health professionals and into the hands of primary care providers and consumers. Genetic tests available on the Internet are being directly marketed to individuals, who can order these tests and receive a report of their risk for numerous health conditions and diseases. Health care providers are expected to interpret these test results, evaluate their accuracy, address the psychosocial consequences of those distressed by receiving their results, and translate genomic information into effective care. However, as we move two steps forward, we are also moving one step backward because many health care providers are unprepared for this genomic revolution. A number of international education, practice, and policy efforts are underway to address the challenges health care providers face in providing competent genomic health care in the context of unprecedented access to information, technology, and global communication. Efforts to integrate standard of care guidelines into electronic medical records increases health care providers' access to information for individuals at risk fo or diagnosed with a genomic condition. Development of genomic competencie for health care providers has led to increased genomic content in academic pro grams. These and other

  13. Two-step rapid sulfur capture. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    The primary goal of this program was to test the technical and economic feasibility of a novel dry sorbent injection process called the Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process for several advanced coal utilization systems. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process consists of limestone activation in a high temperature auxiliary burner for short times followed by sorbent quenching in a lower temperature sulfur containing coal combustion gas. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process is based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture process developed by the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS). Based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture studies the range of conditions for optimum sorbent activation were thought to be: activation temperature > 2,200 K for activation times in the range of 10--30 ms. Therefore, the aim of the Two-Step process is to create a very active sorbent (under conditions similar to the bomb reactor) and complete the sulfur reaction under thermodynamically favorable conditions. A flow facility was designed and assembled to simulate the temperature, time, stoichiometry, and sulfur gas concentration prevalent in the advanced coal utilization systems such as gasifiers, fluidized bed combustors, mixed-metal oxide desulfurization systems, diesel engines, and gas turbines.

  14. Inter-rater reliability of the STEP protocol.

    PubMed

    Edman, A; Mahnfeldt, M; Wallin, A

    2001-01-01

    An inter-rater reliability test of the Stepwise Comparative Status Analysis (STEP) is presented. The STEP is a protocol for the clinical examination of patients with dementia, within the scope of a neuropsychiatric investigation. It combines psychiatric and neurologic bedside examination methods. The analysis is made in three steps where primary, observable symptom variables are successively aggregated via compound variables to the final determination of one of seven possible dominant regional brain syndromes (global, frontal, subcortical, parietal, frontosubcortical, frontoparietal, other), here also called complex variables. In the present study, two senior physicians assessed 50 patients independently and simultaneously. None of the patients was known to both physicians. In 42 patients (84%), the same dominant brain syndrome was determined by the two clinicians. The probability (P value) of this (or better) agreement was calculated at 2.0 x 10(-12). Kappa coefficients were calculated as a measure of assessment agreement regarding the 50 STEP variables. For 20 variables, the coefficient was 0.75 or above, indicating excellent agreement; for 22 variables, the coefficient was below 0.75 and above 0.40, indicating moderate agreement; and for 4 variables, the value was 0.40 or below, indicating poor agreement. Kappa calculations regarding the assessments of four variables were either not possible or were considered inappropriate.

  15. Droplet-based microsystem for multi-step bioreactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Burns, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    A droplet-based microfluidic platform was used to perform on-chip droplet generation, merging and mixing for applications in multi-step reactions and assays. Submicroliter-sized droplets can be produced separately from three identical droplet-generation channels and merged together in a single chamber. Three different mixing strategies were used for mixing the merged droplet. For pure diffusion, the reagents were mixed in approximately 10 min. Using flow around the stationary droplet to induce circulatory flow within the droplet, the mixing time was decreased to approximately one minute. The shortest mixing time (10 s) was obtained with bidirectional droplet motion between the chamber and channel, and optimization could result in a total time of less than 1 s. We also tested this on-chip droplet generation and manipulation platform using a two-step thermal cycled bioreaction: nested TaqMan PCR. With the same concentration of template DNA, the two-step reaction in a well-mixed merged droplet shows a cycle threshold of approximately 6 cycles earlier than that in the diffusively mixed droplet, and approximately 40 cycles earlier than the droplet-based regular (single-step) TaqMan PCR.

  16. Split-Step Timing of Professional and Junior Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Leskosek, Bojan; Filipcic, Tjasa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine the timing of a split-step in three categories of tennis players in four groups of strokes. Subjects were divided into three groups: male and female junior, and male professional tennis players. During two tournaments, all matches were recorded with two fixed video cameras. For every stroke, the timing of the split-step between the opponent’s impact point when hitting the ball and the player’s split-step was measured. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between groups of strokes, players and the interaction Player x Stroke Group. A Tukey post-hoc test was employed to determine specific differences. The results revealed differences between players in detecting the opponent’s movement, stroke and ball flight, which were reflected in different split-step timings. Each tennis player has his/her own timing mechanism which they adapt to various game situations. Response times differ significantly depending on the game situation. On average, they are the lowest in the serve, and then gradually rise from the return of the serve to baseline game, reaching the highest values in specific game situations. Players react faster in the first serve than in the second one and in the return of the serve, the response times are lower after the return of the second serve PMID:28210342

  17. Preservation of intraerythrocytic forms of malarial parasites by one-step and two-step cooling procedures

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. J. M.; Farrant, J.; Walter, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Ring, trophozoite, and schizont stages of Plasmodium knowlesi were cooled in dimethyl sulfoxide either by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen or by a two-step method in which the cells were held at temperatures slightly below 0°C for different lengths of time before they were cooled to -196°C. After the direct plunge treatment, thawed trophozoites and schizonts were found to be extensively damaged. Their survival was markedly increased by holding them at -31°C for 30 min before plunging them into liquid nitrogen. Freeze-substitution showed that cells cooled by the two-step procedure were grossly shrunken and had relatively few intracellular ice cavities. Large amounts of ice formed in trophozoites and schizonts preserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The two-step protocols investigated did not improve the survival of ring-stage parasites, 25-50% of which survived rapid cooling to -196°C. Infected cell agglutination tests were carried out with frozen and thawed schizonts. Variant specificity was demonstrated with cells that had been plunged directly to -196°C, but cells cooled by the two-step method tended to agglutinate spontaneously. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 6 PMID:412605

  18. A step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Thyfault, John P; Spence, John C

    2013-02-01

    Step counting (using pedometers or accelerometers) is widely accepted by researchers, practitioners, and the general public. Given the mounting evidence of the link between low steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviours, how few steps/day some populations actually perform, and the growing interest in the potentially deleterious effects of excessive sedentary behaviours on health, an emerging question is "How many steps/day are too few?" This review examines the utility, appropriateness, and limitations of using a reoccurring candidate for a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index: <5000 steps/day. Adults taking <5000 steps/day are more likely to have a lower household income and be female, older, of African-American vs. European-American heritage, a current vs. never smoker, and (or) living with chronic disease and (or) disability. Little is known about how contextual factors (e.g., built environment) foster such low levels of step-defined physical activity. Unfavorable indicators of body composition and cardiometabolic risk have been consistently associated with taking <5000 steps/day. The acute transition (3-14 days) of healthy active young people from higher (>10 000) to lower (<5000 or as low as 1500) daily step counts induces reduced insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, increased adiposity, and other negative changes in health parameters. Although few alternative values have been considered, the continued use of <5000 steps/day as a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index for adults is appropriate for researchers and practitioners and for communicating with the general public. There is little evidence to advocate any specific value indicative of a step-defined sedentary lifestyle index in children and adolescents.

  19. Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Neto, Gabriel R.; de Araújo, Ravi C. T.; de Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Costa, José A. D.; Pellegrinotti, Idico L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60–180 s; 116–160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that

  20. Development and validation of an automated step ergometer.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C; Aniceto, Rodrigo R; Neto, Gabriel R; de Araújo, Ravi C T; de Sousa, Juliana B C; Costa, José A D; Pellegrinotti, Idico L

    2014-09-29

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject's height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60-180 s; 116-160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student's t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson's r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that the ASE

  1. Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.

    1985-01-01

    A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.

  2. Walking speed, unilateral leg loading, and step symmetry in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, Einat; Kafri, Michal; Dar, Gali; Dickstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gait speed and unilateral lower limb loading on step time and step length symmetry in healthy adults. Spatiotemporal gait data were collected from 22 healthy subjects (11 men, 11 women), using the GaitRite walkway, under four randomly sequenced test conditions: self-selected speed (SS), fast speed (F), self-selected speed with the right leg loaded (LSS), and the fastest attainable speed with the right leg loaded (LF). The symmetry index, calculated with the formula [((R-L)/0.5 × (R+L)) × 100], was used to quantify step time and step length symmetry. It was found that over-ground gait speed had no significant effects on the symmetry of step time or step length. Unilateral lower limb loading significantly increased step time asymmetry, with longer step time for the loaded leg. Step symmetry was further compromised and became more asymmetrical when, in addition to unilateral leg loading, subjects maximized their gait speed. This effect of fast speed with unilateral leg loading was particularly prominent in relation to step length, with its shortening in the unloaded leg and lengthening in the loaded leg. These observations in healthy subjects may serve as a reference for the assessment of gait symmetry in patients with unilateral lower limb pathologies.

