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Sample records for 3-month study period

  1. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE. PMID:27525830

  2. The effects of aerobic exercise on cognition in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Yi-Jean; Tang, Tze-Chun; Liu, Mei-Fang; Chen, Ming-De

    2016-10-30

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether these exercise-induced cognitive benefits persist beyond the training period. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the immediate and maintenance effects of AE on a wide range of cognitive functions in 75 schizophrenia patients randomized to 12 weeks of either moderate-intensity treadmill exercise or stretching and toning exercise that served as a control. Participants completed assessments of neurocognition and cardiovascular fitness at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. The results showed that the AE group outperformed the controls on processing speed and attention at the end of intervention. The two groups did not differ significantly in any cognitive outcome measured at follow-up; however, improvement over time was noted in certain cognitive domains in AE group. The average effect sizes at follow-up were 0.53 and 0.35 for AE and control groups, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in aerobic fitness at posttest and follow-up, and that fitness level was not related to changes in cognitive performance. These findings provide preliminary evidence for a trend towards beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition over a short follow-up period in favor of AE.

  3. Stability and Changes in Sleep Regulation: A Longitudinal Study from 3 Months to 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Anat; Epstein, Rachel; Tirosh, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the developmental course of sleep consolidation from infancy to preschool. The sleep of 50 healthy infants aged 3 months was recorded, at home, with actigraphs (computerised activity monitors). Follow-up recordings were carried out at 6, 9, 12, 20, and 42 months (due to attrition and occasional technical…

  4. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  5. Study on toxicity of danshensu in beagle dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Li, Shenjun; Li, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Li, Min; Liu, Zhifeng

    2009-09-01

    Danshensu (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid), a natural phenolic acid, is isolated from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, toxicity of danshensu was evaluated in male and female dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion. Beagle dogs were treated with danshensu at doses of 17, 50, and 150 mg/kg/day, and observed for 90 days followed by recovery periods. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, temperature, electro-cardiography (EGC), hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. No significant adverse effects on these parameters were observed. The only treatment-related finding was a hard knot at injection site observed in the 150 mg/kg group after 2-3 weeks continuous administration, and returned to normal after 3-4 days withdrawal. From these results, it might be concluded that danshensu did not produce any significant cumulative toxicity at the doses administered, as reflected by the various parameters investigated. PMID:19778246

  6. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  7. Sudden unexpected death in infants under 3 months of age and vaccination status – a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Barbeillon, Florence; Paris-Llado, Josepha

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine whether DTPP+Hib vaccination (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis +/− haemophilus) increased the risk of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in children under 3 months of age. Methods We conducted a multicentre case-control study in the 28 French ‘SIDS Centers’. Case selection was based on death labelled sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) of an infant aged between 30 and 90 days. Three living controls were selected, matched for sex, gestational age and born immediately after the victim in the same maternity unit. Results We identified 114 cases of SUD aged between 30 and 90 days and 341 live controls matched for age and sex and born in the same maternity unit as the case. DTPP±Hib immunization did not increase the risk of SUD (OR 1.08) (95% CI 0.49, 2.36) in children under 3 months of age when adjusted for sleeping position, illness in the week before death, maternal tobacco consumption, birth weight, type of mattress, breastfeeding and sex. However, low birth-weight (6.53 [2.29, 18.9]), multiple birth (5.1 [1.76, 15.13]), no breastfeeding (1.77 [1.1, 2.85]), prone sleeping position (9.8 [5, 8, 18, 9]), soft mattress (3.26 [1.69, 6.29]), recent illness (3.44 [1.84, 6.41]) and parental smoking (1.74 [1.2, 2.96]) were confirmed as risk factors in early SIDS. Conclusions DTPP±Hib immunization is not a risk factor for early SUD. In this population, we found the same risk factors as described for SIDS. PMID:11298074

  8. Randomized, double-blind, 3-month parallel study of the effects of pramipexole, pergolide, and placebo on Parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Navan, Prithiva; Findley, Leslie J; Jeffs, Jim A R; Pearce, Ronald K B; Bain, Peter G

    2003-11-01

    We compared the antitremor effect of pramipexole, pergolide, or placebo in Parkinson's disease (PD). A double-blind, randomly controlled, parallel protocol was deployed to examine the effects of placebo, pergolide, and pramipexole [doses escalated to 1.5 mg three times daily (t.i.d.) over 3 months] on a compound Tremor Index (TI) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III. Thirty PD patients (19 men, 11 women; mean age 69 years, range 54-80 years; mean disease duration 3.9 years, range, 0.5-10 years) participated in the study, with 10 patients in each arm. Six subjects failed to complete the study (4 on pergolide and 2 on placebo). Analysis of covariance demonstrated strong evidence for a treatment effect on both TI and UPDRS III. There was no significant difference between the active treatments on either TI or UPDRS III. Both pergolide and pramipexole were significantly better than placebo. The results indicate that pergolide and pramipexole (1.5 mg t.i.d.) have similar anti-PD tremor and UPDRS III actions that are significantly superior to placebo. Patients on pergolide were more likely to drop out because of adverse events than those on pramipexole.

  9. Five-day inhalation toxicity study of three types of synthetic amorphous silicas in Wistar rats and post-exposure evaluations for up to 3 months.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Junker, Karin; Kuper, C Frieke

    2007-10-01

    Evidence suggests that short-term animal exposures to synthetic amorphous silicas (SAS) and crystalline silica can provide comparable prediction of toxicity to those of 90-day studies, therefore providing the opportunity to screen these types of substances using short-term rather than 90-day studies. To investigate this hypothesis, the inhalation toxicity of three SAS, precipitated silica Zeosil 45, silica gel Syloid 74, and pyrogenic silica Cab-O-Sil M5 was studied in Wistar rats. Rats were exposed nose-only to concentrations of 1, 5 or 25mg/m(3) of one of the SAS 6h a day for five consecutive days. Positive controls were exposed to 25mg/m(3) crystalline silica (quartz dust), negative controls to clean air. Animals were necropsied the day after the last exposure or 1 or 3 months later. All exposures were tolerated without serious clinical effects, changes in body weight or food intake. Differences in the effects associated with exposure to the three types of SAS were limited and almost exclusively confined to the 1-day post-exposure time point. Silicon levels in tracheobronchial lymph nodes were below the detection limit in all groups at all time points. Silicon was found in the lungs of all high concentration SAS groups 1-day post-exposure, and was cleared 3 months later. Exposure to all three SAS at 25mg/m(3) induced elevations in biomarkers of cytotoxicity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf), increases in lung and tracheobronchial lymph node weight and histopathological lung changes 1-day post-exposure. Exposure to all three SAS at 5mg/m(3) induced histopathological changes and changes in BALf only. With all three SAS these effects were transient and, with the exception of slight histopathological lung changes at the higher exposure levels, were reversible during the 3-month recovery period. No adverse changes were observed in animals exposed to any of the SAS at 1mg/m(3). In contrast, with quartz-exposed animals the presence of silicon in the lungs was

  10. Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Thorne, Brittany; Schoenecker, Sydney; Siffert, Kevin; Chaliman, Rebecca; Castleberry, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate women completed measures of externally contingent self-worth, self-esteem instability, and depression at the beginning (Time 1) and again 3 months later near the end (Time 2) of an academic semester. Findings indicated that when Time 1 depression scores were controlled for, each Time 1 facet of self-esteem made significant…

  11. How a hat may affect 3-month-olds' recognition of a face: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bulf, Hermann; Valenza, Eloisa; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that infants' face recognition rests on a robust face representation that is resilient to a variety of facial transformations such as rotations in depth, motion, occlusion or deprivation of inner/outer features. Here, we investigated whether 3-month-old infants' ability to represent the invariant aspects of a face is affected by the presence of an external add-on element, i.e. a hat. Using a visual habituation task, three experiments were carried out in which face recognition was investigated by manipulating the presence/absence of a hat during face encoding (i.e. habituation phase) and face recognition (i.e. test phase). An eye-tracker system was used to record the time infants spent looking at face-relevant information compared to the hat. The results showed that infants' face recognition was not affected by the presence of the external element when the type of the hat did not vary between the habituation and test phases, and when both the novel and the familiar face wore the same hat during the test phase (Experiment 1). Infants' ability to recognize the invariant aspects of a face was preserved also when the hat was absent in the habituation phase and the same hat was shown only during the test phase (Experiment 2). Conversely, when the novel face identity competed with a novel hat, the hat triggered the infants' attention, interfering with the recognition process and preventing the infants' preference for the novel face during the test phase (Experiment 3). Findings from the current study shed light on how faces and objects are processed when they are simultaneously presented in the same visual scene, contributing to an understanding of how infants respond to the multiple and composite information available in their surrounding environment.

  12. Microbiological and biochemical effectiveness of an antiseptic gel on the bacterial contamination of the inner space of dental implants: a 3-month human longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    D'Ercole, S; Tetè, S; Catamo, G; Sammartino, G; Femminella, B; Tripodi, D; Spoto, G; Paolantonio, M

    2009-01-01

    Microbial penetration inside the implants internal cavity produces a bacterial reservoir that is associated with an area of inflamed connective tissue facing the fixture-abutment junction. The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 1 percent chlorhexidine gel on the internal bacterial contamination of implants with screw-retained abutments and on the level of AST secreted in peri-implant crevicular fluid. Twenty-five patients (aged 29 to 58 years) each received one implant. Three months after the end of the restorative treatment, and immediately after a clinical and radiographic examination and the abutment removal, microbiological samples were obtained from the internal part of each fixture and biochemical samples were collected by peri-implant sulci. The patients were then divided into two groups: the control (CG; n=10) and test (TG; n=15) groups. The CG had the abutment screwed into place and the crown cemented without any further intervention. In contrast, before the abutment placement and screw tightening, the TG had the internal part of the fixture filled with a 1 percent chlorhexidine gel. Three months later, the same clinical, microbiological and biochemical procedures were repeated in both groups. Total bacterial count, specific pathogens and AST activity were detected. The clinical parameters remained stable throughout the study. From baseline to the 3-month examination, the total bacterial counts underwent a significant reduction only in the TG. In contrast, the AST activity showed a significant increase in the CG. The administration of a 1% chlorhexidine gel appears to be an effective method for the reduction of bacterial colonization of the implant cavity and for safeguarding the health status of peri-implant tissue over a 3-month administration period.

  13. Effect of Gaboxadol on Patient-reported Measures of Sleep and Waking Function in Patients with Primary Insomnia: Results from Two Randomized, Controlled, 3-month Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Lines, Christopher; Vandormael, Kristel; Ceesay, Paulette; Anderson, Donald; Snavely, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gaboxadol in the treatment of Primary Insomnia. Methods: Two studies were performed in patients 18 to 65 years of age with Primary Insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with gaboxadol 15 mg (N = 310), 10 mg (N = 308), or placebo (N = 309) over 3 months in Study 1; and gaboxadol 15 mg (N = 304) or placebo (N = 301) over 12 months in Study 2. Treatment was administered at bedtime. The primary efficacy endpoints in each study were change from baseline in patient-reported total sleep time (sTST) and time to sleep onset (sTSO) at month 3. Safety was assessed primarily by adverse event reports. Results: In Study 1, gaboxadol 15 mg significantly improved sTST (difference vs. placebo of 20.4 min, p < 0.01) and sTSO (difference vs. placebo of −9.8 min, p < 0.05) at 3 months, while gaboxadol 10 mg had no significant effects on these measures. In Study 2, gaboxadol 15 mg showed numerical superiority for improvements on sTST (difference vs. placebo of 14.5 min) and sTSO (difference vs. placebo of −4.9 min) at 3 months, but these differences were not significant. In both studies, there was evidence that the efficacy of gaboxadol was more pronounced in women than men. Gaboxadol was generally well tolerated over 3 months in Study 1, and over 12 months in Study 2. Conclusion: Gaboxadol 15 mg showed variable efficacy on measures of sleep duration and onset at 3 months in adult patients with Primary Insomnia in these studies and appeared to be more effective in women than men. Gaboxadol 10 mg was not effective in these studies. (Clinical trial registration numbers: NCT00103818, NCT00095069) Citation: Roth T; Lines C; Vandormael K; Ceesay P; Anderson D; Snavely D. Effect of gaboxadol on patient-reported measures of sleep and waking function in patients with Primary Insomnia: results from two randomized, controlled, 3-month studies. J Clin Sleep Med 2010

  14. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiejun; Liu, Zhenyin; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Gang; Li, Haibo; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. Methods We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed. Results The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9–12.9 weeks). These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group A (n = 0), B (n = 2), C (n = 0), D (n = 9), or E (n = 2). A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2–4 cycles). After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9–65 months), tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies. Conclusions Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. PMID:27504917

  15. Effect of Intensive Salt-Restriction Education on Clinic, Home, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Levels in Treated Hypertensive Patients During a 3-Month Education Period.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Eguchi, Kazuo; Sato, Toshiko; Onoguchi, Atsuko; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2016-05-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that low-salt diet education by nutritionists would lower blood pressure (BP) levels in treated hypertensive patients. The amount of urinary salt excretion and clinic, home, and ambulatory BP values at baseline and at 3 months were measured in 95 patients with hypertension. After randomization to a nutritional education group (E group, n=51) or a control group (C group, n=44), the C group received conventional salt-restriction education and the E group received intensive nutritional education aimed at salt restriction to 6 g/d by nutritionists. From baseline to the end of the study, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lowered in the E group compared with the C group (6.8±2.9 g/24 h vs 8.6±3.4 g/24 h, P<.01). Morning home systolic BP tended to be lowered in the E group (P=.051), and ambulatory 24-hour systolic BP was significantly lowered in the E group (-4.5±1.3 mm Hg) compared with the C group (2.8±1.3 mm Hg, P<.001). Intensive nutritional education by nutritionists was shown to be effective in lowering BP in treated hypertensive patients. PMID:26732187

  16. The impact of community health professional contact postpartum on breastfeeding at 3 months: a cross-sectional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Wendy E; Miller, Yvette D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of any health professional contact and the types of contact new mothers received in the first 10 days post-discharge on breastfeeding rates at 3 months. This cross-sectional retrospective self-report survey was distributed to women who birthed in Queensland, Australia between 1st February and 31st May 2010 at 4-5 months postpartum. Data were collected on pregnancy, birth, postpartum care and infant feeding. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between health professional contact and breastfeeding at 3 months. Data were analysed by birthing facility sector because of significant differences between sectors in health professional contact. The study cohort consisted of 6,852 women. Women in the public sector were more likely to be visited at home than women birthing in the private sector. Any health professional contact (AOR 1.65 99 % CI 0.98-2.76 public sector, AOR 0.78 99 % CI 0.59-1.03 private sector) and home visits (AOR 1.50 99 % CI 0.89-2.54 public sector, AOR 0.80 99 % CI 0.46-1.39 private sector) were not associated with breastfeeding at 3 months in either sector. A telephone call (AOR 2.07 99 % CI 1.06-4.03) or visit to a general practitioner (GP) (AOR 1.83 99 % CI 1.04-3.21) increased the odds of breastfeeding in public sector women. Health professional contact or home visiting in the first 10 days post-discharge did not have a significant impact on breastfeeding rates at 3 months. Post-discharge telephone contact for all women and opportunities for self-initiated clinic visits for women assessed to be at higher risk of ceasing breastfeeding may be the most effective care.

  17. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Paliperidone Palmitate 3-Month Formulation for Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Ravenstijn, Paulien; Janik, Adam; Schotte, Alain; Hough, David; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase-3 study was designed to test the noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M) to the currently marketed 1-month formulation (PP1M) in patients (age 18–70 years) with schizophrenia, previously stabilized on PP1M. Methods: After screening (≤3 weeks) and a 17-week, flexible-dosed, open-label phase (PP1M: day 1 [150mg eq. deltoid], day 8 [100mg eq. deltoid.], weeks 5, 9, and 13 [50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq., deltoid/gluteal]), clinically stable patients were randomized (1:1) to PP3M (fixed-dose, 175, 263, 350, or 525mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) or PP1M (fixed-dose, 50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) for a 48-week double-blind phase. Results: Overall, 1016/1429 open-label patients entered the double-blind phase (PP3M: n=504; PP1M: n=512) and 842 completed it (including patients with relapse). PP3M was noninferior to PP1M: relapse rates were similar in both groups (PP3M: n=37, 8%; PP1M: n=45, 9%; difference in relapse-free rate: 1.2% [95% CI:-2.7%; 5.1%]) based on Kaplan-Meier estimates (primary efficacy). Secondary endpoint results (changes from double-blind baseline in positive and negative symptom score total and subscale scores, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and Personal and Social Performance scores) were consistent with primary endpoint results. No clinically relevant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic exposures between PP3M and PP1M. Both groups had similar tolerability profiles; increased weight was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (double-blind phase; 21% each). No new safety signals were detected. Conclusion: Taken together, PP3M with its 3-month dosing interval is a unique option for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. PMID:26902950

  19. Effect of a low glycaemic index diet in gestational diabetes mellitus on post-natal outcomes after 3 months of birth: a pilot follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2015-07-01

    A low glycaemic index (LGI) diet during pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may offer benefits to the mother and infant pair beyond those during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LGI diet during pregnancy complicated with GDM on early post-natal outcomes. Fifty-eight women (age: 23-41 years; mean ± SD pre-pregnancy body mass index: 24.5 ± 5.6 kg m(-2) ) who had GDM and followed either an LGI diet (n = 33) or a conventional high-fibre diet (HF; n = 25) during pregnancy had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and blood lipid tests at 3 months post-partum. Anthropometric assessments were conducted for 55 mother-infant pairs. The glycaemic index of the antenatal diets differed modestly (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 5.4 vs. 52.4 ± 4.4; P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in any of the post-natal outcomes. In conclusion, an LGI diet during pregnancy complicated by GDM has outcomes similar to those of a conventional healthy diet. Adequately powered studies should explore the potential beneficial effects of LGI diet on risk factors for chronic disease.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among teachers 3 months after the Lushan earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Ye; Du, Changhui; Zhu, Shenyue; Huang, Yalin; Tian, Yulian; Chen, Decao; Li, Haimin; Gong, Yao; Zhang, Mengmeng; Gu, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Teachers and students often suffer from the same disaster. The prevalence of PTSD in students has been given great attention. However, in acting as mentors to students and their families, teachers are more likely to have vicarious and indirect exposure via hearing stories of their aftermath and witnessing the consequences of traumatic events. There are limited data pertaining to the prevalence of PTSD and its risk factors among teachers. A total of 316 teachers from 21 primary and secondary schools in Baoxing County were administered a project-developed questionnaire which included the items regarding demographic characteristics, earthquake-related experiences, somatic discomforts, emotional reactions, support status, and everyday functioning 2 weeks after the Lushan earthquake, and they finished a 1-to-1 telephone interview for addressing the PTSD criteria of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 3 months after the earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD was 24.4% among teachers. Somatic discomforts (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.37) were positive risk factors of PTSD. Perceived social support (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.62) and being able to calm down (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.75) in teaching were negative risk factors. PTSD is commonly seen among teachers after an earthquake, and risk factors of PTSD were identified. These findings may help those providing psychological health programs to find the teachers who are at high risk of PTSD in schools after an earthquake in China.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder among teachers 3 months after the Lushan earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Ye; Du, Changhui; Zhu, Shenyue; Huang, Yalin; Tian, Yulian; Chen, Decao; Li, Haimin; Gong, Yao; Zhang, Mengmeng; Gu, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Teachers and students often suffer from the same disaster. The prevalence of PTSD in students has been given great attention. However, in acting as mentors to students and their families, teachers are more likely to have vicarious and indirect exposure via hearing stories of their aftermath and witnessing the consequences of traumatic events. There are limited data pertaining to the prevalence of PTSD and its risk factors among teachers. A total of 316 teachers from 21 primary and secondary schools in Baoxing County were administered a project-developed questionnaire which included the items regarding demographic characteristics, earthquake-related experiences, somatic discomforts, emotional reactions, support status, and everyday functioning 2 weeks after the Lushan earthquake, and they finished a 1-to-1 telephone interview for addressing the PTSD criteria of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) 3 months after the earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD was 24.4% among teachers. Somatic discomforts (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.37) were positive risk factors of PTSD. Perceived social support (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.62) and being able to calm down (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.75) in teaching were negative risk factors. PTSD is commonly seen among teachers after an earthquake, and risk factors of PTSD were identified. These findings may help those providing psychological health programs to find the teachers who are at high risk of PTSD in schools after an earthquake in China. PMID:27442675

  2. Fractional Erbium laser in the treatment of photoaging: randomized comparative, clinical and histopathological study of ablative (2940nm) vs. non-ablative (1540nm) methods after 3 months*

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliano; Cuzzi, Tullia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition. PMID:24770501

  3. The pilot study of 3-month course of melatonin treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: effect on plasma levels of liver enzymes, lipids and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Gonciarz, M; Gonciarz, Z; Bielanski, W; Mularczyk, A; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

    2010-12-01

    The mechanism by which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown, however, the major process is oxidative stress with increased production of reactive oxygen species and excessive inflammatory cytokine generation. To date, there are no effective treatments for NASH and the published data with treatment using antioxidants are not satisfactory. Melatonin (MT), the potent endogenous antioxidant secreted in circadian rhythm by pinealocytes and in large amounts in the digestive system, was reported to improve oxidative status and to exert beneficial effects in NASH pathology in experimental animals, but no study attempted to determine the possible effectiveness of MT in humans with NASH. In this study, 42 patients (12 placebo controls and 30 MT-treated) with histological evidence (liver biopsy) of NASH and no history of alcohol abuse, were included. The treatment group took melatonin (2x5 mg/daily orally), while controls were treated with placebo. At baseline no significant differences between the groups were found for age, body mass index (BMI) as well as for plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), glucose and MT. During the study period plasma ALT level and cholesterol concentration decreased significantly in both MT-treated and control groups, however AST and GGT levels decreased significantly only in MT-treated groups. Median value of AST level at baseline was 76.5 (64.2-114.2) IU/L and its percentage decrease at 4, 8 and 12 week was 20, 36 and 38%, resp. Baseline GGT median level was 113 (75.7-210.7) IU/L and its mean percentage decrease at week 4, 8 and 12 was 46, 48 and 47%, resp. Plasma ALP levels did not change significantly during MT treatment. Median value of plasma concentrations of MT (pg/mL) in MT-treated group rose from 7.5 (5.0-14.25) at

  4. A model study of the pollution effects of the first 3 months of the Holuhraun volcanic fissure: comparison with observations and air pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Birthe Marie; Schulz, Michael; Theys, Nicolas; Fagerli, Hilde

    2016-08-01

    Norway, a region with frequent precipitation during westerly winds. Over a 3-month average (during SON 2014) over Europe, SO2 and PM2.5 surface concentrations, due to the volcanic emissions, increased by only ten and 6 % respectively. Although the percent increase of PM2.5 concentration is highest over Scandinavia and Scotland, an increase in PM exceedance days is found over Ireland and the already polluted Benelux region (up to 3 additional days), where any small increase in particulate matter concentration leads to an increase in exceedance days.

  5. NTP 3-month toxicity studies of estragole (CAS No. 140-67-0) administered by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W

    2011-01-01

    Estragole is a natural organic compound that is used as an additive, flavoring agent, or fragrance in a variety of food, cleaning, and cosmetic products; as an herbal medicine; as an antimicrobial agent against acid-tolerant food microflora; and to produce synthetic anise oil. Estragole was nominated for toxicity testing by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to characterize its toxicity when administered by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and to determine how similar its effects might be to those of the structurally related compound, methyleugenol. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given estragole (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. Core and special study (rats only) groups of 10 male and 10 female rats and mice were administered 37.5, 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg estragole/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week. The core study groups were given estragole for 3 months and the special study groups for 30 days. All core study rats survived the 3-month exposure period. Mean body weights of the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups were 73% to 92%, respectively, of those of the vehicle control groups. A staining pattern on the ventral surface anterior to the genitalia beginning at week 9 in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups was attributed to residue of estragole or metabolites in the urine. Alterations in the erythron related to estragole administration occurred in male and female rats; male rats demonstrated a stronger response. The changes in the erythron were characterized as a microcytic, normochromic, nonresponsive anemia. There were decreases in serum iron concentration in the 300 mg/kg females and 600 mg/kg males and females. The average percent saturation of total iron binding capacity was decreased in the 600 mg/kg males and females. Dose-related increases in platelet counts occurred in most of

  6. NTP 3-month toxicity studies of estragole (CAS No. 140-67-0) administered by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W

    2011-01-01

    Estragole is a natural organic compound that is used as an additive, flavoring agent, or fragrance in a variety of food, cleaning, and cosmetic products; as an herbal medicine; as an antimicrobial agent against acid-tolerant food microflora; and to produce synthetic anise oil. Estragole was nominated for toxicity testing by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to characterize its toxicity when administered by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and to determine how similar its effects might be to those of the structurally related compound, methyleugenol. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given estragole (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. Core and special study (rats only) groups of 10 male and 10 female rats and mice were administered 37.5, 75, 150, 300, or 600 mg estragole/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage, 5 days per week. The core study groups were given estragole for 3 months and the special study groups for 30 days. All core study rats survived the 3-month exposure period. Mean body weights of the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups were 73% to 92%, respectively, of those of the vehicle control groups. A staining pattern on the ventral surface anterior to the genitalia beginning at week 9 in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups was attributed to residue of estragole or metabolites in the urine. Alterations in the erythron related to estragole administration occurred in male and female rats; male rats demonstrated a stronger response. The changes in the erythron were characterized as a microcytic, normochromic, nonresponsive anemia. There were decreases in serum iron concentration in the 300 mg/kg females and 600 mg/kg males and females. The average percent saturation of total iron binding capacity was decreased in the 600 mg/kg males and females. Dose-related increases in platelet counts occurred in most of

  7. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of fluticasone propionate lotion 0.05% for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in subjects from 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Miller, B H

    2006-04-01

    A novel lotion formulation of fluticasone propionate 0.05% has recently become available. Two large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies involving 438 subjects demonstrated its efficacy and safety when applied once daily in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in subjects from 3 months to 87 years of age. The studies were limited to 4 weeks duration of use of fluticasone lotion and did not assess longer term efficacy or side effects.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of 1- and 3-month leuprorelin acetate depot formulations (Eligard®/Depo-Eligard®) for advanced prostate cancer in daily practice: a Belgian prospective non-interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Michielsen, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The 1-, 3- and 6- month biodegradable polymer matrix depot formulations of leuprorelin acetate (Eligard®/Depo-Eligard®, Astellas Pharma Inc/BV) were shown to reduce testosterone and prostate-specific antigen levels and to be well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer in several clinical trials. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the 1- and 3-month leuprorelin acetate depot formulations in daily clinical practice. Material and methods A prospective, open-label, non-interventional, phase IV study (MANTA) was conducted in 243 Belgian prostate cancer patients who had been prescribed the 1-month (7.5 mg) or 3-month (22.5 mg) leuprorelin acetate depot formulation. Patients were followed for at least 3 months. Results Median serum prostate-specific antigen levels were reduced by 95% from 12.0 ng/ml at baseline to 0.60 ng/ml after a median follow-up time of 132 days, while median testosterone levels were reduced by 94% from 360 ng/dl to 20 ng/dl. Partial or complete treatment response was observed in 83% of patients at the final visit (according to the physician's assessment). Ninety-two patients (37.86%) experienced treatment-emergent adverse events, with injection site-related reactions, hot flushes and tumor flare being the most common ones. Overall safety and tolerability of the leuprorelin acetate depot formulation were rated as good or excellent by 90% of physicians. Conclusions These data are consistent with efficacy and tolerability results from clinical trials. They confirm that the 1- and 3-month leuprorelin acetate depot formulations are well tolerated and reliably lower serum prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels in routine clinical practice. PMID:25097577

  9. 9 CFR 206.3 - Monthly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.3 Monthly report. (a) Do I need... reported on Form P&SP-341, which will be available on the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.gipsa... to submit information electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on the GIPSA Web site...

  10. 9 CFR 206.3 - Monthly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.3 Monthly report. (a) Do I need... will be available on the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.usda.gov/gipsa/) and at USDA GIPSA... GIPSA through the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.usda.gov/gipsa/) or at USDA GIPSA,...

  11. 9 CFR 206.3 - Monthly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.3 Monthly report. (a) Do I need... reported on Form P&SP-341, which will be available on the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.gipsa... to submit information electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on the GIPSA Web site...

  12. 9 CFR 206.3 - Monthly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.3 Monthly report. (a) Do I need... reported on Form P&SP-341, which will be available on the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.gipsa... to submit information electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on the GIPSA Web site...

  13. 9 CFR 206.3 - Monthly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.3 Monthly report. (a) Do I need... reported on Form P&SP-341, which will be available on the Internet on the GIPSA Web site (http://www.gipsa... to submit information electronically, contact GIPSA through the Internet on the GIPSA Web site...

  14. Circulating Levels of Hormones, Lipids, and Immune Mediators in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – A 3-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jergović, Mladen; Bendelja, Krešo; Savić Mlakar, Ana; Vojvoda, Valerija; Aberle, Neda; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rabatić, Sabina; Sabioncello, Ante; Vidović, Anđelko

    2015-01-01

    A number of peripheral blood analytes have been proposed as potential biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated whether observed changes in biomarkers persist over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of combat-related chronic PTSD with a wide array of putative PTSD biomarkers and to determine reliability of the measurements, i.e., correlations over time. Croatian combat veterans with chronic PTSD (n = 69) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32), all men, were assessed at two time points separated by 3 months. Serum levels of lipids, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), prolactin, and C-reactive protein were determined. Multiplex assay was used for the simultaneous assessment of 13 analytes in sera: cytokines [interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α], adhesion molecules (sPECAM-1, sICAM-1), chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1α), sCD40L, nerve growth factor, and leptin. Group differences and changes over time were tested by parametric or non-parametric tests, including repeated measures analysis of covariance. Reliability estimates [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa] were also calculated. Robust associations of PTSD with higher levels of DHEA-S [F(1,75) = 8.14, p = 0.006)] and lower levels of prolactin [F(1,75) = 5.40, p = 0.023] were found. Measurements showed good to excellent reproducibility (DHEA-S, ICC = 0.50; prolactin, ICC = 0.79). Serum lipids did not differ between groups but significant increase of LDL-C after 3 months was observed in the PTSD group (t = 6.87, p < 0.001). IL-8 was lower in the PTSD group (t = 4.37, p < 0.001) but assessments showed poor reproducibility (ICC = −0.08). Stable DHEA-S and prolactin changes highlight their potential to be reliable markers of PTSD. Change in lipid profiles after 3 months suggests that PTSD patients may be more prone to hyperlipidemia. High

  15. Persistence of the effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG slowing in vascular dementia patients: results of a 3-month extension study.

    PubMed

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Novak, Philipp H; Stan, Adina; Buzoianu, Anca; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Bogdan O

    2010-12-15

    The maintenance of the effects of Cerebrolysin, a peptidergic compound with neurotrophic activity, on cognitive performance and qEEG activity was investigated through a 12-week, open-label extension of a 4-week, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study. Thirty-three out of 41 patients with mild-to-moderate severe probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN participating in the double-blind phase of the study were also assessed at the follow-up visit at week 16. Patients received i.v. infusions of Cerebrolysin (10 or 30 mL) or placebo (saline) 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Neuropsychological evaluations and qEEG recordings were done at baseline, week 4 and week 16. The mean change in score from baseline in the ADAS-cog+ and the slow-to-fast qEEG power ratio (PR), used as an index of qEEG slowing, were the two primary endpoints. Correlations between changes in cognition and qEEG induced by the treatment were also assessed. At the week 16 follow-up visit, Cerebrolysin improved (p<0.05) cognitive performance at the 10-mL and 30-mL doses and reduced qEEG slowing significantly (p<0.05) at the 30-mL dose with respect to the placebo. In addition, a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation between the change from the baseline qEEG PR and ADAS-cog+ variables was observed at week 16. These results indicate a persistence of the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG activity in VaD patients for at least 12 weeks after treatment cessation, and they suggest the potential utility of qEEG parameters as biomarkers for VaD clinical trials.

  16. Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... About Spitting Up During your baby's first 3 months, breast milk or formula will provide all the ...

  17. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol

    PubMed Central

    Gasier, Heath G.; Young, Colin R.; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; McAdams, Douglas C.; Lutz, Laura J.; McClung, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20–39 years) were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF%) ≥ 25% (obesity), and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5%) and fat-mass (11%) occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ) during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population. PMID:26867201

  18. Cardiometabolic Health in Submariners Returning from a 3-Month Patrol.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Young, Colin R; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

    2016-02-01

    Confined space, limited exercise equipment, rotating shift work and reduced sleep may affect cardiometabolic health in submariners. To test this hypothesis, 53 male U.S. Submariners (20-39 years) were studied before and after a 3-month routine submarine patrol. Measures included anthropometrics, dietary and physical activity, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, energy and appetite regulation, and inflammation. Before deployment, 62% of submariners had a body fat % (BF%) ≥ 25% (obesity), and of this group, 30% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In obese volunteers, insulin, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, the leptin/adiponectin ratio, and pro-inflammatory chemokines growth-related oncogene and macrophage-derived chemokine were significantly higher compared to non-obese submariners. Following the patrol, a significant mean reduction in body mass (5%) and fat-mass (11%) occurred in the obese group as a result of reduced energy intake (~2000 kJ) during the patrol; and, independent of group, modest improvements in serum lipids and a mean reduction in interferon γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were observed. Since 43% of the submariners remained obese, and 18% continued to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome following the patrol, the magnitude of weight loss was insufficient to completely abolish metabolic dysfunction. Submergence up to 3-months, however, does not appear to be the cause of obesity, which is similar to that of the general population. PMID:26867201

  19. Medical Care and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... When to Call the Doctor During these early months, you may have many questions about your baby's ...

  20. Learning, Play, and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Learning, Play, and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, Play, and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Print A A A Text Size What's ... start responding even more to you during these months — and will even give you a smile! Babies ...

  1. Senses and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... enjoy listening to music (play a variety of styles) and may be fascinated by the routine sounds ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Vision Communication and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding ...

  2. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  3. Study of gratings with variable periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel; Toxqui-López, Santa; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge; Mejias-Brizuela, Nildia Y.

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical study with sinusoidal amplitude diffraction gratings, elaborated with variable periods is shown. The diffraction pattern behavior and the symmetry degree of the gratings were observed. The grating period is increased, fringe to fringe, starting with a small period and ending with a big period that is; the grating edge, start with high spatial frequency and finish with low spatial frequency. This gratings modulation causes a widening in the diffracted orders.

  4. Latent Learning and Deferred Imitation at 3 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campanella, Jennifer; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Young infants spend most of their waking time looking around, but whether they learn anything about what they see is unknown. We used a sensory preconditioning paradigm and a deferred imitation task to assess if 3-month-olds formed a latent association between 2 objects (S[subscript 1], S[subscript 2]) that they merely saw together. Because…

  5. Emotional and Social Development: Birth to 3 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Emotional and Social Development: Birth to 3 Months Page Content Article Body By the second month, your baby will spend much of each day ... he can smile, too. Even during his first month, he’ll experiment with primitive grins and grimaces. ...

  6. Complete transurethral bladder eversion 3 months after hemipelvectomy.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Gregory; Mandalapu, Subbarao; Gilleran, Jason

    2010-02-01

    A 46-year-old white female underwent a left hemipelvectomy for chondrosarcoma. She presented with total incontinence and a bulging vaginal mass. Exam confirmed complete transurethral bladder eversion that was addressed with transvaginal multilayer bladder neck closure and suprapubic tube placement. Eventually she underwent abdominal hysterectomy, mesh sacral colpopexy, and catheterizable stoma creation. Patient is continent of urine 3 months postoperatively. We present the first reported case of bladder eversion after hemipelvectomy and propose possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:19629370

  7. Influence of 3 months endurance training on red cell deformability in non insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, B; Opitz, D; Bloch, W; Brixius, K

    2013-08-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine if 3 months of bicycle endurance training alters the red cell deformability in non insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus men.The red cell deformability was measured with the Laser assisted optical rotational cell analyzer. The maximal elongation index and the semimaximal shear stress were measured with the Lineweaver Burke model.At the beginning and the end of the intervention the patients passed a bicycle ergometry test. As a reference group, 13 males without diabetes passed the same testing procedure. Blood samplings were taken before testing, immediately after physical exhaustion and after a 30 min recovery phase.After the training period diabetic patients could significantly reduce BMI, fasting glucose and HbA1c. The reference group had significantly higher elongation indices than the diabetes patients independent from training status. After the training period the basal values of the maximal elongation index did not change significantly. However, maximal elongation indices were significantly reduced after physical examination and in resting time.The semimaximal shear stress of diabetes patients did not alter during the training period. In comparison to the reference group semimaximal shear stress was significantly reduced at all measurement times.This pilot study proves that the maximal elongation index is significantly decreased in diabetes mellitus patients. After 3 months endurance training the red cells become more rigid while the semimaximal shear stress remains constant. Further interventions are required to analyze the exact cause of the presented findings.

  8. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  9. A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of an extra-strength marine protein supplement to promote hair growth and decrease shedding in women with self-perceived thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2015-01-01

    An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4 cm(2) area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360.

  10. A 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Ability of an Extra-Strength Marine Protein Supplement to Promote Hair Growth and Decrease Shedding in Women with Self-Perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    Ablon, Glynis

    2015-01-01

    An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4 cm2 area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360. PMID:25883641

  11. Patient-reported outcomes 3 months after spine surgery: is it an accurate predictor of 12-month outcome in real-world registry platforms?

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Asher, Anthony L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The health care landscape is rapidly shifting to incentivize quality of care rather than quantity of care. Quality and outcomes registry platforms lie at the center of all emerging evidence-driven reform models and will be used to inform decision makers in health care delivery. Obtaining real-world registry outcomes data from patients 12 months after spine surgery remains a challenge. The authors set out to determine whether 3-month patient-reported outcomes accurately predict 12-month outcomes and, hence, whether 3-month measurement systems suffice to identify effective versus noneffective spine care. METHODS All patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative disease at a single medical institution over a 2-year period were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal registry. Patient-reported outcome instruments (numeric rating scale [NRS], Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], EQ-5D, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were recorded prospectively at baseline and at 3 months and 12 months after surgery. Linear regression was performed to determine the independent association of 3- and 12-month outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine whether improvement in general health state (EQ-5D) and disability (ODI) at 3 months accurately predicted improvement and achievement of minimum clinical important difference (MCID) at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 593 patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were included in the study. There was a significant correlation between 3-month and 12-month EQ-5D (r = 0.71; p < 0.0001) and ODI (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001); however, the authors observed a sizable discrepancy in achievement of a clinically significant improvement (MCID) threshold at 3 versus 12 months on an individual patient level. For postoperative disability (ODI), 11.5% of patients who achieved an MCID threshold at 3 months dropped below this threshold at 12 months; 10

  12. Mental Rotation of Dynamic, Three-Dimensional Stimuli by 3-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David S.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    Mental rotation involves transforming a mental image of an object so as to accurately predict how the object would look if it were rotated in space. This study examined mental rotation in male and female 3-month-olds, using the stimuli and paradigm developed by Moore and Johnson (2008). Infants were habituated to a video of a three-dimensional…

  13. A Smile Enhances 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Montirosso, Rosario; Brenna, Viola; Ferrara, Veronica; Borgatti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that in adults and children recognition of face identity and facial expression mutually interact (Bate, Haslam, & Hodgson, 2009; Spangler, Schwarzer, Korell, & Maier-Karius, 2010). Here, using a familiarization paradigm, we explored the relation between these processes in early infancy, investigating whether 3-month-old…

  14. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  15. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  16. Jointly structuring triadic spaces of meaning and action: book sharing from 3 months on

    PubMed Central

    Rossmanith, Nicole; Costall, Alan; Reichelt, Andreas F.; López, Beatriz; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the emergence of triadic interactions through the example of book sharing. As part of a naturalistic study, 10 infants were visited in their homes from 3–12 months. We report that (1) book sharing as a form of infant-caregiver-object interaction occurred from as early as 3 months. Using qualitative video analysis at a micro-level adapting methodologies from conversation and interaction analysis, we demonstrate that caregivers and infants practiced book sharing in a highly co-ordinated way, with caregivers carving out interaction units and shaping actions into action arcs and infants actively participating and co-ordinating their attention between mother and object from the beginning. We also (2) sketch a developmental trajectory of book sharing over the first year and show that the quality and dynamics of book sharing interactions underwent considerable change as the ecological situation was transformed in parallel with the infants' development of attention and motor skills. Social book sharing interactions reached an early peak at 6 months with the infants becoming more active in the coordination of attention between caregiver and book. From 7 to 9 months, the infants shifted their interest largely to solitary object exploration, in parallel with newly emerging postural and object manipulation skills, disrupting the social coordination and the cultural frame of book sharing. In the period from 9 to 12 months, social book interactions resurfaced, as infants began to effectively integrate manual object actions within the socially shared activity. In conclusion, to fully understand the development and qualities of triadic cultural activities such as book sharing, we need to look especially at the hitherto overlooked early period from 4 to 6 months, and investigate how shared spaces of meaning and action are structured together in and through interaction, creating the substrate for continuing cooperation and cultural learning. PMID:25540629

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting practices 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Balbierz, Amy; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Wang, Jason J; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, we examined the association between postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting practices among a diverse group of mothers. We examined the association between safety practices (back sleep position, car seat use, smoke alarm), feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant intake of cereal, juice, water), and health care practices (routine well child and Emergency Room (ER) visits) with 3-month postpartum depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS ≥10). Fifty-one percent of mothers were black or Latina, 33 % had Medicaid, and 30 % were foreign born. Depressed mothers were less likely to have their infant use back sleep position (60 vs. 79 %, p < .001), always use a car seat (67 vs. 84 %, p < .001), more likely to feed their infants water, juice, or cereal (36 vs. 25 %, p = .04 respectively), and to bring their babies for ER visits (26 vs. 16 %, p = .03) as compared with non-depressed mothers. In multivariable model, depressed mothers remained less likely to have their infant use the back sleep position, to use a car seat, and to have a working smoke alarm in the home. Findings suggest the need to intervene early among mothers with depressive symptoms and reinforce positive parenting practices. PMID:25374288

  18. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Meckel's diverticulum and malrotation in a 3-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Basani, Laxman; Aepala, Roja; Mohan Reddy, B. Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common developmental anomaly that usually presents in the neonatal period. It is known to be associated with cardiac, renal, genital and chromosomal anomalies. Late presentation of CDH (beyond 1-month of age) is seen in 13% of the cases. Malrotation is reported in 42% of CDH cases. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant with concurrent CDH, Meckel's diverticulum and malrotation. This is the first case report of such an association in an infant. PMID:27251525

  19. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Meckel's diverticulum and malrotation in a 3-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Basani, Laxman; Aepala, Roja; Reddy, B Madhu Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common developmental anomaly that usually presents in the neonatal period. It is known to be associated with cardiac, renal, genital and chromosomal anomalies. Late presentation of CDH (beyond 1-month of age) is seen in 13% of the cases. Malrotation is reported in 42% of CDH cases. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant with concurrent CDH, Meckel's diverticulum and malrotation. This is the first case report of such an association in an infant. PMID:27251525

  20. Flow over periodic hills: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ch.; Manhart, M.

    2011-07-01

    Two-dimensional flow over periodically arranged hills was investigated experimentally in a water channel. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) and one-dimensional laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were undertaken at four Reynolds numbers ({5,600} le Re le {37,000}). Two-dimensional PIV field measurements were thoroughly validated by means of point-by-point 1D LDA measurements at certain positions of the flow. A detailed study of the periodicity and the homogeneity was undertaken, which demonstrates that the flow can be regarded as two-dimensional and periodic for Re ge {10,000}. We found a decreasing reattachment length with increasing Reynolds number. This is connected to a higher momentum in the near-wall zone close to flow separation which comes from the velocity speed up above the obstacle. This leads to a velocity overshoot directly above the hill crest which increases with Reynolds number as the inner layer depth decreases. The flow speed up above that layer is independent of the Reynolds number which supports the assumption of inviscid flow disturbance in the outer layer usually made in asymptotic theory for flow over small hills.

  1. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  2. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gengoux, Grace W; Berquist, Kari L; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M; Frazier, Thomas W; Minjarez, Mendy B; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2015-09-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant improvement in frequency of functional utterances, with maintenance at 3-month follow-up [F(2, 21): 5.9, p = .009]. Children also made significant gains on the Vineland Communication Domain Standard Score [F(2, 12):11.74, p = .001] and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning Composite score [F(1, 20) = 5.43, p = .03]. These results suggest that a brief PRT parent group intervention can lead to improvements in language and cognitive functioning that are maintained 12 weeks post treatment.

  3. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  4. Observed coparenting and triadic dynamics in African American fragile families at 3 months' postpartum.

    PubMed

    McHale, James P; Coates, Erica E

    2014-01-01

    This report examines coparenting and triadic interactions in 19 unmarried, first-time African American families as fathers, mothers, and 3-month-old infants navigated the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP; E. Fivaz-Depeursinge & A. Corboz-Warnery, ). Parents in 10 of the 19 families reported coresidence at the time of the 3-month assessment, and the other 9 sets of coparents lived apart. All participating families had taken part in a prenatal intervention emphasizing the importance of father engagement in children's lives, and in all families, parents reported episodic to regular father contact with the children at 3 months. Analyses of LTP sessions revealed that 9 of the 19 families exhibited high levels of coparenting solidarity-cooperation and family warmth accompanied by low levels of coparenting competition and disengagement. Among the remaining 10 families, competitiveness (verbal sparring, interference) and/or disengagement (repeated, episodic absenting by one or both parents from the ongoing interaction) signaled strain and challenges to solidarity. Differences between the higher and lower solidarity groups were found in father-reported relationship rapport. However, coresidentiality versus noncoresidentiality of the parents did not distinguish high- from low-solidarity groups. A case analysis of one family's triadic session is presented to elucidate the rich potential for clinical intervention in triadic work with fragile family systems. Implications of the study and its findings for theory, research, and clinical work with unmarried fathers and families, along with limits of the study design and generalizability of findings, are discussed.

  5. The Relationship between Gentle Tactile Stimulation on the Fetus and Its Temperament 3 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe-Wei; Hua, Jing; Xu, Yu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in its temperament 3 months after birth. Method. A total of 302 mother-3-month-infant dyads enrolled the retrospective cohort study. 76 mothers had regular gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in their pregnancy; 62 mothers had irregular tactile stimulation on the fetus, and the rest of 164 mothers who had no tactile stimulation served as nonexposure group. Temperament was assessed using the EITS (a nine-dimensional scale of temperament). Results. Significant difference in temperament type was found among infants in 3 groups at 3 months of age. In the regular practice group, the babies with easy type temperament accounted for 73.7%, which was higher than that in irregular practice group (53.2%, P = 0.012) and that in the control group (42.1%, P < 0.001). Compared to infants in no practice group, the infants who had received regular gentle tactile stimulation before birth were lower in negative mood (P = 0.047) while higher in adaptability (P < 0.001), approach (P = 0.001), and persistence (P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. Regular gentle tactile stimulation on fetus may promote the formation of easy type infant temperament. PMID:26180374

  6. Observed coparenting and triadic dynamics in African American fragile families at 3 months' postpartum.

    PubMed

    McHale, James P; Coates, Erica E

    2014-01-01

    This report examines coparenting and triadic interactions in 19 unmarried, first-time African American families as fathers, mothers, and 3-month-old infants navigated the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP; E. Fivaz-Depeursinge & A. Corboz-Warnery, ). Parents in 10 of the 19 families reported coresidence at the time of the 3-month assessment, and the other 9 sets of coparents lived apart. All participating families had taken part in a prenatal intervention emphasizing the importance of father engagement in children's lives, and in all families, parents reported episodic to regular father contact with the children at 3 months. Analyses of LTP sessions revealed that 9 of the 19 families exhibited high levels of coparenting solidarity-cooperation and family warmth accompanied by low levels of coparenting competition and disengagement. Among the remaining 10 families, competitiveness (verbal sparring, interference) and/or disengagement (repeated, episodic absenting by one or both parents from the ongoing interaction) signaled strain and challenges to solidarity. Differences between the higher and lower solidarity groups were found in father-reported relationship rapport. However, coresidentiality versus noncoresidentiality of the parents did not distinguish high- from low-solidarity groups. A case analysis of one family's triadic session is presented to elucidate the rich potential for clinical intervention in triadic work with fragile family systems. Implications of the study and its findings for theory, research, and clinical work with unmarried fathers and families, along with limits of the study design and generalizability of findings, are discussed. PMID:25798494

  7. Comparison of CAIRS and STATUS Information Storage and Retrieval Software over a 3-Month Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoey, P. O'N.

    1982-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food conducted an operational evaluation of the software packages CAIRS and STATUS, which were used to build databases and databanks. Setting up the trial, types of data involved (chemical products used as pesticides), searching and presentation of data, and the final choice are covered. (EJS)

  8. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  9. Serum Soluble Corin Deficiency Predicts Major Disability within 3 Months after Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Serum soluble corin has been associated with stroke. However, whether it is associated with stroke prognosis has not yet been studied. Therefore, we aimed to study the association of serum soluble corin with risk of poor outcomes within 3 months after stroke. Methods We followed 522 stroke patients for 3 months to identify major disability, death and vascular events. Serum soluble corin was measured at baseline for all participants. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of baseline serum soluble corin with outcomes of stroke, adjusting for age, sex, baseline NIHSS score, hours from onset to hospitalization, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, family history of stroke, and stroke subtype. Results Patients with high corin had a significantly lower crude risk for the composite outcome of major disability or death (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.43–0.96) than patients with low corin (the lowest tertile). After adjustment for age and baseline NIHSS score, patients with high corin still had a significantly lower risk for the composite outcome of major disability or death (OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.36–0.99). This association became bottom line significant after additionally adjusting for other conventional factors (OR = 0.61, P = 0.058). No association was found between serum soluble corin and other composite outcomes. Conclusion Serum soluble corin deficiency predicted risk for major disability within 3 months after stroke, independent of baseline neurological deficient. Our results may indicate a probable role of corin in stroke prognosis. PMID:27658255

  10. Septic Arthritis in Infants Younger Than 3 Months: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Bono, Kenneth T; Samora, Julie Balch; Klingele, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Septic arthritis in infants is rare and can be difficult to diagnose. This study reviewed a series of patients younger than 3 months to identify factors that may assist in early diagnosis and treatment. A query of records at a large Midwestern pediatric hospital (1994-2010) was performed to identify all patients younger than 3 months at the time of diagnosis. Analysis included birth history, joint involvement, physical examination findings, laboratory results, imaging results, method of treatment, and outcome. In 14 cases (11 boys, 3 girls; mean age at diagnosis, 42.2 days), complete records were available for review. Involved joints included the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common findings on physical examination were decreased range of motion (100%), tenderness (100%), and swelling (71.4%). Mean temperature was 38.5°C. Mean white blood cell count was 18.5 K/µL, mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 48.9 mm/h, and mean C-reactive protein level was 6.1 mg/dL. More than half (57.1%) of joint aspirates grew positive cultures, and 41.7% of blood cultures had positive results. Causative organisms were group B streptococcus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Candida albicans. The most common physical examination findings in infants younger than 3 months with septic arthritis include tenderness, decreased range of motion, and swelling. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are likely to be elevated, but these findings should be used in combination with findings on physical examination and radiographic studies to aid in diagnosis.

  11. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  12. Parental Relationship with Twins from Pregnancy to 3 Months: The Relation Among Parenting Stress, Infant Temperament, and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Prino, Laura E.; Rollè, Luca; Sechi, Cristina; Patteri, Luciana; Ambrosoli, Anna; Caldarera, Angela M.; Gerino, Eva; Brustia, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The transition to parenthood, from pregnancy to postpartum period, is a critical process, particularly for couples expecting twins. There is very little literature regarding the links between anxiety, depression, dyadic adjustment, parental stress, and infant temperament spanning from pregnancy to postpartum. This study has two aims: first, to examine whether mothers’ and fathers’ anxiety, depression, and dyadic adjustment, assessed at the sixth month of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum, are associated with infants’ negative affectivity (NA) and parenting stress; second, to examine whether there is any difference between fathers’ and mothers’ levels of parenting stress and perception of the twins’ temperament, as well as to evaluate, separately for mothers and fathers, whether the levels of parenting stress and perception of child temperament differ for each twin. Method: The study participants were 58 parents (29 couples) and their healthy 58 twin babies (51.7% boys, 48.3% girls). Mothers’ ages ranged from 30 to 44 years, (MAge = 36.3 years, SD = 3.2 years), and fathers’ ages ranged from 32 to 52 years, (MAge = 38.2 years, SD = 4.4 years). The parents, during the pregnancy period and 3 months after delivery, filled out the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Three months after delivery they also filled out the Parenting Stress Index—Short Form and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised. Results: The analyses showed a significant correlation between parental anxiety/depression symptoms and infants’ NA and parenting stress (in both mothers and fathers). Moreover, compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on specific dimensions of the infants’ NA, [t(28) = -2.62 and p < 0.05; t(28) = 2.09 and p < 0.05], and parenting stress, [t(28) = 2.19 and p < 0.05; t(28) = 2.23 and p < 0.05], but only for Twin 2. Finally, the results showed that mothers

  13. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  14. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants'…

  15. Recognition of Faces and Greebles in 3-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Temperament and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Lamm, Bettina; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether temperament and cognitive abilities are related to recognition performance of Caucasian and African faces and of a nonfacial stimulus class, Greebles. Seventy Caucasian infants were tested at 3 months with a habituation/dishabituation paradigm and their temperament and cognitive abilities…

  16. Infants' Vocal Engagement Oriented towards Mother versus Stranger at 3 Months and Avoidant Attachment Behavior at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that mother avoidance in infants at the age of 12 months can be predicted by the infants' differential vocal engagement to mother versus a female stranger at the age of 3 months. Differential engagement in favor of the mother was supposed to relate to low future avoidance. The vocal behavior of 26…

  17. Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding as a Complication of Cystic Fibrosis in a 3-Month-Old Patient.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Farzaneh; Fallahi, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Faezeh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maedeh; Eftekhari, Kambiz; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease of mucous and sweat glands, which affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Herein, we describe a 3-month-old girl with a history of recurrent episodes of urinary tract infections that required hospitalization. She was referred to our center at the age of three months, with massive gastroesophageal variceal bleeding. In physical examination, she had clubbing, hepatosplenomegaly, and mild ascites. Laboratory studies revealed high serum levels of liver enzymes and low level of Albumin. As of suspicious to CF, sweat tests were performed twice which confirmed the diagnosis of CF. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices is a rare complication of CF, which could result as a consequence of hepatobiliary involvement of disease. Early diagnosis of CF could prevent severe complications and even death in this group of patients. PMID:27107529

  18. Visit-to-Visit Variability and Reduction in Blood Pressure After a 3-Month Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Fujimi, Kanta; Ueda, Takashi; Ueda, Yoko; Matsuda, Takuro; Sakamoto, Maaya; Arimura, Tadaaki; Shiga, Yuhei; Kitajima, Ken; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-09-28

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) in blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. It is unknown whether CR can improve VVV in BP as well as reducing BP. We enrolled 84 patients who had cardiovascular disease (CVD) and participated in a 3-month CR program. We measured systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and heart rate (HR) before exercise training at each visit and determined VVV in BP or HR expressed as the standard deviation of the average BP or HR. Patients who had uncontrolled BP at baseline and who did not change their antihypertensive drugs throughout the study period showed a significant reduction of both SBP and DBP with a decrease in PP after 3 months. Patients who did not change their antihypertensive drugs were divided into larger (L-) and smaller (S-) VVV in the SBP groups and L- and S-VVV in the DBP groups according to the average value of VVV in SBP or DBP. In the L-VVV in the SBP and DBP groups, VVV in SBP and DBP in the 1st month was significantly decreased after the 3rd month in both groups. HR at baseline was significantly decreased after 3 months. In addition, CR induced a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in blood. In conclusion, CR improved VVV in BP in patients with L-VVV in BP and evoked a significant reduction in HR and an increase in HDL-C. These effects due to the CR program may be cardioprotective.

  19. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving

  20. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving

  1. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  2. In the first 3 months after stroke is progressive resistance training safe and does it improve activity? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salter, Karen; Musovic, Amie; F Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND Progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve strength and function in people with chronic stroke, but less is known about whether this intervention is safe and beneficial during the first 3 months following stroke. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the evidence about the safety and effectiveness of PRT to improve activity in people within the first 3 months after stroke. METHODS After database searching and selection of studies a risk of bias assessment was conducted. Data for the primary outcome of safety was synthesised descriptively and meta-analyses for other outcomes were conducted using a random effects model. RESULTS The quality of the 5 included studies ranged from good to excellent (mean 24.2, range 20-28). For the trials investigating adverse events, none reported any significant increase in events after PRT. There was high level evidence that PRT had little or no effect on strength (SMD (standardized mean difference) 0.17, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.50, I(2) = 0%). There were no significant benefit for upper limb function (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.63, I(2) = 0%) and mobility (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.43, I(2) = 27%) after PRT compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS There was no evidence reported that PRT is unsafe in people within the first 3 months after stroke, although there was a lack of reporting about adverse events. The lack of demonstration of effect in improving muscle strength and activity suggests there is insufficient evidence to recommend the prescription of PRT for people within the first 3 months after stroke.

  3. Study of possible chaotic, quasi-periodic and periodic structures in quantum dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-11-15

    Existence of chaotic, quasi-periodic, and periodic structures of dust-ion acoustic waves is studied in quantum dusty plasmas through dynamical system approach. A system of coupled differential equations is derived from the fluid model and subsequently, variational matrix is obtained. The characteristic equation is obtained at the equilibrium point, and the behavior of nonlinear waves is studied numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The behavior of the dynamical system changes significantly when any of plasma parameters, such as the dust concentration parameter, temperature ratio, or the quantum diffraction parameter, is varied. The change of the characteristic of solution of the system is extensively studied. It is found that the system changes its behavior from chaotic pattern to limit cycle behavior.

  4. Transition to being the mother of a new infant in the first 3 months: maternal problem solving and self-appraisals.

    PubMed

    Pridham, K F; Chang, A S

    1992-02-01

    This study explored components of a model of transition to being the mother of a new infant during an infant's first 3 months. Personal and situational conditions and maternal problem-solving factors (issue formulating and the use of help with issues) that may influence transition markers (maternal appraisal of problem-solving competence and evaluation of parenting) were examined for two study periods: the first 30 days postpartum and the next 60 days. For the second study period, variables contributing to maternal attention to infant growth, development and temperament (knowing issues) were also explored. Questionnaires and a daily log kept by 62 mothers of healthy term infants were data sources. Everyday supports (situational condition) contributed to use of lay help for the second period. Caretaking issues positively influenced use of clinician help throughout the study. The number of knowing issues a mother formulated contributed positively to problem-solving competence and to parenting evaluation; the use of problem-solving help had no effect. More clinician help received during the first month meant higher need for maternal action for both knowing and caretaking issues in the second and third months. Further study of the mechanisms of these relationships and examination of factors contributing to shifts in the transition process are needed. PMID:1556329

  5. Effect of 3 months of doxazosin therapy on T-cell subsets in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mácsai, E; Cseh, A; Budai, G; Mészáros, G; Vásárhelyi, B; Fischer, K; Szabó, A; Treszl, A

    2009-01-01

    Doxazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor inhibitor, is commonly administered to patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and nephropathy. The impact of 3 months' doxazosin therapy on the prevalence of activated and regulatory T lymphocytes was analysed in this pilot study of men with type 2 diabetes (n = 10) who received doxazosin 4 mg/day in addition to their ongoing therapy. The prevalence of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD25(+) and CD69(+) cells at baseline and after 3 months of add-on therapy was determined. The prevalence of regulatory T-cells was detected by two different approaches: forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) positivity; and the number of CD4(+)CD25(+high) cells. During 3 months of doxazosin therapy, patients' blood pressure, blood glucose control and lipid profiles all significantly improved. Simultaneously, the prevalence of activated T-cells (CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD8(+)CD69(+) cells) decreased, whereas that of regulatory T-cells increased. These results indicate an immunomodulatory action of doxazosin in type 2 diabetic patients.

  6. Action Experience Alters 3-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, J.A.; Woodward, A.L.; Needham, A.

    2005-01-01

    An intervention facilitated 3-month-old infants' apprehension of objects either prior to (reach first), or after (watch first) viewing another person grasp similar objects in a visual habituation procedure. Action experience facilitated action perception: reach-first infants focused on the relation between the actor and her goal, but watch-first…

  7. The adverse effect of spasticity on 3-month poststroke outcome using a population-based model.

    PubMed

    Belagaje, S R; Lindsell, C; Moomaw, C J; Alwell, K; Flaherty, M L; Woo, D; Dunning, K; Khatri, P; Adeoye, O; Kleindorfer, D; Broderick, J; Kissela, B

    2014-01-01

    Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity's impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question "Did you have spasticity following your stroke?" on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n = 30) or did not have spasticity data available (n = 102) were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β = 0.420, 95 CI = 0.194 to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model's R (2) changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. PMID:25147752

  8. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Belagaje, S. R.; Lindsell, C.; Moomaw, C. J.; Alwell, K.; Flaherty, M. L.; Woo, D.; Dunning, K.; Khatri, P.; Adeoye, O.; Kleindorfer, D.; Broderick, J.; Kissela, B.

    2014-01-01

    Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity's impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n = 30) or did not have spasticity data available (n = 102) were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β = 0.420, 95 CI = 0.194 to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model's R2 changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. PMID:25147752

  9. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  10. Comparative study of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis from idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis: An experience from India

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, J.; Goyal, G.; Bhoi, S. K.; Chandra, S.; Misra, U. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is paucity of reports on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) from India. We report the patients with TPP and compare them with idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (IHPP). Materials and Methods: Patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) treated during the past 11 years were evaluated retrospectively. Their demographic parameters, family history, clinical features, precipitating factors, severity of weakness, laboratory parameters and rapidity of recovery were recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of TPP and IHPP were compared. Results: During the study period, we managed 52 patients with HPP; nine (17.3%) of whom had TPP and 27 (52%) had IHPP. The demographic, precipitating factors, number of attacks and severity of limb weakness were similar between the TPP and IHPP groups, except in the IHPP group, bulbar weakness was present in four and respiratory paralysis in six, needing artificial ventilation in two patients. Serum potassium was significantly lower in TPP (2.21 ± 0.49) compared with IHPP (2.67 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). Four patients with TPP had subclinical thyrotoxicosis and two had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Rebound hyperkalemia occurred in both TPP and IHPP (three versus eight patients). The recovery was faster in IHPP (26.7 ± 15.4 h) compared with TPP (34.0 ± 14.0 h), but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: TPP constitutes 17.3% of HPP, and absence of clinical features of thyrotoxicosis and subclinical hyperthyroidism in TPP is not uncommon. Clinical features, demographic profile and rebound hyperkalemia are similar in both TPP and IHPP. The serum potassium level is significantly low in the TPP compared with the IHPP group. PMID:22919190

  11. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

  13. Critical appraisal of 3-monthly paliperidone depot injections in the treatment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Aims Three-monthly injections of paliperidone palmitate (PP-3M) represent a new and recently introduced long-acting antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review focuses on available data relating to the efficacy and safety of PP-3M and its position in the current therapeutic scenario. Method An analysis of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted, and all available papers on PP-3M, including poster presentations, were selected and considered for the purpose of the present review. Findings: to date, three full papers have been published, the first, a Phase 1 randomized, open label study investigating the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the drug; the second, a Phase 3 double blind study vs placebo focusing on efficacy and tolerability; and the last relating to the practical use of PP-3M. The five posters identified describe data reported in the above-cited papers. Overall, the pharmacokinetic findings obtained in these studies highlight the feasibility of administering PP-3M on a 3-monthly basis, subsequent to the administration of four 1-monthly injections of PP at doses 3.5 times higher than the stabilized dose of 1-monthly injections of PP (ie, 175, 300, 450, and 525 mgs). The published studies highlight a significantly longer time to relapse compared to placebo, and significantly better results compared to placebo for all secondary end-points (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, Personal and Social Performance Scale scores), in addition to reasonably good safety and tolerability profiles. Conclusion PP-3M emerges as a potential candidate for use as a first-line long-acting agent in the maintenance treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Further studies should however be conducted to confirm this expectation. In view of its efficacy, tolerability, and safety, together with the longer timespan between injections, PP-3M currently represents one of the best available options, and

  14. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  15. Postnatal depression among Sudanese women: prevalence and validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Dina Sami; Glavin, Kari; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postnatal depression (PND) rates in low-resource countries have reached levels between 4.9% and 59%. Maternal mental health has not been researched in Sudan, and there are no existing statistics on prevalence or significant risk factors for PND. Consequently, no screening test has been validated to screen for PND at the primary health care level. This study investigates the 3 months prevalence of PND and validates the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) against the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methodology Pregnant Sudanese women in the second and third trimesters were recruited to the study during routine antenatal care visits in two major maternity hospitals in Khartoum state. They were screened for PND at 3 months postpartum using the EPDS. Test positive women were matched with test negative women according to nearest date of birth. A clinical psychologist verified their depression status using the MINI. Results The follow-up rate was 79%. At a cutoff point of ≥12, the 3 months prevalence of PND was 9.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EPDS were 89% and 82%, respectively. The EPDS and MINI showed a strong positive relationship (odds ratio =36). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value, using this study’s prevalence, were 33% and 98.7%, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.89. The cut-off point ≥12 was the most acceptable point as it had the lowest number needed to diagnose (1.4) and a false-positive rate of 18%. Conclusion The EPDS is a valid tool for screening for PND on a Sudanese population. It was accepted, easily administered, and understood by postnatal women. Health care personnel, especially village midwives, should be trained on screening and referral of depressed women for clinical evaluation and management. Due to limited resources available in Sudan, shorter screening tests need to be validated in the future. PMID

  16. Blunt traumatic infrarenal aortic intimal flap progressing to pseudoaneurysm over 3 months

    PubMed Central

    Carr, John Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Blunt traumatic infrarenal aortic injuries are unusual, and the formation of a delayed pseudoaneurysm of the aorta is even more rare. In this report, a young woman developed a small intimal flap of the infrarenal aorta after a motor vehicle accident which progressed into a 3 cm pseudoaneurysm after 3 months. Operative repair was successful and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the importance of repeat imaging of small blunt aortic injuries since progression can occur. PMID:27252519

  17. Long term photometric and period study of AU Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, Birol

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, the activity of the eclipsing binary AU Ser is examined by analyzing the photometric data covering the period from 1969 till 2003. The orbital-period changes and light-curve variations of the binary system are studied. 4 new times of minima are obtained from our data. A period study covering almost 60,000 cycles based on the visual, photoelectric and CCD times of minima confirms the light-time effect of the system with a period of 94.15 year. With the assumption of a coplanar orbit of the third-body we find a mass of m3 = 0.53 M⊙. Including our data a total of six light curves are formed from the observations published in the literature that are completely covered in B and V. The differences between the two maxima in each light curve appear to be cyclic over a time-scale over 30 years. Based on a spot model, the light curves are analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney code. Using the spectroscopic mass ratio obtained by Hrivnak [Hrivnak, B.J., 1993. in: Leung, K.-C., Nha, I.S., Eds., New Frontiers in Binary Star Research, ASP Conference Series 38, p. 269] the masses and radii for the components are deduced as 0.895 M⊙, 0.635 M⊙, 1.10 R⊙, 0.94 R⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively.

  18. Effect of colostrum redox balance on the oxidative status of calves during the first 3 months of life and the relationship with passive immune acquisition.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, Angel; Pérez-Santos, María; Hernández, Joaquín; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    New-born calves depend upon colostrum intake for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and other beneficial substances. However, colostrum is also a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intrinsic production of ROS also increases after birth, so the combination of colostral and intrinsic ROS could overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of the calf leading to oxidative stress (OS), a condition that has been shown to play a key role in the initiation and development of several pathological conditions. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effects of the redox balance of colostrum on the oxidative status of calves and on passive immune transfer. Serum samples were taken from 20 calves on their day of birth, every week during their first month of life and at 2 and 3 months of age, and the concentrations of ROS and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC) assayed. The oxidative/anti-oxidative profile and IgG content of the colostrum were also assessed. The redox balance of the colostrum had a significant effect on both calf oxidative status and on passive immune transfer (as measured by calf serum IgG concentration), which indicates that the oxidative/antioxidative profile of colostrum should be measured when colostrum quality is assessed. The highest risk of OS during the study period was found to be when the calves were fed artificial milk replacer; this suggests that calves should be supplemented with antioxidants during this period in order to minimize any harmful consequences of high ROS generation.