  3. Effect of pulsatile blood flow on thrombosis potential with a step wall transition.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Scott C; Ajdari, Amin; Coskun, Ahmet U; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that thrombus can be formed at stagnation regions in blood flow. However, studies of thrombus formation have typically focused on steady state flow. We hypothesize that pulsating flow may reduce persistent stagnation at the sites of low shear stress by decreasing exposure time. In this study, a step-wall transition, which is commonly found on implantable devices, is used as a test bed causing a recirculation vortex. Stagnation at such a step is considered using computational fluid dynamics studies and flow visualization experiments. Parametric studies were performed with varying step height, pulsatility, and velocity. The percentage of time along the wall with shear stresses below a threshold for thrombosis and the total length of wall that maintains contact with stagnant flow throughout the cardiac cycle are calculated. Persistent stagnation occurs at the corner of a step-wall transition in all cases and is observed to decrease with a decrease in step height, an increase in mean velocity, and an increase in pulsatility. Under steady flow conditions, a flow reattachment point resulting from recirculation is observed with expanding steps, whereas a flow separation point is observed with contracting steps. Pulsatility decreases persistent stagnation at the flow separation point with contracting steps, whereas it completely eliminates persistent stagnation at the flow reattachment point with expanding steps. The results of this work conclusively show that stagnation can be reduced by increasing pulsatility and flow velocity and by decreasing step height.

  4. Characteristics of releases from TREAT source term experiment STEP-3

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Schlenger, B.J.; Baker, L. Jr.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four in-pile experiments designed to characterize the radiological source term associated with postulated severe light water reactor accidents were performed at the Transient Reactor Test Facility. STEP-3 simulated a high-pressure TMLB' pressurized water reactor accident sequence that includes the extended loss of all ac power and leads to the loss of long-term decay heat removal. In STEP-3, four fuel elements from the Belgonucleaire BR3 reactor were subjected to temperature and pressures approaching those of a TMLB' accident. A description of the experiment and thermal-hydraulic analysis is reported elsewhere. The aerosols released into the flow stream were collected on coupons, settling plates, and wire impactors. Examination of the collected aerosol deposits was performed using scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe microanalysis, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), to provide information about the chemical composition and morphology of the release. This paper describes the aerosol deposits and elemental composition of the release.

  5. A deployable structure and solar array controls experiment for STEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimoto, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A candidate configuration for a controls experiment on the Space Technology Experiments Platform (STEP) is described. The elements of the experiment are the mast, the solar array, and an articulation module between the two. The characteristic dimensions are very compatible for integration on a pallet such a STEP's proposed configuration. The controls' objective would be the measurement of orbiter interaction as well as the system identification of the appendages. The flight experiment configuration would also provide a test bed for various active vibration controls concepts. The instrumentation being considered would measure accelerations, strains, displacements, and temperatures. The deployable mast has eight elements defining a structural bay. Uniaxial measurements would be required to define loads at a cross section of the structure. Displacements due to thermal distortion of the mast and the local state of the solar concentrator may be measured by an optical ranging technique from the orbiter aft flight deck.

  6. Stepping in Place While Voluntarily Turning Around Produces a Long-Lasting Posteffect Consisting in Inadvertent Turning While Stepping Eyes Closed

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests). Then, subjects continued stepping in place eyes closed for at least 10 min (posteffect). We recorded the positions of markers fixed to head, shoulder, and feet. The posteffect of voluntary turning shared all features of PKAR. Time decay of angular velocity, stepping cadence, head acceleration, and ratio of angular velocity after to angular velocity before were similar between both protocols. Both postrotations took place inadvertently. The posteffects are possibly dependent on the repeated voluntary contraction of leg and foot intrarotating pelvic muscles that rotate the trunk over the stance foot, a synergy common to both protocols. We propose that stepping in place and voluntary turning can be a scheme ancillary to the rotating platform for training body segment coordination in patients with impairment of turning synergies of various origin. PMID:27635264

  7. Optimization Integrator for Large Time Steps.

    PubMed

    Gast, Theodore F; Schroeder, Craig; Stomakhin, Alexey; Jiang, Chenfanfu; Teran, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    Practical time steps in today's state-of-the-art simulators typically rely on Newton's method to solve large systems of nonlinear equations. In practice, this works well for small time steps but is unreliable at large time steps at or near the frame rate, particularly for difficult or stiff simulations. We show that recasting backward Euler as a minimization problem allows Newton's method to be stabilized by standard optimization techniques with some novel improvements of our own. The resulting solver is capable of solving even the toughest simulations at the [Formula: see text] frame rate and beyond. We show how simple collisions can be incorporated directly into the solver through constrained minimization without sacrificing efficiency. We also present novel penalty collision formulations for self collisions and collisions against scripted bodies designed for the unique demands of this solver. Finally, we show that these techniques improve the behavior of Material Point Method (MPM) simulations by recasting it as an optimization problem.

  8. Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) piezo stepping actuator. Piezo stepping actuators are novel because they offer extreme dynamic range (centimeter stroke with nanometer resolution) with power, thermal, mass, and volume advantages over existing motorized actuation technology. These advantages come with the added benefit of greatly reduced complexity in the support electronics. The piezo stepping actuator consists of three fully redundant sets of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs), two sets of brake PZTs, and one set of extension PZTs. These PZTs are used to grasp and move a runner attached to the optic to be moved. By proper cycling of the two brake and extension PZTs, both forward and backward moves of the runner can be achieved. Each brake can be configured for either a power-on or power-off state. For SIM, the brakes and gate of the mechanism are configured in such a manner that, at the end of the step, the actuator is in a parked or power-off state. The control software uses asynchronous sampling of an optical encoder to monitor the position of the runner. These samples are timed to coincide with the end of the previous move, which may consist of a variable number of steps. This sampling technique linearizes the device by avoiding input saturation of the actuator and makes latencies of the plant vanish. The software also estimates, in real time, the scale factor of the device and a disturbance caused by cycling of the brakes. These estimates are used to actively cancel the brake disturbance. The control system also includes feedback and feedforward elements that regulate the position of the runner to a given reference position. Convergence time for smalland medium-sized reference positions (less than 200 microns) to within 10 nanometers can be achieved in under 10 seconds. Convergence times for large moves (greater than 1 millimeter) are limited by the step rate.

  9. A fragment based step-by-step strategy for determining the most stable conformers of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbao; Lin, Zijing; Luo, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For biomolecules of increased size and flexibility, more efficient and reliable strategies are always needed to determine their stable low-energy conformers. Here, we propose a fragment based step-by-step strategy to search for the full conformational space of biomolecules. In this strategy, the molecule is divided into several fragments and each of them is systematically optimized in a step-by-step fashion. It can significantly reduce the computational cost without losing any accuracy as demonstrated by the conformer search of several representative di-/tri-/tetra-peptides. Such an approach will be very useful for finding the stable conformers of large biomolecules.

  10. Magnetostrictive Roller-Drive Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed motor based on magnetostrictive effect provides stepped angular motion with angular increments of order of 100 microradians. Driven to repeat stepping cycle rapidly enough to achieve maximum speed of about 20 rpm, provides torque an order of magnitude greater than electric motors, and brakes itself when power turned off. Magnetostrictive rods in electromagnet coils push against drive plate, causing it to rotate slightly. This slight rotation jams conical rollers between cam surfaces on outer drive ring and split drum, so rollers transmit rotation to drum. Suitable for precise, high-torque, fail-safe-braking, direct drive of robot joint, without bulk and weight of additional brake mechanism and gear train.