  19. Effect of marginal maternal zinc intake on zinc absorption and growth of 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.K.; Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Golub, M.S.; Hendrickx, A.G.; Gershwin, M.E. )

    1990-09-01

    One compensatory mechanism for marginal zinc intake may be through an enhanced absorption of zinc. Such a compensatory mechanism could be of value to the neonate, as poor zinc nutriture during early life has severe consequences on growth and development. We studied the uptake of zinc by 3-month-old infant rhesus monkeys born to dams fed control diets 100 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet or zinc-restricted diets (4 micrograms of zinc per gram of diet). Zinc uptake/retention was studied by feeding 3-month-old infant monkeys that had fasted an infant formula containing zinc 65 by gavage. Whole body radioactivity was counted immediately after intubation and on days 10 and 17 after intubation. Regardless of dietary group, 65-zinc retention was high, ranging from 33% to 71% of the dose fed to the monkeys. There were no significant differences between the two dietary groups in the percentage of zinc retention at days 10 and 17. Independent of the dietary group, there was no correlation between plasma zinc and zinc absorption. A positive correlation was found between weight gain and zinc retention in the marginal zinc infants, while a negative correlation between weight gain and zinc retention was observed in the control infants. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying growth may be different in infants born to dams fed control vs marginal zinc diets.

  20. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  1. Solitary Myofibroma of the Bladder Trigone in a 3-Month-Old Patient: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pensabene, Marco; Siracusa, Fortunato; Rodolico, Vito; Li Voti, Giuseppe; Zambaiti, Elisa; Cimador, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Visceral solitary myofibromas are uncommon in childhood. We report a case of a solitary asymptomatic visceral myofibroma of the bladder trigone occurring in a 3-month-old boy. Once malignancies were ruled out by cystoscopy, radical excision was performed in order to avoid any potential impairment of bladder dynamic. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient was discharged on day 3 after surgery. After 36 months of follow-up, the patient is toilet-trained and remains well; bladder function is normal. PMID:27242942

  2. Mortality in the First 3 Months on Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Positive Adults in Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Useem, Johanna; Garrison, Lindsey; Fox, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Previous meta-analyses reported mortality estimates of 12-month post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; however, 40%-60% of deaths occur in the first 3 months on ART, a more sensitive measure of averted deaths through early ART initiation. To determine whether early mortality is dropping as treatment thresholds have increased, we reviewed studies of 3 months on ART initiation in low- to middle-income countries. Studies of 3-month mortality from January 2003 to April 2016 were searched in 5 databases. Articles were included that reported 3-month mortality from a low- to middle-income country; nontrial setting and participants were ≥15. We assessed overall mortality and stratified by year using random effects models. Among 58 included studies, although not significant, pooled estimates show a decline in mortality when comparing studies whose enrollment of patients ended before 2010 (7.0%; 95% CI: 6.0 to 8.0) with the studies during or after 2010 (4.0%; 95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0). To continue to reduce early HIV-related mortality at the population level, intensified efforts to increase demand for ART through active testing and facilitated referral should be a priority. Continued financial investments by multinational partners and the implementation of creative interventions to mitigate multidimensional complex barriers of accessing care and treatment for HIV are needed. PMID:27513571

  3. Orientation tuning in the visual cortex of 3-month-old human infants.

    PubMed

    Baker, Thomas J; Norcia, Anthony M; Candy, T Rowan

    2011-03-01

    Sensitivity to orientation is critical for making a whole and complete picture of the world. We measured the orientation tuning of mechanisms in the visual cortex of typically developing 3-month-olds and adults using a nonlinear analysis of the two-input steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (VEP). Two gratings, one a fixed test and the other a variable orientation masker were tagged with distinct temporal frequencies and the corresponding evoked responses were measured at the harmonics of the test and masker frequencies and at a frequency equal to the sum of the two stimulus frequencies. The magnitude of the sum frequency component depended strongly on the relative orientation of the test and masker in both infants and adults. The VEP tuning bandwidths of the 3-month-olds measured at the sum frequency were similar to those of adults, suggesting that behavioral immaturities in functions such as orientation discrimination and contour integration may result from other immaturities in long-range lateral projections or feedback mechanisms.

  4. Posterior Urethral Polyp: First Holmium-YAG Laser Ablation on a 3-Month-Old Infant

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Ercument; Yapanoglu, Turgut; Adanur, Senol; Ziypak, Tevfik; Altay, Mehmet Sefa; Aksoy, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Urethral polyps are rare benign pathologies seen in the male posterior urethra, more frequently originating from verumontanum. In this article, we aimed to discuss diagnosis and treatment of a urethral polyp causing hematuria and urinary infection in a 3-month-old male infant. This is the first case in the literature in which a urethral polyp is treated with Holmium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser. Case Presentation: The patient was a 3-month-old male infant, and complains were hematuria and crying during micturition. Ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrogram were used for diagnosis. Urethral polyp was observed on urethrocystoscopy. Ablation was performed with a newborn cystoscope. Conclusion: Urethral polyp can cause hematuria and urinary obstruction and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pathologies such as posterior urethral valve and cecoureterocele that could cause infravesical obstruction. Holmium-YAG laser is a good choice of treatment with easy application possibilities using a newborn cystoscope, especially for newborns and infants who have thin urethra. PMID:27579428

  5. Action experience alters 3-month-old infants’ perception of others’ actions

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    An intervention facilitated 3-month-old infants’ apprehension of objects either prior to (reach first), or after (watch first) viewing another person grasp similar objects in a visual habituation procedure. Action experience facilitated action perception: reach-first infants focused on the relation between the actor and her goal, but watch-first infants did not. Infants’ sensitivity to the actor’s goal was correlated with their engagement in object-directed contact with the toys. These findings indicate that infants can rapidly form goal-based action representations and suggest a developmental link between infants’ goal directed actions and their ability to detect goals in the actions of others. PMID:15833301

  6. A Study of Transition: The New Nurse Graduate at 3 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerton, Mary-Lou; Gregor, Frances

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with 11 nurses three months after graduation showed they were focused on skills and procedural aspects of care, lacked capacity for patient communication, and relied on routines learned from experienced nurses. They were at the advanced beginner stage of Benner's typology of practice. (Contains 11 references.) (SK)

  7. A 3-month intervention of Dance Dance Revolution improves interference control in elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lan-Ya; Hung, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Exercise regimens suitable to the elderly remain under investigated; therefore, this study examined the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on cognitive control in elderly females. Twenty-six healthy elderly females leading a sedentary lifestyle were assigned to a DDR, brisk walking, or control group. Participants in the DDR and brisk walking groups engaged in moderate physical exercise three times per week for 3 months, whereas the control group maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Each participant performed a flanker task before and after the intervention. The results revealed that both DDR and brisk walking shortened reaction time, N2 latency, and P3 latency relative to those of the control group. These findings suggest that DDR intervention is as effective as that of brisk walking in improving inhibitory control for elderly people. Therefore, DDR can be used as a viable alternative exercise to enhance cognitive function for the elderly and motivate individuals who are less willing to be active. PMID:25595954

  8. A 3-month intervention of Dance Dance Revolution improves interference control in elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lan-Ya; Hung, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Exercise regimens suitable to the elderly remain under investigated; therefore, this study examined the effects of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) on cognitive control in elderly females. Twenty-six healthy elderly females leading a sedentary lifestyle were assigned to a DDR, brisk walking, or control group. Participants in the DDR and brisk walking groups engaged in moderate physical exercise three times per week for 3 months, whereas the control group maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Each participant performed a flanker task before and after the intervention. The results revealed that both DDR and brisk walking shortened reaction time, N2 latency, and P3 latency relative to those of the control group. These findings suggest that DDR intervention is as effective as that of brisk walking in improving inhibitory control for elderly people. Therefore, DDR can be used as a viable alternative exercise to enhance cognitive function for the elderly and motivate individuals who are less willing to be active.

  9. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  10. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1 g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8 h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8 h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8 h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8 h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover.

  11. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  12. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  13. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  14. Ethyl glucuronide in human hair after daily consumption of 16 or 32 g of ethanol for 3 months.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Brinkhagen, Linda; Nyström, Fredrik H

    2012-02-10

    The overall objectives of the study were to develop a sensitive method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination in hair and then investigate if a low or moderate intake of ethanol could be differentiated from total abstinence. Forty-four subjects were included in the study, 12 males (7 drinkers and 5 abstinent) and 32 females (14 drinkers and 18 abstinent). The study lasted 3 months and the female drinkers consumed one glass (16 g of ethanol) and the males consumed two glasses (32 g of ethanol) of wine (13.5-14%) daily. Hair samples were collected as close as possible above the skin and the proximal 2 cm were analyzed for EtG. Hair was cut into pieces of about 0.5 cm length and washed before incubation overnight in water and then extracted on Clean Screen EtG Carbon columns. The LC/MS/MS system consisted of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC connected to an API 4000 triple quadrupole instrument. Two transitions for EtG and one for the internal standard EtG-D(5) were measured. The method was linear from 60 to 10,000 pg/sample. Imprecision studies were performed at three levels as well as with an authentic sample. Total imprecision was 16% at 200 pg/sample, 8% at 1000 pg/sample, 6% at 8000 pg/sample and 13% at 29 pg/mg in the authentic sample. Of those who drank two glasses of wine every day, four had measurable amounts of EtG in their hair (5-11 pg/mg), and in only one of the females drinking one glass of wine EtG was quantified (3 pg/mg). Among the 23 abstinent subjects two had traces of EtG in the hair. We conclude that persons who ingested 16 or 32 g of ethanol daily for 3 months presented with low concentrations of EtG in hair, well below the proposed threshold for overconsumption set at 30 pg/mg. In addition, none of those who ingested 16 g/day had concentrations over the proposed abstinence threshold of 7 pg/mg. PMID:21367545

  15. Safety of aerosol tobramycin administration for 3 months to patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Ramsey, B W; Hedges, D L; Hack, B; Williams-Warren, J; Weber, A; Gore, E J; Redding, G J

    1989-01-01

    To determine the potential toxicity of prolonged aerosol tobramycin administration, 22 patients with cystic fibrosis were monitored while receiving inhaled tobramycin three times a day for 12 weeks. Prior to, four times during administration and approximately 6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment, we assessed pulmonary function, weight, height, body temperature, eighth cranial nerve function, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urinary creatinine clearance, plasma iothalamate clearance, urinary beta-2 microglobulin concentration, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa density in sputum. There was no detectable laboratory evidence of nephrotoxicity. Neither a decrease in auditory acuity (range 250-20,000 Hz) nor vestibular dysfunction was detected. Pulmonary function tests significantly improved during the first month in all subjects (P less than 0.05) but returned to enrollment values by the end of the 12th week of administration of tobramycin aerosol. Sputum P. aeruginosa density initially decreased from a mean of 10(7) cfu/gm to a mean of 10(4) cfu/gm after 2 weeks of aerosol tobramycin administration and remained significantly below the enrollment value throughout. Coincident with the reduced bacterial density, a reduction in cough frequency and sputum production, as well as a weight gain was observed. Seventy-three percent of the patients with sputum P. aeruginosa isolates susceptible to tobramycin on enrollment yielded resistant organisms during aerosol administration. However, 1 year later all sputum P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from patients were susceptible to tobramycin. We conclude that thrice daily aerosol tobramycin administration for 3 months is not associated with detectable eighth cranial nerve or renal toxicity. Transient emergence of tobramycin resistant P. aeruginosa may occur.

  16. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  17. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  18. Studies of Long Period Variability in Neutron Star HMXB Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindl, William A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to investigate the long term, quasi-periodic variability of the X-ray emission from the accreting X-ray pulsars LMC X-4 and SMC X-1. These high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) sources are known to vary in a nearly periodic fashion with cycle lengths of about 30 and 60 days respectively. The prevailing model for such behavior is that it is due to the precession of a tilted accretion disk around the neutron star which is the source of the X-ray emission. As the disk precesses, it periodically obscures the emitting region, resulting in reduced flux as observed at the Earth. The obscuration is not strictly periodic, as the disk precession period changes as the total mass and size of the disk change through variable accretion processes. This model is well established for the long-period variability in the X-ray pulsar Her X-1. With this work, my collaborators and I sought to test whether this model works for LMC X-4 and SMC X-1. Observations with the pointed instruments on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) were carried out in order to observe changes in the X-ray spectrum and total flux which were correlated with the long period cycles in these objects. One of the main predictions of the precessing disk model is that the periods of low emission are caused not by changes in the central source, but by increased absorption of that flux as seen at the Earth. Such behavior would be observed in the X-ray spectrum as a relative lack of low energy X-rays (which are more easily absorbed) as compared to high energy X-rays. This is what was observed for SMC X-1, landing strong support to the precessing disk model for this system. For LMC X-1, however, the absorption was consistent with zero at the time of minimum flux. The entire spectrum appeared to be equally reduced. This is not supporting evidence for the model. However, it also does not rule out a precessing disk. If at the time of minimum flux, the intervening disk is so thick that no flux, even

  19. First light curve and period study of LO Andromedae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Müyesseroğlu, Z.

    2005-01-01

    New BV light curves and times of minimum light for the short period W UMa system LO And were analyzed to derive the preliminary physical parameters of the system. The light curves were obtained at Ankara University Observatory during 5 nights in 2003. A new ephemeris is determined for the times of primary minimum. The analysis of the light curves is made using the Wilson-Devinney 2003 code. The present solution reveals that LO And has a photometric mass ratio q = 0.371 and is an A-type contact binary. The period of the system is still increasing, which can be attributed to light-time effect and mass transfer between the components. With the assumption of coplanar orbit of the third body the revealed mass is M3 = 0.21M. If the period change dP/dt = 0.0212 sec/yr is caused only by the mass transfer between components (from the lighter component to the heavier) the calculated mass transfer rate is dm/dt = 1.682 10-7M/yr. The absolute radii and masses estimated for the components, based on our photometric solution and the absolute parameters of the systems which have nearly same period are R1 = 1.30R, R2 = 0.85R, M1 = 1.31M, M2 = 0.49M respectively for the primary and secondary components.

  20. Prescription patterns of analgesics in the last 3 months of life: a retrospective analysis of 10202 lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, W; Gulliford, M; Higginson, I J

    2011-01-01

    Background: To describe the prescription patterns of analgesics during the last 3 months of life in lung cancer and to determine the associated factors. Methods: Data on lung cancer patients (N=10 202) who died during 2000–2008 were extracted from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). This database records prescriptions of patients received from UK general practices (GP), but not those from non-GP routes. Prescription prevalences were estimated. The associated factors were investigated using log-binomial regression. Results: The overall prescription prevalences were 50.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 49.4–51.4%) for level 1 (e.g., paracetamol), 34.1% (95% CI: 33.2–35.0%) for level 2 (weak opioids), and 55.5 % (95% CI: 54.5–56.4%) for level 3 analgesics (strong opioids). Prescription prevalence of analgesics of all levels showed an increasing trend over the period 2000–2008 (annual increases range: 1.1–1.5%) but a decreasing trend with age (average decrease per group range: −5.8 to −1.8%). Patients in the older age groups were less likely to be prescribed level 3 analgesics than those in the younger age groups (PR‘90+' vs ‘<50'=0.55 (95% CI: 0.45–0.67); PR‘80−89' vs ‘<50'=0.73 (95% CI: 0.66–0.79); PR‘70−79' vs ‘<50'=0.84 (95% CI: 0.77–0.90)). Conclusion: Analgesics have been increasingly prescribed in lung cancer. However, analgesics, especially at level 3, were relatively under-prescribed to people older than 70 years, warranting further investigation. PMID:21540860

  1. The transition to coparenthood: parents' pre-birth expectations and early coparental adjustment at 3 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    McHale, James P; Kazali, Christina; Rotman, Tamir; Talbot, Jean; Carleton, Meagan; Lieberson, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    In the decade since the first observationally based empirical studies of coparenting process in nuclear families made their mark, most investigations of early coparenting dynamics have examined whether and how such dynamics drive child development trajectories, rather than identifying factors that may contribute to the differential development of such dynamics in the first place. In this prospective study, we examined both individual-representational and dyadic-interpersonal predictors of early coparental process. Fifty married couples expecting their first child portrayed their expectations and concerns about family life after the baby's arrival, and took part in a set of problem-solving tasks used to help evaluate marital quality. Both mothers' and fathers' prebaby expectations about the future family, and prenatal marital quality, predicted observed coparenting cohesion at 3 months postpartum. Maternal- and marriage-coparenting trajectories differed as a function of infant characteristics, with pathways most pronounced when infants were rated high in negative reactivity. Results reveal how the prenatal environment can come to shape early coparenting process, and indicate that family models must take into account the role that child characteristics can play in altering prebirth-postpartum pathways.

  2. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A single fiber electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, D; Fiaschi, A; Tomelleri, G; Orrico, D

    1978-06-01

    The neurophysiological findings obtained with standard electromyography (EMG) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG) in a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HoPP) are reported. During the period between paralytic attacks the only abnormalities consisted of scanty fibrillation potentials and, with SFEMG, a fiber density increase. In the first stage of an induced paralytic attack the most striking feature was decrease in fiber density, slight increase in jitter with several blocks. These results indicate a failure of the membrane surface to propagate an action potential. In some fibers the block is likely to be permanent, thus explaining the decrease in fiber density. The jitter increase is due to a slight abnormality at the synaptic site or to a variation in the propagation velocity of the muscle fiber. PMID:690662

  3. Light curve and period study of V Trianguli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Müyesseroğlu, Z.; Özdemir, T.

    2006-08-01

    New BVR light curves and times of minimum light for the short period β Lyrae system V Tri were analyzed to derive the physical parameters of the system. The light curves were obtained at Ankara University Observatory and at the TÜBİTAK National Observatory during 5 nights in 2001 and 2002. A new ephemeris is determined for the times of primary minimum. The analysis of the light curves is made using the Wilson-Devinney 2003 code. The present solution reveals that V Tri is a near-contact system with a mass ratio near 0.5. The absolute radii and masses estimated for the components, based on our photometric solution, are R1=1.94 Rsun, R2=1.44 Rsun, M1=2.68 Msun, M2=1.36 Msun, respectively, for the primary and secondary components. The period variation of the system can be attributed to the light-time effect. With the assumption of a coplanar orbit of the third body its revealed mass is m3=0.17 Msun.

  4. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  5. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  6. Holistic Face Processing in Newborns, 3-Month-Old Infants, and Adults: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Simion, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised the familiar top part. In the…

  7. Prediction of Glycated Hemoglobin Levels at 3 Months after Metabolic Surgery Based on the 7-Day Plasma Metabolic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-ho; An, Yong Jin; Kang, Sunmi; Lee, Dae Hyun; Suh, Young Ju; Heo, Yoonseok; Park, Sunghyouk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients), and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary. PMID:25384027

  8. Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome in a 3-month-old infant with isolated left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Shabanian, Reza; Kiani, Abdolrazagh; Rad, Elaheh Malakan; Eslamiyeh, Hosein

    2010-02-01

    This report describes a 3-month-old boy with isolated left ventricular noncompaction admitted to a medical facility due to heart failure and dysrhythmia. His electrocardiogram showed a short PR interval and a normal QRS complex after abortion of supraventricular tachycardia in favor of Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome or enhanced atrioventricular nodal conduction.

  9. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  10. The effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity physical activity program on body composition in overweight and obese African American college females

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, K.; Durant, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated body composition outcomes following a 3-month exercise program for overweight/obese Black women. BMI decreased over the 3-month study despite an observed increase in body fat. Enhancements in bone marrow density and muscle density were also observed. Results show promising yet hypothesis-generating findings to explore in future research. Introduction Few studies have evaluated the relationship between aerobic physical activity (PA) and body composition among young adult overweight/obese African American (AA) women. Purpose The current study evaluated the effect of a 3-month moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity intervention for overweight and obese young adult women on bone, lean, and fat mass. Methods Participants (n=15) were a randomly selected subset of AA female college students (M age=21.7 years; M BMI= 33.3) enrolled in a larger PA promotion pilot study (n=31). Study protocol required participants to engage in four 30–60-min moderate-intensity aerobic PA sessions each week. Whole body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess additional quantitative and qualitative assessment of the radius. Results BMI decreased over the duration of the study (P=.034), reflected by a marginal decrease in body weight (P=.057). However, unexpectedly, increases in adipose tissue measures were observed, including total body fat (P=.041), percent body fat (P=.044), trunk fat (P=.031), and percent trunk fat (P=.041). No changes in DXA-measured bone outcomes were observed (i.e., bone mineral density, P=.069; bone mineral content, P=.211). Results from the pQCT assessment showed that bone marrow density increased (P=.011), but cortical density remained stable (P=.211). A marginally significant increase in muscle density (P=.053) and no changes in muscle area (P=.776) were observed. Conclusions A 3-month moderate-intensity PA program was associated

  11. Chewing nicotine gum for 3 months: what happens to plasma nicotine levels?

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, M E

    1984-01-01

    Techniques that help patients stop smoking should also reduce their exposure to agents such as nicotine. The mean plasma nicotine levels in 50 subjects while they were still smoking and then while they were chewing pieces of gum containing either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine over a 12-week period of abstinence were 35, 9 and 23 ng/mL (217, 56 and 143 nmol/L) respectively. A small number of subjects given an unlimited supply of gum used 14 to 24 pieces of 4-mg gum daily and had plasma nicotine levels exceeding the levels achieved while smoking. There were no acute symptoms necessitating medical intervention associated with these excessive levels. Side effects were uncommon and usually controllable. When simple dosage rules are followed people who chew nicotine gum for a few months to stop smoking lower their exposure to nicotine. PMID:6478344

  12. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  13. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition. PMID:26192699

  14. Contingency Experiences of 3-Month-Old Children and Their Relation to Later Developmental Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Keller, Heidi; Lissmann, Ilka; Ball, Juliane; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relation between early social contingency experiences and infants' competencies to detect nonsocial contingencies. In this study of 87 three-month-old infants, the authors operationalized early social contingencies as prompt, contingent maternal responses and coded microanalytically on the basis of…

  15. A model to predict 3-month mortality risk of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Zheng, M-H; Shi, K-Q; Lin, X-F; Xiao, D-D; Chen, L-L; Liu, W-Y; Fan, Y-C; Chen, Y-P

    2013-04-01

    Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring was initiated using traditional statistical technique by assuming a linear relationship between clinical features, but most phenomena in a clinical situation are not linearly related. The aim of this study was to predict 3-month mortality risk of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF) on an individual patient level using an artificial neural network (ANN) system. The ANN model was built using data from 402 consecutive patients with ACHBLF. It was trained to predict 3-month mortality by the data of 280 patients and validated by the remaining 122 patients. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) was calculated for ANN and MELD-based scoring systems. The following variables age (P < 0.001), prothrombin activity (P < 0.001), serum sodium (P < 0.001), total bilirubin (P = 0.015), hepatitis B e antigen positivity rate (P < 0.001) and haemoglobin (P < 0.001) were significantly related to the prognosis of ACHBLF and were selected to build the ANN. The ANN performed significantly better than MELD-based scoring systems both in the training cohort (AUROC = 0.869 vs 0.667, 0.591, 0.643, 0.571 and 0.577; P < 0.001, respectively) and in the validation cohort (AUROC = 0.765 vs 0.599, 0.563, 0.601, 0.521 and 0.540; P ≤ 0.006, respectively). Thus, the ANN model was shown to be more accurate in predicting 3-month mortality of ACHBLF than MELD-based scoring systems. PMID:23490369

  16. Minimum Acceptable Diet at 9 Months but Not Exclusive Breastfeeding at 3 Months or Timely Complementary Feeding Initiation Is Predictive of Infant Growth in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kleinbaum, David G.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Das, Sumon K.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    The association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering is well-established. However, most of this evidence comes from cross-sectional studies. To prospectively assess the association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering, we interviewed pregnant women at 28–32 weeks’ gestation and followed-up their offspring at postnatal months 3, 9, 16 and 24 months in rural Bangladesh. Using maternal recall over the past 24 hours, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 3 months, age at complementary feeding (CF) initiation, and receipt of minimum acceptable diet (MAD; as defined by WHO) at 9 months were assessed. Infant length and weight measurements were used to produce length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length (WLZ) z-scores at each follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations of LAZ and WLZ with infant feeding practices. All models were adjusted for baseline SES, infant sex, maternal height, age, literacy and parity. Follow-up was completed by 2189, 2074, 1969 and 1885 mother-child dyads at 3, 9, 16 and 24 months, respectively. Stunting prevalence increased from 28% to 57% between infant age 3 and 24 months. EBF at 3 months and age at CF initiation were not associated with linear infant growth, but receipt of MAD at 9 months was. By age 24 months, infants receiving MAD had attained a higher LAZ compared to infants who did not receive MAD (adjusted β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.13–0.37). Although prevalence of stunting was already high at age 3 months, ensuring infants receive a diverse, high quality diet from 6 months onwards may reduce rates of stunting in the second year of life. PMID:27776161

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  18. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2014-02-01

    Calfhood disease is an important problem on many dairy operations that can have substantial effects on heifer survival and productivity, and has economic and welfare impacts. Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point of 5.7 g/dl was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=40%, specificity=69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV=18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV=87%). A cut-point of 5.2g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=27%, specificity=89%, PPV=5%, NPV=98%). Serum total protein during the first week of life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens.

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h−1 (0.375 to 0.453 h−1), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  1. Pivotal Response Treatment Parent Training for Autism: Findings from a 3-Month Follow-Up Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gengoux, Grace W.; Berquist, Kari L.; Salzman, Emma; Schapp, Salena; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Minjarez, Mendy B.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to assess maintenance of treatment effects 3 months after completion of a 12-week Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) parent education group. Families who completed the active treatment (N = 23) were followed for an additional 12 weeks to measure changes in language and cognitive skills. Results indicated a significant…

  2. Imitation and Repetition of Prosodic Contour in Vocal Interaction at 3 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates vocal imitation of prosodic contour in ongoing spontaneous interaction with 10- to 13-week-old infants. Audio recordings from naturalistic interactions between 20 mothers and infants were analyzed using a vocalization coding system that extracted the pitch and duration of individual vocalizations. Using these data, the…

  3. Imitation and repetition of prosodic contour in vocal interaction at 3 months.

    PubMed

    Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates vocal imitation of prosodic contour in ongoing spontaneous interaction with 10- to 13-week-old infants. Audio recordings from naturalistic interactions between 20 mothers and infants were analyzed using a vocalization coding system that extracted the pitch and duration of individual vocalizations. Using these data, the authors categorized a sample of 1,359 vocalizations on the basis of 7 predetermined contours. Pairs of identical successive vocalizations were considered to be imitations if they involved both partners or repetitions if they were produced by the same partner. Results show that not only do mothers and infants imitate and repeat prosodic contour types in the course of vocal interaction but they do so selectively. Indeed, different contours are imitated and repeated by each partner. These findings suggest that imitation and repetition of prosodic contours have specific functions for communication and vocal development in the 3rd month of life.

  4. Inhalation toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes in rats exposed for 3 months.

    PubMed

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Treumann, Silke; Strauss, Volker; Brill, Sandra; Luizi, Frederic; Mertler, Michael; Wiench, Karin; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are of great commercial interest. Theoretically, during processing and handling of CNT and in abrasion processes on composites containing CNT, inhalable CNT particles might be set free. For hazard assessment, we performed a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with a multiwall CNT (MWCNT) material (Nanocyl NC 7000) according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 413. Wistar rats were head-nose exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, 13 weeks, total 65 exposures, to MWCNT concentrations of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m(3). Highly respirable dust aerosols were produced with a proprietary brush generator which neither damaged the tube structure nor increased reactive oxygen species on the surface. Inhalation exposure to MWCNT produced no systemic toxicity. However, increased lung weights, pronounced multifocal granulomatous inflammation, diffuse histiocytic and neutrophilic inflammation, and intra-alveolar lipoproteinosis were observed in lung and lung-associated lymph nodes at 0.5 and 2.5 mg/m(3). These effects were accompanied by slight blood neutrophilia at 2.5 mg/m(3). Incidence and severity of the effects were concentration related. At 0.1 mg/m(3), there was still minimal granulomatous inflammation in the lung and in lung-associated lymph nodes; a no observed effect concentration was therefore not established in this study. The test substance has low dust-forming potential, as demonstrated by dustiness measurements, but nonetheless strict industrial hygiene measures must be taken during handling and processing. Toxicity and dustiness data such as these can be used to compare different MWCNT materials and to select the material with the lowest risk potential for a given application. PMID:19584127

  5. Severe weight loss in 3 months after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT was associated with an increased risk of subsequent non-relapse mortality.

    PubMed

    Fuji, S; Mori, T; Khattry, N; Cheng, J; Do, Y R; Yakushijin, K; Kohashi, S; Fukuda, T; Kim, S-W

    2015-01-01

    Patients after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) are at risk of malnutrition. To assess the impact of malnutrition after allogeneic HSCT on transplant outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study. Adult patients who received allogeneic HSCT from 2000 to 2009 for standard-risk leukemia and achieved disease-free survival up to 3 months after allogeneic HSCT were included. From participating centers, 145 patients were enrolled. Median age was 46 years (19-68). Patients were classified based on weight loss during 3 months after allogeneic HSCT as follows: normal group (weight loss <5%, n=53), mild malnutrition group (5%⩽weight loss<10%, n=47), severe malnutrition group (10% ⩽weight loss, n=45). The cumulative incidences of 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 3.8% in the normal group, 8.5% in the mild malnutrition group and 27.3% in the severe malnutrition group. The probabilities of a 2-year OS were 73.2% in the normal group, 74.5% in the mild malnutrition group and 55.3% in the severe malnutrition group. In multivariate analysis, severe malnutrition was associated with an increased risk of NRM and a worse OS. In conclusion, weight loss ⩾10% was associated with a worse clinical outcome. Prospective studies that identify patients at risk of malnutrition and intervention by a nutritional support team are warranted. PMID:25285803

  6. The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

  7. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) at the T2 in the total biofilm mass was found between the two groups. Conclusion: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with the Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  8. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  9. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging

  10. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  11. Period Studies of 79 Eccentric Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K.; Kang, Y. W.; Lee, C.-U.

    2014-08-01

    We present period studies for seventy-nine eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud. New times of minimum light were derived from the data obtained by the EROS, OGLE-II and OGLE-III surveys. Nineteen stars of the seventy-nine stars show period variation were confirmed. All of the systems were studied by means of an O-C diagram analyses. Nine systems show apsidal motion, six systems show parabola, and four systems show sinusoidal period variations, respectively.

  12. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (2f1-f2) suppression in 3-month-old infants: Evidence for postnatal maturation of human cochlear function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdala, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The complete timeline for maturation of human cochlear function has not been defined. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE)-based measures of cochlear function show non-adult-like responses from premature and term-born neonates at high f2 frequencies; however, older infants were not included in these studies. In the present experiment, previously collected DPOAE ipsilateral suppression data from premature neonates were combined with new data collected from adults, term-born neonates, and 3-month-old infants to further examine the time course for maturation of cochlear function. DPOAE suppression tuning curves (STC) and suppression growth patterns were measured in the three age groups at f2=6000 Hz, L1=65, L2=55 dB SPL, with an f2/f1 of 1.2. Results indicate that term-born neonates and 3-month-old infants have non-adult-like STC width, slope on the low-frequency flank, and tip features. However, the two infant groups are not significantly different from one another. Suppression growth patterns for low-frequency suppressor tones show a clear developmental progression. In general, the younger the infant, the more shallow and compressive the suppression growth for the lowest suppressor frequencies. These findings suggest a high-frequency postnatal immaturity in cochlear function as measured by DPOAE suppression. Results may have been influenced by noncochlear factors, such as middle-ear immaturity. These factors are reviewed and considered. .

  13. The ingestion of cow's milk formula in the first 3 months of life prevents the development of cow's milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Shiro; Ito, Komei

    2016-01-01

    Background IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in infants. It is still controversial whether the early introduction of cow's milk formula (CMF) prevents the development of CMA. Objective We aimed to evaluate the duration and frequency of CMF ingestion as compere with exclusive breast-fed for preventing CMA in high-risk infants. Methods We enrolled the patients diagnosed with hen's egg allergy by an oral food challenge. A questionnaire was completed by the caregivers of the patients regarding the timing of introduction and discontinuation of CMF, and the frequency of CMF ingestion. Based on the information, we analyzed the relationship between the duration and frequency of CMF ingestion and the development of CMA at 3–24 months of age. Results Three hundred seventy-four patients were analyzed; 171 were diagnosed with CMA (45.7%). The analyzed patients (n = 374) were categorized into the following subgroups: exclusively breast-fed (breast-fed group, n = 75); discontinued ingestion of CMF before 3 months of age (temporary group, n = 177); continuous ingestion of CMF, but not daily, up to 3 months of age (nondaily group, n = 47); continuous ingestion of CMF at least once daily (daily group, n = 75). The incidence of developing CMA between the breast-fed group and temporary group did not show any statistical difference. Nondaily group and daily group had significantly lower incidence of developing CMA in comparison to the breast-fed group (nondaily group odds ratio 0.43; p = 0.02, daily group odds ratio 0.11; p < 0.001). Conclusion Ingestion of CMF during the first 3 months of life might prevent the development of CMA in high-risk infants. PMID:27803880

  14. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications.

  15. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  16. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  17. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  18. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  19. Periodic travelling waves in cyclic populations: field studies and reaction-diffusion models.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Smith, Matthew J

    2008-05-01

    Periodic travelling waves have been reported in a number of recent spatio-temporal field studies of populations undergoing multi-year cycles. Mathematical modelling has a major role to play in understanding these results and informing future empirical studies. We review the relevant field data and summarize the statistical methods used to detect periodic waves. We then discuss the mathematical theory of periodic travelling waves in oscillatory reaction-diffusion equations. We describe the notion of a wave family, and various ecologically relevant scenarios in which periodic travelling waves occur. We also discuss wave stability, including recent computational developments. Although we focus on oscillatory reaction-diffusion equations, a brief discussion of other types of model in which periodic travelling waves have been demonstrated is also included. We end by proposing 10 research challenges in this area, five mathematical and five empirical.