  11. 11-Step Total Synthesis of Araiosamines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A concise route to a small family of exotic marine alkaloids known as the araiosamines has been developed, and their absolute configuration has been assigned. The dense array of functionality, high polarity, and rich stereochemistry coupled with equilibrating topologies present an unusual challenge for chemical synthesis and an opportunity for innovation. Key steps involve the use of a new reagent for guanidine installation, a remarkably selective C–H functionalization, and a surprisingly simple final step that intersects a presumed biosynthetic intermediate. Synthetic araiosamines were shown to exhibit potency against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria despite a contrary report of no activity. PMID:27748593

  12. Validity of the Fitbit activity tracker for measuring steps in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Serene S; Tiedemann, Anne; Hassett, Leanne M; Ramsay, Elisabeth; Kirkham, Catherine; Chagpar, Sakina; Sherrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercially available activity monitors, such as the Fitbit, may encourage physical activity. However, the accuracy of the Fitbit in older adults remains unknown. This study aimed to determine (1) the criterion validity of Fitbit step counts compared to visual count and ActiGraph accelerometer step counts and (2) the accuracy of ActiGraph step counts compared to visual count in community-dwelling older people. Methods Thirty-two community-dwelling adults aged over 60 wore Fitbit and ActiGraph devices simultaneously during a 2 min walk test (2MWT) and then during waking hours over a 7-day period. A physiotherapist counted the steps taken during the 2MWT. Results There was excellent agreement between Fitbit and visually counted steps (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1)=0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) from the 2MWT, and good agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC2,1=0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.82), and between ActiGraph and visually counted steps (ICC2,1=0.60, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). There was excellent agreement between the Fitbit and ActiGraph in average steps/day over 7 days (ICC2,1=0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Percentage agreement was closest for Fitbit steps compared to visual count (mean 0%, SD 4%) and least for Fitbit average steps/day compared to the ActiGraph (mean 13%, SD 25%). Conclusions The Fitbit accurately tracked steps during the 2MWT, but the ActiGraph appeared to underestimate steps. There was strong agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph counted steps. The Fitbit tracker is sufficiently accurate to be used among community-dwelling older adults to monitor and give feedback on step counts. PMID:27900119

  13. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  14. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  15. Stepping Stones to Successful Participation Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Record, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines are presented that will enable teachers to help students complete each step in a group project successfully. Guidelines are discussed for selecting the project, setting goals, planning procedures, choosing tasks, finding sources and resources, setting time limits, activity action, project completion, and evaluation. (SR)

  16. Stepping optical path difference in an interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Stepping method permits higher amplitude modulation of secondary mirror of Fourier interferometer. Amplitude of mirror motion is limited only by available voltage drive on error-correcting actuator. Closed-loop controller provides servo error voltage linearly proportional to offset from proper null position. Bidirectional counter serves to count number of reference laser fringes offset from null position.

  17. Low sidelobe nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebanov, Dmitry

    2008-04-01

    Frequency stepping is one of the known techniques employed by modern radars to attain high range resolution. One of the main advantages of this approach is that it allows to achieve wideband pulse compression through narrowband processing. It is also known that the traditional linear stepped-frequency waveform suffers from relatively high range sidelobes and grating lobes that appear due to periodicities in the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). An amplitude weighting (applied prior to the DFT) is typically used to reduce the near-in sidelobes. This results in undesirable losses in sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a new approach that may be used to derive families of nonlinear stepped-frequency waveforms that would have desired characteristics such as suppressed grating lobes and built-in low range sidelobes. Our approach is based on new analytical properties of stepped-frequency waveforms presented in the paper. We give examples of nonlinear waveforms generated by this approach and show that they exhibit improved performance when compared with traditional waveforms.

  18. Four-step reaction for polytriazine elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Korus, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four step imidoylamidine reaction sequence is used to make crosslinked polyperfluoralkyltriazines with superior elastomeric properties, greater molecular weight, and crosslinking control. Polymers can find useful application in fuel tank sealants, o-ring, wire enamels, pneumatic ducts, and many other applications.

  19. Interventional radiology residency: steps to implementation.

    PubMed

    Marx, M Victoria; Sabri, Saher S

    2015-08-01

    Implementation of an interventional radiology (IR) residency program requires significant planning, as well as clear communication and consensus among departmental and institutional stakeholders. The goal of this short article is to highlight key decisions and steps that are needed to launch an IR residency, and to illustrate a possible timeline for implementation of the integrated and independent IR residency models.

  20. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  1. Stepping Out: Collaborative Research across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Janet; Hyland-Russell, Tara

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers the experiences and insights of two faculty members, located in two separate disciplines, as they engaged in collaborative research. While knowledge created by stepping out and reaching across disciplines reflects the reality of an increasingly complex world, their experiences highlight both the benefits of a supportive…

  2. Speckle interferometry using fiber optic phase stepping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    A system employing closed-loop phase-stepping is used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of a diffusely reflecting object. Optical fibers are used to provide reference and object beam illumination for a standard two-beam speckle interferometer, providing set-up flexibility and ease of alignment. Piezoelectric fiber-stretchers and a phase-measurement/servo system are used to provide highly accurate phase steps. Intensity data is captured with a charge-injection-device camera, and is converted into a phase map using a desktop computer. The closed-loop phase-stepping system provides 90 deg phase steps which are accurate to 0.02 deg, greatly improving this system relative to open-loop interferometers. The system is demonstrated on a speckle interferometer, measuring the rigid-body translation of a diffusely reflecting object with an accuracy + or - 10 deg, or roughly + or - 15 nanometers. This accuracy is achieved without the use of a pneumatically mounted optics table.

  3. Converging stepped spillways: Simplified momentum analysis approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are growing in popularity for providing overtopping protection for aging watershed dams with inadequate auxiliary spillway capacity and for the construction of new dams. Site conditions, such as limited right-of-way, topography, and geological forma...

  4. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs.

  5. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  6. Six Easy Steps to Online Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Against his better instincts, the author, an educator at West Texas A&M University, shares his school's recipe for developing a successful online learning program. He discusses six easy steps to online success. These include: (1) clean up one's act; (2) answers in 24 hours; (3) plenty of structure; (4) format phone conferences at midterm; (5) do…

  7. Bottleneck Concepts in Psychology: Exploratory First Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Landrum, R. Eric

    2013-01-01

    The authors take an initial step in identifying potential bottleneck concepts in psychology, that is, concepts that are deceptively difficult, perhaps due to student overconfidence. In order to first identify bottleneck concepts, faculty (n = 65) rated the difficulty of 91 psychological concepts from across the discipline. Students (n = 35) rated…

  8. Seven Steps to Flipped Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Professional development generally follows a pattern of presentation and review, but flipping the sessions has garnered a positive response from staff members and prompted greater collaboration and engagement. In this article the author describes the seven following steps to follow in order to prepare for a successful staff development meeting:…

  9. Organic chemistry: A radical step forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Ang

    2017-02-01

    Free radicals are notorious for unselective coupling reactions; however, the coupling of free radicals generated from acyl tellurides has now been shown to form C-C bonds with remarkable fidelity, which enables easy one-step assembly of densely oxygenated natural product motifs.

  10. Speckle Interferometry Using Fiber Optic Phase Stepping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1990-04-01

    A system employing closed-loop phase-stepping is used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of a diffusely reflecting object. Optical fibers are used to provide reference and object beam illumination for a standard two-beam speckle interferom-eter, providing set-up flexibility and ease of alignment. Piezoelectric fiber-stretchers and a phase-measurement/servo system are used to provide highly accurate phase steps. Intensity data is captured with a charge-injection-device camera, and is converted into a phase map using a desktop computer. The closed-loop phase-stepping system provides 90° phase steps which are accurate to 0.02°, greatly improving this system relative to open-loop interferometers. The sys-tem is demonstrated on a speckle interferometer, measuring the rigid-body translation of a diffusely reflecting object with an accuracy of -±100, or roughly ±15 nm. This accuracy is achieved without the use of a pneumatically mounted optics table.

  11. Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…

  12. A Stepped Frequency Sweeping Method for Nonlinearity Measurement of Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yumiao; Dong, Yonggui; Huang, Xianxiang; Zhang, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    In order to measure the nonlinear features of micromechanical resonators, a free damped oscillation method based on stair-stepped frequency sinusoidal pulse excitation is investigated. In the vicinity of the resonant frequency, a frequency stepping sinusoidal pulse sequence is employed as the excitation signal. A set of free vibration response signals, containing different degrees of nonlinear dynamical characteristics, are obtained. The amplitude-frequency curves of the resonator are acquired from the forced vibration signals. Together with a singular spectrum analysis algorithm, the instantaneous amplitudes and instantaneous frequencies are extracted by a Hilbert transform from the free vibration signals. The calculated Backbone curves, and frequency response function (FRF) curves are distinct and can be used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the resonator. Taking a Duffing system as an example, numerical simulations are carried out for free vibration response signals in cases of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The results show that this method displays better anti-noise performance than FREEVIB. A vibrating ring microgyroscope is experimentally tested. The obtained Backbone and FRF curves agree with those obtained by the traditional frequency sweeping method. As a test technique, the proposed method can also be used to for experimentally testing the dynamic characteristics of other types of micromechanical resonators. PMID:27754381

  13. Modeling Step-Strain Relaxation and Cyclic Deformations of Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Mead, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Data for step-strain relaxation and cyclic compressive deformations of highly viscous short elastomer cylinders are modeled using a large strain rubber viscoelastic constitutive theory with a rate-independent friction stress term added. In the tests, both small and large amplitude cyclic compressive strains, in the range of 1% to 10%, were superimposed on steady state compressed strains, in the range of 5% to 20%, for frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz. The elastomer cylinders were conditioned prior to each test to soften them. The constants in the viscoclastic-friction constitutive theory are determined by employing a nonlinear least-squares method to fit the analytical stresses for a Maxwell model, which includes friction, to measured relaxation stresses obtained from a 20% step-strain compression test. The simulation of the relaxation data with the nonlinear model is successful at compressive strains of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Simulations of hysteresis stresses for enforced cyclic compressive strains of 20% +/- 5% are made with the model calibrated by the relaxation data. The predicted hysteresis stresses are lower than the measured stresses.