  20. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  1. Initial Molecular Response at 3 Months May Predict Both Response and Event-Free Survival at 24 Months in Imatinib-Resistant or -Intolerant Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase Treated With Nilotinib

    PubMed Central

    Branford, Susan; Kim, Dong-Wook; Soverini, Simona; Haque, Ariful; Shou, Yaping; Woodman, Richard C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Martinelli, Giovanni; Radich, Jerald P.; Saglio, Giuseppe; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy P.; Müller, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The association between initial molecular response and longer-term outcomes with nilotinib was examined. Patients and Methods Patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase from the phase II nilotinib registration study with available postbaseline BCR-ABL1 transcript assessments were included (N = 237). Results BCR-ABL1 transcript levels (International Scale [IS]) at 3 months correlated with complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by 24 months. Patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 1% to ≤ 10% at 3 months with nilotinib had higher cumulative incidence of CCyR by 24 months than patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10% (53% v 16%). BCR-ABL1 (IS) at 3 months predicted major molecular response (MMR) by 24 months. Cumulative incidence of MMR by 24 months for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 0.1% to ≤ 1%, > 1% to ≤ 10%, and > 10% was 65%, 27%, and 9%, respectively. These differences were observed for patients with or without baseline BCR–ABL1 mutations and for those with imatinib resistance or intolerance. Estimated event-free survival (EFS) rates at 24 months decreased with higher transcript levels at 3 months; patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of ≤ 1% had an estimated 24-month EFS rate of 82%, compared with 70% for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 1% to ≤ 10% and 48% for patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10%. Conclusion Patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of > 10% at 3 months had a lower cumulative incidence of CCyR and MMR and lower rates of EFS versus patients with BCR-ABL1 (IS) of ≤ 10%. Prospective studies may determine whether close monitoring or alternative therapies are warranted for patients with minimal initial molecular response. PMID:23109697

  2. Reduction in systemic and VLDL triacylglycerol concentration after a 3-month Mediterranean-style diet in high-cardiovascular-risk subjects.

    PubMed

    Perona, Javier S; Covas, María-Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Cabello-Moruno, Rosana; Aros, Fernando; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Garcia, Maria; Estruch, Ramon; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina

    2010-09-01

    The first results of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dieta MEDiterranea) randomized trial, after 3-month intervention, showed that the Mediterranean Diet (MD), supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, reduced systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol when compared to a control (low-fat diet) group. Serum TG levels are an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and are strongly determined by very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) composition, which can be specifically modified by dietary lipid source. Within the context of the PREDIMED study, we assessed the VLDL composition in 50 participants after 3 months of intake of two MD, supplemented with VOO or nuts, compared with a low-fat diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in subjects on the MD+nuts, whereas HDL-cholesterol increased after consumption of the MD+VOO. Serum TG concentrations were significantly lowered in both intervention groups (either the MD+nuts or MD+VOO). However, only the MD+VOO reduced the VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL-TG content and the TG/apolipoprotein B ratio in VLDL, which was used to estimate particle size. Although VLDL-TG fatty acids were very slightly modified, VLDL-TG molecular species in VLDL after consumption of the MD+nuts were characterized by a higher presence of linoleic acid (18:2, n-6), whereas after the intake of MD+VOO, they were rich in oleic acid (18:1, n-9). Therefore, we conclude that the reduction in systemic TG concentrations observed after consumption of the MD may be explained by reduction of the lipid core of VLDL and a selective modification of the molecular species composition in the particle. PMID:19962297

  3. Experimental study of D16AT alloy deformation under periodic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapustin, V. I.; Gileta, V. P.

    2011-09-01

    An experimental procedure and results of an experimental study of the kinetics of the strained state of a material under periodic uniaxial loading are reported. Diagrams of the principal components of the total strain tensor for an asymmetric periodic "soft" regime of tension-compression of the samples are presented. Specific features of deformation revealed under periodic asymmetric loading of the samples can be used to formulate a criterion of fatigue fracture of materials and to identify the mechanism of strain hardening of pre-fracture zones in machine elements.

  4. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  5. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  6. A 3-month-old infant with recurrent apparent life-threatening events in a car seat.

    PubMed

    DelRosso, Lourdes M

    2015-04-01

    A 3-month-old infant was brought to clinic for evaluation of recurrent apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs). Two ALTE episodes occurred while the infant was sleeping in a safety car seat. The first one occurred when he was 4 weeks old. His mother noticed that he was not breathing; he appeared limp with full body cyanosis. His mother picked him up from the car seat, and he started breathing spontaneously and without any sign of distress. His skin color returned to normal. He was evaluated at the ED where the physical examination was normal. He was hospitalized 1 day for observation. During this time, workup, including ECG and chest radiograph, was normal. The parents were instructed on cardiorespiratory resuscitation and recommended to change car seats. The infant was discharged with an apnea monitor. He wore the apnea monitor while in the car seat. A second similar episode occurred at 10 weeks of age for which he was seen at the ED and referred to our clinic for further evaluation. Neither episode was related to feeding. PMID:25846540

  7. Higher Retail Prices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages 3 Months After Implementation of an Excise Tax in Berkeley, California

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Nadia; Grummon, Anna H.; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the short-term ability to increase retail prices of the first US 1-cent-per-ounce excise tax on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which was implemented in March 2015 by Berkeley, California. Methods. In 2014 and 2015, we examined pre- to posttax price changes of SSBs and non-SSBs in a variety of retailers in Berkeley and in the comparison cities Oakland and San Francisco, California. We examined price changes by beverage, brand, size, and retailer type. Results. For smaller beverages (≤ 33.8 oz), price increases (cents/oz) in Berkeley relative to those in comparison cities were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 1.03) for soda, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.87) for fruit-flavored beverages, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.69) for SSBs overall. For 2-liter bottles and multipacks of soda, relative price increases were 0.46 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.89) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.21, 0.77). We observed no relative price increases for nontaxed beverages overall. Conclusions. Approximately 3 months after the tax was implemented, SSB retail prices increased more in Berkeley than in nearby cities, marking a step in the causal pathway between the tax and reduced SSB consumption. PMID:26444622

  8. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, John; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. Methods All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. Results A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0–105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001). Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications. Conclusions Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally. PMID:26182236

  9. Topography and raytracing analysis of patients with excellent visual acuity 3 months after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L J; Zabel, R W; Parker, P; Lindstrom, R L

    1991-01-01

    We performed topography and raytracing analysis 3 months after surgery on five consecutive eyes of five patients, which had excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. Three of the five eyes had uncorrected postoperative visual acuity of 20/20 or better. Two eyes had an uncorrected vision of 20/40. In three of five eyes, the area of excimer ablation was centered within 1.0 mm of the optical axis. Three other eyes showed decentration that ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 mm. The range of surface power seen within 2 mm of the central keratoscope ring was as follows: patient CK = 37.50 to 39.50 diopters; patient CA = 40.50 D to 44.80 D; patient CW = 37.90 D to 42.20 D; patient AC = 35.50 D to 39.00 D; patient DT = 34.50 D to 41.40 D. Topography patterns differed from eye to eye. A raytracing program modeled refraction of 20/80 and 20/20 "E" of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% contrast through all measured points on the central 10 keratoscope rings of the five postoperative corneas. The five computer-derived images were ranked subjectively according to the observed degree of image degradation by three observers. Two eyes showed discernible 20/20 E's even at the 12.5% contrast level. Little to no ghost image was seen. Two eyes showed degraded but discernible 20/20 letters at higher levels of contrast only. These eyes showed moderate ghost images that were most apparent in the high-contrast 20/80 letters. One eye showed poor resolution of the 100% contrast 20/20 letter and moderately severe ghost images.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043557

  10. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  11. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  12. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  13. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  14. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  15. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  16. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K.; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Methods Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Results Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0–77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0–47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P < 0.001; during sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). Conclusion In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. PMID:25037838

  17. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  18. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  19. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  20. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  1. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered.

  2. A Study of the Shortest-period Planets Found with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; El Mellah, Ileyk

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R ⊕, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  3. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  4. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  5. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine. PMID:12849886

  6. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  7. A study on characteristics of Methane emission from a periodically irrigated paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikuromaru, N.; Iwata, T.; Yagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in the anaerobic soil. Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia. It is said that about 10% of CH4sources is paddy fields (IPCC AR4, 2007). In this study, methane emission from a single-rice crop field was estimated by long-term micrometeorological measurements. Methane emission was calculated by the aerodynamic gradient technique from January 2011 to August 2014. Intermittent water management was carried out during cultivation period at the observational site, HCH, located in Okayama, Japan. 3-days flood and 4-days drained condition were regularly repeated from late-June to early October. Seasonal variations of CH4flux for irrigation term from 2011 to 2013 were shown in Fig.1. Remarkably large fluxes were shown at early stage of irrigation term in 2011.It seemed to be caused by the relatively longer flooded condition that the first flooded period was 20 days. Flux in 2012 was smaller than in other year through the entire irrigation period. Rapid rise in flux for early August and gradual decrease between late August and September were shown in 2013. Fluxes under drained condition showed larger emission than under flooded condition. Cumulative CH4 emissions during cultivated period from 2011 to 2013 were estimated 15.7, 8.6, and 12.9 gC/m2, respectively.

  8. A study of admissions and inpatients over the Christmas period using the appropriateness evaluation protocol (AEP).

    PubMed

    Henshaw; Pollock; Rai; Gluck

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine appropriateness of admissions and inpatients over Christmas especially in the elderly. The study was a prospective audit of admissions and inpatients to the Whittington Hospital. The main outcome measures were appropriateness of admission or day of hospital residence using the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol. The protocol was applied to admissions and inpatients over Christmas and control periods. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the number of elderly admissions between the control period and Christmas period, 94 (34%) vs. 104 (43%) (P=0.02). However there was no corresponding change in appropriateness of elderly admissions, ten (10.6%) vs. six (5.8%), (P=0.2). The inappropriateness of day of hospital residence increased from 10% on the control day to 20% on the study day (P=0.02). In conclusion elderly patients are not admitted more inappropriately over Christmas but their discharge at this time appears to be delayed resulting in inappropriate bed use.

  9. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  10. Statistical study on magnetotail lobe waves with period 40 - 600 s observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in energy transport and dissipation in the magnetosphere. In this paper, 263 waves with period 40 - 150 s and 161 waves with period 150 - 600 s in the Earth's magnetotail lobe have been studied by using Cluster data from years 2001 to 2009. Our findings are as follows: (1) 90% of the wave amplitudes with period 40 - 150 s are below ~0.25 nT for transverse components, and ~0.16 nT for compressional component; The amplitudes of longer period waves are somewhat larger; For waves with period 150 - 600 s, 90% of the wave amplitudes are below ~0.36 nT and ~0.39 nT for transverse and compressional components, respectively. (2) Waves within 40 - 150 s prefer to occur in the lobe region close to the plasma sheet, while waves within 150 - 600 s can be observed throughout the lobe region; (3) The amplitudes of lobe waves and AE index are weakly correlated; However, we find that amplitudes tend to be larger when the AE index is larger; (4) Amplitudes also tend to be larger when the solar wind velocity, the solar wind dynamic pressure or its variations (∆PSW) is larger; The correlation coefficient between amplitudes of waves within 150 - 600 s and ∆PSW is up to ~0.58. We suggest that both dynamic pressure in the plasma sheet boundary layer or plasma sheet (inner source) and solar wind conditions (outer source) can contribute to the generation of lobe ULF waves; Waves within 40 - 150 s are effected more by inner source; ∆PSW is more associated with compressional waves within 150 - 600 s than that within 40 - 150 s.

  11. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  12. Numerical study of the unsteady flow and heat transfer in channels with periodically mounted square bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, A.; Martin, J. S.; Gormaz, R.

    Numerical investigations of unsteady laminar flow and heat transfer in a channel of height H with periodically mounted square bars of height d = 0.2H arranged side by side to the approaching flow have been conducted for different transverse separation distances of the bars. Five cases with transverse separation distance of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2d for a Reynolds number of 300 in a channel with a periodicity length of 2H were studied. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation have been solved by a finite volume code with staggered grids combined with the SIMPLEC algorithm and a fine grid resolution. Due to the arrangement of bars detached from the channel walls the flow is unsteady with vortex shedding from the bars. The amplitude and mean values of the drag coefficients, skin friction coefficients, friction factor and Nusselt numbers have a strong dependence of the transverse separation distance of the bars.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  14. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America. PMID:23856041

  16. Variational Monte Carlo study of magnetic states in the periodic Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Katsunori

    2015-03-01

    We study the magnetic states of the periodic Anderson model with a finite Coulomb interaction between f electrons on a square lattice by applying variational Monte Carlo method. We consider Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and charge density wave states. We find an antiferromagnetic phase around half-filling. There is a phase transition accompanying change in the Fermi-surface topology in this antiferromagnetic phase. We also study a case away from half-filling, and find a ferromagnetic state as the ground state there.

  17. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  18. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  19. Complete sternal cleft — A rare congenital malformation and its repair in a 3-month-old boy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Paras; Gupta, Abhaya; Patil, Prashant S.; Kekre, Geeta; Kamble, Ravi; Dikshit, Kiran Vishesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete midline sternal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failed midline ventral fusion of the sternal bars. Very few cases of complete sternal cleft have been described in literature. We present a case of complete sternal cleft in a 3-month-old child. The patient underwent primary closure of the defect using stainless steel wires. PMID:27046980

  20. Diet and gender are important factors modulating low frequency EEG activity during processing of language sounds in 3 month old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how early postnatal diet affects brain processes related to cognitive function in healthy infants. To address this question we examined EEG activity recorded from 3 month old infants [breastfed (BF: n = 104, 55 males), milk-based formula fed (MF: n = 114, 57 males) or soy for...

  1. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  2. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  3. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    PubMed

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution.

  4. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  5. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  6. Forgetting to remember or remembering to forget: a study of the recall period length in health care survey questions.

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Clarke, Philip; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2014-05-01

    Self-reported data on health care use is a key input in a range of studies. However, the length of recall period in self-reported health care questions varies between surveys, and this variation may affect the results of the studies. This study uses a large survey experiment to examine the role of the length of recall periods for the quality of self-reported hospitalization data by comparing registered with self-reported hospitalizations of respondents exposed to recall periods of one, three, six, or twelve months. Our findings have conflicting implications for survey design, as the preferred length of recall period depends on the objective of the analysis. For an aggregated measure of hospitalization, longer recall periods are preferred. For analysis oriented more to the micro-level, shorter recall periods may be considered since the association between individual characteristics (e.g., education) and recall error increases with the length of the recall period.

  7. Numerical study of the periodic Anderson model with a quarter-filled conduction band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuxiang; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Using the dynamical cluster approximation with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo as the cluster solver and the recently introduced dual-fermion method, we study the underlying physics of the periodic Anderson model where the conduction band is near quarter-filling while the f-band electron band is half filled. For these parameters, the RKKY coupling changes its nature from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic, yielding an interesting phase-diagram. Especially, we find the charge ordering of the conduction band is strongly enhanced, which could be due to the proximity to a quantum critical point.

  8. Study on formation mechanism of periodic ripple on finished KDP crystal in cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Guipeng; Guan, Chaoliang

    2015-07-01

    A kind of formation mechanism of periodic ripple on finished KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystal in cutting process is studied by analyzing the change of equivalent axial stiffness of aerostatic spindle and consequent motion of spindle shaft caused by fluctuation of supply air pressure. The analysis shows that fluctuation of supply air pressure is one of the reasons to cause surface ripple. Correlative experiments are taken and validate the analysis. By strictly controlling air pressure fluctuation, the Peak-to-Valley (PV) value of surface ripple generated by both spiral turning and face flycutting processes are reduced to less than 5nm.

  9. Factors influencing quality of anticoagulation control and warfarin dosage in patients after aortic valve replacement within the 3 months of follow up.

    PubMed

    Wypasek, E; Mazur, P; Bochenek, M; Awsiuk, M; Grudzien, G; Plincer, D; Undas, A

    2016-06-01

    Warfarin dosage estimation using the pharmacogenetic algorithms has been shown to improve the quality of anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation. We sought to assess the genetic, demographic and clinical factors that determine the quality of anticoagulation in patients following aortic valve replacement (AVR). We studied 200 consecutive patients (130 men) aged 63 ± 12.3 years, undergoing AVR, in whom warfarin dose was established using a pharmacogenetic algorithm. The quality of anticoagulation within the first 3 months since surgery was expressed as the time of international normalized ratio (INR) in the therapeutic range (TTR). The median TTR in the entire cohort was 59.6% (interquartile range, 38.7 - 82.7). Ninety-nine (49.5%) patients with TTR ≥ 60% did not differ from those with poor anticoagulation control (TTR < 60%) with regard to demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery disease (n = 84, 42%) and previous stroke (n = 5, 2.5%) predicted higher TTR, while possession of CYP2C9*2 variant allele (n = 49, 25%) was associated with lower TTR (P = 0.01). In turn, VKORC1 c.-1639A, CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants were independently associated with actual warfarin dose (P < 0.0001). In AVR patients better anticoagulation control is observed in patients with coronary artery disease and history of stroke, which might result in part from previous lifestyle modification and therapy. Possession of CYP2C9*2 and/or CYP2C9*3 allele variants is associated with lower TTR values and warfarin dose variations in AVR patients, the latter affected also by VKORC1 c.-1693G>A polymorphism. PMID:27511999

  10. Usability, Participant Acceptance, and Safety of a Prefilled Insulin Injection Device in a 3-Month Observational Survey in Everyday Clinical Practice in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carter, John; Beilin, Jonathan; Morton, Adam; De Luise, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background SoloSTAR® (SOL; sanofi-aventis, Paris, France) is a prefilled insulin pen device for the injection of insulin glargine and insulin glulisine. This is the first Australian survey to determine its usability, participant acceptance, and safety in clinical practice. Methods A 3-month, nonrandomized, noncomparative, observational survey in Australia was conducted in individuals with diabetes. Participants were given SOL pens containing glargine, the instruction leaflet, and a toll-free helpline number. Training was offered to all participants. Safety data, including product technical complaints (PTCs), were gathered from ongoing feedback given by the participant or health care professional (HCP) and by independent interviews conducted 6–10 weeks after study start. Results Some 2674 people consented to take part across 93 sites (150 HCPs), and 2029 participated in interviews. Of these, 52.6% had type 1 diabetes, 16.3% had manual dexterity problems, and 15.5% had poor eyesight not corrected by glasses. At the time of interview, 96.8% of participants were still using SOL. None of the eight PTCs reported were due to technical defects; most were related to handling errors. Some 62 participants reported 77 adverse events; none were related to a PTC. The vast majority of participants (95.4%) were “very satisfied” or “satisfied” with using SOL, and 89.7% of the participants had no questions or concerns using SOL on a daily basis. Similar positive findings were reported by participants with manual or dexterity impairments. Conclusions In this survey of everyday clinical practice, SOL had a good safety profile and was very well accepted by participants. PMID:20144398

  11. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  12. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  13. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  14. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  15. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  16. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Melannie; Burch, James B; Steck, Susan E; Chen, Chin-Fu; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Ray, Meredith; Shivappa, Nitin; Guess, Jaclyn; Zhang, Hongmei; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen; Yang, Xiaoming; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the 'period' (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9-4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4-18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample.

  17. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne P.; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Secondly, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the FM method of Paltani and Schwarzenberg-Czerny, the Baluev method and the GEV method of Süveges, as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fitting a regression-type predictive model using easily obtainable covariates derived from observational time series. We conclude that the GEV and the Baluev methods both provide good solutions to the issues posed by a large-scale processing. The first of these yields the best scientific quality at the price of some moderately costly pre-processing. When this pre-processing is impossible for some reason (e.g. the computational costs are prohibitive or good regression models cannot be constructed), the Baluev method provides a computationally inexpensive alternative with slight biases in regions where time samplings exhibit strong aliases.

  18. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  19. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  20. Refractory period modulates the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon, which underlies some neurological disorders, such as migraine and stroke, but its mechanisms are still not completely understood. One of the striking facts is that the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD wave is varying. Observations in experiments reveal that a CSD wave may propagate through the entire cortex, or just bypass some areas of the cortex. In this paper, we have applied a 2D reaction-diffusion equation with recovery term to study the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD. By modulating the recovery rate from CSD in the modeled cortex, CSD waves with different spatiotemporal evolutions, either bypassing some areas or propagating slowly in these areas, were present. Moreover, spiral CSD waves could also be induced in case of the transiently altered recovery rate, i.e. block release from the absolute refractory period. These results suggest that the refractory period contributes to the different propagation patterns of CSD, which may help to interpret the mechanisms of CSD propagation. PMID:24400104

  1. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  2. Density functional periodic study of the dehydrogenation of methane on Pd (1 1 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Li, Lu; Xu, Jie; Fang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanism of CH4 on Pd (1 1 1) surface was studied using density functional theory (DFT) together with periodic slab models. According to the optimized structural and energetic properties, it was found that CH3 prefers to adsorb on the top sites of the Pd metal surface. Whereas CH2, CH, and H prefer to adsorb on the fcc sites, and C prefers to adsorb on the hcp sites. In addition, this work identified the optimum configurations for the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx and H. Finally, four transition states were found for analyzing the mechanism of dehydrogenation of CH4. The results show that the dehydrogenation of CH moiety is relatively difficult and the dehydrogenation of CH3 is the rate-determining step in the overall reaction.

  3. Case studies of multi-day 3He-rich solar energetic particle periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nai-hwa; Bučík, Radoslav; Innes, Davina E.; Mason, Glenn M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Impulsive solar energetic particle events in the inner heliosphere show the long-lasting enrichment of 3He. Aims: We study the source regions of long-lasting 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events Methods: We located the responsible open magnetic field regions, we combined potential field source surface extrapolations with the Parker spiral, and compared the magnetic field of the identified source regions with in situ magnetic fields. The candidate open field regions are active region plages. The activity was examined by using extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and STEREO together with radio observations from STEREO and WIND. Results: Multi-day periods of 3He-rich SEP events are associated with ion production in single active region. Small flares or coronal jets are their responsible solar sources. We also find that the 3He enrichment may depend on the occurrence rate of coronal jets.

  4. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  5. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  6. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  7. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  8. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  9. Studies of cortical interactions over short periods of time during the search for verbal associations.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, A R; Ivanitskii, G A; Ivanitskii, A M

    2001-01-01

    Interactions between cortical areas were studied during the search for verbal associations and reading of words. The functional anatomy and the sequence of involvement of cortical areas during the solution of these tasks have been described previously, in studies using positron emission tomography and multichannel recordings of evoked potentials combined with identification of the locations of dipole sources [8, 9, 19, 25]. Cortical interactions reflected in terms of the synchronization of EEG rhythms were studied by developing a method based on correlating curve wavelets, which allows the moments at which this synchronization occurs to be identified over short periods of time comparable with the speeds of individual thought operations (up to 100 msec). Three main stages were identified in the search for associations. During the first 200 msec after stimulus presentation, cortical connections were seen between the right and left frontal areas; at 200-500 msec, there were connections between the frontal and the temporal-parietal areas; finally, at 450-700 sec, there were connections between the left temporal and the right frontal-central-temporal areas. These results are in good agreement with data obtained previously using other methods and supplement them with mapping data on cortical connections. A number of differences in the mechanisms of information processing during the search for associations and reading were also identified.

  10. Subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole and amosite asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 months post exposure#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident in humans after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Ra...

  11. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 Months Post Exposure**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rat...

  12. Body composition from age 3 months to 6 years of children born to lean, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association between higher maternal pre-gravid body mass index and greater risk of later life obesity in the offspring has been hypothesized to be mediated in part via developmental programming. However, most studies have relied on cross-sectional analyses and anthropometric data thus far. We pr...

  13. A 3-Month Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Patient-Centered, Computer-Based Self-Monitoring System for the Care of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Or, Calvin; Tao, Da

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of a patient-centered, tablet computer-based self-monitoring system for chronic disease care. A 3-month randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted to compare the use of a computer-based self-monitoring system in disease self-care (intervention group; n = 33) with a conventional self-monitoring method (control group; n = 30) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension. The system was equipped with a 2-in-1 blood glucose and blood pressure monitor, a reminder feature, and video-based educational materials for the care of the two chronic diseases. The control patients were given only the 2-in-1 monitor for self-monitoring. The outcomes reported here included the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, fasting blood glucose level, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, chronic disease knowledge, and frequency of self-monitoring. The data were collected at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-up visits. The patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in mean systolic blood pressure from baseline to 1 month (p < 0.001) and from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.043) compared with the control group. Significant improvements in the mean diastolic blood pressure were seen in the intervention group compared with the control group after 1 month (p < 0.001) and after 2 months (p = 0.028), but the change was not significant after 3 months. No significant differences were observed between the groups in the fasting blood glucose level, the HbA1c level, or chronic disease knowledge. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose level and blood pressure was similar in both groups. The performances of the tablet computer-assisted and conventional disease self-monitoring appear to be useful to support/maintain blood pressure and diabetes control. The beneficial effects of the use of electronic self-care resources and support provided via mobile technologies require further

  14. A 3-Month Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Patient-Centered, Computer-Based Self-Monitoring System for the Care of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Or, Calvin; Tao, Da

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of a patient-centered, tablet computer-based self-monitoring system for chronic disease care. A 3-month randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted to compare the use of a computer-based self-monitoring system in disease self-care (intervention group; n = 33) with a conventional self-monitoring method (control group; n = 30) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension. The system was equipped with a 2-in-1 blood glucose and blood pressure monitor, a reminder feature, and video-based educational materials for the care of the two chronic diseases. The control patients were given only the 2-in-1 monitor for self-monitoring. The outcomes reported here included the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, fasting blood glucose level, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, chronic disease knowledge, and frequency of self-monitoring. The data were collected at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-up visits. The patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in mean systolic blood pressure from baseline to 1 month (p < 0.001) and from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.043) compared with the control group. Significant improvements in the mean diastolic blood pressure were seen in the intervention group compared with the control group after 1 month (p < 0.001) and after 2 months (p = 0.028), but the change was not significant after 3 months. No significant differences were observed between the groups in the fasting blood glucose level, the HbA1c level, or chronic disease knowledge. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose level and blood pressure was similar in both groups. The performances of the tablet computer-assisted and conventional disease self-monitoring appear to be useful to support/maintain blood pressure and diabetes control. The beneficial effects of the use of electronic self-care resources and support provided via mobile technologies require further

  15. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  16. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  17. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  18. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  19. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  20. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  1. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  2. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  3. [Preliminary study on the changes of bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage period].

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Xie, Bing; Yuan, Qi; Huang, Zhi-Ting; Cui, Lu-Lu; Wang, Wen-Ting

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the changes in water quality and the bacterial community structure in Qingcaosha Reservoir during water storage and supply period, the microorganisms in water body were studied by microbial culture counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DEEG) technique. Results showed that the water quality had been improved significantly and the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations significantly reduced after the Yangtze River water flowed into the reservoir. The number of culturable microorganisms in the influent and the reservoir changed with the seasons, and there were more microorganisms in the influent than these in the reservoir during spring and summer, and fewer in autumn and winter, and the precipitation of suspended microorganisms in the water caused the increase of organic matter content in the sediment. PCR-DGGE results showed that bacterial community structure in the reservoir changed with the seasons, and the microbial community diversity was the highest in summer and the lowest in autumn. The cluster analysis showed that the similarity of microbial community structure of water and sediment samples was 62% , which might be due to the contribution of the precipitation of the suspended microorganisms. The dominant microbial species in water had high similarity with alpha, beta-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and Marine metagenome, indicating that Qingcaosha Reservoir faced the risk of algae bloom and seawater intrusion. The results provide the fundamental understanding on reservoir operation and can be used as reference for future studies.

  4. Depression in Men in the Postnatal Period and Later Child Psychology: A Population Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The factors responsible for depression in men following childbirth and the association between their depression in the postnatal period and later psychiatric disorders in their children are assessed. Findings show that depression in fathers in their postnatal period is associated with later psychiatric disorders in their children, independent of…

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation change during the Younger Dryas cold period: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In Northwest Europe, proxy-based reconstructions have suggested that the Younger Dryas cold period may be sub-divided in a relatively cold and humid first part and a warmer and drier second part. In Scandinavia, the later part of the Younger Dryas climate was characterized by a notable increase in variability. These changes in climatic conditions during the Younger Dryas event have been linked to a northward shift of both the winter sea-ice margin in the North Atlantic Ocean and the main storm track. Recently, we performed transient simulations of the Younger Dryas climate, performed with a global climate model. In this study, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis of these model results to see to what extent our model has been capable to reproduce the reconstructed changes in precipitation. In our Younger Dryas simulation, the main storm track is located at 55°N, resulting in relatively high precipitation rates in mid-latitude Europe. In contrast, our model suggests dry conditions in Northern and Southern Europe.

  6. Periodic Hartree-Fock study of nitric acid monohydrate crystal. Bulk and clean surface

    SciTech Connect

    Poshusta, R.D.; Tseng, D.C. ); Hess, A.C.; McCarthy, M.I. )

    1993-07-15

    This study reports the first quantum mechanical investigation of crystalline nitric acid monohydrate (NAM), HNO[sub 3]-H[sub 2]O. The goal of this work is to characterize the physical properties of NAM in order to better understand its role as a catalyst in the destruction of polar stratospheric ozone in the Antarctic. The computations probed energetic, electronic, and elastic properties of the crystalline material using the Periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) method (as implemented in the program CRYSTAL92). All calculations were performed by using standard Pople basis sets. A description of the bulk material was obtained from calculations of the estimated cohesive binding energy, optimized lattice constants, band structure, total and projected density of states, Mulliken population analysis, electrostatic potentials, and elastic constants. The computed intracrystal interactions are consistent with the proposed hydronium/nitrate ionic crystal structure inferred from X-ray diffraction data. The calculated elastic constants, interlayer electrostatic potential maps, and characterization of the bonding in the crystal indicate that NAM is composed of weakly bound puckered layers aligned parallel to the (100) plane in the crystal. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  8. Experimental study of periodic linear internal waves transform at the shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Litvin, Alexander; Vladimirova, Eleonora; Ivanov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Vladlen

    2010-05-01

    The report contains results of the experimental study of the fine structure of hydrophysical processes of internal waves transform in the shelf zone observed within a thin thermocline. A series of experiments was performed in the stratified tank with its overall dimensions L*B*H = 2.15*0.15*0.35 m where the model of the shelf has been installed. The shadowgraph IAB-455 as well as the multidot spatial system of 40 thermocouples were used for distance and contact measurements. Methods of a digital video fixation of shadow pictures of currents in the thermally stratified liquid, as well as methods of the statistical analysis of non-stationary hydrodynamic processes were applied. As a result of the series of experiments it was revealed that interaction of internal waves in the pycnocline with the shelf model leads to transformation of the internal waves, formation of currents of vortical and turbulent character and water mass mixture. The observations concern a case of creation of a package of five periodic internal waves made in the pycnocline by a submerged wave-maker. Acknowledgement: this work is supported through NWO-RFBR Project (Code: 047.017.2006.003).

  9. Study of EGNOS safety of life service during the period of solar maximum activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorzewski, Marek; Swiatek, Anna; Oszczak, Stanislaw; Ciecko, Adam; Cwiklak, Janusz

    2012-12-01

    The Satellite Base Augmentation System (SBAS) - EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) has been certified for Safety of Life (SoL) service for aircraft navigation since 2nd of March 2011. Unfortunately for the territory of Poland, located at the edge of EGNOS service area, the quality of the service corrections are still not sufficient for aircraft navigation requirements. Years 2012 and 2013 are forecasted as a maximum of solar activity in a 11-year solar cycle. This time period will be the chance to perform the first tests for the EGNOS Safety of Life service quality in disturbed ionospheric conditions. During the previous maximum of solar activity, the storm on 30 October 2003 resulted in the inability to use WAAS corrections for more than 12 hours. This was caused by a very large gradient of disturbances and its' very sharp boundaries - vertical TEC (VTEC) varied from ~ 40 to ~ 120 TECU (TEC units) within an hour (over ~ 150 km distance). These circumstances gave the opportunity to carry out the test flights to examine the navigation parameters obtained for EGNOS SoL service in disturbed ionospheric conditions. The paper presents project proposal of study and analyses of such fundamental navigation parameters as: accuracy of determined position, availability, continuity and integrity, determined for selected disturbances in relation to quiet conditions. It can give a possibility to estimate of the quality of EGNOS SoL service in Polish airspace during the different phases of flight and its resistance to critical ionospheric conditions.

  10. [Hospital outcome in acute coronary syndrome in the period 1987-2001 in West-Herzegovina canton--retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ivan; Ostojić, Zdenko; Ostojić, Ljerka; Zelenika, D; Misković, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study is to show prevalence of hospital mortality of acute coronary syndrome in pre-war (1987-1991), war (1992-1996) and after war period (1997-2001) among inhabitants of West-Herzegovina canton living in the following municipalities: Siroki Brijeg, Posusje, Grude and Ljubuski (88,992 inhabitants). Collected were data on patients who were admitted in the hospital due to acute coronar syndrome (category I 20, 21, 22- X revision, ICD) in the above period in Mostar. Data were analyzed in regard to sex, age and disease output. Hospital morality in 15 year period for both sex were 15.0 %, men 12.1 %, and women 20.2 %. Statistically it was not found significant differences in the period 1987-2001 in regards to total hospital mortality of men and women and separate hospital mortality of men. Differences were found in women where considerable larger number was in pre-war and post-war period in comparison with war period. The largest hospital mortality was in total and for women in the pre-war period and for men was during the war period. The smallest hospital mortality was in total and for women during the war and for men in pre-war period. We find that lower hospital mortality in women was caused by lower hospital admission because of war time and problems with transport and that larger number of women deceased before admission to the hospital.

  11. Periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test forpatients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy:a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Genno, Hirokazu; Shiba, Naoko; Nakamura, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test. PMID:26696721

  12. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  13. A Medical Food Formulation of Griffonia simplicifolia/Magnesium for Childhood Periodic Syndrome Therapy: An Open-Label Study on Motion Sickness.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Sorrentino, Michele; Avolio, Deborah; Carotenuto, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Motion sickness (MS) is a disabling condition dominated by disagreement between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement, with symptoms like dizziness, fatigue, and nausea, and other autonomic disabling symptoms. Preparations of Griffonia simplicifolia, containing high concentrations of 5-HTP, might be effective for serotonin-related disorders, including MS. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the G. simplicifolia/magnesium complex in a pediatric population with MS. The Griffonia/magnesium complex (50 and 200 mg, respectively) was orally administered as a prophylactic therapy for MS twice a day for 3 months to group A, and no therapy for MS was administered to group B. The MS clinical signs were recorded by parents or, where possible, directly from children by a specific module, which included validated questions for the diagnoses that were administered to all subjects and parents of both groups. Two study groups were matched for age (P=.224), sex (P=.801), and z-score body-mass index (P=.173). At T0, all recruited subjects in both groups complained about MS. After 3 months (T1), group A showed an MS prevalence of 36%, significantly lower than MS prevalence in group B (73%) (P<.001). The findings of the present study suggest the role of the Griffonia/magnesium complex as a potential treatment with middle-term efficacy even for MS. PMID:25590358

  14. Treatment with an orthopedic appliance system in relation to treatment intensity and growth periods. A study of initial effects.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, O; Omblus, J; Hägg, U; Pancherz, H

    1987-02-01

    The study comprises an analysis of the effect of treatment with a modified activator combined with a high-pull headgear during a standardized observation period of the initial 6 months of treatment. All patients (24 girls and 32 boys, aged 8.5 to 15 years) had severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. In the first part of the study, the effect of treatment with the appliance both day and night is compared with the effect when it was worn only at night. Only a small and nonsignificant difference was found, but the patients tended to cooperate better if they were instructed to wear the appliance continuously. In the second part of the study, the effect of treatment is related to the somatic maturation of the patients. Longitudinal records of standing height were used to assess whether treatment had been performed before maximal pubertal growth (prepeak period), during maximal pubertal growth (peak period), or after maximal pubertal growth (postpeak period). The skeletal effect was significantly greater in boys treated during the peak period than in those treated during the prepeak period and a similar tendency, although not significant, was found among girls. The number of patients treated during the postpeak period was too small for statistical analysis.