  14. Fostering Autonomy through Syllabus Design: A Step-by-Step Guide for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Espinosa, Alexánder

    2016-01-01

    Promoting learner autonomy is relevant in the field of applied linguistics due to the multiple benefits it brings to the process of learning a new language. However, despite the vast array of research on how to foster autonomy in the language classroom, it is difficult to find step-by-step processes to design syllabi and curricula focused on the…

  15. On the Road towards Child-Centered Education: Step by Step in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincilei, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the outcome of the implementation of the Step by Step child-centered education model in Moldova. The implementation began with 12 classrooms of four-to five-year-old children in five kindergartens. The positive response from parents and teachers received at the end of the first year exceeded all expectations. As a result, 60…

  16. Osteogenic index of step exercise depending on choreographic movements, session duration, and stepping rate

    PubMed Central

    Santos‐Rocha, R A; Oliveira, C S; Veloso, A P

    2006-01-01

    Background Step exercise has been promoted as a low impact physical activity recommended for the improvement of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. This recreational activity might also be recommended to improve bone health since mechanical load plays an important role in the normal development of the skeleton. Methods Our main purpose was to characterised 100 step sessions and to calculated osteogenic index (OI) according to Turner and Robling: OI (one session) = peak ground reaction force(BW)*ln(number of loading cycles+1). Results Main results (mean±SD) were as follows: OI was 12.0±0.8; peak ground reaction force (GRF) was 1.40±0.10 times body weight (BW); session duration was 38.6±8.3 min; stepping rate was 134.6±4.7 beats per minute (bpm); the movements performed most often were marching, knee hop, side leg, L step, and over the top; and the number of loading cycles was 4194.1±1055.2. OI and GRF increased significantly when stepping rate was higher than 135 bpm. This stepping rate might be used as a reference for higher intensity classes. A frequency of two to three sessions per week of step exercise is recommended. Conclusions Despite the benefits that have been stated when step classes are structured correctly and adapted to the participants, further research is needed concerning biomechanical load, exercise prescription, and injury prevention. PMID:16920771

  17. Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward: Must This Be the Future of Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Johnnella E.

    2013-01-01

    Johnnella Butler writes here that the title of this article "Two Steps Forward, One Step Backward," expresses the "wicked problem" of diversity as a concrete goal in higher education. The concept of the "wicked problem," is a term coined in the late 1960s by social planners. Consulting Wikipedia, as so many of our…

  18. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 7--How to Take Care of Glasses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    This guide, one of a series of booklets developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), presents guidelines for parents of deaf-blind children regarding the care of eyeglasses. Basic concerns with glasses and contact lenses are noted and parents are advised to perform the following daily tasks: checking the frames,…

  19. A step in the right direction: new flow depth relationships for stepped spillway design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common deficiency for embankment dams changing from a low hazard to a high hazard dam is inadequate spillway capacity. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) stepped spillways are a popular method to address this issue. Stepped spillway research has gained momentum in recent years due to the need for d...

  20. The Step by Step Program: Linking Democracy and Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Elizabeth; Coughlin, Pam

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the Step by Step Program, funded by the Open Society Institute (OSI) and operated in Eastern and Central Europe, former Soviet states, Haiti, and South Africa. Discusses OSI's belief that educating the youngest members of society in a way that encourages individualism, choice, initiative, and appreciation of differences can lead to a new…

  1. Listen to Me Listen to You: A Step-By-Step Guide to Communication Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…

  2. SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Mallery, Paul

    This book is designed to give step-by-step instructions necessary to do most major types of data analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS is a powerful tool that is capable of conducting nearly any type of data analysis used in the social sciences. This book should enable the reader to do 95% of what the program…

  3. Integrated Marketing for Colleges, Universities, and Schools: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    This book offers a step-by-step approach to marketing for educational institutions, especially colleges and universities. The book is organized into three broad sections. Section 1 makes the case for marketing in six chapters which address: (1) challenges which are or will affect colleges and universities; (2) the role of institutional mission,…

  4. How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…

  5. Setting up a Library BBS: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gene; Mitchell, Chris

    1987-01-01

    Setting up a public library bulletin board system is described as a way to attract young adult users as well as to foster awareness and use of electronic information media. Step-by-step guidelines cover hardware needed, including modems, types of software available, designing the system's contents, and maintenance and security. (EM)

  6. Impact of Preadmission Variables on USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleshinski, James; Khuder, Sadik A.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Gold, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the predictive ability of preadmission variables on United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 performance, incorporating the use of a neural network model. Method: Preadmission data were collected on matriculants from 1998 to 2004. Linear regression analysis was first used to identify predictors of…

  7. A Step by Step Guide for Planning a Japanese Cultural Festival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carole

    Teachers at all academic levels can adapt the design and content of the sixth grade Japanese cultural festival detailed in this learning packet. Material is divided into 2 sections. Section 1 provides a step-by-step guide to planning and conducting the festival. These instructions, based on 5 years of experience, include a detailed planning…

  8. The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Joe W

    1935-01-01

    NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.

  9. Variability in step training enhances locomotor recovery after a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prithvi K; Gerasimenko, Yury; Shyu, Andrew; Lavrov, Igor; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, Victor R

    2012-07-01

    Performance of a motor task is improved by practicing a specific task with added 'challenges' to a training regimen. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of brain control, the performance of a motor task is enhanced by training using specific variations of that task. We utilized modifications of step performance training to improve the ability of spinal rats to forward step. After a complete thoracic spinal cord transection, 20 adult rats were divided randomly to bipedally step on a treadmill in the forward, sideward, or backward direction for 28 sessions (20 min, 5 days/week) and subsequently tested for their ability to step in the forward direction. Although the animals from all trained groups showed improvement, the rats in the sideward-trained and backward-trained groups had greater step consistency and coordination along with higher peak amplitudes and total integrated activity of the rectified electromyographic signals from selected hindlimb muscles per step during forward stepping than the rats in the forward-trained group. Our results demonstrate that, by retaining the fundamental features of a motor task (bipedal stepping), the ability to perform that motor task can be enhanced by the addition of specific contextual variations to the task (direction of stepping). Our data suggest that the forward stepping neuronal locomotor networks are partially complemented by synchronous activation of interneuronal/motoneuronal populations that are also a part of the sideward or backward stepping locomotor networks. Accordingly, the overlap and interaction of neuronal elements may play a critical role in positive task transference.

  10. Approximation of the Newton Step by a Defect Correction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arian, E.; Batterman, A.; Sachs, E. W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal control problem governed by a partial differential equation is considered. The Newton step for this system can be computed by solving a coupled system of equations. To do this efficiently with an iterative defect correction process, a modifying operator is introduced into the system. This operator is motivated by local mode analysis. The operator can be used also for preconditioning in Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES). We give a detailed convergence analysis for the defect correction process and show the derivation of the modifying operator. Numerical tests are done on the small disturbance shape optimization problem in two dimensions for the defect correction process and for GMRES.

  11. Continuous daily assessment of multiple sclerosis disability using remote step count monitoring.

    PubMed

    Block, V J; Lizée, A; Crabtree-Hartman, E; Bevan, C J; Graves, J S; Bove, R; Green, A J; Nourbakhsh, B; Tremblay, M; Gourraud, P-A; Ng, M Y; Pletcher, M J; Olgin, J E; Marcus, G M; Allen, D D; Cree, B A C; Gelfand, J M

    2017-02-01

    Disability measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) rely heavily on ambulatory function, and current metrics fail to capture potentially important variability in walking behavior. We sought to determine whether remote step count monitoring using a consumer-friendly accelerometer (Fitbit Flex) can enhance MS disability assessment. 99 adults with relapsing or progressive MS able to walk ≥2-min were prospectively recruited. At 4 weeks, study retention was 97% and median Fitbit use was 97% of days. Substudy validation resulted in high interclass correlations between Fitbit, ActiGraph and manual step count tally during a 2-minute walk test, and between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC = 0.76) during 7-day home monitoring. Over 4 weeks of continuous monitoring, daily steps were lower in progressive versus relapsing MS (mean difference 2546 steps, p < 0.01). Lower average daily step count was associated with greater disability on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (p < 0.001). Within each EDSS category, substantial variability in step count was apparent (i.e., EDSS = 6.0 range 1097-7152). Step count demonstrated moderate-strong correlations with other walking measures. Lower average daily step count is associated with greater MS disability and captures important variability in real-world walking activity otherwise masked by standard disability scales, including the EDSS. These results support remote step count monitoring as an exploratory outcome in MS trials.