  15. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  16. Predicting the Timeline to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether FSH, estradiol, or urinary N-telopeptide predict where an individual is on her timeline to FMP. Methods: The sample was 554 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. We modeled the probability of having crossed specified landmarks: 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP. We also modeled the probability of being in narrower intervals: 2 to1 year before FMP, 2 years before FMP and FMP, or 1 year before FMP and FMP. We determined the candidate markers that best predicted having crossed each landmark, with the optimum defined as the greatest area under the receiver-operator curve; created formulas for the probability of having crossed each landmark; and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Final models included current estradiol and FSH (each as a fraction of 1 previous reference measure), age, menopause transition stage, race/ethnicity, and whether serum was collected during the early follicular phase. Areas under the receiver-operator curves of final models that predicted the probability of a woman having crossed 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP itself were 0.902, 0.926, and 0.945, respectively. If we classified women as having crossed the 2 years before the FMP landmark when predicted probability exceeded 0.3, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 77%. Conclusion: This model could help patients and researchers estimate the time to FMP. PMID:23533245

  17. Study of plasmonic crystal to metamaterial transition in dielectric doped two-dimensional periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourshetty, Shivkumar; Regan, Charles; Grave de Peralta, Luis; Bernussi, Ayrton

    2012-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the transition from plasmonic crystal to metamaterial in dielectric-loaded plasmonic two-dimensional periodic structures with different lattice periods and lattice symmetries. The transition occurs due to changes in the effective refractive index of the plasmonic crystals when the period and/or the size of the patterned features are varied. The effective refractive index of the plasmonic structure can be further modified when an object (i.e. a virus, a bead, a cell, etc.) is placed on the top of the sample, thus altering the transition. This can be prospectively used for nanosensing applications. The samples investigated here were fabricated using a combination of electron-beam lithography and liftoff techniques and consisted of a glass substrate, a thin film of gold, and periodic arrays of air holes defined on PMMA doped with Rhodamine 6G. The plasmonic crystal to a metamaterial transition region was investigated using the leakage radiation microscopy technique. We determined that the transition occurs for lattice periods 262 nm and 310 nm for samples with square and hexagonal lattice symmetries, respectively.

  18. The occurrence of period IV elements in dinoflagellate chromatin: an X-ray microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Kearns, L P; Sigee, D C

    1980-12-01

    X-ray microanalysis of unfixed frozen-dried cryosections, and of unfixed cryosections collected by a sucrose drop technique, revealed the presence of Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn (Period IV, Periodic Table) in association with the permanently condensed chromosomes of Prorocentrum micans. All of these metals, with the exception of Mn, routinely occurred in the chromatin of cells that had been fixed in glutaraldehyde, ethanol-dehydrated, and resin-embedded. Their detection at high levels in chemically dehydrated chromatin of Prorocentrum micans, and 3 other dinoflagellate species cultured in the laboratory, suggests they are important as bound (insoluble) components of the chromatin. Detailed analysis of the fixed, ethanol-dehydrated material showed that for these particular cultures, each species had its own characteristic mass fraction pattern of chromatin-bound elements which differed markedly from that of the other species. Calculation of relative numbers of atoms from the mass fraction showed that for each species about 40-50 atoms of bound Period IV elements were present per 100 atoms of phosphorus. This is approximately equivalent to one Period IV atom per 2 DNA nucleotides or per base pair. Although considerable variation exists between species in terms of individual element levels, the total number of atoms of Period IV elements relative to phosphorus is remarkably constant. PMID:7194876

  19. Case studies of quasi-periodic VLF emissions and related ULF fluctuations of the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Nemec, F.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) VLF emissions are observed in the inner magnetosphere mostly on the day-side. These waves exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity that is possibly a result of the whistler-mode wave growth being periodically modulated by compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations. We have analyzed 50 QP events measured by the DEMETER satellite at altitudes of about 700 km to verify their generation mechanism. The analyzed events have a modulation period between 15 s and 80 s, and they were observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp<3). Magnetometers of the CARISMA system were used for monitoring the ULF magnetic field pulsations in a wide spatial range. We have found that ULF magnetic field pulsations in the Pc3 - Pc5 range are well correlated with the occurrence of the QP emissions with modulation periods between about 40 and 80 s. At the same time, increased fluxes of high-energy electrons (E > 30 keV) were observed by DEMETER and by the NOAA-17 satellite. We analyze possible links between these electrons, QP emissions, and ULF magnetic field pulsations.

  20. A comparative study of zone axis pattern maps from decagonal phases with varying periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, S. . Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore . Dept. of Metallurgy); Singh, A. . Dept. of Metallurgy); Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Weatherly, G.C. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-02-01

    The discovery in 1985 of the decagonal phase with periodicity in one direction and quasiperiodicity in the other two directions has excited considerable interest. This was followed by the observation that the periodicity perpendicular to the quasiperiodicity plane can assume multiple values on n = [1,2,3,4]x0.4 nm. The mapping of reciprocal spaces of these phases, labelled t[sub 2n], by electron diffraction is important in the context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] [Al-Co], T[sub 6][Al-Mn] and T[sub 8] [Al-Fe], [Al-Pd], the recent complete determination of zone axis pattern maps [ZAPM] and Kikuchi maps of T[sub 6] [Al-Mn] with 1.24 nm periodicity and T[sub 4][Al-Cu-Co-Si] with 0.8 nm periodicity is a tour de force by Kelton and his co-workers. These papers coupled with the complete mapping of the HOLZ line and Kikuchi line patterns of the T[sub 2][Al-Co-Ni] with 0.4 nm periodicity permit the authors to put in perspective the ZAPM of all the four decagonal phases and in addition predict patterns for the T[sub 8] phase for which a complete experimental determination is still lacking.

  1. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  2. Orbital period variation study of massive Beta-Lyrae eclipsing binary IU Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    The system IU Aur is a semi-detached close binary system with an orbital period of 1.81 days, containing a massive star. The O-C diagram of this binary was analyzed with the least-squares method by using all available times of minima. We have found a periodic change of orbital period of IU Aur. This change has been explained by the gravitational effects of a third companion on the binay star. The orbit Parameters of the third body have been derived from the analysis of the O-C curve. The analysis indicates that the eclipsing binary revolves around a third-body with a mass of about M_{3}>10M_{⊙} in a highly eccentric orbit.

  3. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  4. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  5. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  6. Detecting Periodic Genes from Irregularly Sampled Gene Expressions: A Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Time series microarray measurements of gene expressions have been exploited to discover genes involved in cell cycles. Due to experimental constraints, most microarray observations are obtained through irregular sampling. In this paper three popular spectral analysis schemes, namely, Lomb-Scargle, Capon and missing-data amplitude and phase estimation (MAPES), are compared in terms of their ability and efficiency to recover periodically expressed genes. Based on in silico experiments for microarray measurements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lomb-Scargle is found to be the most efficacious scheme. 149 genes are then identified to be periodically expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster data set. PMID:18584052

  7. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  8. Study of Organic Thin Film Transistors on Ultraviolet-Curable Dielectrics with Periodic Patterns Fabricated by Nano Imprint Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Henry J. H.; Chen, Jun-Yu

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) on UV-curable dielectrics with periodic patterns fabricated by nano imprint technology were investigated. The surface morphologies of pentacene and device performances with respect to line/space ratio of periodic patterns were studied. The anisotropic electrical characteristics of OTFTs were also investigated. This technique will be suitable for the future low-cost and flexible electronics applications.

  9. Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: A Case Study of Successful Adult SLA in a Naturalistic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioup, Elizabeth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The nativelike linguistic competence of an adult second-language learner of Egyptian Arabic who was first exposed to the target language after the close of the critical period is examined to determine what factors differentiate her from less successful naturalistic adult acquirers. The role of internalized grammar is discussed. (Contains 43…

  10. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  11. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  12. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  13. Spectral Methods for Detecting Periodicity in Library Circulation Data: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decroos, Francis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an investigation that was conducted to show the feasibility of spectral methods in information science, particularly for analyzing academic library circulation data. Signal analysis methods were used to detect periodicity, and spectral methods show promise for analyzing time series and other signals in information science. (Author/LRW)

  14. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  15. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  16. Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

  17. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  18. Earthquake Early Warning of East China Sea: the study on the experimental relationship between the Predominant Period and the Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Xue, M.; Ren, Y.; Zhu, A.

    2011-12-01

    Based on seismic hazards analysis in Huadong region (include Shanghai, Zhejiang province, and Jiangsu province), it's necessary to build an earthquake early warning systems in this region. This becomes even more urgent because of the fast developments of High-Speed Trains surrounding the area. In this study, we use the historical earthquake data to build an experimental relationship between the Predominant Period and the Magnitude for Huadong region. We combined ISC earthquake catalogue with the catalogue from Huadong sub-network of Chinese Digital Seismic Network from 1999 to 2008. We manually examined all the local and regional events and selected a total of 117 earthquakes with high signal to noise ratios. Based on the analysis of seismic data from station SSE, we investigate the influence of different parameters such as the eigenfunction, the length of STA/LTA window, and the threshold on P-wave auto triggering and determine the appropriate values of these parameters for Huadong region. By testing different values of the parameters, we obtain different linear relationships between the predominant period and the magnitude; then we determine the optimal set of parameters through error analysis for magnitude estimation. A good linear fitting between the predominant period and magnitudes is obtained. In addition, we use the average predominant period instead of the predominant period of the first few seconds to build the experimental relationship between the average predominant period and the magnitude. Compared with that of using the predominant period directly, the linear fitting using the average predominant period reveals a relatively better relevancy between periods and magnitudes and a better error distribution in magnitude estimating.

  19. Field-induced periodic distortions in a nematic liquid crystal: deuterium NMR study and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V

    2011-08-01

    The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001

  20. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration. PMID:19632749

  1. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration.

  2. Period and light-curve study of the contact eclipsing binary V523 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mahya; Abedi, Abbas; Riazi, Nematollah

    2016-04-01

    CCD photometry of the eclipsing W Uma binary system V523 Cas in U, B, V and RC filters was carried out during eight nights in 2012. The physical and geometrical parameters of this system are obtained. A possible pulsation period of one of the components is obtained by analyzing the residuals of the ephemeris light curve. Our observations contain 16 times of minimum light. We combined these with all available published times of minimum. By fitting a quadratic curve to the O-C values, a new ephemeris of the system is calculated. By attributing the period change to mass transfer, we find a mass transfer rate of 4 ×10-12 M⊙/yr. Also, Period (80.58 yr) and the minimum mass (0.3 M⊙) of a possible third body is estimated. In addition, the possible existence of a fourth body with a mass of order 0.15 M⊙ is discussed. These third and fourth bodies could be low-mass main-sequence stars (red dwarfs).

  3. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  4. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  5. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part I: numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the technique of periodic external compression for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. In the model the veins of the lower leg are portrayed as a continuous system rather than as discrete elements as in previous models. Consequently, we are able to explore the detailed effects of different modes of compression including (i) uniform compression, the simultaneous application of uniform pressure over the entire lower leg, (ii) graded compression, the application of nonuniform pressure, maximum at the ankle and minimum at the knee, and (iii) wavelike compression, a wave of compression proceeding from the ankle toward the knee. These numerical results indicate that the effectiveness of uniform compression is severely compromised by the formation of a flow-limiting throat at the proximal end of the compression cuff that reduces both the rate at which blood is discharged from the lower leg and the total blood volume removed. Both of these detrimental effects can be avoided by the use of either wavelike of graded compression. Both alternated methods are shown to produce more uniform augmentation of volume flow rate, flow velocity and shear stress, throughout the entire lower leg. In the companion paper, Part II [18] (see following article), these same compression modes are tested using a simple hydraulic model consisting of a single latex tube inside a foam cylinder as a highly simplified representation of a human leg. PMID:7078134

  6. Surgery during holiday periods and prognosis in oesophageal cancer: a population-based nationwide Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Markar, Sheraz R; Wahlin, Karl; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Pernilla; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies indicate an increased short-term and long-term mortality from major cancer surgery performed towards the end of the working week or during the weekend. We hypothesised that the prognosis after major cancer surgery is also negatively influenced by surgery conducted during holiday periods. Setting Population-based nationwide Swedish cohort study. Participants Patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 1987 and 2010. Among 1820 included patients, 206 (11.3%) and 373 (20.5%) patients were operated on during narrow and wide holiday periods, respectively. Interventions Narrow (7 weeks) and wide (14 weeks) Swedish holiday periods. Primary and secondary outcome measures 90-day all-cause, 5-year all-cause and 5-year disease-specific mortality. Results Narrow holiday period did not increase all-cause 90-day (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.33), all-cause 5-year (HR=1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.21) or disease-specific 5-year mortality (HR=1.04, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.26). Similarly, wide holiday period did not increase the risk of 90-day (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13), all-cause 5-year (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.1) or disease-specific 5-year mortality (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.19). Conclusions No measurable effects of holiday periods on short-term or longer term mortality following surgery for oesophageal cancer were observed in this population-based study, indicating that an adequate surgical experience was maintained during holiday periods. PMID:27601504

  7. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  8. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  9. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  10. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  11. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  12. [Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Fukunaga, T; Tatsuno, Y

    1990-04-01

    The authors examined 3,335 cases of suicides among the unnatural deaths in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. The results obtained were as follows: The number of suicides in a year amounted to 200 during the period from 1974 to 1982, and increased to 280 in 1983 at maximum. The cases of suicide were more in male than in female. The incidence of suicide was higher in March to July and the peak of incidence was observed in April. The highest frequency of suicides was in 40-49 year age group in male, and 70-79 year group in female. Among various procedures of suicide, hanging was most frequent during the past 15 years in both sexes, and the following procedure was carbon monoxide poisoning in male and drowning in female. As to the occupation, housewives and person without a regular occupation constituted 53.1% of the total suicidal cases, and products makers and laborers were found in 11.1%. With regarded to the causative factors, "suffering from illness" was the most frequent factor, and followed by "insanity or mental disorder", "problems of economic distress", "disagreement with family" and others.

  13. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  14. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  15. Asthma attack periodicity: A study of hospital emergency visits in Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.V.; Baker-Anderson, M.; Sizto, R. )

    1990-02-01

    Attendances at the emergency departments of the nine acute care hospitals serving the Vancouver region, with a population of just under a million people, were recorded from July 1, 1984 to October 31, 1986. Of about 25,500 visits a month, 2.7% were for respiratory conditions; and of these, 41.3% were for asthma. Data from 11 air monitoring stations were also tabulated on a daily basis, giving mean maximal hourly values for SO2, NO2, and O3; daily aerosol sulfate measurements from one station were also analyzed, together with daily temperature data and measurements of the coefficient of haze. In 3 consecutive years, a peak in asthma attendances was noted, starting in the last week of September, and continuing for 3 weeks. In these periods, weekly visits for asthma reached 130 patients; during the rest of the year, the weekly visits for asthma varied between 30 and 90. This peak affected children and adults between the ages of 15 and 60, but no increase was seen in those over 60 years. Although pollution levels increased sharply in the fall, a day-by-day analysis showed that the rise in asthma attendances preceded the increase in NO chi and SO2 levels for the region, expressed as the mean of the hourly maxima across all stations. It seems unlikely that a specific pollen is responsible for this, or that house mite replication is the cause. Soya beans are not shipped out of Vancouver. The cause of the peak has not been identified. Variations in emergency visits by day of the week have been recorded; in children and in those aged 15-60, more visits occur on Sundays than on other days, but this does not occur in those over 60. Intercorrelations between environmental variables and emergency visits have been calculated separately for the periods May 1 to October 31, and November 1 to April 30.

  16. Photometric Study and Period Analysis of the Contact Binary XZ Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chang Qing; Zhang, Xiao Bin; Deng, Licai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yangping

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-color CCD photometry of the neglected contact binary XZ Leo. Completely covered VRI band light curves and four times of minimum light were obtained. Combining the photometric and previously published radial-velocity data, a revised photometric analysis was carried out for the binary system by applying the Wilson-Devinney code. With a hot spot placed on the massive primary component near the neck region of the common envelope, the light curves were satisfactorily modeled. The photometric solution combined with the radial-velocity solution reveals that XZ Leo is an A-type contact binary with a degree of contact of 24(±1)%. The absolute parameters of the components were determined to be M1 = 1.74(±0.06)M⊙, M2 = 0.61(±0.02)M⊙, R1 = 1.69(±0.01)R⊙, R2 = 1.07(±0.01)R⊙, L1 = 6.73(±0.08) L⊙, and L2 = 2.40(±0.04)L⊙. Based on all the available data, the long-term orbital period behavior of the system was investigated. It indicates that the binary system was undergoing a continuous orbital period increase in the past three decades with a rate of {dP}/{dt} =+6.12× {10}-8 {days} {{yr}}-1, which suggests a probable mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component at a rate of {dM}/{dt}=3.92× {10}-8{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The binary system is expected to evolve into the broken-contact stage in 1.56× {10}6 years. This could be evidence supporting the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  17. [Experimental study of the root supply system with periodic water return designed for space greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Smolianina, S O; Krivobok, N M

    2000-01-01

    To improve reliability of plant's moistening and aeration control in microgravity, an original root supply system with a periodic return water flow has been designed and tested in laboratory. For 30 days crops of Pekinese cabbage (Brassica pekinesis (Lour Rupr), Khibini sort) were raised in the test bench which allowed adjustment of water potential in the root zone within a preset range. A three-step water potential control algorithm included water injection with a pump-dispenser, a pause, and water sucking back to a desired value of water potential. The following parameters of the control cycle were selected in a series of two experiments: time of water injection (2.5 hr) and return (1.5 hr), and a pause of 8 and 20 hr, respectively. Magnitude of water potential about the root module axis was controlled in the range from -1.3 kPa to -3.0 kPa in both experiments and maintained at -1.3 kPa in the control. The root modules consisted of porous metaloceramic tubes wrapped in fibrous ion exchanging cloth and a light-proof film with planting slots on top. In the first experiment, plant characteristics were comparable to the control. The developed procedure and technology can be used to provide favourable moisture-air conditions in the root zone. By and large, the system of root nutrition with a periodic water return has demonstrated high capacity during the ground-based cultivation of plants. To use this system in space greenhouse, it is necessary to specify operational parameters for the microgravity environment. PMID:10826063

  18. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  19. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). This notice is issued under authority of 33 U.S.C... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of...

  20. The study of structural color filter based on periodic nanohole arrays for bio-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunguk; Shin, Jeonghee; Yoo, Seungjun; Kim, Samhwan; Jeon, Byoungok; Moon, Cheil; Jang, Jae-Eun

    2015-07-01

    A nanostructure which induces localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be utilized in visible light and near infrared (NIR) regions and it shows promising features as a bio-detector because LSPR state is changed easily by different bio-related materials. Owing to transparent property of many biomolecules as well as diluted states in base solutions, it is hard to distinguish each other by eye or microscope analysis. However, difference in molecular structure and composition makes difference in optical characteristics such as a refractive index or a dielectric constant. Therefore, our LSPR-based nanohole array structure which has high sensitivity to detect small changes in optical characteristics can be a great candidate for a bio detector. Here, we fabricated structural color filters (SCFs) to detect wavelength shifts for several biomolecules and optimized the nanohole array structures for high sensitivity. Periodic nanohole arrays were designed to present resonance peaks in visible light region for optical analysis and fabricated in Au or Al thin film layer. The spectral shifts were detected caused by biomolecules.

  1. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  2. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  3. Laboratory study of nitrification, denitrification and anammox processes in membrane bioreactors considering periodic aeration.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Huang, Shan; Jaffé, Peter R

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in simultaneous nitrification-anammox-denitrification (SNAD) by considering periodic aeration cycles was investigated. Two separate reactors were operated to investigate the effect of different anammox biomass in the presence of nitrifying and denitrifying biomass on the final nitrogen removal efficiency. The results illustrated that the reactor with higher anammox biomass was more robust to oxygen cycling. Around 98% Total Nitrogen (TN) and 83% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were observed by applying one hour aeration over a four-hour cycle. Decreasing the aeration time to 30, 15, and 2 min during a four-hour cycle affected the final TN removal efficiencies. However, the effect of decreasing aeration on the TN removal efficiencies in the reactor with higher anammox biomass was much lower compared to the regular reactor. The nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was a function of aeration as well, and was lower in the reactor with higher anammox biomass. The results of q-PCR analysis confirmed the simultaneous co-existence of nitrifiers, anammox, and denitrifiers in both of the reactors. To simulate the TN removal in these reactors as a function of the aeration time, a new model, based on first order reaction kinetics for both denitrification and anammox was developed and yielded a good agreement with the experimental observations.

  4. Numerical study on sequential period-doubling bifurcations of graphene wrinkles on a soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jong Hyun; Bae, Jaehyun; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Ihm, Jisoon

    2015-11-01

    A compressed stiff film on a soft substrate may exhibit wrinkles and, under increased compressive strain, post-buckling instabilities as well. We numerically analyze wrinkling behaviors of graphene attached on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate under lateral compression. The finite element method is used to simulate the equilibrium shape of the wrinkles as a function of compressive strain. Two-dimensional stretching and bending properties of graphene are obtained by density functional theory analysis, which are then converted to equivalent elastic properties of a continuum film with finite effective thickness. The PDMS is described using an Ogden or a neo-Hookean material model. Wrinkles first appear at extremely small strain. As the lateral compression increases, due to the nonlinear elasticity of the PDMS, sequential period-doubling bifurcations of the wrinkle mode are activated until the bifurcation stops and the film folds. We show that the bifurcations are consequences of a delicate balance between the deformations of the film and the substrate to minimize the total energy.

  5. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  6. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  7. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Joanna H; Chen, Qiyan; Tolhurst, Rachel J; Garner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. Methods We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional beliefs and their behaviour postpartum. We used a framework approach to identify main themes. We categorised reported behaviour against their probable effects on health, drawing on Western standards. Results Respondents reported that zuo yuezi was commonly practiced in urban and rural families to help the mother regain her strength and protect her future health. Zuo yuezi included: dietary precautions, such as eating more food and avoiding cold food; behavioural precautions, such as staying inside the home, avoiding housework and limiting visitors; hygiene precautions, such as restricting bathing and dental hygiene; and practices associated with infant feeding, including supplementary feeding and giving honeysuckle herb to the infant. Respondents reported that the main reasons for adhering to these practices were respect for tradition, and following the advice of elders. Categorised against Western medical standards, several zuo yuezi practices are beneficial, including eating more, eating protein rich food, avoiding housework, and daily vulval and perineal hygiene. A few are potentially harmful, including giving honeysuckle herb, and avoiding dental hygiene. Some women reported giving infants supplementary feeds, although zuo yuezi emphasises breast feeding. Conclusion Zuo yuezi is an important ritual in Fujian. In medical terms, most practices are beneficial, and could be used by health staff to promote health in this period. Further research on reported potentially harmful practices, such as supplements to breast feeding, is needed. PMID:17584930

  8. Aerosol Indirect Effect Studies at Southern Great Plains During the May 2003 Intensive Operations Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Graham; Furrer, Reinhard; Pilewskie, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Min, Qilong; Jonsson, Haflidi

    2006-01-01

    During May 2003 the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program conducted an Intensive Operations Period (IOP) to measure the radiative effects of aerosol and clouds. A suite of both in situ and remote sensing measurements were available to measure aerosol and cloud parameters. This paper has three main goals: First, it focuses on comparison between in situ retrievals of the radiatively important drop effective radius r(sub e) and various satellite, airborne, and surface remote sensing retrievals of the same parameter. On 17 May 2003, there was a fortuitous, near-simultaneous sampling of a stratus cloud by five different methods. The retrievals of r(sub e) agree with one another to within approx.20%, which is approximately the error estimate for most methods. Second, a methodology for deriving a best estimate of r(sub e) from these different instruments, with their different physical properties and sampling volumes, is proposed and applied to the 17 May event. Third, the paper examines the response of r(sub e) to changes in aerosol on 3 days during the experiment and examines the consistency of remote sensing and in situ measurements of the effect of aerosol on r(sub e). It is shown that in spite of the generally good agreement in derived r(sub e), the magnitude of the response of r(sub e), to changes in aerosol is quite sensitive to the method of retrieving r(sub e) and to the aerosol proxy for cloud condensation nuclei. Nonphysical responses are sometimes noted, and it is suggested that further work needs to be done to refine these techniques.

  9. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  10. Modulation of interhemispheric inhibition by volitional motor activity: an ipsilateral silent period study.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Fabio; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Balestrieri, Fabrizio; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Cincotta, Massimo; Ziemann, Ulf

    2009-11-15

    Brief interruption of voluntary EMG in a hand muscle by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called ipsilateral silent period (ISP), is a measure of interhemispheric motor inhibition. However, little is known about how volitional motor activity would modulate the ISP. Here we tested in 30 healthy adults to what extent and under what conditions voluntary activation of the stimulated right M1 by moving the left hand strengthens interhemispheric inhibition as indexed by an enhancement of the ISP area in the maximally contracting right first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Left index finger abduction, already at low levels of contraction, significantly enhanced the ISP compared to left hand at rest. Even imagination of left index finger movement enhanced the ISP compared to rest or mental calculation. This enhancement occurred in the absence of motor-evoked potential amplitude modulation in the left FDI, thus excluding a non-specific contribution from an increase in right M1 corticospinal excitability. Contraction of the left extensor indicis, but not contraction of more proximal left upper limb or left or right lower limb muscles also enhanced the ISP. A reaction time experiment showed that the ISP enhancement developed at a late stage of movement preparation just before or at movement onset. Interhemispheric inhibition of the motor-evoked potential as tested by a bifocal paired-pulse TMS protocol and thought to be mediated via a neuronal circuit different to the ISP was not enhanced when tested under identical motor task conditions. Finally, ISP enhancement by contraction of the left FDI correlated inversely with EMG mirror activity in the right FDI during phasic abductions of the left index finger. Our findings strongly suggest that voluntary M1 activation by real or imagined movement of the contralateral hand increases interhemispheric motor inhibition of the opposite M1. This phenomenon shows substantial

  11. Paleointensity during periods of rapid reversal: A Case Study from the Middle Jurassic Shamrock Batholith, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprain, C. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Strauss, B.; Brown, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleointensity is one of the least determined parameters in geomagnetism, yet this information has the potential to address many fundamental geophysical problems that bear on the evolution of the Earth's core and lower mantle. Here we further test the inverse relationship between geomagnetic polarity reversal rate and paleointensity, as proposed by Tauxe and Staudigel (2004) and Tarduno & Cottrell (2005). We report paleointensity results determined using both the modified Coe method (Coe, 1967) and IZZI protocol (Tauxe and Staudigel, 2004) on medium grained, hornblende-biotite granite of the Shamrock batholith in the southern Singatse Range, near Yerington, Nevada. This batholith was emplaced at ca.165.8+/- 0.4 Ma (zircon U-Pb, Dilles & Wright, 1988) during a period of unusually high reversal frequency (~10/Myr) in the Middle Jurassic. Remanence in the Shamrock batholith is held primarily by exsolved submicron magnetite inclusions in plagioclase; the laboratory unblocking temperature range for the very well-defined TRM is narrow, between about 540 and 575°C. Two sets of quality control criteria were used to assess the data. The first set yielded a 87% success rate and required MAD <10°, β <15%, DRATS <22%, MD checks <15% and fvds >30%, while the second set was more stringent (20% success rate) with MAD <5°, β <10%, DRATS <10%, MD checks <10% and fvds >40%. Mean paleointensity values for the Shamrock batholith using the 'loose' and 'strict' quality criteria are 31.4 ± 4.2 μT (N = 13) and 29.7 ± 3.1 μT (N = 3), respectively. After correction for both remanence anisotropy and cooling rate the mean values are15.9 ± 1.7 μT and 14.8 ± 0.3 μT, respectively. The uncorrected and corrected paleointensity values for the 'strict' estimates yield mean virtual dipole moments of 56.1 ± 5.9 ZAm2 and 27.9 ± 0.6 ZAm2, respectively. The uncorrected value is consistent with the VDM results reported by Tarduno & Cottrell (2005) for plagioclase grains isolated from ca

  12. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  13. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  14. Study of the Instructional Effectiveness of Last Period Middle School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jennifer Giddings; Tees, Sandra

    To facilitate cost effective bus schedules, middle school classes begin one hour later than high school classes in the Fort Worth Independent School District, Texas. This study investigated whether middle school students were adversely affected, in terms of grades and classroom performance, by having the class day extended to 4 p.m. High schools…

  15. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  16. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  17. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of interacting…

  18. CBVE: A Study to Measure Its Effectiveness in Kentucky. Final Report. Interim Period 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Roger D.; Cobb, Robert A.

    An interim study was conducted in Kentucky to determine the effectiveness of Competency Based Vocational Education (CBVE) and to compare its effectiveness to that of traditional teaching methodologies. Research surveys of those directly involved in the implementation of CBVE were used to ascertain if CBVE is meeting its self-stated goals.…

  19. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  20. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  1. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience.

  2. Photometric Studies of Three Neglected Short-period Contact Binaries GN Bootis, BL Leonis, and V1918 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Dai, H.-F.

    2013-03-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  3. Energy and water balance studies of a snow cover during snowmelt period at a high arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.; Maréchal, D.; Sand, K.; Killingtveit, Å.

    The predicted global warming is supposed to have an enhanced effect on the arctic regions. How this will influence the water, carbon dioxide and methane balances in the European arctic tundra is the objective of the EU-funded project ``Understanding Land Surface Physical Processes in the Arctic'' (LAPP), to which where SINTEF is one of several contributors. The snow cover is one of the limiting factors for these exchange processes and knowledge of how it behaves and will behave under a different climate is important. Data collected for water and energy balance studies in an area close to Ny-Ålesund at 79°N at Svalbard are the basis of this study. Measurements during the ablation periods since 1992 show an average air temperature for the periods of 2.1°C, an average incoming shorwave radiation of 230W/m2 and an average measured runoff intensity of 14mm/day with a maximum of 68mm/day. Three models of different complexity are tested in order to simulate the water and energy balance of a snow cover on the arctic tundra. The three models are: a complex numerical model (CROCUS), a simple energy balance model and a temperature index model. The simulations were carried out for the melt periods in 1992 and 1996 as these two periods represent very different meteorological conditions. The results of these simulations exposed weaknesses in all the models. The energy balance model lacks calculation of cold content in the snowpack. This influences both the outgoing longwave radiation and the timing of the melt. Due to the effect of compensating errors in the simulations, CROCUS performed better than the simple energy balance model but also this model has problems with the simulation of outgoing longwave radiation. The temperature index model does not perform well for snowmelt studies in regions were radiation is the main driving energy source for the melt.

  4. Studies of the Decay of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Periodic Metallic Nanostructures and Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhaolong

    Surface plasmons (SPs), which generate strong localized electromagnetic fields at metal surface, have been capturing worldwide attention recently because they establish an important link between light and matter. Due to their ability to route and manipulate photon at the nanoscale, SPs have been widely used in nano- and bio-photonics including biosensor, surface enhanced Raman scattering, optical tweezers, light emitting diodes, solar cell, and metamaterials, etc. However, although it is known that system geometry, material, wavelength, excitation condition are important in governing the behaviors of SPs as well as matter/SPPs interactions, how they work together in producing the final outcome is largely unknown. More importantly, there seems to be a "missing link" between these extrinsic parameters and the properties of SPs such that, for example, it is still not quite understood the exact roles of geometry play in controlling the SPs and their related properties. In this thesis, we aim at bridging the link between extrinsic parameters and SPs properties based on temporal coupled-mode theory (CMT). CMT provides the knowledge of intrinsic parameters such as SPs radiative and absorption rates and their relationships with the phase, amplitude, and directionality of SPs. Because decay rates are strong function of system parameters, excitation condition, etc, connection between the extrinsic parameters and the SPs properties can now be established. With the decay rates and other accessories in hand, we study the fundamental of SPs from another perspective. For example, we examine how two degenerate SPs modes couple to yield a pair of dark and bright modes and find not only the radiation damping of SPs but also the absorption are modified. In addition, we study the decay length and the group velocity of SPs in real- and momentum- space to elucidate the interplay between the SPs losses and the wavevector-resolved projected density-of-optical-states (PDOS). We also

  5. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond x-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the x-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform x-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. Significant progress was made over the past year.

  6. ARIES-ST STUDIES REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 1998 THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. CHAN; L.L. LAO; Y.R. LIN-LIU; R.L. MILLER; T.W. PETRIE; P.A. POLITZER; R. PRATER; M.J. SCHAFFER; G.M. STAEBLER; R.D. STAMBAUGH; A.D. TURNBULL; W.P.WEST

    1999-04-01

    During 1998, the General Atomics (GA) ARIES-Spherical Torus (ST) team examined several critical issues related to the physics performance of the ARIES-ST design, and a number of suggestions were made concerning possible improvements in performance. These included specification of a reference plasma equilibrium, optimization about the reference equilibrium to achieve higher beta limits, examination of three possible schemes for plasma initiation, development of a detailed scenario for ramp-up of the plasma current and pressure to its full, final operating values, an assessment of the requirement for electron confinement, and several suggestions for divertor heat flux reduction. The reference equilibrium was generated using the TOQ code, with the specification of a 100%, self-consistent bootstrap current. The equilibrium has {beta} = 51%, 10% below the stability limit (a margin specified by the ARIES-ST study). In addition, a series of intermediate equilibria were defined, corresponding to the ramp-up scenario discussed. A study of the influence of shaping on ARIES-ST performance indicates that significant improvement in both kink and ballooning stability can be obtained by modest changes in the squareness of the plasma. In test equilibria the ballooning beta limit is increased from 58% to 67%. Also the maximum allowable plasma-wall separation for kink stability can be increased by 30%. Three schemes were examined for noninductive plasma initiation. These are helicity injection (HICD), electron cyclotron heating (ECH)-assisted startup, and inductive startup using only the external equilibrium coils. HICD startup experiments have been done on the HIT and CDX devices. ECH-assisted startup has been demonstrated on CDX-U and DIII-D. External coil initiation is based on calculations for a proposed DIII-D experiment. In all cases, plasma initiation and preparation of an approximately 0.3 MA plasma for ARIES-ST appears entirely feasible.