  12. Postural adjustment errors during lateral step initiation in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Sparto, Patrick J; Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Perera, Subashan; Richard Jennings, J; Alghwiri, Alia A; Furman, Joseph M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose was to examine age differences and varying levels of step response inhibition on the performance of a voluntary lateral step initiation task. Seventy older adults (70-94 years) and twenty younger adults (21-58 years) performed visually cued step initiation conditions based on direction and spatial location of arrows, ranging from a simple choice reaction time task to a perceptual inhibition task that included incongruous cues about which direction to step (e.g., a left pointing arrow appearing on the right side of a monitor). Evidence of postural adjustment errors and step latencies were recorded from vertical ground reaction forces exerted by the stepping leg. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater variability in step behavior, generated more postural adjustment errors during conditions requiring inhibition, and had greater step initiation latencies that increased more than younger adults as the inhibition requirements of the condition became greater. Step task performance was related to clinical balance test performance more than executive function task performance.

  13. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID)

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psychological, individual behaviour change orientation and some take years to implement. This paper presents a pragmatic guide to six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQuID). The focus is on public health interventions but the model should have wider applicability. Once a problem has been identified as needing intervention, the process of designing an intervention can be broken down into six crucial steps: (1) defining and understanding the problem and its causes; (2) identifying which causal or contextual factors are modifiable: which have the greatest scope for change and who would benefit most; (3) deciding on the mechanisms of change; (4) clarifying how these will be delivered; (5) testing and adapting the intervention; and (6) collecting sufficient evidence of effectiveness to proceed to a rigorous evaluation. If each of these steps is carefully addressed, better use will be made of scarce public resources by avoiding the costly evaluation, or implementation, of unpromising interventions. PMID:26573236

  14. Microfluidic step-emulsification in a cylindrical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indrajit; Leshansky, Alexander M.

    2016-11-01

    The model microfluidic device for high-throughput droplet generation in a confined cylindrical geometry is investigated numerically. The device comprises of core-annular pressure-driven flow of two immiscible viscous liquids through a cylindrical capillary connected co-axially to a tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion, mimicking the microfluidic step-emulsifier (1). To study this problem, the numerical simulations of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations have been carried out using an interface capturing procedure based on coupled level set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) methods. The accuracy of the numerical method was favorably tested vs. the predictions of the linear stability analysis of core-annular two-phase flow in a cylindrical capillary. Three distinct flow regimes can be identified: the dripping (D) instability near the entrance to the capillary, the step- (S) and the balloon- (B) emulsification at the step-like expansion. Based on the simulation results we present the phase diagram quantifying transitions between various regimes in plane of the capillary number and the flow-rate ratio. MICROFLUSA EU H2020 project.

  15. The energy cost for the step-to-step transition in amputee walking.

    PubMed

    Houdijk, Han; Pollmann, Eveline; Groenewold, Marlies; Wiggerts, Han; Polomski, Wojtek

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased energy cost of amputee gait could be accounted for by an increase in the mechanical work dissipated during the step-to-step transition in walking. Eleven transtibial amputees (AMP) and 11 age-matched controls (CO) walked at both comfortable (CWS) and fixed (FWS, 1.3m/s) walking speed, while external mechanical work of each separate leg and metabolic energy consumption were measured. At FWS the metabolic energy consumption (E(met)) was significantly higher in AMP compared to CO (3.34 Jkg(-1)s(-1) vs. 2.73 Jkg(-1)s(-1)). At CWS, no difference in energy consumption was found (3.56 Jkg(-1)s(-1) vs. 3.58 Jkg(-1)s(-1)) but CWS was significantly lower in AMP compared to CO (1.35 ms(-1) vs. 1.52 ms(-1)). In conjunction with the higher E(met) at FWS, the negative work generated by the intact leading leg for the step-to-step transition in double support was significantly higher for AMP than CO at FWS. A moderate though significant correlation was found between negative mechanical power generated during the step-to-step transition and metabolic power (CWS: r=-0.56, p=0.007; FWS: r=-0.50, p=0.019). Despite the difference in negative work during the step-to-step transition, the total absolute mechanical work over a stride did not differ between groups. This could possibly be attributed to exchange of internal positive and negative work during single support, which remains unnoticed in the external work calculations. It was concluded that the increased mechanical work for the step-to-step transition from prosthetic to intact limb contributes to the increased metabolic energy cost of amputee walking.

  16. Steps toward fault-tolerant quantum chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Taube, Andrew Garvin

    2010-05-01

    Developing quantum chemistry programs on the coming generation of exascale computers will be a difficult task. The programs will need to be fault-tolerant and minimize the use of global operations. This work explores the use a task-based model that uses a data-centric approach to allocate work to different processes as it applies to quantum chemistry. After introducing the key problems that appear when trying to parallelize a complicated quantum chemistry method such as coupled-cluster theory, we discuss the implications of that model as it pertains to the computational kernel of a coupled-cluster program - matrix multiplication. Also, we discuss the extensions that would required to build a full coupled-cluster program using the task-based model. Current programming models for high-performance computing are fault-intolerant and use global operations. Those properties are unsustainable as computers scale to millions of CPUs; instead one must recognize that these systems will be hierarchical in structure, prone to constant faults, and global operations will be infeasible. The FAST-OS HARE project is introducing a scale-free computing model to address these issues. This model is hierarchical and fault-tolerant by design, allows for the clean overlap of computation and communication, reducing the network load, does not require checkpointing, and avoids the complexity of many HPC runtimes. Development of an algorithm within this model requires a change in focus from imperative programming to a data-centric approach. Quantum chemistry (QC) algorithms, in particular electronic structure methods, are an ideal test bed for this computing model. These methods describe the distribution of electrons in a molecule, which determine the properties of the molecule. The computational cost of these methods is high, scaling quartically or higher in the size of the molecule, which is why QC applications are major users of HPC resources. The complexity of these algorithms means that

  17. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of

  18. Application of reversible denoising and lifting steps with step skipping to color space transforms for improved lossless compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosolski, Roman

    2016-07-01

    Reversible denoising and lifting steps (RDLS) are lifting steps integrated with denoising filters in such a way that, despite the inherently irreversible nature of denoising, they are perfectly reversible. We investigated the application of RDLS to reversible color space transforms: RCT, YCoCg-R, RDgDb, and LDgEb. In order to improve RDLS effects, we propose a heuristic for image-adaptive denoising filter selection, a fast estimator of the compressed image bitrate, and a special filter that may result in skipping of the steps. We analyzed the properties of the presented methods, paying special attention to their usefulness from a practical standpoint. For a diverse image test-set and lossless JPEG-LS, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR algorithms, RDLS improves the bitrates of all the examined transforms. The most interesting results were obtained for an estimation-based heuristic filter selection out of a set of seven filters; the cost of this variant was similar to or lower than the transform cost, and it improved the average lossless JPEG 2000 bitrates by 2.65% for RDgDb and by over 1% for other transforms; bitrates of certain images were improved to a significantly greater extent.

  19. Application of a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method on a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peiyan; Gao, Zhenhui; Cao, Lixin; Wang, Xinping; Zhou, Qing; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Guangmei

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as sz1) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as ky1) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as ms1) collected from the port was significantly different from oil ky1 and oil sz1 and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  20. Geroconversion: irreversible step to cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence happens in 2 steps: cell cycle arrest followed, or sometimes preceded, by gerogenic conversion (geroconversion). Geroconvesrion is a form of growth, a futile growth during cell cycle arrest. It converts reversible arrest to irreversible senescence. Geroconversion is driven by growth-promoting, mitogen-/nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR. Geroconversion leads to hyper-secretory, hypertrophic and pro-inflammatory cellular phenotypes, hyperfunctions and malfunctions. On organismal level, geroconversion leads to age-related diseases and death. Rapamycin, a gerosuppressant, extends life span in diverse species from yeast to mammals. Stress–and oncogene-induced accelerated senescence, replicative senescence in vitro and life-long cellular aging in vivo all can be described by 2-step model. PMID:25483060

  1. OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    LIN-LIU,YR; STAMBAUGH,RD

    2002-11-01

    OAK A271 OPTIMUM PLASMA STATES FOR NEXT STEP TOKAMAKS. The dependence of the ideal ballooning {beta} limit on aspect ratio, A, and elongation {kappa} is systematically explored for nearly 100% bootstrap current driven tokamak equilibria in a wide range of the shape parameters (A = 1.2-7.0, {kappa} = 1.5-6.0 with triangularity {delta} = 0.5). The critical {beta}{sub N} is shown to be optimal at {kappa} = 3.0-4.0 for all A studied and increases as A decreases with a dependence close to A{sup -0.5}. The results obtained can be used as a theoretical basis for the choice of optimum aspect ratio and elongation of next step burning plasma tokamaks or tokamak reactors.