  7. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  8. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  9. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  10. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  11. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species. PMID:26745511

  14. Low-altitude quasi-periodic echoes studied using a large database of Gadanki radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, N.; Patra, A. K.; Rao, S. V. B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on low-altitude quasiperiodic (LQP) echoes based on a large database of Gadanki radar observations. LQP echoes have been observed 33% of the time during daytime and 39% during nighttime. Their occurrence is found to be maximum in the summer (daytime, 58% nighttime, 57%), followed by the September equinox (daytime, 32% nighttime, 48%), the March equinox (daytime, 26% nighttime, 36%), and minimum in the winter (daytime, 25% nighttime, 26%). Height-time occurrence of LQP echoes shows two local time maxima: one in the morning (0700-1100 LT) and another in the evening (1900-0000 LT). The most significant results not reported earlier are the large occurrence rate of LQP echoes and the height-time occurrence maps showing a descending pattern with close resemblance to tidal wind behavior. The Doppler velocities are upward-northward (downward-southward) for positive- (negative-) sloped LQP echoes. Also, we find the Doppler spread as high as 200 m s-1 at times underlining the presence of strong plasma turbulence in the collision-dominated lower E region. These results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the LQP echoes.

  15. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations of accreting compact objects. include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. past year. Nine papers were accepted and/or published, as listed below. Seven of these are new since our previous annual report. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to Significant progress was made over the The presentation of several talks and posters at astronomical meetings were supported by this grant. The PI was the lead organizer of "X-Ray Timing 2003: Rossi and Beyond", a major conference held in Cambridge, MA, in November, 2003. A t the conference we reviewed the accomplishments of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and developed the scientific motivation for a future X-ray timing mission. This conference was well attended and generated a significant amount of interest.

  16. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  17. Using a pneumatic support to correct sitting posture for prolonged periods: a study using airline seats.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged sitting with spine flexion has been linked to low back disorders. A variety of mechanisms account for this based on biomechanical and neurological variables. Airline seats typically cause pronounced lumbar flexion due to their hollowed seat back design. A pneumatic support, placed between the seat back and the lumbar spine, was tested to see if lumbar flexion was reduced. Results showed that when the seats were positioned in the upright position, 15 of 20 participants experienced reduced lumbar flexion (by 15 degrees on average) with the support. The study was repeated on the five non-responders with the seatback set in the reclined position. This resulted in another four experiencing less lumbar flexion. Since seated flexion is associated with disc stress, reducing flexion with the support reduced lumbar stress. Spine flexion that results from prolonged sitting is associated with disc stress and pain. The pneumatic support tested here reduced spine flexion. While it is not known why airline seats are designed with no lumbar support, which causes excessive lumbar flexion while seated, the pneumatic support corrected this deficit. Reclining the seatback enhanced this effect.

  18. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  19. First multi-colour photometric study of the short period K-type contact binary NSVS 2701634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first CCD sets of complete light curves for the W Ursae Majoris W-type system NSVS 2701634. The observations were performed in the B, V and Ic bands using the 0.25 m telescope of the "Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse" Italy, during 8 nights in April 2015. From our observations we were able to confirm and revise the short-period (0.24 days) variation found by Shaw and collaborators in their online list Using our 12 times of minimum light, the orbital period variations of NSVS 2701634 are studied for the first time. The general trend of the (O-C) curve reveals that its period is varying by a downward parabola that means that period is decreasing, this fact could be explained by a mass transfer between the components of the system. The light curves were modelled using the Wilson-Devinney code and the elements obtained from this analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the system in order to study its evolutionary status. A reasonable fit of the synthetic light curves of the data indicated that NSVS 2701634 is an late-type (K3 -K4+K6) contact binary system of W-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems, with a mass ratio of q = 2.60, a degree of contact factor f = 15.3% and inclination i = 72°. The light curves show asymmetries at the maxima that are fitted adding an hot spot on the surface of the more massive star, known as inverse O'Connell effect. From an estimation of the absolute dimensions of the system and from the logM-logL diagram, it is seen that both components of NSVS 2701634 follow the general pattern of the W subtype W Ursae Majoris systems.

  20. ADHERENCE TO RECTAL GEL USE AMONG MAINLY ETHNIC MINORITY YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN DURING A 3-MONTH PLACEBO GEL TRIAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR MICROBICIDE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Bauermeister, José; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Valladares, Juan; Frasca, Timothy; Labbett, Rita; Cranston, Ross D.; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth; McGowan, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To study adherence to product use prior to a Phase I microbicide trial, we recruited young men who have sex with men (YMSM) with a history of unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI) and provided them with 40 rectal applicators containing a placebo gel to use prior to RAI during a 12-week period. Ninety-five YMSM completed the trial. Based on a Computer Assisted Self Interview, 83 participants had receptive anal intercourse (RAI) (Median 12 occasions) using gel on 82.4% of occasions (SD 26.7; 0–100). Based on an interactive voice response system, 88 participants had RAI (Median 10 occasions) using gel on 87.9% of occasions (SD 20.0; 20–100). By applicator counts the median gel use was 12. Participants showed high adherence to gel use. Those who did not use the product consistently (n=40) adduced not having it with them (85%), forgetting to use it (48%), not wanting to use it (13%), partner refusal (10%) and gel messiness (10%). PMID:24719200

  1. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  2. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response. A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6–115). Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABLIS value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABLIS > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABLIS at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to

  3. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  4. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  5. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  6. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  7. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  8. Divalproex Sodium -ER in Outpatients with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Three Month Open Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Kirti; Mora, Linda; Torres, Erika; Hall, Rebecca; Delizonna, Laura; Torres, Alex; Steiner, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This aim of this clinical trial was to study the effects of divalproex sodium (DVPX) in reducing Reactive/Affective/ Defensive/ Impulsive Aggression (RADI) in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) in an outpatient clinic over a period of 3 months. We recruited forty participants with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder.…

  9. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply.

  10. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  11. Choice of fluid therapy in patients of craniopharyngioma in the perioperative period: A hospital-based preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, K. K.; Dutta, Pinaki; Singh, Apinderpreet; Gupta, Prakamya; Srinivasan, Anand; Bhagat, Hemant; Mathuriya, S. N.; Shah, Viral N.; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte imbalance and acute diabetes insipidus (DI) are the most common complications in patients undergoing craniopharyngioma surgery. Improper management of water and electrolyte imbalance is common cause of morbidity and mortality. Data is sparse and controversial regarding the choice of fluid therapy in this population during perioperative period. Methods: In this retrospective-prospective study involving 73 patients (58 retrospective), the type of fluid therapy was correlated with occurrence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, DI, morbidity, and mortality. In the retrospective study, 48 patients received normal saline and 10 received mixed fluids as per the prevailing practice. In the prospective group, five patients each received normal saline, half normal saline, and 5% dextrose randomly. Results: The sodium values were significantly higher in first 48 h in the group that received normal saline compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The use of normal saline was associated with higher incidence of hypernatremia, DI, and mortality (P = 0.05), while the group that received 5% dextrose was associated with hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and seizures. There was no perioperative hypotension with use of any of the fluids. Conclusion: Our results indicate half normal saline was fluid of choice with diminished incidence of water and electrolyte abnormalities without increase in mortality during postoperative period. PMID:25101200

  12. Shortwave Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph J.; Anderson, Gail; Barnard, James C.; Delamere, Jennifer; Gueymard, C.; Kato, Seiji; Kiedron, P.; McComiskey, A.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    2006-07-20

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large aerosol intensive observation period (AIOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this AIOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are in the worst case 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 1.9%.

  13. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  14. Numerical study of water flow in a system of two basins connected by a channel with periodic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo

    2010-11-01

    In oceanography the transport of particles is a frecuent phenomenon, for instance ocean currents carry the plankton from one place to another. In shallow waters drag and depositation of sand can affect positively or negatively certain human activities, such as the navigation near the coast; on the other hand, sand banks can help to mitigate the force with which a tsunami approaches a populated coastline. We study the flow of water in a system of two basins connected by a channel, generated by a periodic forcing that simulates the tidal force. The simulation is done by solving the system of equations in stream function (ψ ) - vorticity (φ ) formulation, obtained from the Navier-Stokes and continuity in two dimensions. A pseudo-spectral method based on polynomials Chebyshev is used. The tidal forcing is reflected in the fact that Reynolds number becomes time dependent. We obtained results that are consistent with previous works (like: Wells, M. G. and Van Heijst, G.J.F., Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 37 (2003) 223-244). For example the formation and displacement of a dipole at the exit of the channel is observed. The velocity field obtained numerically is used to study the transport of particles by the flow, where the dipole moves away from the channel output or return to it, depending on the geometry of the system and period occurrence of the phenomenon.

  15. HPV clearance in postpartum period of HIV-positive and negative women: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV persistence is a key determinant of cervical carcinogenesis. The influence of postpartum on HPV clearance has been debated. This study aimed to assess HPV clearance in later pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-positive and negative women. Methods We conducted a follow-up study with 151 HPV-positive women coinfected with HIV, in 2007–2010. After baseline assessment, all women were retested for HPV infection using PCR in later pregnancy and after delivery. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the putative association of covariates with HPV status in between each one of the successive visits. Results Seventy-one women (47%) have eliminated HPV between the baseline visit and their second or third visits. HIV-positive women took a significantly longer time (7.0 ± 3.8 months) to clear HPV, compared to those not infected by HIV (5.9 ± 3.0 months). HPV clearance was significantly more likely to take place after delivery than during pregnancy (84.5% x 15.5%). Conclusions Both HIV-positive and negative women presented a significant reduction in HPV infection during the postpartum period. HIV-positive status was found to be associated with a longer period of time to clear HPV infection in pregnant women. PMID:24289532

  16. Design study of an advanced gas generator. [which can be ignited during start-up period of turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Trinh, H. P.

    1993-01-01

    A gas generator which can be ignited reliably during the initial start-up period and offers fairly uniform gas temperature at the exit was studied numerically. Various sizes and shapes of the mixing enhancement devices and their positions were examined to evaluate the uniformity of the exit gas temperature and the change of internal pressure drop incurred by introducing the mixing enhancement devices. By introducing a turbulence ring and a splash plate with an appropriate size and position, it was possible to obtain fairly uniform gas temperature distributions and a maximum gas temperature that is within the design limit temperature of 1600 R at the generator exit. However, with the geometry studied, the pressure drop across the generator was great, approximately 1150 psi, to satisfy the assigned design limit temperature. If the design limit temperature is increased to 1650 R, the pressure drop across the generator could be lowered by as much as 350 psi.

  17. Sleep laboratory studies in periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole.

    PubMed

    Saletu, M.; Anderer, P.; Saletu, B.; Hauer, C.; Mandl, M.; Semler, B.; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G.

    2001-03-01

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) occurs in a variety of sleep disorders and can cause insomnia as well as hypersomnia with daytime somnolence. The aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated PLMD patients as compared with 12 normal controls and to measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a non-ergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In three nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality were evaluated. In the target variable 'periodic leg movements per hour of sleep' (PLM/(hTST)) PLMD patients showed an increased value of 42/h (normal 0-5/h) with a greater number of arousals due to periodic leg movements (PLM) in sleep. They further demonstrated an increased number of awakenings, sleep stage S1, S4, stage shifts and decreased S2, but there were no significant differences concerning total sleep time, sleep efficiency (SE), subjective sleep quality and morning measures of mood, drive and drowsiness. However, measures of attention variability, numerical memory, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were impaired. Ropinirole 0.5 mg was shown to significantly improve the index PLM/(hTST) by 64% and arousals due to PLM, increase spontaneous arousals, REM-latency, stage 2 and stage shifts and decrease SREM. In the morning attention variability was attenuated and numerical memory augmented. Thus, ropinirole improved some sleep architecture and early morning measures of performance but specifically all PLM variables, which suggests a dopaminergic pathogenesis in PLMD. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  19. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  20. A Case Study of the Tutor/Mentor Connection of Cabrini Connections: An Effort To Build a Supportive Infrastructure for Tutoring and Mentoring Programs in Chicago. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohm, Amelia

    This report details a case study of the Tutor-Mentor Connection (T/MC), an organization designed to build infrastructures to expand and improve after-school tutoring and mentoring opportunities for inner-city children in Chicago. The case study was conducted over a 3-month period in 1997 and was intended as a limited exploration of one model for…

  1. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  2. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  3. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  4. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  5. Neck sprain in patients injured in car accidents: a retrospective study covering the period 1970-1994.

    PubMed

    Versteegen, G J; Kingma, J; Meijler, W J; ten Duis, H J

    1998-01-01

    During the 25-year period 1970-1994 694 patients were diagnosed with neck sprain resulting from a car accident at the Emergency Room of the University Hospital Groningen. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, groups at risk and trends in these patients, taking into account changes in the number of cars per inhabitant and the average number of kilometres driven. We defined the population as car accident victims diagnosed with neck sprain. Binominal tests were used to obtain measures of statistical significance. Over the 25-year period a steady increase in the number of these patients was observed, from 10 in 1970 to 122 in 1994. The highest prevalence was found for the age group 25- to 29-year olds (28.3 per 100,000), followed by 40- to 44-year-olds (27.9 per 100,000). Across the life span, the male: female ratio was 1: 0.98. Eight percent of the victims were treated as inpatients. The increase in the number of car accident victims with neck sprain appears not to be an isolated phenomenon, because a parallel rise in the number of cars per inhabitant and in the average number of kilometres driven was found. No direct relation was observed between seat belt legislation and the increase in neck sprain injuries. The effect of the media on awareness of the consequences of car accidents is discussed.

  6. Photometric parameters, distance and period-colour study of contact binary stars in the globular cluster ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiron, Y. Ravi; Sriram, K.; Vivekananda Rao, P.

    2011-06-01

    We present V passband photometric solutions of six contact binaries in the globular cluster ω Centauri using the Wilson-Devinney code. We found that four of the systems are H subtype W UMa binary systems and remaining two are W-subtype W UMa systems. Four of the systems show the O'Connell effect in their light curves and brightness at 0.75 phase is about δV=0.04-0.05 less than at 0.25 phase. We show that one dark/cool spot solution on secondary companion satisfactorily fits the observed light curves for the respective contact binaries. The derived spot values are not unique and they are taken to be tentative at best. The colour index of the six contact binaries were used to derive the distance modulus of ω Centauri and found an average value of ˜13.60 which is close to the observed value of 13.97. We also derive the distance to each of the studied variables. The period-colour relation of the contact binaries of ω Centauri is compared with the period-colour relation of Hipparcos data (field W UMa type) and contact binaries present in other globular clusters.

  7. Incidence, mortality and survival of childhood cancer in China during 2000-2010 period: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rongshou; Peng, Xiaoxia; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei; Chen, Tianhui; Wang, Huanmin; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-07-28

    The objective of this study is to assess Chinese nationwide incidence, mortality and survival of childhood cancers, which has not been reported. Data from 145 Chinese Cancer Registries, which covered 158,403,248 populations, were pooled for analyses. Cancer patients were diagnosed during 2000-2010 at age 0-14 years. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates and relative survival rates were calculated. Survival was estimated by the classic cohort approach. New cancer cases were projected using a Bayesian age-period-cohort model. Overall age-standardized incidence was 87.1 per million and age-standardized mortality was 36.3 per million. We found a statistically significant increase in incidence rate annually with 2.8% (95% CI: 1.1-4.6%, p < 0.05), a non-significant decreased mortality, and overall 5-year relative survival reaching 71.9% (95% CI: 69.4-77.1%). Projected new cases in 2015 are 22,875. We provide, for the first time, Chinese nationwide incidence, mortality and their temporal trends, and relative survival rates during the period of 2003-2005 for childhood cancer, which will contribute to a better understanding of the etiology and prevention of childhood cancers. The increasing trend of incidence rate and low 5-year relative survival rate suggest that more efforts for prevention and control of childhood cancers shall be invested in China.

  8. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  9. Epidemiological study of solvent refined coal (SRC) workers. Interim report for study period August 1982-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, C.P.

    1984-08-28

    Epidemiological work conducted under the Department of Energy contract AC22-82PC50001 is described. The program was initiated for monitoring the health status of solvent refined coal (SRC) workers and determining the long-term health effects associated with exposure to SRC process materials. The three SRC facilities studied include the SRC pilot plant at Ft. Lewis, Washington (from 1974 through 1981), the P-99 process unit located at Harmarville, Pennsylvania (from 1975 through mid-1981), and the Merriam Research Laboratory at Merriam, Kansas (from 1962 thrugh May 1984). The methods employed for data collection are described and the success of each discussed. Data collected on each worker included medical history, job history/exposure data, demographic data, lifestyle factors, reproductive history, current vital status, and death information, if applicable. Future work is outlined. No detailed analyses of the data have been conducted at this time, but the data have been examined for accuracy and completeness.

  10. Periodic Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Uranyl Ion Sorption on Three Mineral Surfaces: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO2(110), Al(OH)3(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H2O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms’ protonation state. PMID:19582222

  11. Pre-ejection period reactivity and psychiatric comorbidity prospectively predict substance use initiation among middle-schoolers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Sharon L; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2011-11-01

    Youth with conduct problems (CPs) or depression are at high risk for early initiation of substance use, and for future substance use disorders (SUDs). Comorbid CPs and depression increase risk even further, yet understanding how these conditions interact remains elusive. One hypothesis is that altered mesolimbic dopamine function contributes to symptoms of CPs, depression, and SUDs. Cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity to incentives is linked theoretically and functionally to central dopamine responding. We evaluated PEP reactivity to reward as a prospective biomarker of substance use in a study of 206 youth with depression, CPs, CPs and depression, or no psychiatric condition. Children were 8-12 years old at the first of three annual assessments. Reduced PEP reactivity was associated with increased likelihood of future alcohol use, and CPs interacted with anxiety and depression to double risk for marijuana and other substance use. PMID:21729103

  12. Stratospheric dynamical signal propagating through TTL : a case study of SSW period using a global non-hydrostatic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Kodera, K.; Nasuno, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have reported an enhancement of tropical convection and abrupt change of tropical circulation during the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) events by mainly the observational data [Eguchi and Kodera, GRL, 2007; Eguchi and Kodera, SOLA, 2010; Kodera et al., JMSJ, 2011]. These results suggest that the stratospheric meridional circulation impacts on the tropical convection. Investigation of the vertical velocity and the diabatic heating rate in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) region are crucial to understand the responsible process. However, these quantities cannot be measured directly. The present study used the data from numerical simulation using a global nonhydrostatic model, NICAM (Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model) [Satoh, et al 2008], which does not make use of the cumulus parameterization. The model integration was initiated from the observed field from 20 December 2009. The horizontal grid size of 14 km and vertically stretched 40-layers (z= 0 - 38 km) are used. There are five layers in the TTL (14-20 km). The daily mean gridded data (1 degree box) derived from three hourly (hourly) outputs for 3D (2D) variables are analyzed in the present study. In the NICAM simulation, a sudden warming event is reproduced around 15 January 2010, although the date of the onset was approximately one week earlier than that in the real atmosphere. The latitude of active convection moved to southward, and the temperature at the lower stratosphere and the TTL region became cooler after the onset of SSW, similar to the observation. The increase of the upward velocity occurred in the TTL at the southern tropics simultaneous to an increase in diabatic heating rate (DH) associated with cloud formation. From the time-pressure section at the equatorial southern hemisphere (SH), the anomalies of vertical wind, temperature and diabatic heating rate gradually penetrated from the lower stratosphere to the upper troposphere during the period 16-20 January, defined as the

  13. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  14. Mid-term quasi-periodicities in the CaII-K plage index of the Sun and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Gokhale, M. H.; Singh, Jagdev; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-02-01

    We present results of the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the MEM analysis, and the wavelet analysis (WA), of the temporal variation of the monthly disk integrated "CaII-K plage-area and enhanced network (EN) area" hereafter called `plage index' derived by Tlatov et al. (2009), from spectro-heliograms taken in Ca II K line at Kodaikanal Observatory, from February 1907 to April, 1998, In the range {>}3 months and < decade, the Fourier transform power spectra reveal solar cycle periodicity {˜}122 months, its sub-harmonic ˜61 months, two short quasi-periodicities ({>}2 and <4 months), and nine `intermediate-range' quasi-periodicities (≳ 4 mo and <11 yr), in the variation of the plage index. The quasi-periodicities include Rieger, Rieger type and quasi-biennial. The presence of quasi-periodicities and the mean values of the periods are confirmed by the maximum entropy method (MEM). The temporal spans of the quasi-periodicities during different solar cycles are determined from the complex Morlet-wavelet analyses. The Rieger quasi-periodicity (150-160 days) appeared during cycle 21 and cycle 22. Each of the quasi-periodicities in the studied range lies close to one or more planetary periodicities (orbital, or spring tidal, or heliocentric conjunction frequency). We discuss possible interpretations of our results, and those of similar results obtained earlier by other authors, towards understanding the mechanisms of excitation of various quasi-periodicities detected in solar variability parameters.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  16. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  17. Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three major periods of research, their influence on current studies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, S; Veronesi, E; Mullens, B; Venter, G

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular and unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) that have occurred in Europe since 1998 have led to increased interest in those factors that determine competence of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) for arboviruses. In this review the authors critically examine three major periods of research into the biological transmission by Culicoides of two economically important arboviruses ofthefamily Reoviridae: African horse sicknessvirus (AHSV) and BTV. First they examine early studies, largely conducted in southern Africa, that played a key role in initially implicating Culicoides as agents of AHSV and BTV transmission. Then they examine advances in understanding made following the establishment of colonies of the BTV vector species Culicoides sonorensis, which have largely shaped our current understanding of BTV and AHSV transmission. They then consider attempts in recent years to implicate vectors of BTV in the European Union during what has become the most economically damaging series of outbreaks in recorded history. In some cases the origin of these outbreaks was uncertain and unexpected, particularly in northern Europe, where BTV had not previously occurred. Limitations imposed on studies of vector competence by the biology of Culicoides are then discussed, along with advances in the technologies now available and the logistics of working upon agents requiring biosecure containment outside their endemic range. Finally, the authors suggest areas that have either been poorly addressed to date or entirely ignored and ways in which studies could be conducted to provide standardised data for comparison worldwide.

  18. KEPLER STUDIES OF LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES. I. PARAMETERS OF THE LONG-PERIOD BINARY KIC 6131659

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Gideon; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Windmiller, Gur; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara; Wade, Richard A.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-12-20

    KIC 6131659 is a long-period (17.5 days) eclipsing binary discovered by the Kepler mission. We analyzed six quarters of Kepler data along with supporting ground-based photometric and spectroscopic data to obtain accurate values for the mass and radius of both stars, namely, M{sub 1} = 0.922 {+-} 0.007 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 1} = 0.8800 {+-} 0.0028 R{sub Sun }, and M{sub 2} = 0.685 {+-} 0.005 M{sub Sun }, R{sub 2} = 0.6395 {+-} 0.0061 R{sub Sun }. There is a well-known issue with low-mass (M {approx}< 0.8 M{sub Sun }) stars (in cases where the mass and radius measurement uncertainties are smaller than 2% or 3%) where the measured radii are almost always 5% to 15% larger than expected from evolutionary models, i.e., the measured radii are all above the model isochrones in a mass-radius plane. In contrast, the two stars in KIC 6131659 were found to sit on the same theoretical isochrone in the mass-radius plane. Until recently, all of the well-studied eclipsing binaries with low-mass stars had periods of less than about three days. The stars in such systems may have been inflated by high levels of stellar activity induced by tidal effects in these close binaries. KIC 6131659 shows essentially no evidence of enhanced stellar activity, and our measurements support the hypothesis that the unusual mass-radius relationship observed in most low-mass stars is influenced by strong magnetic activity created by the rapid rotation of the stars in tidally locked, short-period systems. Finally, using short cadence data, we show that KIC 6131657 has one of the smallest measured non-zero eccentricities of a binary with two main-sequence stars, where ecos {omega} (4.57 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}.

  19. BVRI Photometric Study of the Totally Eclipsing Short Period Solar Type, Near-Contact W UMA Binary, NSVS 5066754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2016-06-01

    found in the secondary eclipse. Since the period study would indicate that the binary may be coalescing, both solutions fit that scenario. The system may have just come into contact or is approaching contact. The first model is more probable.

  20. Lightning fatalities on the South African Highveld: a retrospective descriptive study for the period 1997 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Ryan

    2005-03-01

    A review of the Southern Africa medical literature shows a paucity of published data regarding lightning fatalities. The South African Highveld has a lightning ground flash density of 6 to 9 flashes/km/year, with a high incidence of thunderstorm days per year (some 40-70). The Highveld has a largely urban population, many of whom have low socioeconomic status and poor education, housing, and other infrastructures and hence (possibly) are at greater exposure risk. Thirty-eight victims of lightning-related death were identified from the records of the 6 large medicolegal mortuaries on the South African Highveld, serving a population of approximately 7 million, for the period 1997 to 2000. Analysis of the records revealed that 95% of all victims were black, 79% were male, and the average age was 36 years. Lightning strikes occurred from September through to April (normal summer rainfall period), and the most strikes took place in the late afternoon (3:00 pm to 6:00 pm). All except 1 case occurred outdoors. In the autopsy reports, mention was made of singeing of hair in 68% of cases, and mention of damage to clothing was made in 26% of cases. Cutaneous thermal injuries were noted in 34 of the 38 cases, with apparent electrothermal injuries of the feet noted in 4 cases. Fifty-two percent of victims sustained some form of associated blunt-force injury (including abrasions, contusions, etc). Specific keraunopathologic injuries were described in only 2 of the cases. Twenty-one cases had some form of internal organ injury. This study serves to illustrate the relatively high incidence of lightning strikes in the region and calls for a more systematic and detailed investigative protocol in lightning-related deaths. PMID:15725779

  1. High-dose vaginal maintenance metronidazole for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aguin, Tina; Akins, Robert A; Sobel, Jack D

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the benefit of high-dose intravaginal metronidazole as a maintenance therapy in reducing recurrence rates of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Eighteen women with a history of recurrent BV and symptomatic BV were treated with metronidazole 750 mg suppository intravaginally daily for 7 days. Those in remission by Amsel criteria received metronidazole 750 mg twice weekly for 3 months with further follow-up for 3 months. High-dose metronidazole intravaginally was associated with rare clinical recurrence during the period of use. After cessation of suppression therapy, recurrence was high.

  2. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  3. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  4. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  5. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  6. A Study of Physical-Chemical Effects on the Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere During Forbush Decrease Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, W.; Pacini, A. A.; Echer, E.; Echer, M. P. D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present here a study about some possible physical-chemical changes on the Southern hemisphere atmosphere, in Brazil, due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) flux decreases (Forbush Decreases). Galactic Cosmic Rays are energetic particles that come from interstellar medium and arrive on the Earth isotropically and continuously. These particles interact with atmosphere constituents and induce the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. It is known that the presence of ions on the troposphere can change the vapor condensation patterns, since some ions can behave like cloud condensation nuclei. So, there is a work hypothesis, that the GCR flux decrease can cause some change on the physical-chemical of the atmosphere. We have investigated this possible effect, using three periods of Forbush Decrease effects (Nov/01, Oct/03 e Jul/12) with different magnitudes, on three different latitudinal range of Brazilian sector, Porto Alegre (30.08o S , YY O); Brasília (15.75o S , YY O) and Belém (1.46o S , YY O). The atmospheric effects are assessed by analysis of the temperature, pressure, humidity and aerossol data profiles, since the surface up to stratosphere. We have also studied, for comparison, high latitude atmosphere by atmospheric data from Jokioinen - Filand (60.8o N , 23.5o E) for the same three FDs. Then, our aim with this study is to investigate possible GCR decreases effects in the lower atmosphere at high, medium and low latitudes. The results obtained in this study will be compared with previous published works.

  7. PRINCE-1: safety and efficacy of atazanavir powder and ritonavir liquid in HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naïve and -experienced infants and children aged ≥3 months to <6 years

    PubMed Central

    Strehlau, Renate; Donati, Anamaria Pena; Arce, Pedro Martinez; Lissens, Jurgen; Yang, Rong; Biguenet, Sophie; Cambilargiu, Daniela; Hardy, Hélène; Correll, Todd

    2015-01-01

    baseline in CD4 percent was +7.5%. Conclusions ATV powder boosted with RTV liquid once daily plus optimized dual NRTI background therapy was effective and well tolerated in this ART-naïve or -experienced paediatric population aged ≥3 months to <6 years. No unexpected safety findings compared with those from previous ATV paediatric and adult studies were identified. PMID:26066346

  8. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  9. Robust increase in concurrent hot and dry periods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing climate change is largely affecting the frequency and magnitude of climate extremes in many areas of the world. Most studies investigating extreme events focus on a single variable such as, for instance, extreme temperature, drought, and heavy precipitation. Often, however, it is compound extremes that have the strongest impacts on ecosystems and society. For example, extreme rainfall in combination with high soil moisture causes floods with severe impacts. Similarly, droughts combined with extreme hot temperatures have particularly devastating impacts on ecosystem functioning. The magnitude of an extreme event can be reflected in its return period. Recently, the concept of copulas has been adapted to estimate multivariate return periods of, e.g., drought extent and duration, peak flow and peak volume, or extreme precipitation events at nearby stations. We use this concept here and estimate bivariate return periods of concurrent hot and dry, and concurrent cold and wet periods of 3 months length on gridded temperature and precipitation data from 1901 onwards. We find a strong increase of concurrent dry and hot periods over the recent decades, in particular in the northern hemisphere. At the same time we detect a decrease in concurrent wet and cold periods. This can be primarily attributed to the strong increase in temperature in many land areas. Averaged over the land surface, the variations of concurrently dry and hot, and cold and wet periods over the 20th century can be related to changes in surface radiation (global dimming and global brightening), which affected both temperature and the hydrological cycle.

  10. A periodic DFT study of adsorption of water on sodium-montmorillonite (001) basal and (010) edge surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Water molecules can be easily adsorbed on the surface or in the interlayer space of clay minerals. This process is named hydration which plays an important role in various application fields. In order to find how water interacted with surface through minimizing the interaction among multiple waters, the adsorptions of single water molecule on external surfaces of sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT), including (001) basal and (010) edge surface, were theoretically investigated based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorption energies and geometries as well as electronic properties were studied in the work. It was found that water molecule was adsorbed on Na-MMT (001) basal surface mainly through electrostatic interaction between water molecule and Na+ cation, and was adsorbed on (010) edge surface through hydrogen bonding between water and surface sbnd OH or sbnd OH2 groups. The adsorption energy Eads value of water molecule on (010) edge surface was larger than that on (001) basal surface. After adsorption, a part of electron density was transferred from both Na-MMT (001) and (010) surfaces to water molecule. Based on the PDOS, there was the bonding between Na 3s and Ow 2p orbitals on (001) basal surface and between H 1s and O 2p orbitals for hydrogen bonds on (010) edge surface.

  11. Comparative microcomputed tomography and histological study of maxillary pneumatization in four species of new world monkeys: the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy D; Rossie, James B; Cooper, Gregory M; Schmieg, Robin M; Bonar, Christopher J; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-03-01

    In anthropoid primates, it has been hypothesized that the magnitude of maxillary sinus growth is influenced by adjacent dental and soft tissue matrices. Relatively, little comparative evidence exists for the perinatal period when secondary pneumatization is at its earliest stages in some primates. Here, dental and midfacial variables were studied in a perinatal sample of four anthropoid primates, including three callitrichines (Leontopithecus, Saguinus, and Callithrix) and Saimiri boliviensis. In the latter species, the maxillary recess (the ontogenetic precursor to a "true" maxillary sinus) does not undergo secondary pneumatization. Using histological methods and micro-computed tomography, midfacial and dental dimensions and radiographic hydroxyapatite density of tooth cusps were measured. The distribution of osteoclasts and osteoblasts was also documented. Kruskal-Wallis's one-way analysis of variance tests indicates significant (P < 0.05) differences among groups for dental and midfacial measurements. In particular, the posterior maxillary dentition is relatively larger and more mineralized in Saimiri compared to the callitrichines. At posterior dental levels, Saimiri has the lowest palatonasal index [interdental (palatal) width/width of the nasal cavity] and highest bizygomatic-interorbital index. Distribution of osteoclasts indicates that the inferomedial surfaces of the orbits are resorptive in perinatal Saimiri, whereas, in all callitrichines, these surfaces are depository. Taken together, these findings suggest that pneumatization in Saimiri is suppressed by an inward growth trajectory of the orbits, relatively large posterior dentition, and a correspondingly compressed nasal region.

  12. Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole periodic fracturing injections, Valhall, North Sea: Case study and modeling concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Moschovidis, Z.A.; Gardner, D.C.; Sund, G.V.; Veatch, R.W. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study for the injection of cuttings at great depth [8,094 ft total vertical depth (TVD)] in paleocene/Eocene shale by periodic fracturing injections in two wells in the Valhall field in the North Sea. Injection is necessary to meet environmental requirements (< 1 vol% of oil in the cuttings disposed in the sea) that went into effect Jan. 1, 1993. Valhall is an Upper Cretaceous chalk oil reservoir [approx] 180 miles offshore southern Norway. Amoco operates the field for Amerada Hess Norge A/S, Elf Petroleum Norge A/S, and Enterprise Oil Norge Ltd. Simulations were performed with a new conceptual model for disposal of cuttings (called the disposal domain). The actual pressure response during cuttings injections supports the model predictions. The cuttings are contained within a limited region of the formation (the disposal domain) where a system of hydraulic fractures have been created. The same model then was used to estimate the capacity of the formation to contain cuttings without increasing the treating pressure (and the closure stress) beyond the capacity of the tubulars.

  13. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  14. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  15. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role.