  2. A stochastic model for kinesin bidirectional stepping

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaojun; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-02-28

    In this paper, a hand-over-hand stochastic model for the dynamics of the conventional kinesin is constructed. In the model, both forward and backward motions are taken into consideration. First passage time distributions, average velocities, dwell times, and forward/backward step ratios are investigated based on the model. A good agreement between the results of the model and experimental data is achieved under a variety of external loads.

  3. Congenital Symmastia: A 3-Step Approach

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Congenital symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts. It is a rare anomaly with few reports in the literature and no standard treatment. In this article, we present a case of congenital symmastia treated by 3 steps: liposuction, fixation of the skin to the chest wall in the area of the intermammary sulcus, and postoperative intermammary compression. A successful result was achieved with normal cleavage between the breasts. So, this is considered the ideal treatment for this condition.

  4. The Effect of Backward-Facing Step Height on Instability Growth and Breakdown in Swept Wing Boundary-Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard W.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    A low-speed experiment was performed on a swept at plate model with an imposed pressure gradient to determine the effect of a backward-facing step on transition in a stationary-cross flow dominated flow. Detailed hot-wire boundary-layer measurements were performed for three backward-facing step heights of approximately 36, 45, and 49% of the boundary-layer thickness at the step. These step heights correspond to a subcritical, nearly-critical, and critical case. Three leading-edge roughness configurations were tested to determine the effect of stationary-cross flow amplitude on transition. The step caused a local increase in amplitude of the stationary cross flow for the two larger step height cases, but farther downstream the amplitude decreased and remained below the baseline amplitude. The smallest step caused a slight local decrease in amplitude of the primary stationary cross flow mode, but the amplitude collapsed back to the baseline case far downstream of the step. The effect of the step on the amplitude of the primary cross flow mode increased with step height, however, the stationary cross flow amplitudes remained low and thus, stationary cross flow was not solely responsible for transition. Unsteady disturbances were present downstream of the step for all three step heights, and the amplitudes increased with increasing step height. The only exception is that the lower frequency (traveling crossflow-like) disturbance was not present in the lowest step height case. Positive and negative spikes in instantaneous velocity began to occur for the two larger step height cases and then grew in number and amplitude downstream of reattachment, eventually leading to transition. The number and amplitude of spikes varied depending on the step height and cross flow amplitude. Despite the low amplitude of the disturbances in the intermediate step height case, breakdown began to occur intermittently and the flow underwent a long transition region.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WITH SLIT-STEP COMPENSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Donaldson, R R; Castro, C; Chung, C A; Hopkins, D J

    2006-07-28

    This paper describes the mathematical modeling and initial testing of an oil-hydrostatic bearing that derives compensation from both a central radial slit where fluid enters and stepped clearances near each end. Bearings using either a radial slit or stepped clearances for compensation were well studied over forty years ago by Donaldson. These bearings have smooth bores uninterrupted with multiple recesses around the circumference. The present slit-step bearing achieves the best of both types with somewhat higher hydrostatic stiffness than the slit bearing and fluid shear drag lower than the step bearing. This is apparent in TABLE 1, which compares calculated values of initial (i.e., centered) hydrostatic stiffness for each type. The slit-step bearing is one of several types being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use on the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL).

  6. MIKES’ primary phase stepping gauge block interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byman, V.; Lassila, A.

    2015-08-01

    MIKES’ modernized phase stepping interferometer for gauge block calibration (PSIGB) will be described. The instrument is based on the well-regarded NPL-TESA gauge block interferometer from 1994. The decision to upgrade the instrument resulted from several components, such as the PC and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, having reached the end of their lifetime. In this paper modernized components, measurement method and analysis will be explained. The lasers are coupled to the instrument using single mode fiber. The instrument uses phase stepping generated by an added optical window on a controllable rotatory table in the reference arm with a recently developed nine-position phase stepping algorithm. Unwrapping is done with a robust path following algorithm. Procedures for adjusting the interferometer are explained. Determination and elimination of wavefront error, coherent noise and analysis of their influence on the results is described. Flatness and variation in length are also important parameters of gauge blocks to be characterized, and the corresponding analysis method is clarified. Uncertainty analysis for the central length, flatness and variation in length is also described. The results are compared against those of the old hardware and software. The standard uncertainty for central length measurement is u = [(9.5 nm)2 + (121 × 10-9 L)2]½, where L is measured length.

  7. Criticality Calculations for Step-2 GPHS Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Hensen, Danielle L.

    2008-01-21

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.

  8. An adaptive out-of-step relay

    SciTech Connect

    Centeno, V.; Phadke, A.G.; Edris, A.; Benton, J.; Gaudi, M.; Michel, G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an adaptive out-of-step relay, from the formulation of its concept to its field implementation at the Florida-Georgia interface. Adaptive relaying seeks to make adjustments to the relay characteristics as system conditions change, thereby making the relay more attuned to the prevailing power system conditions. The work described here began as a theoretical examination of the out-of-step relaying application, its possible shortcomings, and the opportunities to make adaptive improvements. It is shown that for a system that behaves primarily as a two-machine power system, the out-of-step relay could be made more secure by applying the principle of equal area criterion. The paper describes the theory of such a relay, its hardware configuration, and the system as it is installed in the field. The newly developed technology of synchronized phasor measurements plays an important role in the realization of this relay. The paper includes a summary of the field experience gathered over a period of one year.

  9. Step-structure dependent step-flow: models for the homoepitaxial growth at the atomic steps on Si(111)7 × 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Wataru; Tochihara, Hiroshi

    1994-05-01

    Step-flow models of homoepitaxial growth at atomic steps on Si(111)7 × 7 are considered within the framework of the dimer-adatom-stacking-fault (DAS) model with the aid of a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image published by Köhler, Demuth and Hamers [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7 (1989) 2860]. The image was taken at room temperature for a surface epitaxially grown at 330°C. From the image around the growing step, we find that the step flow is separated into two processes; the initial growth on the end zone of the lower terrace where the (7 × 7) DAS reconstruction is not formed due to its insufficient space, and the subsequent growth where the (7 × 7) DAS reconstruction at the lower step-edge has to be canceled to grow epitaxially. For the initial growth we propose step-structure dependent step-flow models, according to our classification of the atomic steps. For the subsequent growth, in addition to our previously proposed model for the cancelation of the (7 × 7) DAS structure during homoepitaxial growth on terraces (termed as the coalescent destruction model), we postulate the following four guidelines to construct models. (i) The destruction of the faulted halves and dimers at lower step-edge is the rate-determining step for step-flow, (ii) The epitaxial growth on the unfaulted halves at the lower step-edge is rapid, (iii) The faulted half at the "macrokink" is much easier to be broken than that at the straight step. (iv) The advanced step grows faster than the receded step does. By using the guidelines and the coalescent destruction model, we propose models for the subsequent growth at the U and F steps whose outward normal of the risers are the [1¯1¯2] and [112¯] directions, respectively. As the step-flows proceed with increasing Si deposition, the proposed model naturally leads to the following change of macroscopic shapes of the atomic steps: The straight F step converts to a zigzag step consisting of the U steps, while the straight U step maintains

  10. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  11. Geometric optimization of a step bearing for a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for the reduction of hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Ryo; Yada, Toru; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a semi-open impeller has been developed for mechanical circulatory assistance. However, a narrow bearing gap has the potential to cause hemolysis. The purpose of the present study is to optimize the geometric configuration of the hydrodynamic step bearing in order to reduce hemolysis by expansion of the bearing gap. First, a numerical analysis of the step bearing, based on lubrication theory, was performed to determine the optimal design. Second, in order to assess the accuracy of the numerical analysis, the hydrodynamic forces calculated in the numerical analysis were compared with those obtained in an actual measurement test using impellers having step lengths of 0%, 33%, and 67% of the vane length. Finally, a bearing gap measurement test and a hemolysis test were performed. As a result, the numerical analysis revealed that the hydrodynamic force was the largest when the step length was approximately 70%. The hydrodynamic force calculated in the numerical analysis was approximately equivalent to that obtained in the measurement test. In the measurement test and the hemolysis test, the blood pump having a step length of 67% achieved the maximum bearing gap and reduced hemolysis, as compared with the pumps having step lengths of 0% and 33%. It was confirmed that the numerical analysis of the step bearing was effective, and the developed blood pump having a step length of approximately 70% was found to be a suitable configuration for the reduction of hemolysis.

  12. MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILELIKE STEPS) PROJECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILE-LIKE STEPS) PROJECTS FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE MTR TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, WHERE SHIELDING BLOCKS BEGIN TO SURROUND THE TUNNEL AS IT NEARS DETECTING INSTRUMENTS NEAR THE BUILDING WALL. GEAR RELATED TO CRYSTAL NEUTRON SPECTROMETER IS IN FOREGROUND SURROUNDED BY SHIELDING. DATA CONSOLES ARE AT MID-LEVEL OF EAST FACE. OTHER WORK PROCEEDS ON TOP OF AND ELSEWHERE AROUND REACTOR. NOTE TOOLS HANGING AGAINST SOUTHEAST CORNER, USED TO CHANGE FUEL ELEMENTS AND OTHER REACTOR ITEMS DURING REFUELING CYCLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10439. Unknown Photographer, 4/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Step 1: C3 Flight Demo Data Analysis Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Data Analysis Plan (DAP) describes the data analysis that the C3 Work Package (WP) will perform in support of the Access 5 Step 1 C3 flight demonstration objectives as well as the processes that will be used by the Flight IPT to gather and distribute the data collected to satisfy those objectives. In addition to C3 requirements, this document will encompass some Human Systems Interface (HSI) requirements in performing the C3 flight demonstrations. The C3 DAP will be used as the primary interface requirements document between the C3 Work Package and Flight Test organizations (Flight IPT and Non-Access 5 Flight Programs). In addition to providing data requirements for Access 5 flight test (piggyback technology demonstration flights, dedicated C3 technology demonstration flights, and Airspace Operations Demonstration flights), the C3 DAP will be used to request flight data from Non- Access 5 flight programs for C3 related data products

  14. On the maximum time step in weakly compressible SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violeau, Damien; Leroy, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    In the SPH method for viscous fluids, the time step is subject to empirical stability criteria. We proceed to a stability analysis of the Weakly Compressible SPH equations using the von Neumann approach in arbitrary space dimension for unbounded flow. Considering the continuous SPH interpolant based on integrals, we obtain a theoretical stability criterion for the time step, depending on the kernel standard deviation, the speed of sound and the viscosity. The stability domain appears to be almost independent of the kernel choice for a given space discretisation. Numerical tests show that the theory is very accurate, despite the approximations made. We then extend the theory in order to study the influence of the method used to compute the density, of the gradient and divergence SPH operators, of background pressure, of the model used for viscous forces and of a constant velocity gradient. The influence of time integration scheme is also studied, and proved to be prominent. All of the above theoretical developments give excellent agreement against numerical results. It is found that velocity gradients almost do not affect stability, provided some background pressure is used. Finally, the case of bounded flows is briefly addressed from numerical tests in three cases: a laminar Poiseuille flow in a pipe, a lid-driven cavity and the collapse of a water column on a wedge.

  15. Cross-reactivities of various phenethylamine-type designer drugs to immunoassays for amphetamines, with special attention to the evaluation of the one-step urine drug test Instant-View™, and the Emit® assays for use in drug enforcement.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Keiko; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Kamata, Hiroe; Shima, Noriaki; Kamata, Tooru; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-04-10

    Cross-reactivities of 76 kinds of phenethylamine-type designer drugs and related compounds to the urine drug tests Instant-View ™ (IV) (the Methamphetamine (MA) test, the Amphetamine 300 test, and the MDMA test) have been investigated. An on-site urine test kit consisting of these three IV tests has been evaluated for the on-site screening of MA users, and the kit has been found to have satisfactory specificity for drug enforcement purposes by separately detecting both MA and its metabolite amphetamine. The cross-reactivity profiles of Emit(®) II Plus Amphetamines Assay, Emit(®) II Plus Ecstasy assay, and Emit(®) d.a.u.(®) Amphetamine Class assay have also been investigated and discussed.

  16. Comparison of IMRT planning with two-step and one-step optimization: a strategy for improving therapeutic gain and reducing the integral dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, A.; Pressello, M. C.; Benassi, M.; Strigari, L.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency in inverse IMRT planning of one-step optimization with the step-and-shoot (SS) technique as compared to traditional two-step optimization using the sliding windows (SW) technique. The Pinnacle IMRT TPS allows both one-step and two-step approaches. The same beam setup for five head-and-neck tumor patients and dose-volume constraints were applied for all optimization methods. Two-step plans were produced converting the ideal fluence with or without a smoothing filter into the SW sequence. One-step plans, based on direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO), had the maximum number of segments per beam set at 8, 10, 12, producing a directly deliverable sequence. Moreover, the plans were generated whether a split-beam was used or not. Total monitor units (MUs), overall treatment time, cost function and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were estimated for each plan. PTV conformality and homogeneity indexes and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) that are the basis for improving therapeutic gain, as well as non-tumor integral dose (NTID), were evaluated. A two-sided t-test was used to compare quantitative variables. All plans showed similar target coverage. Compared to two-step SW optimization, the DMPO-SS plans resulted in lower MUs (20%), NTID (4%) as well as NTCP values. Differences of about 15-20% in the treatment delivery time were registered. DMPO generates less complex plans with identical PTV coverage, providing lower NTCP and NTID, which is expected to reduce the risk of secondary cancer. It is an effective and efficient method and, if available, it should be favored over the two-step IMRT planning.

  17. Atomic diffusion on vicinal surfaces: step roughening impact on step permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranguelov, B.; Michailov, M.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of mass transport in material science for systems with reduced dimensionality holds special academic and technological attention since the fine diffusion control of adatoms could initiate exotic nanoscale patterning at epitaxial interfaces. The present study brings out important details of the atomic diffusion mechanisms on vicinal surfaces, accounting for the subtle competition between an external field imposed on the migrating adatoms and the roughening of the steps bordering the atomic terraces. The computational model reveals a temperature gap for breakdown of step permeability in the vicinity of the step roughening transition and sheds light on recently observed experimental results for atomic step dynamics on Si surfaces. The present study also demonstrates the extended capability of atomistic models in computer simulations to unravel simultaneous effects, to distinguish between them, and finally to assess their specific contribution to experimentally observed complex physical phenomena.

  18. A step-by-step guide to home telehealth program planning.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Audrey

    2003-08-01

    Many home health providers have become familiar with the idea of home telehealth service, but planning its optimal delivery nevertheless presents a challenge. This article presents the first steps agencies need to take before the "televisiting" can begin.

  19. Gestalt and Other Strategies for Exploring Dreams through a Step-by-Step Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, M. Honore; Allen, G. Edward

    1993-01-01

    The Gestalt dream approach is a practical way to explore personal issues. This article demonstrates how dream work can be adapted by counselors to focus clients to direct forms of personal exploration. A four-step strategy is described. (Authors)

  20. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE TIME STEPPING ALGORITHM OF RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Cumberland, R.; Mesina, G.

    2009-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D time step method is used to perform thermo-hydraulic and neutronic simulations of nuclear reactors and other devices. It discretizes time and space by numerically solving several differential equations. Previously, time step size was controlled by halving or doubling the size of a previous time step. This process caused the code to run slower than it potentially could. In this research project, the RELAP5-3D time step method was modifi ed to allow a new method of changing time steps to improve execution speed and to control error. The new RELAP5-3D time step method being studied involves making the time step proportional to the material courant limit (MCL), while insuring that the time step does not increase by more than a factor of two between advancements. As before, if a step fails or mass error is excessive, the time step is cut in half. To examine performance of the new method, a measure of run time and a measure of error were plotted against a changing MCL proportionality constant (m) in seven test cases. The removal of the upper time step limit produced a small increase in error, but a large decrease in execution time. The best value of m was found to be 0.9. The new algorithm is capable of producing a signifi cant increase in execution speed, with a relatively small increase in mass error. The improvements made are now under consideration for inclusion as a special option in the RELAP5-3D production code.

  1. Comparative evaluation of microtensile bond strength of different solvent based one step and two step adhesive systems to dentin. An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Pavithra; Uthappa, Roshan; Shivgange, Vinay; Shivamurthy, GB; Shivanna, Vasundhara

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To compare and evaluate the micro tensile bond strength of different solvent based one step and two step adhesive systems to dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty recently extracted human mandibular premolars were subjected for the study and divided into 4 groups of fifteen each. The adhesive materials Single Bond, Prime and Bond XP, Clearfil S3 Bond and G-Bond were applied to flat dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. After resin composite build up, teeth were sectioned to obtain beams with an approximate cross sectional area of 2 mm2 and stressed to failure. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA and student Neuman Keuls multiple comparison tests. Results: The study demonstrated that Single Bond has better bond strength to dentin compared to the other adhesive systems. Conclusion: Ethanol and water based two-step adhesive Single Bond exhibited significantly higher microtensile bond strength values to dentin among all the adhesive systems tested. PMID:23956544

  2. Some considerations of reduction of reference phase error in phase-stepping interferometry.

    PubMed

    Schwider, J; Dresel, T; Manzke, B

    1999-02-01

    Positioning errors and miscalibrations of the phase-stepping device in a phase-stepping interferometer lead to systematic errors proportional to twice the measured phase distribution. We discuss the historical development of various error-compensating phase-shift algorithms from a unified mathematical point of view. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally that systematic errors can also be removed a posteriori. A Twyman-Green-type microlens test interferometer was used for the experiments.

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  4. Development of Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Young children who are exposed to traumatic events are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effective psychosocial treatments for childhood PTSD exist, novel interventions that are more accessible, efficient, and cost-effective are needed to improve access to evidence-based treatment. Stepped care models currently being developed for mental health conditions are based on a service delivery model designed to address barriers to treatment. This treatment development article describes how trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established evidence-based practice, was developed into a stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma. Considerations for developing the stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma, such as the type and number of steps, training of providers, entry point, inclusion of parents, treatment components, noncompliance, and a self-correcting monitoring system, are discussed. This model of stepped care for young children exposed to trauma, called Stepped Care TF-CBT, may serve as a model for developing and testing stepped care approaches to treating other types of childhood psychiatric disorders. Future research needed on Stepped Care TF-CBT is discussed. PMID:25411544

  5. Ankle Instability Effects on Joint Position Sense When Stepping Across the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Witchalls, Jeremy; Waddington, Gordon; Blanch, Peter; Adams, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Context Individuals with and without functional ankle instability have been tested for deficits in lower limb proprioception with varied results. Objective To determine whether a new protocol for testing participants' joint position sense during stepping is reliable and can detect differences between participants with unstable and stable ankles. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting University clinical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Sample of convenience involving 21 young adult university students and staff. Ankle stability was categorized by score on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool; 13 had functional ankle instability, 8 had healthy ankles. Intervention(s) Test-retest of ankle joint position sense when stepping onto and across the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus twice, separated by an interim test, standing still on the apparatus and moving only 1 ankle into inversion. Main Outcome Measure(s) Difference in scores between groups with stable and unstable ankles and between test repeats. Results Participants with unstable ankles were worse at differentiating between inversion angles underfoot in both testing protocols. On repeated testing with the stepping protocol, performance of the group with unstable ankles was improved (Cohen d = 1.06, P = .006), whereas scores in the stable ankle group did not change in the second test (Cohen d = 0.04, P = .899). Despite this improvement, the unstable group remained worse at differentiating inversion angles on the stepping retest (Cohen d = 0.99, P = .020). Conclusions The deficits on proprioceptive tests shown by individuals with functional ankle instability improved with repeated exposure to the test situation. The learning effect may be the result of systematic exposure to ankle-angle variation that led to movement-specific learning or increased confidence when stepping across the apparatus. PMID:23182010

  6. Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, D.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing living standards in developed countries lead to increased energy consumption. The fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas effect that accompany the energy production can be reduced by using renewable energy. For instance, the solar thermal systems can be used in temperate climates to provide heating during the transient period or cooling during the warmer months. Most used solar thermal systems contain flat plate solar collectors. In order to provide the necessary energy for the house cooling system, the cooling machine uses a working fluid with a high temperature, which can be supplied by dish concentrator collectors. These collectors are continuously rotated towards sun by biaxial tracking systems, process that increases the consumed power. An algorithm for a step tracking program to be used in the orientation of parabolic dish concentrator collectors is proposed in the paper to reduce the consumed power due to actuation. The algorithm is exemplified on a case study: a dish concentrator collector to be implemented in Brasov, Romania, a location with the turbidity factor TR equal to 3. The size of the system is imposed by the environment, the diameter of the dish reflector being of 3 meters. By applying the proposed algorithm, 60 sub-programs are obtained for the step orientation of the parabolic dish collector over the year. Based on the results of the numerical simulations for the step orientation, the efficiency of the direct solar radiation capture on the receptor is up to 99%, while the energy consumption is reduced by almost 80% compared to the continuous actuation of the concentrator solar collector.

  7. Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Franklin, Larry D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-advancing tool bits that are hybrids of drills and stepped taps make it possible to form threaded holes wider than about 1/2 in. (about 13 mm) without applying any more axial force than is necessary for forming narrower pilot holes. These self-advancing stepped-tap drills were invented for use by space-suited astronauts performing repairs on reinforced carbon/carbon space-shuttle leading edges during space walks, in which the ability to apply axial drilling forces is severely limited. Self-advancing stepped-tap drills could also be used on Earth for making wide holes without applying large axial forces. A self-advancing stepped-tap drill (see figure) includes several sections having progressively larger diameters, typically in increments between 0.030 and 0.060 in. (between about 0.8 and about 1.5 mm). The tip section, which is the narrowest, is a pilot drill bit that typically has a diameter between 1/8 and 3/16 in. (between about 3.2 and about 4.8 mm). The length of the pilot-drill section is chosen, according to the thickness of the object to be drilled and tapped, so that the pilot hole is completed before engagement of the first tap section. Provided that the cutting-edge geometry of the drill bit is optimized for the material to be drilled, only a relatively small axial force [typically of the order of a few pounds (of the order of 10 newtons)] must be applied during drilling of the pilot hole. Once the first tap section engages the pilot hole, it is no longer necessary for the drill operator to apply axial force: the thread engagement between the tap and the workpiece provides the axial force to advance the tool bit. Like the pilot-drill section, each tap section must be long enough to complete its hole before engagement of the next, slightly wider tap section. The precise values of the increments in diameter, the thread pitch, the rake angle of the tap cutting edge, and other geometric parameters of the tap sections must be chosen, in consideration of

  8. Ten steps to successful poster presentation.

    PubMed

    Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric; Coad, Jane

    Receiving a letter confirming acceptance for you to present a poster at a conference can evoke mixed emotions. Joy, panic, fear and dread are among the many possible emotions and this is not exclusive to first time presenters. Developing an effective poster presentation is a skill that you can learn and can provide a rewarding way to present your work in a manner less intimidating than oral presentation (Shelledy, 2004). The key to successful poster presentation is meticulous, timely, well informed preparation. This article outlines ten steps to help guide you through the process to maximize your success.

  9. An additional step toward comprehensive paleoclimate reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosse, Hugues

    2016-09-01

    Although data assimilation in paleoclimatology has shown significant progress, the model data comparison step remains a limiting factor because paleoclimate (proxy) records have generally a complex response to both climatic and nonclimatic factors. In experiments performed in a controlled framework, Dee et al. (2016) have applied proxy system models that simulate tree ring width, isotopic composition of corals and isotopic composition of ice cores from the results of a climate model. The difference between those simulated variables and the value measured on the natural archive can then be computed directly, improving significantly the performance of the data assimilation method.

  10. Surface stress of stepped chiral metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rey, M; Pratt, S J; Jenkins, S J

    2009-01-16

    The use of surface stress as a physical probe for examining chiral effects in surfaces is proposed. First-principles calculations of the surface stress in stepped achiral and chiral bcc metal surfaces (Fe, Mo, and W) are presented. When no mirror symmetry is present, principal stress orientations are unconstrained; nevertheless, we find that the stress is smoothly varying along a suitably chosen stereographic zone of surfaces. Stress ellipses for Fe differ qualitatively from those of Mo and W, suggesting that its surface stress has a distinct origin.

  11. Ten steps to successful conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Hardicre, Jayne; Coad, Jane; Devitt, Patric

    Delivering an oral presentation at a conference can be a demanding yet exhilarating experience. It can create a variety of emotions such as excitement, joy and achievement--but for many the overriding emotions are those of anxiety, fear and dread. A certain amount of nervousness can enhance your performance but how can you avoid pre-presentation nerves developing into full-blown anxiety and fear. The key to successful conference presentation is meticulous preparation and practise. This article guides you through ten steps to help maximize your success and enjoyment.

  12. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  13. One-step microwave foaming and curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Process that combines microwave foaming and curing of polyimide precursors in single step produces fire-resistant foam slabs of much larger volume than has previously been possible. By adding selected conductive fillers to powder precursors and by using high-power microwave oven, foam slabs with dimensions in excess of 61 by 61 by 7.6 cm are made. Typical foaming and curing and curing time is 35 minutes in microwave oven with additional 1 to 2 hour postcure in conventional oven.

  14. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  15. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  16. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  18. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  19. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... must be received (see 14.201-6(r)). (7) A statement that (i) in the second step, only bids based upon... considered for awards and (ii) each bid in the second step must be based on the bidder's own...

  20. 48 CFR 14.503-1 - Step one.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Two-Step Sealed Bidding 14.503-1 Step one. (a) Requests for... must be received (see 14.201-6(r)). (7) A statement that (i) in the second step, only bids based upon... considered for awards and (ii) each bid in the second step must be based on the bidder's own...