  16. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  17. PM trend study for the 1998 - 2012 period: Impact of Transport and Petroleum-based Fuels in Santiago Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, M. A.; Jhun, I.; Moreno, F.; Oyola, P.; Koutrakis, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago is the capital city of Chile and the combination of adverse climatic and geographical conditions, a continuously growing vehicle fleet, and an increasing number of industries, has made Santiago one of the most polluted cities in South America, and has been declared saturated zone for PM10 since 1996. Although there have been important reductions in the PM emissions due the implementation of the "Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plan for the Metropolitan Region" (PPDA) however the efforts have not been enough to meet the actual standards. Currently is approved a standard for PM2.5, where the annual average is 20 μg/m3 and daily average 24 hr is 50 μg/m3. One of the PM2.5 sources are the traffic emission and one of the measures targeted in PPDA has been to regulate this source. In the last 20 years two of the main interventions have been the elimination of Lead in gasoline (2001) and the steadily reduced diesel sulfur content from 5,000 to 50 ppm. In this study we analyzed 14 years of PM2.5 mass and species concentration time's series, from April 1998 to August 2012, elemental chemical analysis was made for approximately 60% of samples using XRF technique at DRI Lab (USA). One of the objectives is evaluate the impact of fuel-related interventions and petroleum-based fuels (PBFs) sales. When was analyzed de lead concentration we found that is present in the environment despite of that was eliminated of gasoline 20 years ago. We analyzed the impact of diesel sulfur on ambient sulfur content, and was constructed a model to verify the relationship between ambient sulfur and diesel sulfur content after controlling for other covariates. The relation between ambient concentration and diesel content sulfur is linear, when the reduction of sulfur in diesel was from 1500 to 50 ppm the concentration decreased from 1.59 to 1.08 μg/m3. To determinate the impact of PBFs sales (gasoline, kerosene, petroleum) on PM2.5 concentration, we estimated PM2

  18. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  19. Analytical study of envelope modes for a fully depressed beam in solenoidal and quadrupole periodic transport channels

    SciTech Connect

    Bukh, Boris; Lund, Steven M.

    2003-05-01

    We present an analysis of envelope perturbations evolving in the limit of a fully space-charge depressed (zero emittance) beam in periodic, thin-lens focusing channels. Both periodic solenoidal and FODO quadrupole focusing channels are analyzed. The phase advance and growth rate of normal mode perturbations are analytically calculated as a function of the undepressed particle phase advance to characterize the evolution of envelope perturbations.

  20. Daily life behaviors and depression risk following stroke: a preliminary study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Jean, François A M; Swendsen, Joel D; Sibon, Igor; Fehér, Kristoffer; Husky, Mathilde

    2013-09-01

    Approximately one-third of stroke survivors have symptoms of depression. A better understanding of the early risk factors implicated in this form of comorbidity may contribute to the development of early prevention strategies and to improving outcomes for this population. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment techniques to identify behavioral risk factors for depression 3 months after stroke. Thirty-six participants completed ambulatory monitoring of daily life circumstances (location, social environment, and activity) 5 times per day during a 1-week period after hospital discharge. Clinician-administered measures of depression were also provided before discharge and 3 months later. Ambulatory monitoring revealed that depression scores at 3 months were lower among individuals with more social interactions but higher among those who reported having sports activities and working in the week following hospital discharge. Daily life behaviors may have important implications for understanding the risk of poststroke depression, and mobile technologies may provide important contributions to their investigation.

  1. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Joanna; Kuryłowicz, Alina; Mierzejewska, Ewa; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Weker, Halina; Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2) Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006), an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022) and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001). In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002). We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period. PMID:27240401

  2. A modelling study of the influence of anomalous wind forcing over the Barents Sea on the Atlantic water flow to the Arctic Ocean in the period 1979-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, Jakub; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    Arctic climate system is influenced by oceanic heat transport with the Atlantic water (AW) streaming towards the Arctic Ocean in two branches, through the deep Fram Strait and the shallow Barents Sea. In Fram Strait, the AW submerges below the Polar surface water and then flows cyclonically along the margin of the Arctic Ocean as a subsurface water mass in the Arctic Slope Current. In contrast to the Fram Strait branch, which is the major source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, most of the heat influx to the Barents Sea through the Barents Sea opening (BSO) is passed to the atmosphere. Only cold remnants of AW outflow to the Arctic Ocean through the northeastern gate of the Barents Sea. Some AW entering the Barents Sea recirculates westward, contributing to an outflow from the Barents Sea through the BSO along the shelf slope south of Bear Island, in the Bear Island Slope Current. Even though the two-branched AW flow toward the Arctic Ocean has been known for more than a century, little is known about co-variability of heat fluxes in the two branches, its mechanisms and climatic implications. Recent studies indicate that the Bear Island Slope Current may play a role in this co-variability. Here, co-variability of the flow through the BSO and Fram Strait is investigated using a pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean hindcast model run for the period 1979-2004 and forced with daily atmospheric data from the ECMWF. Significant wintertime co-variability between the volume transport in the Bear Island and Arctic slope currents and its link to wind forcing over the Barents Sea is confirmed. It is found that the volume transports in these currents are, however, not correlated in the annual mean and that the wintertime co-variability of these currents has no immediate effect on either the net heat flux through the BSO or the net heat flux divergence in the Barents Sea. It is shown that the main climatic effect of wind forcing over the northern Barents Sea shelf is to induce temperature

  3. Asteroseismological Studies of Long-Period Variable Subdwarf B Stars. II. Two-Color Photometry of PG 1338+481

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, S. K.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Terndrup, D. M.; Brown, N.; Fontaine, M.; Zacharias, P.; Chayer, P.

    2006-07-01

    We present the results of an observational campaign for the long-period variable subdwarf B star PG 1338+481. Seven continuous weeks of observing time at the Steward Observatory 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow, Arizona, and the 1.3 m MDM telescope at Kitt Peak rendered ~250 hr of simultaneous U/R time series photometry, as well as an extra ~70 hr of R-band-only data. The analysis of the combined light curves resulted in the extraction of 13 convincing periodicities in the 2100-7200 s range, with amplitudes up to ~0.3% and ~0.2% in the U and R, respectively. Comparing the ratios of amplitudes in the two wave bands to those predicted from theory suggests the presence of dipole modes, a notion that is further supported by the period spacing between the highest amplitude peaks. If confirmed, this poses a challenge to current nonadiabatic theory. At the quantitative level, we find that the distribution of the observed period spectrum is highly nonuniform and much sparser than that predicted from a representative model. We provide a possible interpretation in the text. The asteroseismological analysis attempted for PG 1338+481 on the basis of six observed periodicities believed to constitute consecutive dipole modes renders encouraging results. Fixing the effective temperature and surface gravity to the spectroscopic estimates, we successfully isolate just one family of optimal models that can reproduce the measured periods to better than 1%. While the stellar parameters thus inferred must be regarded as preliminary, the achieved fit bodes well for future asteroseismic analyses of long-period variable subdwarf B stars. Some of the observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  4. Correlation corrected periodic Hartree--Fock study of the interactions between water and the (001) magnesium oxide surface

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, C.A.; Hess, A.C.; McCarthy, M.I. )

    1993-08-15

    A theoretical study of water adsorption on the surface of a three-layer (001) magnesium oxide film has been performed using periodic Hartree--Fock (PHF) theory with density-functional-based correlation corrections. The calculations treated two water molecules per MgO unit cell (one on each side of the film), and for most of the calculations, the size of the unit cell was chosen such that the ratio of water molecules to surface magnesium ions was 1:4. In these configurations the water dipoles were aligned parallel and the water--water spacing was 5.95 A between molecules in neighboring cells. Nine geometries were examined, three of which were found to be strongly bound to the surface. The binding energies for the three bound configurations range from 4.1 to 8.9 kcal/mol at the PHF level of theory and 6.3 to 12.5 kcal/mol when correlation effects were included. For the two cases where the geometry of the bound water molecule was allowed to relax at the equilibrium water--film distance, the H--O--H angle increased 1--3[degree] from the 6-31G* free molecule value of 105.6[degree] and the O--H bond distance did not change. The six remaining geometries did not show significant binding to the surface. Additional calculations were performed in which the dipoles of the water molecules were aligned antiparallel. These calculations indicate that as the coverage increases the water molecules will tend to form islands on the magnesium oxide surface rather than wet the surface. The formation of a fully hydroxylated surface (one hydroxyl group added to every surface magnesium ion and one hydrogen atom to every surface oxygen ion) was also examined, but was found to be energetically unfavorable.

  5. Developmental toxicity study in rats exposed dermally to clarified slurry oil for a limited period of gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-10-11

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO, CAS number 64741-62-4), a refinery stream produced by processing crude oil, is a developmental toxicant when administered dermally throughout gestation to pregnant rats. The manifestations of developmental toxicity observed included embryolethlity and growth retardation; evidence of teratogenicity was limited, and not conclusive. The present study was undertaken to further explore the teratogenic potential of CSO. In an attempt to limit emnbryolethality and thereby promote detection of terata, CSO was administered once daily for a limited period of gestation i[gestation days (GD) 9-12], via dermal application, to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed on GD 20. Detailed examination of the dams was performed. Due to the screening nature of this investigation, fetal evaluations were limited to body weight measurements, external examinations, and evaluation of select visceral endpoints. In the dams exposed to CSO, significant decreases in body weight [absolute and gain (GD 9-13, GD 0-20)] and in the amount of food consumed were observed at 100 and 1000 mg/kg. Additional evidence of maternal toxicity observed at 1000 mg/kg included decreased absolute and relative thymus weights, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and aberrant serum chemistry. Ingestion of the test material was evident at the high dose. Developmental toxicity was observed at 1000 mg/kg and included increased embryolethality, decreased body weight, and anomalous development (cleft palate, brachydactyly, edema). Although a low incidence of abnormal fetal development was observed at 100 mg/kg, it was not conclusive that the alterations were due to CSO exposure. It is likely that three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds present in CSO were responsible for the toxic effects observed. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  7. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated. PMID:25240502

  9. Correlation corrected periodic Hartree-Fock study of the interactions between water and the (001) magnesium oxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scamehorn, C. A.; Hess, A. C.; McCarthy, M. I.

    1993-08-01

    A theoretical study of water adsorption on the surface of a three-layer (001) magnesium oxide film has been performed using periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) theory with density-functional-based correlation corrections. The calculations treated two water molecules per MgO unit cell (one on each side of the film), and for most of the calculations, the size of the unit cell was chosen such that the ratio of water molecules to surface magnesium ions was 1:4. In these configurations the water dipoles were aligned parallel and the water-water spacing was 5.95 Å between molecules in neighboring cells. Nine geometries were examined, three of which were found to be strongly bound to the surface. The binding energies for the three bound configurations range from 4.1 to 8.9 kcal/mol at the PHF level of theory and 6.3 to 12.5 kcal/mol when correlation effects were included. For the two cases where the geometry of the bound water molecule was allowed to relax at the equilibrium water-film distance, the H-O-H angle increased 1-3° from the 6-31G* free molecule value of 105.6° and the O-H bond distance did not change. The six remaining geometries did not show significant binding to the surface. Additional calculations were performed in which the dipoles of the water molecules were aligned antiparallel. These calculations indicate that as the coverage increases the water molecules will tend to form islands on the magnesium oxide surface rather than wet the surface. The formation of a fully hydroxylated surface (one hydroxyl group added to every surface magnesium ion and one hydrogen atom to every surface oxygen ion) was also examined, but was found to be energetically unfavorable. The energetic bias against dissociative chemistry on the clean MgO (001) surface, consisting of fully five coordinated ions, is in agreement with previously published ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and IR studies.

  10. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  11. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  12. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  13. A 3-month preclinical trial to assess the performance of a new TVT-like mesh (TVTx) in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Rezapour, Masoumeh; Novara, Giacomo; Meier, Peter A; Holste, Joerg; Landgrebe, Susanne; Artibani, Walter

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sheep model the performance of a new polypropylene mesh (TVTx), which is intended as a less invasive treatment for female stress urinary incontinence. Eight female sheep were used in this study, each one being implanted with eight TVTx samples. At each time-point (weeks 1, 2, 4, and 12) seven TVTx were pulled out, while one TVTx was carefully dissected for histological investigations. One TVTx and one TVT, moreover, were inserted and immediately pulled out for obtaining the initial pullout forces in all sheep. The initial pullout values of TVT and TVTx were overlapping. The pullout forces of TVTx were >5 N (500 g) and increasing from weeks 1 to 12 (p<0.001). Histology revealed good tissue integration of TVTx in the tissue within 12 weeks after implantation. No abnormal histological findings were observed. This data could support the realization of a clinical trial with the TVTx mesh. PMID:16628374

  14. Towards Developing Systematics for Using Periodic Studies of the Hydrothermal Manifestations as Effective Tool for Monitoring Largely 'inaccessible' Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.

    2010-12-01

    The San José and Tupungatito volcanoes, located near Santiago (Chile), are the potential hazards, given their geological and historical record of explosive eruptions with pyroclastic flows, most recently in 1960 and 1987 respectively (Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution). What aggravates the potential risk of these very high (>5290m elevation) snow- and ice-covered volcanoes is their location at the source of relatively narrow mountain drainage systems that feed into the Maipo River, flowing through the southern outskirts of Santiago. Sector-collapse and debris-flow, as a result of volcano-ice/snow interaction, can form lahars causing immense destruction to the life and property in the Maipo Valley (Cajón del Maipo). These lahars can cause submergence and burial of vast downstream areas under several meters thick sediment, as in the case of 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA. In the event of a major eruption, Santiago city will be at peril, with all the drinking water supply installations either destroyed or contaminated to the extent of being abandoned. Besides, ash and tephra will halt the air traffic in the region, particularly in Santiago-Mendoza sector between Chile and Argentina. In a proposed research project (for which funding is awaited from CONICYT, Chile under its Initiation into Research Funding Competition), hydrothermal systems associated with the aforementioned volcanoes will be periodically studied to monitor these volcanoes, in order to develop a Systematics for using the peripheral hydrothermal manifestations, together with nearby surface water bodies, as means for monitoring the activities of the volcano(es). Basic premise of this proposal is to use the relationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activities. Although this association has been observed at many volcanic centers, no attempt has been made to use this relation effectively as a tool for monitoring the volcanoes. Before an eruption or even with increased

  15. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  16. Immigration and Emigration of Professional and Skilled Manpower During the Post-War Period. Special Study No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    The impact of immigration and emigration on Canada's stock of professional and skilled manpower was analyzed for the period 1946-1963. Although the number of immigrants is recorded by Canadian authorities there is no complete record of emigration from Canada; however, a reasonably reliable picture was obtained from emigration data of other…

  17. Gene Therapy Rescues Cone Structure and Function in the 3-Month-Old rd12 Mouse: A Model for Midcourse RPE65 Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Wensheng; Dai, Xufeng; Kong, Fansheng; Zheng, Qinxiang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lü, Fan; Chang, Bo; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hauswirth, William. W.; Qu, Jia; Pang, Ji-jing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. RPE65 function is necessary in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to generate chromophore for all opsins. Its absence results in vision loss and rapid cone degeneration. Recent Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA with RPE65 mutations) phase I clinical trials demonstrated restoration of vision on RPE65 gene transfer into RPE cells overlying cones. In the rd12 mouse, a naturally occurring model of RPE65-LCA early cone degeneration was observed; however, some peripheral M-cones remained. A prior study showed that AAV-mediated RPE65 expression can prevent early cone degeneration. The present study was conducted to test whether the remaining cones in older rd12 mice can be rescued. Methods. Subretinal treatment with the scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 vector was initiated at postnatal day (P)14 and P90. After 2 months, electroretinograms were recorded, and cone morphology was analyzed by using cone-specific peanut agglutinin and cone opsin–specific antibodies. Results. Cone degeneration started centrally and spread ventrally, with cells losing cone-opsin staining before that for the PNA-lectin–positive cone sheath. Gene therapy starting at P14 resulted in almost wild-type M- and S-cone function and morphology. Delaying gene-replacement rescued the remaining M-cones, and most important, more M-cone opsin–positive cells were identified than were present at the onset of gene therapy, suggesting that opsin expression could be reinitiated in cells with cone sheaths. Conclusions. The results support and extend those of the previous study that gene therapy can stop early cone degeneration, and, more important, they provide proof that delayed treatment can restore the function and morphology of the remaining cones. These results have important implications for the ongoing LCA2 clinical trials. PMID:21169527

  18. Efficacy of a 3 month training program on the jump-landing technique in jump-landing sports. Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the relatively high rate of injuries to the lower extremity due to jump-landing movement patterns and the accompanied high costs, there is need for determining potential preventive programs. A program on the intervention of jump-landing technique is possibly an important preventative measure since it appeared to reduce the incidence of lower extremity injuries. In real life situations, amateur sports lack the infrastructure and funds to have a sports physician or therapist permanently supervising such a program. Therefore the current prevention program is designed so that it could be implemented by coaches alone. Objective The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of a coach supervised intervention program targeting jump-landing technique on the incidence of lower extremity injuries. Methods Of the 110 Flemish teams of the elite division, 24 teams are included and equally randomized to two study groups. An equal selection of female and male teams with allocation to intervention and control group is obtained. The program is a modification of other prevention programs previously proven to be effective. All exercises in the current program are adjusted so that a more progressive development in the exercise is presented. Both the control and intervention group continue with their normal training routine, while the intervention group carries out the program on jump-landing technique. The full intervention program has a duration of three months and is performed 2 times a week during warm-up (5-10 min). Injuries are registered during the entire season. Discussion The results of this study can give valuable information on the effect of a coach supervised intervention program on jump-landing technique and injury occurrence. Results will become available in 2011. Trial registration Trial registration number: NTR2560 PMID:21144030

  19. Trace metal ion partitioning at polymer film-metal oxide interfaces: long-period X-ray standing wave study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae Hyun; Trainor, Thomas P; Eng, Peter J; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2005-05-10

    The distributions of Pb(II) and As(V)O4(3-) ions in the interfacial region between thin poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coatings and aalpha-A12O3(0001), alpha-Al2O3(1-102), and alpha-Fe2O3(0001) single-crystal substrates were studied using long-period X-ray standing wave fluorescent yield (XSW-FY) and X-ray reflectivity techniques. The PAA film serves as a simplified analogue of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on mineral surfaces. Such coatings are often assumed to play an important role in the partitioning and speciation of trace heavy metals in soils and aquatic systems. On the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface, Pb(II) ions were found to preferentially bind to the PAA coating, even at sub-micromolar Pb(II) concentrations, and to partition increasingly onto the metal oxide surface as the Pb(II) concentration was increased ([Pb(II)] = 5 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). This observation suggests that the binding sites in the PAA coating outcompete those on the alpha-Al2O3(1-102) surface for Pb(II) under these conditions. The As(V)O4(3-) oxoanion partitions preferentially to the L-Al2O3(1-102) surface for the As(V)O4(3-) concentrations examined (1 x 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-7) M, pH = 4.5; 0.01 M NaCl background electrolyte). Partitioning of Pb(II) (at 1 x 10(-7) M and pH 4.5) was also examined at PAA/alpha-Al2O3(0001), and PAA/alpha-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces using XSW-FY measurements. Our results show that the PAA coating was the dominant sink for Pb(II) in all three samples; however, the relative order of reactivity of these metal oxide surfaces with respect to Pb(II) sorption is alpha-Fe2O3(0001) > alpha-Al2O3(1-102) > alpha-Al2O3(0001). This order is consistent with that found in previous studies of the PAA-free surfaces. These XSW results strongly suggest that the characteristics of the organic film (i.e., binding affinity, type, and density of binding sites) as well as metal oxide substrate reactivity are key factors determining the

  20. Full-wave model and numerical study of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by multilayered, fiber-based periodic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The present work aims at building up a full-wave computational model of electromagnetic nondestructive testing of composite materials produced by stacking up dielectric slabs one over the other. In each such dielectric slab, a periodic array of infinite cylindrical fibers is embedded. Electromagnetic scattering of such a multilayered, fiber-based periodic composite is investigated here for an obliquely incident plane wave, the plane of incidence of which differs from the plane orthogonal to the fibers' axes. Full-wave field representations are given first by multipole and plane wave expansions. Mode matching at boundaries between layers then yields the propagating matrices, which are applied to connect reflection and transmission coefficients of the longitudinal field components. Power reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained from time-averaged Poynting vectors. Numerical experiments with comparisons with known results illustrate the accuracy of the model proposed.

  1. [Study of analgesic efficacy of propacetamol in the postoperative period using a double blind placebo controlled method].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Maiachkin, R B

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency and safety of postoperative use of propacetamol was estimated in 30 patients by means of double blind placebo controlled method. The first group consisted of 15 patients to whom propacetamol was introduced intravenously in single dose of 2 g along with patient controlled anesthesia with promedol. Placebo in combination with patient control anesthesia were used in 15 patients from the 2nd group. Intravenous introducing of propacetamol in dose of 2 g in 15 minutes provides relief of pain intensity in postoperative period. So it permits to consider propacetamol as basic non-opioid analgesic. In early postoperative period combination of propacetamol and opioid analgesic (promedol) reduces demands in the latter by 44%. PMID:12462772

  2. Numerical study on surface plasmon polariton behaviors in periodic metal-dielectric structures using a plane-wave-assisted boundary integral-equation method.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Yean-Woei; Wang, Jyh-Yang; Yang, C C

    2007-07-01

    A novel hybrid technique based on the boundary integral-equation method is proposed for studying the surface plasmon polariton behaviors in two-dimensional periodic structures. Considering the periodicity property of the problem, we use the plane-wave expansion concept and the periodic boundary condition instead of using the periodic Green's function. The diffraction efficiency can then be readily calculated once the equivalent electric and magnetic currents are solved that avoids invoking the numerical calculation of the radiation integral. The numerical validity is verified with the cases of highly conducting materials and practical metals. Numerical convergence can be easily achieved even in the case of a large incident angle as 80o. Based on the numerical scheme, a metal-dielectric wavy structure is designed for enhancing the transmittance of optical signal through the structure. The excitation of the coupled surface plasmon polaritons for the high transmission is demonstrated.

  3. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  4. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-01

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  5. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  6. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study.

    PubMed

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems. PMID:25903899

  7. Dynamic CO2 therapy in periodic breathing: a modeling study to determine optimal timing and dosage regimes.

    PubMed

    Mebrate, Yoseph; Willson, Keith; Manisty, Charlotte H; Baruah, Resham; Mayet, Jamil; Hughes, Alun D; Parker, Kim H; Francis, Darrel P

    2009-09-01

    We examine the potential to treat unstable ventilatory control (seen in periodic breathing, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and central sleep apnea) with carefully controlled dynamic administration of supplementary CO(2), aiming to reduce ventilatory oscillations with minimum increment in mean CO(2). We used a standard mathematical model to explore the consequences of phasic CO(2) administration, with different timing and dosing algorithms. We found an optimal time window within the ventilation cycle (covering approximately 1/6 of the cycle) during which CO(2) delivery reduces ventilatory fluctuations by >95%. Outside that time, therapy is dramatically less effective: indeed, for more than two-thirds of the cycle, therapy increases ventilatory fluctuations >30%. Efficiency of stabilizing ventilation improved when the algorithm gave a graded increase in CO(2) dose (by controlling its duration or concentration) for more severe periodic breathing. Combining gradations of duration and concentration further increased efficiency of therapy by 22%. The (undesirable) increment in mean end-tidal CO(2) caused was 300 times smaller with dynamic therapy than with static therapy, to achieve the same degree of ventilatory stabilization (0.0005 vs. 0.1710 kPa). The increase in average ventilation was also much smaller with dynamic than static therapy (0.005 vs. 2.015 l/min). We conclude that, if administered dynamically, dramatically smaller quantities of CO(2) could be used to reduce periodic breathing, with minimal adverse effects. Algorithms adjusting both duration and concentration in real time would achieve this most efficiently. If developed clinically as a therapy for periodic breathing, this would minimize excess acidosis, hyperventilation, and sympathetic overactivation, compared with static treatment.

  8. Breastfeeding Status at Age 3 Months Is Associated with Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Markers at Age 4 Years in Mexican Children123

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Romieu, Isabelle; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of breastfeeding (BF) on cardiometabolic risk factors is not well characterized. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of BF status at 3 mo and duration with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers at 4 y. Methods: We studied 727 children with prospectively collected BF information and anthropometric measurements at 4 y, of whom 524 provided a nonfasting blood sample. BF status at 3 mo was classified as exclusive or predominant (EBF-PreBF), partial (PaBF), or nonbreastfeeding (NBF). Total duration of any BF was classified as <3 mo, 3– 6 mo, >6 to 12 mo, and >12 mo. We modeled associations of BF with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and insulin at 4 y. Results: Children who were NBF or PaBF at 3 mo had higher BMI [0.46 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.76) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.54), respectively] than the EBF-PreBF group (P < 0.01). NBF children had higher total cholesterol (8.02 mg/dL; 95% CI: 1.39, 14.64; P = 0.02) than children who were EBF-PreBF. LDL cholesterol (5.04 mg/dL; 95% CI: −0.72, 10.81) and TGs (12% change; 95% CI: −0.01, 0.24) showed similar patterns. An inverse association between EBF-PreBF and insulin, mediated through abdominal circumference, was documented (P < 0.05). Children breastfed <3 mo had higher BMI (0.44; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.77) at 4 y than children breastfed for >12 mo. Conclusion: EBF and PreBF at 3 mo were associated with lower adiposity and serum total cholesterol in children at 4 y. In addition, BF >12 mo was associated with lower adiposity. These data confirm the importance of exclusive BF and prolonged BF for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:25926414

  9. The complex relationship between the light-entrainable and methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillators: evidence from behavioral studies of Period-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2013-10-01

    The methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO) is an enigmatic circadian clock whose output is observed during continuous consumption of low-dose methamphetamine. The MASCO rhythm persists when the light-entrainable pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is lesioned, but the anatomical location of MASCO is unknown. We recently found that the period of the MASCO rhythm is unusually short (21 h) in mice with disruption of all three paralogs of the canonical clock gene, Period. In this study, we investigated the contribution of each Period paralog to timekeeping in MASCO. We measured wheel-running activity rhythms in intact and SCN-lesioned Per1-, 2- and 3-mutant mice administered methamphetamine, and found that none of the mice displayed a short (21-h) period, demonstrating that no single Period gene is responsible for the short-period MASCO rhythm of Per1(-/-) /Per2(-/-) /Per3(-/-) mice. We also found that the periods of activity rhythms in constant darkness were lengthened by methamphetamine treatment in intact wild-type, Per1(-/-) and Per3(-/-) mice but not Per2(-/-) mice, and Per2(-/-) mice had two distinct activity rhythms upon release to constant light. These data suggest that the SCN and MASCO are not coupled in Per2(-/-) mice. The MASCO rhythm in Per1(-/-) /Per2(-/-) mice in constant darkness alternated between a short (22-h) and a long (27-h) period. This pattern could result from two coupled oscillators that are not synchronised to each other, or from a single oscillator displaying birhythmicity. Finally, we propose a working model of the in vivo relationship between MASCO and the SCN that poses testable hypotheses for future studies.

  10. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  11. Left Ventricular Morphology in Different Periods of the Training Season in Elite Young Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Csajági, Eszter; Szauder, Ipoly; Major, Zsuzsanna; Pavlik, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Training adaptation of the left ventricle (LV) and it's reversibility following the cessation of training in adults is well known and also studied in children. In the current study we describe the changes in the LV morphology in association with the training season during a 1.5 year follow-up period. 15 elite adolescent swimmers, seven girls and 8 boys with 6 years of swimming history and 20 hr per week training were observed. Their data were compared with 15 age and gender matched nonathletes. LV adaptation was measured with 2D-echocardiography at the baseline preseason and every 3 months, according to the macro cyclic periods of training. Nonathletes were observed at the first and fifth stage of the study. Remarkable LV morphological adaptation has been detected in the swimmers. The greatest LV muscle mass (LVMM: 228 ± 46g) and smallest end-diastolic diameter (LVIDd:44.9 ± 3.4mm) were observed at the end of the second general endurance preparation period (GEP2), but the LVMM/BSA (Rel.LVMM: 85 ± 10g/m) failed to change during the follow-up in athletes. On the basis of our results, we suggest comparing absolute LV dimensions only in studies made at the same training period to avoid bias due to alterations with the training season.

  12. Dynamical Study of the Galactic Influence on the A(orig) Distribution of the Long Period Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Analizamos el efecto de la Galaxia como un todo, en la fronte- ra exterior de la nube de Oort de cometas, asi como la influencia de las estrellas vecinas en la distribucion observada de semi ejes mayores originales de los cometas de largo periodo. ABSTRACT. By means of a very simple formulation, in a Sun-centered reference frame, we analyze the effect of the Galaxy as a whole, on the exterior bound of the Oort cloud of comets, as well as the influence of the neighbour stars in the observed distribution of original semimajor axis of long period comets. Kaq wo : COMETS

  13. Basic study on the most relaxing respiration period in children to aid the development of a respiration-leading stuffed toy.

    PubMed

    Uratani, Hiroki; Yoshino, Kohzoh; Ohsuga, Mieko

    2014-01-01

    Following natural disasters, accidents, and shocking incidents, some children experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The respiration control method, which relaxes the body and mind, may efficiently prevent PTSD. Therefore, we developed a stuffed toy that leads children's respiration using the up-and-down movement of the abdomen to help them relax. We investigated the most appropriate respiration period for children's relaxation. Data from studies on heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training suggest that breathing at the respiration period at which HRV is the highest is effective for improving chronic diseases. Therefore, we measured the relationship between the respiration period and physiological indices, including HRV. The participants were 10 children aged 5-12 years. HRV was the highest at a 10-12-s respiration period in all 10 children. However, the most suitable respiration period for smooth breathing and relaxation was different from that at which HRV is the highest. Therefore, the most relaxing respiration periods for children need to be determined by indices other than HRV. PMID:25570724

  14. A composite study of the quasi-periodic subtropical wind maxima over the South Pacific during November 1984-April 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Ken-Chung; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1995-01-01

    A composite of 10 cases of zonal wind maxima at 200 hPa over the subtropical region stretching from Australia to the central Pacific is examined for the six-month period, November 1984-April 1985. This region is unique in that distinct westerly jets frequently form and propagate eastward at latitudes between 20 deg and 35 deg S in the summer season. Some statistical tests were applied and suggest that the flow patterns are quasi periodic, consisting of a tendency for new jet streaks to develop over the eastern Australian region approximately every one to two weeks. These jets then take about 10 days to propagate across the western Pacific before dissipating or, perhaps, moving toward higher latitudes. Their average propagation speed is approximately 4 m/s. An examination of the case-to-case variability of the jets provides additional evidence that they are significant features. A diagnosis of the trough/ridge systems at 200 and 850 hPa, together with calculations of the vertically integrated mean and shear kinetic energies suggests that baroclinic processes dominate in the entrance and center regions of the jet, whereas barotropic processes dominate in the exit and downstream regions.

  15. First principles study of periodic size dependent band gap variation of Cu doped ZnO single-wall nanotube.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Mei; Wang, Tong Hui; Li, Jian Chen

    2012-12-01

    In this contribution, the size dependent band gap variation of (Zn(4/6)Cu(2/6)O)(L)/(Zn(5/6)Cu(1/6)O)(L) (L is the periodic size) superlattices are investigated with the change of L. The results show that the variation tendency of band gap appears a minimum in S(4) (L = 4) which is nearly a conductor. The band gap of S(3) (L = 3) and S(5) (L = 5) also decrease obviously compared to the other three configurations. Especially, the band gap of S(3) has decreased to 2.16 eV which is in the region of narrow bandgap semiconductor. Thus, the band gap can be modulated by alloying through constructing an appropriate variation period. Our ZnCuO superlattices can absorb light in both visible and UV region. These properties make the superlattices a potential application in photocatalysis and the visible light emitter.

  16. Detailed Broadband Study of the Shortest Orbital Period Black-hole Binary Maxi J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Horst, Alexander Jonathan; Kouveliotou, C.; Paragi, Z.; Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Kuulkers, E.; Curran, P. A.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Belloni, T.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2011-09-01

    MAXI J1659-152 is a hard X-ray source discovered by Swift and MAXI. Optical spectroscopy showed that this source is an X-ray binary, and X-ray timing observations classified it as a black-hole candidate. Based on recurring dips in the X-ray light curves, the source was established as the shortest period black-hole binary candidate known to date, with a period of 2.4 hours. Here we present our results from the broadband follow-up campaign we initiated after the source discovery. We obtained densely sampled light curves over two orders of magnitude in radio frequencies, in the UV/optical bands, and at X- and gamma-ray energies. This enabled us to construct broadband spectral energy distributions with very good spectral coverage at many epochs, covering the various X-ray states of MAXI J1659-152 during its outburst. Very Long Baseline Interferomety observations provide constraints on the size of the radio emitting jet, which, combined with the modeling results of the broadband spectra, present a comprehensive picture of the outburst from this new X-ray binary.

  17. Ozone interaction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in atmospheric processes: theoretical density functional study by molecular and periodic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Serra, Giovanni; Giordana, Anna; Tonachini, Glauco; Barco, Gianluca; Causà, Mauro

    2005-12-01

    The ozonization mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot is investigated by quantum mechanical calculations carried out on molecular and periodic systems. PAHs, interesting per se, serve also to model the local features of the graphenic soot platelets, for which another model is provided by a periodic representation of one graphenic layer. A concerted addition leads to a primary ozonide, while a nonconcerted attack produces a trioxyl diradical (in which one of the two unpaired electrons is pi-delocalized). Easy loss of (i) (1)O(2) or (ii) (3)O(2) from either intermediate, with spin conservation, would yield stable (i) singlet or (ii) triplet pi-delocalized species which carry an epoxide group. The trioxyl diradical pathway is estimated to be preferred, in these systems. An intersystem crossing, taking place in the trioxyl diradicals, can be invoked to allow the even easier loss of a ground-state oxygen molecule with the formation of a ground-state epoxide in a more exoergic and less demanding step. We propose that soot ozonization can take place by such a process, with ultimate functionalization of the graphenic platelets by epoxide groups.

  18. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested.

  19. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  20. Vascular system of the human spinal cord in the prenatal period: a dye injection and corrosion casting study.

    PubMed

    Zawiliński, J; Litwin, J A; Nowogrodzka-Zagórska, M; Gorczyca, J; Miodoński, A J

    2001-07-01

    The vascularization of the spinal cord was investigated in 50 human fetuses aged from 10 to 28 gestational weeks using dye injection methods and corrosion casting accompanied by scanning electron microscopy. In the investigated period of fetal development, the general vascular architecture of the spinal cord, corresponding to that described postnatally, seemed to be already established. The observed changes included: (1) remodeling of the supplying (extrinsic) arterial branches, (2) transformation of the posterior anastomotic chain into two distinct posterior spinal arteries, and (3) development of the capillary networks in the gray and white matter. The remodeling of the radicular arteries supplying the spinal cord was accompanied by a decrease in their number and transition from regular to irregular distribution (appearance of intersegmental differences in their frequency). The anterior spinal artery and regular array of the central arteries were already present in the youngest fetuses examined, but the final remodeling of the posterior anastomotic chain into two posterior spinal arteries occurred between 15th and 20th week of fetal life indicating that the vascularization of the anterior region of the spinal cord in the investigated period of fetal life was more advanced as compared with that of the posterior region. The capillary network of the gray matter in the youngest fetuses had the form of discrete glomerular plexuses supplied by groups of central arteries and mainly vascularizing the anterior horns. Successively, the plexuses fused to form a continuous system along the anterior columns and the system expanded to fully vascularize the posterior horns. The white matter in the earlier fetal period seemed to be partially avascular, later the density of capillaries vascularizing those areas was still much lower than in the gray matter. The veins showed considerably greater variability than the arteries, as far as their topography and distribution was

  1. Experimental study of a compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Liang; Qian Baoliang; Ge Xingjun; Zhang Xiaoping; Jin Zhenxing

    2012-08-15

    A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure was investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the frequency of the P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator is 897 MHz and the microwave power is 1.47 GW with an efficiency of about 32% in the case in which the diode voltage is 572 kV, the beam current is 8.0 kA, and the guide magnetic field is about 0.86 T. In addition, the device can generate a 3.14 GW microwave radiation as the guide magnetic field increases to 1.2 T at the diode voltage of 997 kV and the beam current of 15.3 kA. The experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained earlier by numerical simulations.

  2. Chemical interaction of water molecules with framework Al in acid zeolites: a periodic ab initio study on H-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés-Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2015-09-28

    Periodic quantum-chemistry methods as implemented in the CRYSTAL14 code were considered to analyse the interaction of acid clinoptilolite with water. Initially adsorbed molecules hydrolyse the Al-O bonds, giving rise to defective dealuminated materials. A suitable and representative periodic model of the partially disordered hydrated H-zeolite is the primitive cell (18 T sites) of a decahydrated trialuminated structure of HEU topology. The water distribution inside the material cavities was initially investigated. The model considered for further dealumination was the most stable one from those generated through a combined force field Monte Carlo and ab initio optimization strategy. Optimizations and energy estimations were made at the hybrid DFT level of theory (PBE0 functional) with an atomic basis set of VDZP quality. The energetics of the different pathways involved in the dealumination process was addressed by considering the Gibbs free energy with thermal and zero-point corrections through phonon analysis. It arises that hydrated models exhibit protonated water clusters stabilized by different kinds of H-bonds. The first Al extraction is slightly more energetically favourable from T3 than T2 sites, but at the same time the latter is more probable owing to its larger Al population. However, concerning the second dealumination step, it is more favourable removing the Al atom from both remaining sites after a starting abstraction from T2 rather than T3. These facts determine that the most probable overall pathways go through a first Al removal from T2. The agreement with experimental results is discussed. PMID:26299763

  3. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  4. [Study of vaginal and intestinal microflora of women in the prenatal period and its correction in dysbacteriosis].

    PubMed

    Podgorskiĭ, V S; Liaskovskiĭ, T M; Kovalenko, N K; Oleshchenko, L T

    2006-01-01

    A comparative research of the structure of vaginal and intestinal microflora in norm and at kidney pathologies in women in the prenatal period was carried out. At physiologically normal course of pregnancy microbiocenosis of vagina and intestine does not contain pathogenic and conditional-pathogenic microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria are fixed within the limits of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/1 ml in the vagina secretion and 10(7)-10(8) CFU/1 g in the intestine content. The spore microorganisms have completely disappeared in vaginal biocenosis of women with pyelonephritis after pharmacotherapy; and colibacterias has disappeared in 62% of women. Quantity of lactic acid bacteria has also decreased. Quantity of E. coli (10(8)- 10(9)) CFU/g, sporous microorganisms (10(3)-10(4)) CFU/g and yeast (10(4)-10(5)) CFU/g has considerably increased in the content of intestine. Lactic acid bacteria in content of the vagina are presented by: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. vaginalis; in content of the intestine--L. plantarum and L. fermentum. All the isolated strains of lactobacilli are resistant to metrogyl and amphotericin, 87%--to cephoxitine, cypropfloxacine. Twenty three of 24 strains of lactic acid bacteria--antagonists of pathogenic microflora have shown adhesion to vaginal epthelium. The degree of adhesive activity depends on the strain and genus specificity of cultures. The highest index of adhesiveness in indicated in Enterococcus faecium (5.82 - 7.62) and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (2.74 - 6.40) strains. The screening of strains has been performed, which suppress growth of gas-producing microflora. The strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 200D proved to be the most active one. A complex of cultures of the lactic bacteria providing normalization of microbial cenosis of the vagina in women in the prenatal period has been selected as based on the data obtained. The biotechnology of production of vaginal suppositories is developed. PMID

  5. Chemical interaction of water molecules with framework Al in acid zeolites: a periodic ab initio study on H-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés-Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2015-09-28

    Periodic quantum-chemistry methods as implemented in the CRYSTAL14 code were considered to analyse the interaction of acid clinoptilolite with water. Initially adsorbed molecules hydrolyse the Al-O bonds, giving rise to defective dealuminated materials. A suitable and representative periodic model of the partially disordered hydrated H-zeolite is the primitive cell (18 T sites) of a decahydrated trialuminated structure of HEU topology. The water distribution inside the material cavities was initially investigated. The model considered for further dealumination was the most stable one from those generated through a combined force field Monte Carlo and ab initio optimization strategy. Optimizations and energy estimations were made at the hybrid DFT level of theory (PBE0 functional) with an atomic basis set of VDZP quality. The energetics of the different pathways involved in the dealumination process was addressed by considering the Gibbs free energy with thermal and zero-point corrections through phonon analysis. It arises that hydrated models exhibit protonated water clusters stabilized by different kinds of H-bonds. The first Al extraction is slightly more energetically favourable from T3 than T2 sites, but at the same time the latter is more probable owing to its larger Al population. However, concerning the second dealumination step, it is more favourable removing the Al atom from both remaining sites after a starting abstraction from T2 rather than T3. These facts determine that the most probable overall pathways go through a first Al removal from T2. The agreement with experimental results is discussed.

  6. Business Education Index, 1999. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published During the Year 1999. Volume 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This publication comprises an index of business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of business education periodicals and those related to business education published during 1999. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching over the broad business education spectrum. Subject entries (pages…

  7. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  8. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  9. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  10. [Effect of alcohol in combination with stress in the prenatal period on adult mice behaviour].

    PubMed

    Morozova, M V; Popova, N K

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress on behaviour of adult CBA/LacJ male mice. Pregnant mice were given ethanol 11% from to 21 days of the gestation and were exposed to restraint stress for two hours daily from 15 to 21 days gestation. At 3 months of age, the offspring were tested for behaviour. Alcohol and stress-exposed animals buried more marbles in the marble-burying test, which models obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In addition, the alcohol and stress-exposed males showed increased social activity. No significant effects of the prenatal alcohol and stress exposure on locomotor activity, anxiety, exploring activity of the adult male mice were revealed. Conclusion was made that exposure to the alcohol and stress combination in prenatal period produces predisposition to OCD.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  12. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  13. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  14. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marana, Naiara L.; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Longo, Elson; Sambrano, Julio R.

    2016-05-01

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors.

  15. Experimental study on dynamics of coherent structures formed by inertial solid particles in three-dimensional periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Masakazu; Melnikov, Denis E.; Ueno, Ichiro; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    We present experimental results obtained under normal gravity on the dynamics of solid particles in periodic oscillatory thermocapillary-driven flows in a non-isothermal liquid bridge made of decane. Inertial particles of different densities and in the size range approximately 0.75 - 75 μm are able to form stable coherent structures (particle accumulation structures, or PASs). Two image processing techniques were developed and successfully applied to compute time required for an ensemble of particles to form a structure. It is shown that the formation time grows with the decrease of the Stokes number. The observations indicate the probable irrelevance of the memory term for these experiments. Two types of PAS were observed—single (SL-I) and double-loop (SL-II)—which sometimes co-existed. Only large or very dense particles may form an SL-II type structure. A number of novel features of the system were perceived. In some cases, intermittently stable structures emerged (their dynamics is characterized by alternating time intervals during which a structure exists and is destroyed). Whereas in most experiments we observed a conventional symmetric and centered PAS, there were cases when a long-term stable asymmetric structure appeared. Experiments wherein two different types of PAS-forming particles were used simultaneously revealed the destructive role of collisions between the particles on formation of structures.

  16. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, V.; Borges, G.; Borrego, C.; del Peso, J.; Delfino, M.; Gomes, J.; González de la Hoz, S.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Salt, J.; Sedov, A.; Villaplana, M.; Wolters, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The effect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the first Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to improve and evolve the ATLAS Distributed Computing system to prepare for the future challenges of the LHC operation.

  17. Variation of the topside ionosphere during the last solar minimum period studied with multisatellite measurements of electron density and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Kwak, Youngsil; Kim, Yong Ha; Park, Jaeheung; Lee, Junchan; Min, Kyoungwook

    2016-07-01

    Using the ionospheric measurements of CHAMP, DEMETER, and DMSP F15, the seasonal and spatial variations of the topside ionosphere during the last solar minimum period were investigated and compared with ionospheric models. In all the satellite measurements, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) shows clearly longitudinal asymmetry with wave number -3 or -4 patterns. Anomalous increases of Ne in the nighttime surpassing daytime Ne, known as the Weddell Sea anomaly (WSA) or midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly (MSNA), were also observed in the global Ne distribution with differences in detailed geometry of the geomagnetic field according to the altitude. In the nighttime ionosphere, the reduced Te in the equatorial region at the DMSP altitude, identified as the equatorial plasma temperature anomaly (EPTA), was ascribed to the leftover of the prereversal enhancement of the upward plasma drift. Though the EIA, WSA, MSNA, and EPTA are all associated with the upward plasma movement, the difference in the thermal evolution is ascribable to the geometry of drift in which the plasma moves across the geomagnetic field line for the EIA and the EPTA, while along the field line for the WSA and the MSNA.

  18. Experimental study on dynamics of coherent structures formed by inertial solid particles in three-dimensional periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Gotoda, Masakazu; Melnikov, Denis E; Ueno, Ichiro; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    We present experimental results obtained under normal gravity on the dynamics of solid particles in periodic oscillatory thermocapillary-driven flows in a non-isothermal liquid bridge made of decane. Inertial particles of different densities and in the size range approximately 0.75-75 μm are able to form stable coherent structures (particle accumulation structures, or PASs). Two image processing techniques were developed and successfully applied to compute time required for an ensemble of particles to form a structure. It is shown that the formation time grows with the decrease of the Stokes number. The observations indicate the probable irrelevance of the memory term for these experiments. Two types of PAS were observed-single (SL-I) and double-loop (SL-II)-which sometimes co-existed. Only large or very dense particles may form an SL-II type structure. A number of novel features of the system were perceived. In some cases, intermittently stable structures emerged (their dynamics is characterized by alternating time intervals during which a structure exists and is destroyed). Whereas in most experiments we observed a conventional symmetric and centered PAS, there were cases when a long-term stable asymmetric structure appeared. Experiments wherein two different types of PAS-forming particles were used simultaneously revealed the destructive role of collisions between the particles on formation of structures. PMID:27475066

  19. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  20. A global study of the lowermost mantle using short and long period scattered PKKP waves (PK●KP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, D. A.; Rost, S.; Selby, N.

    2013-12-01

    The short-period (1 Hz) seismic wavefield shows strong evidence for scattered energy from the interior of the Earth. This energy mainly arrives in the coda following major seismic phases; however, several ray configurations exist in which seismic energy from the lowermost mantle arrives as precursors to main phases, allowing analysis of heterogeneities in the deep Earth, undisturbed by crustal interference. Here we use the phase PKKP to infer small-scale structure at the Core-Mantle Boundary (CMB) and in the D″ layer. PKKP back-scattered at, or above, the CMB (PK●KP where the ● represents the location of scattering) is observed in a time window starting about 1720 s after origin (for a surface focus) and can be observed from 0° to greater than 60° epicentral distance. This time and distance window is free from other seismic arrivals thus allowing identification of the scattered PKKP energy, despite its relatively low amplitude. The ray path of PK●KP is complicated with scattering occurring off great-circle path, thus avoiding the attenuating inner core. Due to its raypath, PK●KP waves sample regions of the Core-Mantle Boundary inaccessible to most other scattering probes. Back-scattering in this frequency range is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the scattering heterogeneity. This method, therefore, could resolve density contrasts in the deep Earth. When combined with forward scattering probes, such as PKP, which are sensitive to elastic moduli, all the material properties of the scattering heterogeneity could be resolved. Here we use the dense, small to medium aperture arrays of the International Monitoring System of the CTBTO to extract the small amplitude PK●KP from seismic noise. Directivity information from the arrays and ray tracing allows us to infer the location of heterogeneity in the deep Earth. We use the frequency-wavenumber (fk) analysis in conjunction with the F-statistic coherency measure, commonly used in forensic seismology, to

  1. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  2. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-PROPAGATING MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND THE ASSOCIATED FLARE ON 2011 MAY 30

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-01

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  3. Observational Study of the Quasi-periodic Fast-propagating Magnetosonic Waves and the Associated Flare on 2011 May 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu

    2012-07-01

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of ~834 km s-1 during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - ω diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - ω diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  4. Vibrational spectrum of katoite Ca3Al2[(OH)4]3: a periodic ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, R; Torres, F J; Pascale, F; Ugliengo, P; Zicovich-Wilson, C; Dovesi, R

    2006-01-19

    The vibrational spectrum of the Si-free katoite hydrogarnet (116 atoms in the unit cell) has been calculated at the periodic ab initio quantum mechanical level with the CRYSTAL program, by using a Gaussian type basis set and the hybrid B3LYP Hamiltonian. The harmonic frequencies at the Gamma point have been obtained by diagonalizing the mass-weighted Hessian matrix, that is evaluated by numerical differentiation of the analytical first derivatives of the energy with respect to the atomic Cartesian coordinates. The parameters controlling the numerical differentiation, as well as the numerical integration of the exchange-correlation functional for the self-consistent field (SCF) calculation, are shown to affect the obtained frequencies by less than 3 cm-1. Before diagonalization, the dynamical matrix is transformed to a block diagonal form according to the irreducible representations of the point group, so that the 345 vibrational modes are automatically classified by symmetry. Various tools are adopted (graphical representation, isotopic substitution, "freezing" part of the unit cell) that permit a complete classification of normal modes and, in particular, an analysis of the modes in terms of simple models (octahedra modes, Ca modes, H stretching, bending, rotations). The harmonic OH stretching band (48 modes) is quite narrow (20 cm-1), indicating that the interaction among OH groups is very weak. As the OH stretching modes are known to be totally separable from the other modes and strongly anharmonic, the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for the anharmonic oscillator is solved numerically for the two extreme situations, corresponding to the vibration of one decoupled OH and of all 48 OH groups moving in phase. The anharmonic frequencies are 3682 and 3673 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with IR experiments (a single band at 3661 cm-1 with a width at half band height of 33 cm-1) and confirming that the interaction between OH groups is extremely weak.

  5. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  6. A study of the distribution of color Doppler flows in the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds during their training periods

    PubMed Central

    HATAZOE, Takashi; ENDO, Yoshiro; IWAMOTO, Yohei; KOROSUE, Kenji; KURODA, Taisuke; INOUE, Saemi; MURATA, Daiki; HOBO, Seiji; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of exercise and tendon injury with Doppler flows appearing in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of young Thoroughbreds during training periods. The forelimb SDFTs of 24 one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds clinically free of any orthopaedic disorders were evaluated using grey-scale (GS) and color Doppler (CD) images during two training periods between December 2013 to April 2015. Twelve horses per year were examined in December, February, and April in training periods that began in September and ended in April. The SDFT was evaluated in 3 longitudinal images of equal lengths (labelled 1, 2, 3 in order from proximal to distal), and 6 transversal images separated by equal lengths (labelled 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B in order from proximal to distal) of the metacarpus using both GS and CD. The running (canter and gallop) distance for 1 month before the date of the ultrasonographic examinations was increased in December, February, and April in both of the two training periods. CD flows defined as rhythmically blinking or pulsatory colored signals were found in 56 of 864 (6.4%) transversal CD images, in 28, 12, 13, and 3 images of 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B, respectively, and in 7, 14, and 35 images captured in December, February, and April, respectively. There were no longitudinal or transversal GS images indicating injury in the SDFTs in either of the two training periods. The increase of CD flows in the proximal regions of the SDFT are possibly related to the increase of the running distance during the training periods of the one- to two-year-old Thoroughbreds. Because no injury was diagnosed in the SDFTs by GS images during the training periods, the increase of CD flows in the proximal parts of SDFT is not necessarily predictive of tendon injury in the near future during the training period of young Thoroughbreds. PMID:26858574

  7. Modelling LULC for the period 2010-2030 using GIS and Remote sensing: a case study of Tikrit, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasim Hadi, Sinan; Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Mahir, Mustafa D.

    2014-06-01

    This study extends upon the results of [1] to include the modeling of Land use/ Land cover (LULC). This study looks at the changes that occurred from 2010 to 2030 in Tikrit district, Iraq by predicting LULC for the year target 2030 by using the classified images for two points of time (2000 - 2010) as a foundation for the modeling process. The projected map, in comparison with 2010 LULC map, shows a significant decrease in vegetation area (45.11 km2) which must be regulated in order to maintain a green environment, and increase in the urban area (58.42 km2) which should be monitored to have sustainable development and control the eco-environment degradation. Also, in this study, it is shown clearly that the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (specially IDRISI software) in modeling LULC is a suitable approach to understand the future pattern.

  8. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period.

    PubMed

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke; Ygil, Karin Hess; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Stark, Ken D; Tetens, Inge; Thorsen, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-08-28

    Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA concentration and weight percentage using the Spearman correlations and cross-classification. Direct observation of school lunch intake (n 193) was used to score the accuracy of food-reporting as matches, intrusions, omissions and faults. The reporting of all lunch foods had higher percentage of matches compared with the reporting of signature foods in both periods, and the accuracy was higher during the control period compared with the intervention period. Both Spearman's rank correlations and linear mixed models demonstrated positive associations between EPA+DHA and reported fish intake. The direct observations showed that both reported and real intake of signature foods did increase during the intervention period. In conclusion, the self-reported data represented a true increase in the intake of signature foods and can be used to examine dietary intervention effects. PMID:26189886

  9. An Application of Hester's Determinants of News Flow to American Newspapers in the 1808-1812 Period: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Donald R.

    Al Hester's communication model sees news flow as being primarily dependent upon national rank in the hierarchy of nations, dominance and weakness of nations, and economic and cultural factors. A sample of 37 newspapers was content analyzed in a study extending this international news flow concept to the intra-national level to determine whether…

  10. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY,AS

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 A copy of the original Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the US and the US for the HFR-EU2 (formally MHR-1) fuel irradiation test was sent to DOE-HQ. The startup of the HFR-EU2 test will likely be delayed until September 2004 depending on completion and check out of the fission gas sweep loop. The initial core nuclear design study using advanced fuel was completed for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This study assessed the nuclear effects of replacing the silicon carbide layer of the TRISO particle with a zirconium carbide layer (TRIZO particle). The study determined that zirconium behaves like a non-burnable poison and to achieve fuel cycle lengths equivalent to those with TRISO fuel, the fixed burnable poison would have to be adjusted. The core nuclear design study is documented in report General Atomics report number PC-000514. A test plan was completed that describes a series of screening tests to provide the technical basis for selecting and qualifying an advanced coated-particle fuel for the VHTR. The test plan is documented in General Atomics report number PC-000510.

  11. Study to identify future cryogen payload elements/users for space shuttle launch during period 1990 to 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elim, Frank M.

    1989-01-01

    This study provides a summary of future cryogenic space payload users, their currently projected needs and reported planning for space operations over the next decade. At present, few users with payloads consisting of reactive cryogens, or any cryogen in significant quantities, are contemplating the use of the Space Shuttle. Some members of the cryogenic payload community indicated an interest in flying their future planned payloads on the orbiter, versus an expendable launch vehicle (ELV), but are awaiting the outcome of a Rockwell study to define what orbiter mods and payloads requirements are needed to safely fly chemically reactive cryogen payloads, and the resultant cost, schedule, and operational impacts. Should NASA management decide in early 1990 to so modify orbiter(s), based on the Rockwell study and/or changes in national defense payloads launch requirements, then at least some cryo payload customers will reportedly plan on using the Shuttle orbiter vehicle in preference to an ELV. This study concludes that the most potential for possible future cryogenic space payloads for the Space Transportation System Orbiter fleet lies within the scientific research and defense communities.

  12. Epidemiological study of suicide in the Republic of Croatia -- comparison of war and post-war periods and areas directly and indirectly affected by war.

    PubMed

    Grubisić-Ilić, Mirjana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Grubisić, Frane; Kovacić, Zrnka

    2002-09-01

    We examined the differences in the suicide characteristics between areas directly and indirectly affected by war activities and in war and post-war periods according to the following variables: suicide rate, sex, age and method of suicide. Analysis was done on 5349 suicides committed in the period 1993-1998 (war and post-war years). The suicide rates in the Republic of Croatia oscillated in the pre-war, war and post-war periods (1985-2000) but without significant differences. In the areas directly affected by war, the suicide rate was significantly lower than in other areas during the study period 1993-1998 (chi-square = 10.3245; P = 0.0017). The number of suicides in both sexes declined in the areas directly affected by war-more in men than in women; the difference between sexes was statistically significant (chi-square = 3.6697; P = 0.055). Middle- and old-aged people were the population with high suicide risk in both areas (t = 1.76; P = 0.078). There were significant differences in the methods of suicides between war and non-war areas (chi-square = 108.8473; P = 0.001). Firearms or explosive devices were the methods used more significantly for suicides in the areas directly affected by war than in other areas, whereas hanging was more frequently used in the areas indirectly affected by war. PMID:12381495

  13. A study on the main periodicities in interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. M.; Echer, E.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Hajra, R.

    2016-11-01

    The interplanetary and geomagnetic characteristics of High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events are studied using wavelet analysis technique. The Morlet wavelet transform was applied to the 1 min interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component and the geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events. We have analyzed the AE data for the events occurring between 1975 and 2011, and the IMF Bz data (both in GSE and GSM) for the events between 1995 and 2011. We analyzed the scalograms and the global wavelet spectrum of the parameters. For 50% of all HILDCAA events, the main periodicities of the AE index are generally between 4 and 12 h. For the Bz component, the main periodicities were found to be less than 8 h for ~56% of times in GSM system and for ~54% of times in GSE system. It is conjectured that the periodicities might be associated with the Alfvén waves which have typical periods between 1 and 10 h. The results are discussed in the light of self organized criticality theory where the physical events have the capacity of releasing a considerable amount of energy in a short interval of time.

  14. A study of backscattered spectra dynamics of agricultural crops during growth period on the territory of the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. Yu.; Sid'ko, A. F.; Shevyrnogov, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    The work presents the results of the study aimed at determining the seasonal dynamics of the spectral brightness and reflectance of agricultural crops (wheat, barley and oats) in the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia). The analysis of spectral curves obtained through field ground measurements and from satellite data showed that fine spectral differences can be used to study the spatial distribution of various types of vegetation and their ecological state. Based on the created electronic spectral brightness data base, the possibilities are shown of using spectrophotometric information for determining morphophysiological changes occurring in the plants and their species composition. The determined contrasts can be effectively used to obtain necessary information while processing space images, which suffer from natural interferences (varying optical thickness of the atmosphere, cloudiness, alterations in the scanner's angle of view, varying solar height, and highly inhomogeneous underlying surface).

  15. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  16. Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

    PubMed

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

  17. Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

    PubMed

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea. PMID:25075745

  18. Deep-Sea Octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) Conducts the Longest-Known Egg-Brooding Period of Any Animal

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Bruce; Seibel, Brad; Drazen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea. PMID:25075745

  19. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269

  20. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  1. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  2. FUNGEMIA CAUSED BY Candida SPECIES IN A CHILDREN'S PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: STUDY IN THE PERIOD 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Vanessa Kummer Perinazzo; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro Jesus; Moreira, Débora; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment. PMID:25076430

  3. The Comparative Study of Body Mass Index Distribution Among Preschool Children in a 7 Years Period in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamreza, Veghari; Mohsen, Saeedi

    The main objective of this study is the comparison of Body Mass Index distribution among preschool children between 1997 and 2004. Using cluster and simple sampling chose 20 villages and 20 persons completed the questionnaires and measured their weight and height. The sample size was 3154 (stage 1 = 1585 cases and stage 2 = 1569 cases). Data of two stages was added to the file and was analyzed by spss.win soft-war. NCHS standard was used for comparison. The BMI percentiles by NCHS standard were used to classify subjects as follows: under weight, < 5th BMI percentiles; healthy weight, 5th-84th BMI percentiles; overweight, 85th-94th BMI percentiles; or obese, 95th = BMI percentiles. Gorgan a capital city and located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian Sea. In spite of boy=s weight increased about 0.1 kg, but height increased about 3.4 cm in second stage and t-test is significant between two stage by height (p< 0.001). Girl=s weight didn=t have any change, but height increased about 2.7 cm. t-test is significant between two stages by height (p< 0.001). The prevalence of obesity and overweight declined 17.36 and 4.7% respectively after 7 years. There is a statistical significant between two stages by obesity index (p< 0.05). The most outstanding results of this study is unvarying of weight and dramatically improving of height. The prevalence of obesity and overweight significantly declined after 7 years. Some health strategy that carried out by health managers in this area can caused this situation. Other studies are necessary for following the physical growth pattern in future.

  4. Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows. Final technical report for period ending 30 Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, F.

    1991-03-04

    The authors goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique--Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV)--which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical simulations of combusting flows.

  5. Statistical study of the night-time F-layer dynamics at the magnetic equator in West Africa during the solar minimum period 1995-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoh, K. S.; Adohi, B. J.-P.; Coulibaly, I. S.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Kobea, A. T.; Assamoi, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the night-time equatorial F-layer height behaviour at Korhogo (9.2° N, 5° W; 2.4° S dip lat), Ivory Coast, in the West African sector during the solar minimum period 1995-1997. The data were collected from quarter-hourly ionograms of an Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS) 42-type vertical sounder. The main focus of this work was to study the seasonal changes in the F-layer height and to clarify the equinox transition process recently evidenced at Korhogo during 1995, the year of declining solar flux activity. The F-layer height was found to vary strongly with time, with up to three main phases. The night-to-night variability of these morphological phases was then analysed. The early post-sunset slow rise, commonly associated with rapid chemical recombination processes in the bottom part of the F layer, remained featureless and was observed regardless of the date. By contrast, the following event, either presented like the post-sunset height peak associated with the evening E × B drift, or was delayed to the midnight sector, thus involving another mechanism. The statistical analysis of the occurrence of these events throughout the solar minimum period 1995-1997 revealed two main F-layer height patterns, each characteristic of a specific season. The one with the post-sunset height peak was associated with the northern winter period, whereas the other, with the midnight height peak, characterized the northern summer period. The transition process from one pattern to the other took place during the equinox periods and was found to last only a few weeks. We discuss these results in the light of earlier works.

  6. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  7. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  8. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  9. Preservation of bone collagen from the late Cretaceous period studied by immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Avci, R; Schweitzer, M H; Boyd, R D; Wittmeyer, J L; Terán Arce, F; Calvo, J O

    2005-04-12

    Late Cretaceous avian bone tissues from Argentina demonstrate exceptional preservation. Skeletal elements are preserved in partial articulation and suspended in three dimensions in a medium-grained sandstone matrix, indicating unusual perimortem taphonomic conditions. Preservation extends to the microstructural and molecular levels. Bone tissues respond to collagenase digestion and histochemical stains. In situ immunohistochemistry localizes binding sites for avian collagen antibodies in fossil tissues. Immunohistochemical studies do not, however, guarantee the preservation of molecular integrity. A protein may retain sufficient antigenicity for antibody binding even though degradation may render it incapable of original function. Therefore, we have applied atomic force microscopy to address the integrity and functionality of retained organic structures. Collagen pull-off measurements not only support immunochemical evidence for collagen preservation for antibody recognition but also imply preservation of the whole molecular integrity. No appreciable differences in collagen pull-off properties were measured between fossil and extant bone samples under physiological conditions.

  10. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  11. Gas-surface study of contaminant reactions in combustion. Covering the period: September 26, 1983-September 26, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of SO/sub 2/ and NO with single-crystal surfaces of SiO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at temperatures of 298, 473, and 673K, which were covered by various amounts of sodium and iron was studied using x-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy. The sodium was deposited on SiO/sub 2/ in the Na/sup +/ state, as indicated by an Auger parametric study. Scanning electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in surface morphology on SiO/sub 2/ after deposition of sodium. The amount of adsorbed SO/sub 2/ increased with increasing sodium deposition for both 298 and 473K. This adsorbed sulfur was identified as sulfite. Sticking probability calculations indicated that the reaction was a first-order or direct one-site adsorption. The initial sticking probability increased with increasing sodium coverage. When the SO/sub 2/ reaction was carried out at 473K, both the amount of adsorbed SO/sub 2/ and the initial sticking probability were higher than that at 298K. No reaction was observed at 673K. The iron was deposited on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in Fe/sup 0/ state. At low coverages iron was partially oxidated due to its interaction with Al/sub 2/O. The amount of adsorbed NO increased with increasing iron coverage. However, at very high iron coverages, there was a decrease in adsorption. This indicated that the aluminium ions may be activating the iron atoms for NO adsorption. There was also an increase in adsorption with increasing temperature for high-iron coverages, but NO adsorption decreased for low-iron coverages. Sticking probability calculations indicated that the adsorption was mobile and dissociative. Binding energy of the nitrogen peaks indicated that NO was adsorbed onto the Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ surface as a nitride. SO/sub 2/ interacted with both iron deposited on alumina and sodium deposited on alumina at 298, 473, and 673K. The adsorbed sulfur on Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was identified as sulfide and sulfate while on Na/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ it was identified as sulfite. 53

  12. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology of each tissue sample was compared with the region of change in the corresponding periablation SWE image. The experimental results showed that the tissue temperature at the ablation site varied between 70°C and 100°C. Hyperechoic regions and changes were observed in the echo amplitude distribution induced by gas bubbles. Under this condition, the confounding effects (including the temperature increase, tissue stiffness increase, and presence of gas bubbles) resulted in artifacts in the periablation SWE images, and the corresponding region correlated with the estimated final ablation size obtained from the gross pathology (r = 0.8). The findings confirm the feasibility of using periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA.

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was <10 x 10(9)/l in 7 cases, and only 1 patient had a history of head trauma. Seven children were on treatment prior to or at the time of occurrence of ICH and all were treated by pharmacotherapy. Two children died shortly afterwards due to late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  14. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology of each tissue sample was compared with the region of change in the corresponding periablation SWE image. The experimental results showed that the tissue temperature at the ablation site varied between 70°C and 100°C. Hyperechoic regions and changes were observed in the echo amplitude distribution induced by gas bubbles. Under this condition, the confounding effects (including the temperature increase, tissue stiffness increase, and presence of gas bubbles) resulted in artifacts in the periablation SWE images, and the corresponding region correlated with the estimated final ablation size obtained from the gross pathology (r = 0.8). The findings confirm the feasibility of using periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA. PMID:27603012

  15. A comparative study on low-memory iterative solvers for FFT-based homogenization of periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Nachiketa; Vondřejc, Jaroslav; Zeman, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of four iterative algorithms for solving non-symmetric rank-deficient linear systems arising in the FFT-based homogenization of heterogeneous materials defined by digital images. Our framework is based on the Fourier-Galerkin method with exact and approximate integrations that has recently been shown to generalize the Lippmann-Schwinger setting of the original work by Moulinec and Suquet from 1994. It follows from this variational format that the ensuing system of linear equations can be solved by general-purpose iterative algorithms for symmetric positive-definite systems, such as the Richardson, the Conjugate gradient, and the Chebyshev algorithms, that are compared here to the Eyre-Milton scheme - the most efficient specialized method currently available. Our numerical experiments, carried out for two-dimensional elliptic problems, reveal that the Conjugate gradient algorithm is the most efficient option, while the Eyre-Milton method performs comparably to the Chebyshev semi-iteration. The Richardson algorithm, equivalent to the still widely used original Moulinec-Suquet solver, exhibits the slowest convergence. Besides this, we hope that our study highlights the potential of the well-established techniques of numerical linear algebra to further increase the efficiency of FFT-based homogenization methods.

  16. Periodic array of misfit dislocations at the MnAs/GaAs interface studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Satapathy, D.K.; Kaganer, V.M.; Jenichen, B.; Braun, W.; Daeweritz, L.; Ploog, K.H.

    2005-10-15

    We study the evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the growth at 250 deg. C and subsequent annealing of MnAs films on GaAs in situ using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The MnAs film grows via the formation of relaxed islands which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface with a spacing of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm, releasing the misfit strain. The Burgers vector of the dislocations lies in the interface plane, and the inhomogeneous strain due to the dislocations is confined to a 1.6 nm thick region near the interface. Annealing enhances the order of the dislocation array and reduces the mosaicity of the MnAs layer. On MnAs/GaAs(113)A, the same mismatch is released by the dislocations with the two times smaller Burgers vectors and the two times smaller spacing, as compared with the MnAs/GaAs(001)

  17. Study of the mechanism of the hydrogen sulfide/dolomite reaction. Final report for the period July 1976-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.; Rogan, F.H.; Yen, J.H.; Huang, C.S.; Spencer, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The kinetics and structural changes of the basic reactions - half-calcination, sulfidation and carbonation - involved in the cyclic use of dolomite for hot-gas desulfurization were investigated over wide ranges of experimental conditions including the origin of dolomite, pellet size and method of pretreatment. Kinetic data were collected for samples of spherical pellets in a high-temperature/high-pressure thermogravimetric analysis system specifically designed and constructed for this study. Solid-phase structures at various stages of each reaction were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and mercury porosimetry. Based on the kinetic and structural data for each reaction, models were developed and mathematically formulated. Agreement between model and experiment in all cases is generally good. Cyclic experiments of the sulfidation of half-calcined dolomite and the carbonation of sulfided dolomite were also performed. The adsorption capacity of dolomite for hydrogen sulfide was found to decrease at first and remain approximately constant upon continued cycling. However, a 75% utilization of calcium atoms in the dolomite was shown to be possible under certain selected conditions. 33 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology o