Science.gov

Sample records for 3-phase bone scan

  1. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. How ... a 3-phase bone scan. To evaluate metastatic bone disease, images are taken only after the 3- to ...

  2. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    A bone scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. ... A bone scan involves injecting a very small amount of radioactive material (radiotracer) into a vein. The substance travels through ...

  3. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  4. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  5. Bone scan appearances following bone and bone marrow biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow and bone biopsies are performed not infrequently in patients referred for bone scans and represent a potential cause of a ''false positive'' focal abnormality on the bone scan. The authors have therefore examined the scan appearances in a series of patients who had undergone either sternal marrow biopsy, (Salah needle, diameter 1.2 mm) trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy (Jamshidi 11 gauge needle, diameter 3.5 mm) or a transiliac bone biopsy (needle diameter 8 mm). Of 18 patients studied 1 to 45 days after sternal marrow 17 had normal scan appearances at the biopsy site and 1 had a possible abnormality. None of 9 patients studied 4 to 19 days after trephine iliac crest marrow biopsy had a hot spot at the biopsy site. A focal scan abnormality was present at the biopsy site in 9/11 patients studied 5 to 59 days after a trans iliac bone biopsy. No resultant scan abnormality was seen in 4 patients imaged within 3 days of the bone biopsy or in 3 patients imaged 79 to 138 days after the procedure. Bone marrow biopsy of the sternum or iliac crest does not usually cause bone scan abnormalities. A focal abnormality at the biopsy site is common in patients imaged 5 days to 2 months after bone biopsy. The gauge of the needle employed in the biopsy and thus the degree of bone trauma inflicted, is likely to be main factor determining the appearance of bone scan abnormalities at the biopsy site.

  6. Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

    1984-10-01

    The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

  7. Incremental value of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in 3-phase bone scintigraphy of an accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Ganesh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-07-01

    Accessory navicular bone is one of the supernumerary ossicles in the foot. Radiography is non diagnostic in symptomatic cases. Accessory navicular has been reported as a cause of foot pain and is usually associated with flat foot. Increased radio tracer uptake on bone scan is found to be more sensitive. We report a case highlighting the significance of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of symptomatic accessory navicular bone where three phase bone scan is equivocal. PMID:25210293

  8. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. 3d.; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-11-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis.

  9. Whole body bone scan. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.; Morayati, S.J.; Carichner, S.; Winkes, B.; Cassisi, R.; McGraw, R.; Schane, E.

    1988-03-01

    The authors present the case example of a patient whose bone scan did not reveal an ulnar abnormality because the ulnae were not included on the whole body scan image. This interesting case demonstrates the importance of positioning the patient for the whole body scan to include the entire skeleton or obtaining additional spot views of the appendicular or axial skeleton not included on whole body images.

  10. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-12-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan.

  11. Bone scanning in pregnant patients with breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.; Ali, A.; Groch, M.W.; Fordham, E.; Economou, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    Radionuclide scanning is usually contraindicated in pregnancy because of the danger of fetal radiation exposure. Radionuclide bone scanning with Tc-99m MDP is a sensitive indicator of early osseous metastases in breast cancer. Three cases of breast cancer during pregnancy are reported; modified bone scanning was utilized for staging and decision analysis. Modifications of bone scanning techniques to minimize fetal radiation exposure and fetal dosimetry calculations are described.

  12. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  13. Use of serial bone scans in assessing response of bone metastases to systemic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, D.L.; Hougen, C.; Zweibel, W.; Schlise, S.; Pruitt, B.; Ershler, W.; Davis, T.E.; Harberg, J.; Cohen, A.I.

    1981-02-15

    The accuracy levels of serial radioisotope bone scans and conventional bone radiographs in assessing the response of bone metastases to systemic therapy were compared in 34 women with metastatic breast cancer. Each patient had measurable or evaluable nonosseous metastases, which were assessed independently of skeletal disease. The bone scan was found to be more accurate and sensitive indicator of the status of bone metastases than the radiograph. The bone scan correlated well with response of soft tissue or visceral disease, while the results of repeated bone radiographs were frequently misleading. With use of a digital model, it was possible to accurately measure the area of skeletal involvement of the bone scan, and from this derive quantitative criteria for response in bone metastases analogous to response criteria currently in use for soft tissue and visceral disease. It is suggested that serial quantitative bone scans be done, in preference to radiographs, to assess the response of bone metastases to systemic therapy.

  14. Bone scanning in the detection of occult fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Batillas, J.; Vasilas, A.; Pizzi, W.F.; Gokcebay, T.

    1981-07-01

    The potential role of bone scanning in the early detection of occult fractures following acute trauma was investigated. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scans were obtained in patients with major clinical findings and negative or equivocal roentgenograms following trauma. Bone scanning facilitated the prompt diagnosis of occult fractures in the hip, knee, wrist, ribs and costochondral junctions, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx. Several illustrative cases are presented. Roentgenographic confirmation occurred following a delay of days to weeks and, in some instances, the roentgenographic findings were subtle and could be easily overlooked. This study demonstrates bone scanning to be invaluable and definitive in the prompt detection of occult fractures.

  15. Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159909.html Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks Many not aware of exact radiation ... July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors routinely order CT scans as diagnostic tools. But many are ill-informed ...

  16. Radioisotope bone scanning in a case of sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cinti, D.C.; Hawkins, H.B.; Slavin, J.D. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The application of radioisotope scanning to osseous involvement from systemic sarcoidosis has been infrequently described in the scientific literature. Most commonly, the small bones of the hands and feet are affected if sarcoidosis involves the skeleton. Nonetheless, there are also occasional manifestations of sarcoid in the skull, long bones, and vertebral bodies. This paper describes a case of sarcoid involving the lung parenchyma with multiple lesions in the skull and ribs demonstrated by bone scanning with Tc-99m MDP. Following treatment with steroids, the bone scan showed complete resolution of the rib lesions and almost complete resolution of the lesions in the calvarium.

  17. New Drug for Use in Bone Scans Approved

    Cancer.gov

    The FDA has approved a New Drug Application (NDA) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, for a new strength of a previously approved drug, Sodium Fluoride F18, for use in bone scans. In contrast to Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has been the only approved radioactive tracer for bone scans, Sodium Fluoride F18 is not subject to the supply problems that have led to recent nationwide shortages of Tc-99m.

  18. Radionuclide bone scanning in subtalar coalitions: differential considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.B.; Pavlov, H.; Schneider, R.

    1982-03-01

    The radionuclide bone scan is a noninvasive screening procedure which can help in identifying or confirming subtalar coalitions in patients with foot and/or ankle pain of unknown origin in whom routine plain film studies are inconclusive. Five patients (seven symptomatic feet) with clinical and plain film findings suggesting a subtalar coalition are presented. The radionuclide bone scans in four patients (six feet) with documented subtalar coalitions demonstrated augmented uptake in the subtalar joint in all six feet and a secondary area of augmented concentration in the superior aspect of the talus or talonavicular joint in five feet. The radionuclide bone scan was normal in the one patient who was later proved not to have a coalition. The scans of 100 patients with foot pain of other etiologies were reviewed, and in no instance did the scan demonstrate the combination of subtalar and talus or talonavicular uptake observed in the patients with coalitions.

  19. Solitary lesions on bone scan in genitourinary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, E.L.; Schellhammer, P.F.

    1984-11-01

    Solitary lesions on bone scans obtained as part of metastatic diagnostic studies for genitourinary malignancy require identification as to whether they represent nonneoplastic or neoplastic disease and, if neoplastic, whether metastatic genitourinary cancer or another primary is present. Such definition requires at least plain film tomograms of the area as well as computerized tomography (for inaccessible lesions) and/or biopsy of lesions still in doubt after tomography. Of the 9 patients in our study 4 had true positive scans for metastatic disease, 3 had false positive scans, 1 had a true positive scan for a second bone primary and 1 is indeterminate, since a negative biopsy of a positive area on a bone scan was followed rapidly by the appearance of other widespread metastases.

  20. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  1. Radionuclide bone scans in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Oncology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Bone scans in breast tumors; Bone scans in central nervous system tumors; Bone scans in endocrine tumors; Bone scans in gastrointestinal tumors; Bone scans in genitourinary tumors; Bone scans in gynecologic tumors; Bone scans in head and neck tumors; Bone scans in hemopoietic and lymphatic tumors; Bone scans in respiratory tract tumors; Bone scans in musculoskeletal tumors; Bone scans in melanoma; Bone scans--general and multisite studies; Bone scans--radiopharmaceuticals and techniques; Bone scans--reviews; Bone scans--pre-clinical studies; Bone scans--historical perspectives.

  2. Technetium-99m Bone Scan and Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Bone Invasion by Oral Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    John, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The correct extension of cancer in the bone usually remains undetected on static imaging which may lead to inadequate or over excision. The conventional radiography as well as other anatomical imaging modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging often fails to detect functional changes in the bone. However, bone scinitigraphy is highly sensitive in detecting earlier changes in the bone but lack anatomical definition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of combining technetium-99m bone scan and panoramic radiography (Tc scan/PR) over using single diagnostic modality in detection of jaw bone invasion by oral carcinomas. The accuracy of these imaging modalities either alone or in combination were determined by comparing with the histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with biopsy-proven oral malignant tumors were randomly selected from Oral Medicine and Radiology department over a period of two years. All patients were investigated preoperatively by Tc scan and PR. Lewis – Jones’s designed diagnostic criterion was applied on Tc scan/PR to evaluate bone involvement by cancer. To test the accuracy of Tc scan, PR and Tc scan/PR, their results were compared with the histopathological findings of resected specimen. Results: Hybrid Tc scan/PR had higher specificity, accuracy and positive predictive value (83.3%, 94.7%, 92.8%) than Tc scan alone (50%, 84.2%, 81.2%) and higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (100%, 100%) than PR (69.2%, 55.5%). Conclusion: Combination of Tc scan and PR was more accurate in detecting jaw bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma than Tc scan and PR alone. PMID:24995244

  3. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari; Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito; Imai, Koichi; Tanaka, Akio

    2012-12-01

    Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 μm/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  4. Scanning acoustic microscopy study of human cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Bumrerraj, S; Katz, J L

    2001-12-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) has been used in the burst mode to study the properties of human cortical and trabecular bone. An Olympus UH3 SAM (Olympus Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used with a 400 MHz burst mode lens (120 degrees aperture, nominal lateral resolution 2.5 microm). The human cortical bone was from the midshaft of a femur from a 60+ male cadaver; the trabecular bone specimens were obtained from the distal femoral condyles of another 60+ human male cadaver. Elastic moduli for both trabecular and cortical bone were obtained by means of a series of calibration curves correlating SAM gray levels of known materials with their elastic moduli; specimens included: polypropylene, PMMA, Teflon, aluminum, Pyrex glass, titanium, and stainless steel. Values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those obtained by nanoindentation techniques. The three critical findings earlier by Katz and Meunier were observed here as well in both the cortical and trabecular bone samples. PMID:11853252

  5. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity.

  6. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R(2)=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone's mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young's modulus (R(2)=0.67) and BV/TV (R(2)=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R(2)=0.92 for BV/TV and R(2)=0.71 for bulk Young's modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone's structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  7. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  8. PRECISION OF SINGLE VERSUS BILATERAL HIP BONE MINERAL DENSITY SCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip and lumbar spine are currently the "gold standard" for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). DXA allows swift, noninvasive measurements with minimal radiation for both clinical practice and research. Traditional testing has used results ...

  9. Prediction of trabecular bone qualitative properties using scanning quantitative ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Wei; Mittra, Erik; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Jiqi; Judex, Stefan; Rubin, Clint; Müller, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity induced bone loss represents a critical health problem in astronauts, particularly occurred in weight-supporting skeleton, which leads to osteopenia and increase of fracture risk. Lack of suitable evaluation modality makes it difficult for monitoring skeletal status in long term space mission and increases potential risk of complication. Such disuse osteopenia and osteoporosis compromise trabecular bone density, and architectural and mechanical properties. While X-ray based imaging would not be practical in space, quantitative ultrasound may provide advantages to characterize bone density and strength through wave propagation in complex trabecular structure. This study used a scanning confocal acoustic diagnostic and navigation system (SCAN) to evaluate trabecular bone quality in 60 cubic trabecular samples harvested from adult sheep. Ultrasound image based SCAN measurements in structural and strength properties were validated by μCT and compressive mechanical testing. This result indicated a moderately strong negative correlations observed between broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) and μCT-determined bone volume fraction (BV/TV, R2=0.53). Strong correlations were observed between ultrasound velocity (UV) and bone’s mechanical strength and structural parameters, i.e., bulk Young’s modulus (R2=0.67) and BV/TV (R2=0.85). The predictions for bone density and mechanical strength were significantly improved by using a linear combination of both BUA and UV, yielding R2=0.92 for BV/TV and R2=0.71 for bulk Young’s modulus. These results imply that quantitative ultrasound can characterize trabecular structural and mechanical properties through measurements of particular ultrasound parameters, and potentially provide an excellent estimation for bone’s structural integrity. PMID:23976803

  10. Visualizing bone porosities using a tabletop scanning electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, D.; DaPonte, J.; Broadbridge, C. C.; Daniel, D.; Alter, L.

    2010-04-01

    Pores are naturally occurring entities in bone. Changes in pore size and number are often associated with diseases such as Osteoporosis and even microgravity during spaceflight. Studying bone perforations may yield great insight into bone's material properties, including bone density and may contribute to identifying therapies to halt or potentially reverse bone loss. Current technologies used in this field include nuclear magnetic resonance, micro-computed tomography and the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) 2, 5. However, limitations in each method limit further advancement. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using a new generation of analytical instruments, the TM-1000 tabletop, SEM with back-scatter electron (BSE) detector, to analyze cortical bone porosities. Hind limb unloaded and age-based controlled mouse femurs were extracted and tested in vitro for changes in pores on the periosteal surface. An important advantage of using the tabletop is the simplified sample preparation that excludes extra coatings, dehydration and fixation steps that are otherwise required for conventional SEM. For quantitative data, pores were treated as particles in order to use an analyze particles feature in the NIH ImageJ software. Several image-processing techniques for background smoothing, thresholding and filtering were employed to produce a binary image suitable for particle analysis. It was hypothesized that the unloaded bones would show an increase in pore area, as the lack of mechanical loading would affect bone-remodeling processes taking place in and around pores. Preliminary results suggest only a slight different in frequency but not in size of pores between unloaded and control femurs.

  11. Bone and gallium scans in mastocytosis: correlation with count rates, radiography, and microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslen, R.D.; Jackson, F.I.; Reid, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    Mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa) was proven in a patient suffering from severe back pain. A bone scan showed diffusely increased bone activity. Count rates were also abnormally elevated over several areas of the skeleton. Radiographs were consistent with mastocytosis in bone.

  12. Relative effectiveness of NMR and bone scanning in the diagnosis and evaluation of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Markisz, J.A.; Schneider, R.; Freiberger, R.H.; Knowles, R.J.R.; Cahill, P.T.

    1985-05-01

    A series of patients suffering from bone diseases, including malignant and benign tumors, osteomyelitis, arthritis and osteonecrosis, were studied with radionuclide bone scans, conventional radiography, NMR spin echo techniques and in some instances CT and angiography. The relative sensitivity of NMR techniques varied for the different pathological processes. NMR sensitivities were greater than other radiologic modalities for acute processes, such as osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis, but not significantly different for non-acute pathology. Neoplastic abnormalities were equally well detected by bone scan as by NMR studies, however the extent of the disease process within the marrow cavity and the degree of involvement of soft tissues were much more precisely defined using NMR techniques, which was also true of acute processes. The value of NMR in suspected skeletal pathology appears to be twofold: as the diagnostic modality of choice in acute disease states (osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis) and as an excellent method of precisely locating the extent of disease in all types of skeletal pathology.

  13. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  14. Putative Physiopathological Explanation for the "Sock Sign" in Bone Scans.

    PubMed

    de Vaugelade, Carole; Pinaquy, Jean-Baptiste; Fernandez, Philippe; Bordenave, Laurence; Hindie, Elif; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Four patients were referred to our department to undergo a bone scan for suspected reflex sympathetic dystrophy in the upper limbs. After TC-HMDP injection in the foot, they developed a "sock sign," defined by highly increased uptake in the injected lower limb. The sock sign has been previously described in only 1 case in the literature and attributed to intra-arterial injection. Our images suggest that the sock sign might instead be the consequence of tracer extravasation at the injection site. PMID:27187731

  15. Multifocal pyomyositis. Diagnosis on technetium-99m MDP bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.; McCauley, D.; Brown, J.

    1984-03-01

    Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle occurring in the absence of trauma or a primary site of infection. The condition is rare in temperate climates. The diagnosis is often difficult to make and frequently delayed since the suppurative process is confined by the tense overlying muscle and fascia. The bone scan is very useful in differentiating underlying osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. An 11-year-old boy is described who presented with multifocal pyomyositis in the elbow region and thigh. Lateral blood pool images suggested infection with liquefaction within the muscles without evidence of osteomyelitis.

  16. Three phase bone scan interpretation based upon vascular endothelial response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kush

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A new method of interpretation of Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) scan based upon the normal physiological vascular endothelial related response. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of TPBS were evaluated. Thirteen were normal. In remaining 37 positive studies, 20 showed localized hyperemic response. All localized hyperemic responses except one with vascular endothelial dysfunction were without infection (95.0%). Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 17 cases with generalized massive hyperemic response had infection, consistent with infection or CRPS/RSD. Micro-bacterial or histological confirmation of infection was obtained in 11 cases. All 11 cases with confirmed infection showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Two were CRPS/RSD and 2 cases were of cellulitis (100.0%). Among remaining 2, one refused surgery and other was lost to follow-up. Additionally, 20 published cases in the literature of osteomyelitis were also analyzed. Nineteen cases of bone and joint infection, (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) except one with endothelial dysfunction showed generalized massive increased flow and pool response (95.0%). All published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed generalized massive hyperemic response (100.0%). Results: The data clearly indicated that 100% of the cases of bone infection (osteomyelitis/arthritis/cellulitis) and cases of CRPS/RSD showed generalized massive flow and pool pattern. Infection could be ruled out in absence of generalized massive flow and pool response. All 100% published cases of osteomyelitis in the literature showed positive vascular endothelial response. Conclusion: By incorporating the concept of vascular endothelial related response causing massive vasodilatation in infection, the interpretation of the TPBS can be more précised as it is based upon the normal physiology. Larger studies are recommended. PMID:25829726

  17. Analytic Validation of the Automated Bone Scan Index as an Imaging Biomarker to Standardize Quantitative Changes in Bone Scans of Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J.; Kaboteh, Reza; Båth, Lena; Sadik, May; Gjertsson, Peter; Lomsky, Milan; Edenbrandt, Lars; Minarik, David; Bjartell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible and quantitative imaging biomarker is needed to standardize the evaluation of changes in bone scans of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastasis. We performed a series of analytic validation studies to evaluate the performance of the automated bone scan index (BSI) as an imaging biomarker in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Methods Three separate analytic studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the automated BSI. Simulation study: bone scan simulations with predefined tumor burdens were created to assess accuracy and precision. Fifty bone scans were simulated with a tumor burden ranging from low to high disease confluence (0.10–13.0 BSI). A second group of 50 scans was divided into 5 subgroups, each containing 10 simulated bone scans, corresponding to BSI values of 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 10.0. Repeat bone scan study: to assess the reproducibility in a routine clinical setting, 2 repeat bone scans were obtained from metastatic prostate cancer patients after a single 600-MBq 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate injection. Follow-up bone scan study: 2 follow-up bone scans of metastatic prostate cancer patients were analyzed to determine the interobserver variability between the automated BSIs and the visual interpretations in assessing changes. The automated BSI was generated using the upgraded EXINI boneBSI software (version 2). The results were evaluated using linear regression, Pearson correlation, Cohen κ measurement, coefficient of variation, and SD. Results Linearity of the automated BSI interpretations in the range of 0.10–13.0 was confirmed, and Pearson correlation was observed at 0.995 (n = 50; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–0.99; P < 0.0001). The mean coefficient of variation was less than 20%. The mean BSI difference between the 2 repeat bone scans of 35 patients was 0.05 (SD = 0.15), with an upper confidence limit of 0.30. The interobserver agreement in the automated BSI

  18. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Falchook, Aaron D.; Salloum, Ramzi G.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of human cortical bone failure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, P; Branca, F P; Stagni, L

    1997-02-01

    Undecalcified samples extracted from human femoral shafts are fractured by bending and the fracture surfaces are examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The investigation is performed on both dry and wet (hydrated with a saline solution) specimens. SEM micrographs show patterns in many respects similar to those observed in fractography studies of laminated fiber-reinforced synthetic composites. In particular, dry and wet samples behave like brittle and ductile matrix laminates, respectively. An analysis carried out on the basis of the mechanisms that dominate the fracture process of laminates shows that a reasonable cortical bone model is that of a laminated composite material whose matrix is composed of extracellular noncollagenous calcified proteins, and the reinforcement is constituted by the calcified collagen fiber system. PMID:9001936

  20. Bone scans after total knee arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients. Cemented versus cementless

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, A.A.; Wyatt, R.W.; Daniels, A.U.; Armstrong, L.; Alazraki, N.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-02-01

    The natural history of bone scans after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was studied in 26 patients with 28 cemented TKAs and 29 patients with 31 cementless TKAs. The bone scans were examined at specified postoperative intervals. Radionuclide activity of the femoral, tibial, and patellar regions was measured. Six patients who developed pain postoperatively were excluded. Bone scans immediately postoperative and at three months demonstrated increased uptake, which gradually decreased to baseline levels at ten to 12 months. Radioisotope uptake was comparable in the cemented and cementless groups, but was highly variable in individual patients and in each of the follow-up periods. A single postoperative bone scan cannot differentiate component loosening from early bone remodeling. Sequential bone scans, as a supplement to the clinical examination and conventional radiography, may prove useful in the diagnosis of TKA failure.

  1. Co-registration of isotope bone scan with CT scan and MRI in the investigation of spinal pathology.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Graeme A; Malham, Gregory M; Ballok, Zita E

    2014-09-01

    Image fusion software enables technetium(99m)-methylene diphosphonate (Tc(99m)-MDP) bone scan images to be co-registered with CT scan or MRI, allowing greater anatomical discrimination. We examined the role of bone scan images co-registered with CT scan or MRI in the investigation of patients presenting with axial spinal pain and/or limb pain. One hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients were examined, and thereafter investigated with CT scan, MRI, and/or dynamic plain films. At this point diagnosis (pathology type and anatomical site) and treatment intention were declared. The co-registered Tc(99m)-MDP bone scan images were then studied, after which diagnosis (pathology type and anatomical site) and treatment intention were re-declared. This data were then analysed to determine whether the addition of co-registered bone scan images resulted in any change in diagnosis or treatment intention. The most significant change in diagnosis was pathology type (10%). Anatomical site changed markedly without overlap of the pre and post-isotope fields in 5%, and with overlap in 10%. Treatment intention had a major change in 3.6% and minor change in 8.6%. In the two groups where there was (i) no obvious pathology after full pre-isotope investigation, or (ii) a spinal fusion under suspicion, addition of the bone scan information led to a major change in the pathology and/or anatomical localisation in 18% and 19%, respectively. The addition of co-registered Tc(99m)-MDP bone scan images offers significant diagnostic assistance, particularly in the difficult diagnostic groups where a failed spinal fusion may be the suspected pain generator, or when no pain generator can otherwise be found. PMID:24798908

  2. The Comparison of Bone Scan and MRI in Osteoporotic Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-In; Jang, Bo-Hoon; Seo, Jung-Gook

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To estimate the usefulness of bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of new fracture in osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Overview of Literature The diagnosis of new fractrure in osteoporotic vertebral fractures requires simple X-ray and supplementary studies. Methods We analyzed 87 vertebrae in 44 patients, who diagnosed with osteoporotic vertebral fractures using bone scan and MRI within 2 months interval between August 2001 and July 2008. We compared hot uptakes in bone scan with MRI findings such as new fractures, old fractures and degenerative lesions. Results Hot uptakes in bone scan was matched to 48 new fractures, 26 old fractures and 13 degenerative lesions in MRI findings. It was 55% of concordance between hot uptakes in bone scan and new fractures in MRI. The rate of new vertebral fractures confirmed by MRI according to 1 level hot uptakes in bone scan was 96%, 2 levels was 50% and 3 more levels was 36%. Conclusions The diagnosis of new fracture in osteoporotic vertebral fractures requires simple X-ray and supplementary studies such as bone scan and MRI. We recommend more careful interpretation in multiple osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients about hot uptake lesions of bone scan. PMID:21165311

  3. Abnormal bone marrow distribution following unsuccessful hip replacement: a potential confusion on white cell scanning.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, D A

    1991-01-01

    A case is presented in which a grossly abnormal distribution of bone marrow following failed hip replacement would have led to the false diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The value of combining bone marrow scanning with indium white cell scanning in possible osteomyelitis is emphasised. PMID:2019282

  4. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  5. Bone Scans Are Reliable for the Identification of Lumbar Disk and Facet Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Malham, Gregory M.; Parker, Rhiannon M.; Ballok, Zita E.; Goss, Ben; Diwan, Ashish D.; Uribe, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Surgeon survey. Objective To evaluate the reliability of bone single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) versus bone SPECT images co-registered with computed tomography (bone SPECT-CT) by analyzing interobserver agreement for identification of the anatomical location of technetium99m-labeled oxidronate uptake in the lumbar disk and/or facet joint. Methods Seven spine surgeons interpreted 20 bone scans: 10 conventional black-and-white tomograms (bone SPECT) and 10 color-graded bone SPECT-CT scans. Each surgeon was asked to identify the location of any diagnostically relevant uptake in the disk and/or facet joint between L1 and S1. Reliability was evaluated using the free-marginal kappa statistic, and the level of agreement was assessed using the Landis and Koch interpretation. Results Conventional bone SPECT scans and bone SPECT-CT scans were reliable for the identification of diagnostically relevant uptake, with bone SPECT-CT having higher reliability (kappa = 0.72) than bone SPECT alone (0.59). Bone SPECT and bone SPECT-CT were also reliable in identifying disk pathology, with kappa values of 0.72 and 0.81, respectively. However, bone SPECT-CT was more reliable (0.81) than bone SPECT (0.60) when identifying facet disease. Conclusions For the identification of disk pathology, it is reasonable to use either conventional bone SPECT or bone SPECT-CT; however, bone SPECT-CT is more reliable for facet joint pathology. PMID:25648168

  6. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  7. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  8. Preliminary results of automated removal of degenerative joint disease in bone scan lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Henkel, Keith; Banola, Ashley; Morris, Darren; Coy, Heidi; Brown, Matthew S.

    2013-03-01

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (or bone scan) is a highly sensitive method for visualizing bone metastases and is the accepted standard imaging modality for detection of metastases and assessment of treatment outcomes. The development of a quantitative biomarker using computer-aided detection on bone scans for treatment response assessment may have a significant impact on the evaluation of novel oncologic drugs directed at bone metastases. One of the challenges to lesion segmentation on bone scans is the non-specificity of the radiotracer, manifesting as high activity related to non-malignant processes like degenerative joint disease, sinuses, kidneys, thyroid and bladder. In this paper, we developed an automated bone scan lesion segmentation method that implements intensity normalization, a two-threshold model, and automated detection and removal of areas consistent with non-malignant processes from the segmentation. The two-threshold model serves to account for outlier bone scans with elevated and diffuse intensity distributions. Parameters to remove degenerative joint disease were trained using a multi-start Nelder-Mead simplex optimization scheme. The segmentation reference standard was constructed manually by a panel of physicians. We compared the performance of the proposed method against a previously published method. The results of a two-fold cross validation show that the overlap ratio improved in 67.0% of scans, with an average improvement of 5.1% points.

  9. Technetium phosphate bone scan in the diagnosis of septic arthritis in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, S.B.; Savage, J.P.; Foster, B.K. )

    1989-09-01

    The technetium phosphate bone scans of 106 children with suspected septic arthritis were reviewed to determine whether the bone scan can accurately differentiate septic from nonseptic arthropathy. Only 13% of children with proved septic arthritis had correct blind scan interpretation. The clinically adjusted interpretation did not identify septic arthritis in 30%. Septic arthritis was incorrectly identified in 32% of children with no evidence of septic arthritis. No statistically significant differences were noted between the scan findings in the septic and nonseptic groups and no scan findings correlated specifically with the presence or absence of joint sepsis.

  10. Combined bone scintigraphy and indium-111 leukocyte scans in neuropathic foot disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Park, H.M.; Burt, R.W.; Mock, B.H.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-10-01

    It is difficult to diagnose osteomyelitis in the presence of neurotrophic osteoarthropathy. We performed combined (99mTc)MDP bone scans and indium-111 (111In) leukocyte studies on 35 patients who had radiographic evidence of neuropathic foot disease and clinically suspected osteomyelitis. The (111In)leukocyte study determined if there was an infection and the bone scan provided the anatomic landmarks so that the infection could be localized to the bone or the adjacent soft tissue. Seventeen patients had osteomyelitis and all showed increased (111In)leukocyte activity localized to the bone, giving a sensitivity of 100%. Among the 18 patients without osteomyelitis, eight had no accumulation of (111In)leukocytes, seven had the (111In)leukocyte activity correctly localized to the soft tissue, two had (111In)leukocyte activity mistakenly attributed to the bone, and one had (111In)leukocyte accumulation in a proven neuroma which was mistakenly attributed to bone. These three false-positive results for osteomyelitis reduced the specificity to 83%. Considering only the 27 patients with a positive (111In)leukocyte study, the combined bone scan and (111In)leukocyte study correctly localized the infection to the soft tissues or bone in 89%. Uninfected neurotrophic osteoarthropathy does not accumulate (111In)leukocytes. We found the combined bone scan and (111In) leukocyte study useful for the detection and localization of infection to soft tissue or bone in patients with neuropathic foot disease.

  11. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  12. Bone scan: Indium-WBC correlation in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, B.; Wrege, S.S.; Altman, M.I.; Moore, J.W. )

    1989-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 20 podiatric cases using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate three-phase bone scans along with indium-111 oxine leukocyte scans, as needed, to determine the presence and extent of osteomyelitis of the foot. Using criteria developed at our institution, the authors attempt to provide a mechanism to make a reliable diagnosis for osteomyelitis that has been supported by surgical/pathologic confirmation of long-term clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, using bone scans alone, was 100%, and specificity was 47%. Correlating bone and indium-111 leukocyte scans yielded a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity raised to 81%. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were used in 40% of cases when a definitive diagnosis for osteomyelitis could not be made on the basis of the three-phase bone scan or clinical presentation alone. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were also helpful in delineating the extent of the disease process. The authors present a standard technique for a 5-hour delayed imaging in the three-phase bone scan, as well as marking the foot in the indium-111 leukocyte scan with three routine views obtained for each imaging procedure, to ensure clinical accuracy.

  13. Juvenile Psammomatoid Ossifying Fibroma: Findings on Bone Scan.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Perilla, Rodrigo; Santamaria, Consuelo; Muñoz-Acosta, Juan Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma is a rare bone-forming tumor seen in craniofacial bones, which affects mainly young patients. We report scintigraphic and SPECT/CT findings of 2 patients diagnosed with this disease. One patient presented with suspicion of fibrous dysplasia and the other with suspected malignancy in the setting of a rapidly growing mass. Both cases highlight the importance of recognizing this type of tumor in young patients with abnormal uptake in paranasal bones and sinuses within the range of potential differential diagnoses including sarcomas, fibrous dysplasia, and odontogenic tumors. PMID:27405032

  14. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of experimental bone hacking trauma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Alunni-Perret, Véronique; Borg, Cybèle; Laugier, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Marie-France; Staccini, Pascal; Bolla, Marc; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Muller-Bolla, Michèle

    2010-12-01

    The authors report on a macroscopic and microscopic study of human mandible bone lesions achieved by a single-blade knife and a hatchet. The aim of this work was to complete the previous data (scanning electron microscopy analysis of bone lesions made by a single-blade knife and a hatchet, on human femurs) and to compare the lesions of the femur with those of the mandible. The results indicate that the mandible is a more fragile bone, but the features observed on the mandible are quite similar to those previously observed on the femur. This work spells out the main scanning electron microscopy characteristics of sharp (bone cutting) and blunt (exerting a pressure on the bone) mechanisms on human bone. Weapon characteristics serve to explain all of these features. PMID:20890172

  15. Minimal bone scan findings in the presence of wide-spread osteoblastic disease on skeletal radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Schroder, L.E. )

    1990-11-01

    A case of indolent carcinoma of the breast metastatic to bone is presented. Radiographic findings showed dramatic osteoblastic activity throughout the skeleton, but the bone scan was mildly abnormal in only one of these areas. A superscan appearance was excluded by a whole-body retention study.

  16. Fully automated shape model positioning for bone segmentation in whole-body CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränzle, A.; Sumkauskaite, M.; Hillengass, J.; Bäuerle, T.; Bendl, R.

    2014-03-01

    Analysing osteolytic and osteoblastic bone lesions in systematically affected skeletons, e.g. in multiple myeloma or bone metastasis, is a complex task. Quantification of the degree of bone destruction needs segmentation of all lesions but cannot be managed manually. Automatic bone lesion detection is necessary. Our future objective is comparing modified bones with healthy shape models. For applying model based strategies successfully, identification and position information of single bones is necessary. A solution to these requirements based on bone medullary cavities is presented in this paper. Medullary cavities are useful for shape model positioning since they have similar position and orientation as the bone itself but can be separated more easily. Skeleton segmentation is done by simple thresholding. Inside the skeleton medullary cavities are segmented by a flood filling algorithm. The filled regions are considered as medullary cavity objects. To provide automatic shape model selection, medullary cavity objects are assigned to bone structures with pattern recognition. To get a good starting position for shape models, principal component analysis of medullary cavities is performed. Bone identification was tested on 14 whole-body low-dose CT scans of multiple myeloma patients. Random forest classification assigns medullary cavities of long bones to the corresponding bone (overall accuracy 90%). Centroid and first principal component of medullary cavity are sufficiently similar to those of bone (mean centroid difference 21.7 mm, mean difference angle 1.54° for all long bones of one example patient) and therefore suitable for shape model initialization. This method enables locating long bone structures in whole-body CT scans and provides useful information for a reasonable shape model initialization.

  17. The effect of iron on the biodistribution of bone scanning agents in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.; Hoschl, R.

    1981-07-01

    Nine patients with chronic iron overload, resulting from either repeated transfusions or hemochromatosis, had bone scans that were characterized by a reduction of bony uptake, marked increase in renal activity, and a significant increase in soft-tissue accumulation of 99mTc-labeled bone-seeking agents. These findings were supported by semiquantitative computer analysis. The probable mechanisms of altered biodistribution and the possible role of serum ferritin are discussed. The importance of realizing the effect of excess iron on skeletal scintigraphy is further emphasized by the results of bone scanning in another patient in whom acute iron overload following infusion of iron-dextran resulted in excessive blood pool labeling.

  18. The clinical significance of radionuclide bone and gallium scanning in osteomyelitis of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C.; Greyson, N.D.; Wortzman, G.; Jazrawy, H.; Freeman, J.L.; Blair, R.L.; Chapnik, J.S.

    1984-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the head and neck remains a difficult clinical problem both in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review our clinical experience with 25 cases of osteomyelitis distributed evenly among the temporal bone and skull base, the paranasal sinuses, and the mandible. Radionuclide bone and gallium scan images accurately depicted the biologic activity of the disease process and permitted accurate treatment evaluation and patient monitoring. This work demonstrates the potentials and limitations of radionuclide imaging with bone and gallium scan agents and attempts to define a role for their contemporary use in the management of osteomyelitis of the head and neck.

  19. Is there a role of whole-body bone scan in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Correct detection of bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is pivotal for prognosis and selection of an appropriate treatment regimen. Whole-body bone scan for staging is not routinely recommended in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bone scan in detecting bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the radiographic and scintigraphic images of 360 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients between 1999 and 2008. Of these 360 patients, 288 patients received bone scan during pretreatment staging, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of bone scan were determined. Of these 360 patients, surgery was performed in 161 patients including 119 patients with preoperative bone scan and 42 patients without preoperative bone scan. Among these 161 patients receiving surgery, 133 patients had stages II + III disease, including 99 patients with preoperative bone scan and 34 patients without preoperative bone scan. Bone recurrence-free survival and overall survival were compared in all 161 patients and 133 stages II + III patients, respectively. Results The diagnostic performance for bone metastasis was as follows: sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 90.1%; positive predictive value, 43.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.9%. In all 161 patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.009, univariately). In multivariate comparison, absence of preoperative bone scan (P = 0.012, odds ratio: 5.053) represented the independent adverse prognosticator for bone recurrence-free survival. In 133 stages II + III patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0

  20. Self-scanning of a dye laser due to feedback from a BaTiO(3) phase-conjugate reflector.

    PubMed

    Whitten, W B; Ramsey, J M

    1984-02-01

    Feedback from a self-pumped BaTiO(3) phase-conjugate reflector into an untuned cw dye laser produces substantial line narrowing (4-6 GHz) and generates a recurrent wavelength sweep from the rhodamine 6G peak at 618 nm to as far as 644 nm. PMID:19718230

  1. Self-scanning of a dye laser due to feedback from a BaTiO/sub 3/ phase-conjugate reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Feedback from a self-pumped BaTiO/sub 3/ phase-conjugate reflector into an untuned cw dye laser produces substantial line narrowing (4--6 GHz) and generates a recurrent wavelength sweep from the rhodamine 6G peak at 618 nm to as far as 644 nm.

  2. Lung uptake on a bone scan: a case of pulmonary Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Ortapamuk, H; Alp, A

    2002-11-01

    Pulmonary involvement secondary to Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WMG) is described in a 40-year-old male by incidental findings on a bone scan. He was examined for right leg pain, and bone scan revealed unexpected pulmonary uptake of Tc-99m MDP. CT scan of the thorax revealed pleural effusion and slightly disseminated micronoduler density increase in the right lung and parenchymal infiltration in the left lung. Transdermal lung biopsy demonstrated diffuse infiltration of lymphoplasmocytoids. Reporting the presence of pulmonary involvement is important because it may prevent morbidity from pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:12508840

  3. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  4. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  5. The use of dynamic bone scanning in the evaluation of wrist and hand pain

    SciTech Connect

    Gandsman, E.J.; Deutsch, S.D.; Catalozzi, K.; Herndon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complaints of wrist and/or hand pain were evaluated using a quantitative technique of dynamic (blood flow analysis) and static bone scan. The patients were divided in two groups according to their clinical history. Group A included 13 patients with a history of trauma. Seven patients had scaphoid fracture and 6 of them were scanned to determine non-union and/or avascular necrosis of the joint. One patient was scanned to determine the viability of a graft for non-union fracture. In all cases the scan gave a correct diagnosis as confirmed by later x-ray changes. Six patients in this group had negative x-rays. The scan demonstrated 4 cases of occult fractures, 4 had early Kienbock's Disease (KD) and 1 a soft tissue tumor. Group B included 14 patients with no known history of trauma. Nine had positive x-rays including 3 with KD that were scanned to determine their viability for surgical replacement of the lunate. The scan could distinguish between isolated involvement of the lunate and secondary degenerative changes of the surrounding carpal bones and radiocarpal joint. Two patients with tumor were correctly diagnosed by the scan, one as benign and one malignant. Four other patients with nonspecific changes on x-ray showed early arthritis (3 cases) and a cyst of the triquetrum ( 1 case) on the bone scan. Four patients in Group B had negative x-rays and the scan showed degenerative changes (3 cases) and an occult fracture of the hamate (1 case). The use of dynamic and static bone scanning appears to be a very valuable technique in the evaluation of patients with wrist and hand pain.

  6. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  7. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  8. Occult gastric bleeding demonstrated by bone scan and Tc-99m-DTPA renal scan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Leiter, B.E.; Weitzman, F.; Shapiro, J.H.

    1981-10-01

    A patient is described who had coagulopathy and clinically intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding. The bleeding site was clearly shown on renal and bone imaging performed at a time when the patient was considered clinically to have stopped bleeding. A bleeding gastric ulcer was subsequently demonstrated by radionuclide and contrast angiography, and at surgery.

  9. Osteoid osteoma - the role of bone scans in diagnosis and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Matiets, M.

    1986-09-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor which is most often seen in young males. Several imaging techniques have been used for the detection of osteoid osteoma lesions. Conventional x-ray was found to detect only two-thirds of lesions. Computerized tomography has been used to determine the extent of the osteoid osteoma's progress, particularly the soft tissue involvement. In this study, the radionuclide three-phase bone scan was positive in all six patients with surgically proven osteoid osteoma. In addition, nuclear medicine scans of bone specimens may be used to predict whether all of the tumor has been removed. Incomplete excision will likely result in recurrence. Since /sup 99m/Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) is blood borne, it reflects blood flow to the tumor site. It also adsorbs onto the hydroxyapatite crystal. Its concentration is proportional to osteoblastic activity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the use of the three-phase bone scan in patient's referred with possible osteoid osteoma. In addition, scans of bone samples were used during the surgical procedures to evaluate complete tumor renewal.

  10. Correlative Light and Scanning X-Ray Scattering Microscopy of Healthy and Pathologic Human Bone Sections

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, C.; Siliqi, D.; Bunk, O.; Beraudi, A.; Ladisa, M.; Altamura, D.; Stea, S.; Baruffaldi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning small and wide angle X-ray scattering (scanning SWAXS) experiments were performed on healthy and pathologic human bone sections. Via crystallographic tools the data were transformed into quantitative images and as such compared with circularly polarized light (CPL) microscopy images. SWAXS and CPL images allowed extracting information of the mineral nanocrystalline phase embedded, with and without preferred orientation, in the collagen fibrils, mapping local changes at sub-osteon resolution. This favorable combination has been applied for the first time to biopsies of dwarfism syndrome and Paget's disease to shed light onto the cortical structure of natural bone in healthy and pathologic sections. PMID:22666538

  11. Intravertebral vacuum cleft sign: a cause of vertebral cold defect on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heeyoung; Jun, Sungmin; Park, Se Kyoung; Kim, Geun-Tae; Park, Seol Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with an acute compression fracture with an intravertebral vacuum cleft (IVC) sign of the T12 vertebra. Her bone scan demonstrated a cold defect of the fractured vertebra. Although the IVC sign is related to vertebral osteonecrosis, to the best of our knowledge, a cold defect on a bone scan has not been reported in an acute compression fracture with an IVC sign. In this case review, various imaging findings of osteonecrotic compression fractures are discussed along with a review of the current literature. PMID:26758604

  12. [Bone metastases or an insufficiency fracture? Oncology patients reporting pain or showing bone abnormalities on a scan].

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, Aafke; Bollen, Thomas L; Wijrdeman, Harm K; Los, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old patient reported pain in the left hip 14 months after treatment with radiotherapy for a ypT3N1M0 rectal carcinoma, and a 61-year-old patient reported pain in the lower back with radiation to the buttocks 8 months after radiotherapy for a ypT3N2M0 rectal carcinoma. In both patients the initial diagnosis considered was bone metastasis. After MRI and nuclear bone scans, however, diagnoses of insufficiency fractures of the acetabulum and sacroiliac (SI) joints, respectively, were made. Insufficiency fractures of the SI joints or acetabula are a frequent complication of radiotherapy and should be considered in all oncology patients who present with sudden onset of back pain or lower back pain after radiotherapy. A MRI scan is the initial investigation of choice. Treatment is conservative, with analgesia and physiotherapy. Prognosis is good; symptoms disappear within 1 year in almost all patients. PMID:23841929

  13. Cabozantinib resolves bone scans in tumor-naïve mice harboring skeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Doran, Michael G; Spratt, Daniel E; Wongvipat, John; Ulmert, David; Carver, Brett S; Sawyers, Charles L; Evans, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184, BMS-907351 Cometriq) has displayed impressive clinical activity against several indications, culminating in its recent approval for medullary thyroid cancer. Among malignancies with tropism for the bone (prostate, breast), one striking feature of early clinical reports about this drug has been the rapid and complete resolution of bone scans, a phenomenon almost never observed even among therapies already shown to confer survival benefit. In castration-resistant prostate cancer, not all conventional response indicators change as dramatically posttreatment, raising the possibility that cabozantinib may impair the ability of bone-seeking radionuclides to integrate within the remodeling bone. To test this hypothesis, we surgically induced bone remodeling via physical insult in non-tumor-bearing mice and performed 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomographic (PET) and technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans pre- and posttreatment with cabozantinib and related inhibitors. A consistent reduction in the accumulation of either radiotracer at the site of bone remodeling was observed in animals treated with cabozantinib. Given that cabozantinib is known to inhibit several receptor tyrosine kinases, we drugged animals with various permutations of more selective inhibitors to attempt to refine the molecular basis of bone scan resolution. Neither the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor axitinib, the MET inhibitor crizotinib, nor the combination was capable of inhibiting 18F-NaF accumulation at known bioactive doses. In summary, although the mechanism by which cabozantinib suppresses radionuclide incorporation into foci undergoing bone remodeling remains unknown, that this phenomenon occurs in tumor-naïve models indicates that caution should be exercised in interpreting the clinical significance of this event

  14. A review of the efficacy of bone scanning in prostate and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, J M; Cook, G J R

    2002-06-01

    Bone scintigraphy has provided valuable data in the assessment and management of neoplastic disease since being first described in the early 1960s. There have been many developments in imaging techniques and radiopharmaceuticals over the years allowing more reliable detection of metastatic spread to bone. Other imaging modalities are also evolving roles in the detection of metastatic spread including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Despite this, isotope bone scans continue to have a central role in detection and surveillance of bone metastases in breast and prostate cancer. Paralleling developments in imaging there have been enormous changes in the treatment options available for cancers of the breast and prostate that have metastasised to bone. Bone specific treatments including radionuclides and bisphosphonates as well as high dose chemotherapy provide potential improvement in disease control. There is also evidence that earlier treatment of bone metastases may prolong survival. This increases the need for efficient methods of detection and monitoring of disease. In this article we discuss the efficacy of bone scintigraphy in breast and prostate cancer from the point of view of staging, systematic follow-up of asymptomatic patients, evaluation of symptomatic patients and the assessment of response to therapy. PMID:12114879

  15. Unilateral septic sacro-iliitis. Importance of the anterior view of the bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Balachandran, S.

    1983-09-01

    Two cases of unilateral septic sacro-iliitis are reported. Importance of the anterior view of sacroiliac joints on the radionuclide bone scan is stressed. Limitation of the posterior view in evaluation of sacroiliac joints may lead to misdiagnosis and false negative results in unilateral sacro-illiac disease.

  16. Effect of iron on the biodistribution of bone scanning agents in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.C.; Hoschl, R.

    1981-07-01

    Nine patients with chronic iron overload, resulting from either repeated transfusions or hemochromatosis, had bone scans that were characterized by a reduction of bony uptake, marked increase in renal activity, and a significant increase in soft-tissue accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled bone-seeking agents. These findings were supported by semiquantitative computer analysis. The probable mechanisms of altered biodistribution and the possible role of serum ferritin are discussed. The importance of realizing the effect of excess iron on skeletal scintigraphy is further emphasized by the results of bone scanning in another patient in whom acute iron overload following infusion of iron-dextran resulted in excessive blood pool labeling.

  17. Studies of the fossil dinosaur bone in the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Pawlicki, R

    1975-01-01

    A fossil dinosaur bone, 80 million years old, was subjected to investigation in the scanning microscope. The bone surfaces to be examined were prepared with appropritely modified methods used in the technique of replication in transmission electron microscopy. In the scanning microscope pictures of vascular canals were obtained. The walls of these canals were shown to be formed of collagen fibrils. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the internal surface of the canal wall is made up of bundles of collagen fibrils which run obliquely, corkscrewwise, and in the form of plexus to the long axis of tke canal; Besides, osteocytes of the dinosaur bone were isolated and pictures of their spatial structure together with characteristic points of departure of processes from the cell body were obtained. PMID:1224770

  18. Chronic osteomyelitis: bone and gallium scan patterns associated with active disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.N.; McNeil, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    Bone and gallium scans are used to assess osteomyelitis patients with prior bone disease. To refine the criteria for interpreting these scans, the data from 136 consecutive patients with clinically suspected osteomyelitis were reviewed. Active osteomyelitis was diagnosed with surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 patients, excluded with the same criteria in 16, and excluded by clinical follow-up for at least 6 months in 71. Five different scintigraphic patterns were found. The true-positive and false-positive ratios, the likelihood ratios, and posterior probabilities for active osteomyelitis in each pattern were calculated. Only one pattern (gallium uptake exceeding bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake) was indicative of active disease. Other patterns slightly raised or decreased the probability of disease. The extent of these changes varies directly with the prior probability of disease, determined from patient-specific factors (e.g., clinical data, laboratory data, findings on plain films) known best by the referring clinician.

  19. Analysis of regional bone scan index measurements for the survival of patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A bone scan is a common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with advanced prostate cancer. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) measures the tumor burden on the skeleton, expressed as a percentage of the total skeletal mass. Previous studies have shown that BSI is associated with survival of prostate cancer patients. The objective in this study was to investigate to what extent regional BSI measurements, as obtained by an automated method, can improve the survival analysis for advanced prostate cancer. Methods The automated method for analyzing bone scan images computed BSI values for twelve skeletal regions, in a study population consisting of 1013 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. In the survival analysis we used the standard Cox proportional hazards model and a more advanced non-linear method based on artificial neural networks. The concordance index (C-index) was used to measure the performance of the models. Results A Cox model with age and total BSI obtained a C-index of 70.4%. The best Cox model with regional measurements from Costae, Pelvis, Scapula and the Spine, together with age, got a similar C-index (70.5%). The overall best single skeletal localisation, as measured by the C-index, was Costae. The non-linear model performed equally well as the Cox model, ruling out any significant non-linear interactions among the regional BSI measurements. Conclusion The present study showed that the localisation of bone metastases obtained from the bone scans in prostate cancer patients does not improve the performance of the survival models compared to models using the total BSI. However a ranking procedure indicated that some regions are more important than others. PMID:25012268

  20. Bone Scan Index as a prognostic imaging biomarker during androgen deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a quantitative measurement of tumour burden in the skeleton calculated from bone scan images. When analysed at the time of diagnosis, it has been shown to provide prognostic information on survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of BSI during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods Prostate cancer patients who were at high risk of a poor outcome and who had undergone bone scan at the time of diagnosis and during ADT were recruited from two university hospitals for a retrospective study. BSI at baseline and follow-up were calculated using an automated software package (EXINIbonebsi). Associations between BSI, other prognostic biomarkers and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results One hundred forty-six PCa patients were included in the study. A total of 102 patient deaths were registered, with a median survival time after the follow-up bone scan of 2.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) =0.8 to 4.4). Both at baseline and during ADT, BSI was significantly associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When BSI was added to a prognostic base model including age, prostate-specific antigen, clinical tumour stage and Gleason score, the concordance index increased from 0.73 to 0.77 (p =0.0005) at baseline and from 0.77 to 0.82 (p <0.0001) during ADT. Conclusions Automated BSI during ADT is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in PCa patients with bone metastasis. It represents an emerging imaging biomarker that can be used in a prognostic model for risk stratification of PCa patients at the time of diagnosis and at later stages of the disease. BSI could then help physicians identify patients who could benefit from more aggressive therapies. PMID:25386390

  1. Scanning electron microscope studies of bone samples: Influence of simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Rahul; Chowdhury, Parimal; Ali, Nawab

    2007-08-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with backscatter and secondary electron emission detectors plus a Si(Li) detector for photon yield measurements was used to study bone samples from skull and leg of mice and rats. These animals were either suspended by their tail to induce simulated microgravity, characterized as hind-limb suspension (HLS) or not suspended (control). Analyses of the SEM images and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectra using Si(Li) detector indicate variation in the lattice structures, and in intensities of the characteristics X-rays, produced from the exposed bone surface due to its interaction with the electron beam. Using Flame software, the X-ray spectra were analyzed and normalized ratios of the elements determined. The elemental analysis indicated a variation in the density of calcium, potassium, and oxygen near the knee joints and near the sutures in the skull bones. The comparison of simulated microgravity subjected samples of the rat skull bones with that of the control samples revealed that in the suture region there was a large increase in the ratio of calcium, and to some degree for phosphorus, suggesting simulated microgravity affects distribution of these elements. Elemental composition for control samples with depth (within the cross section of the leg bones) revealed decrease of oxygen and increase of calcium in the first millimeter of the bone depth after which the relative percentage of elements stayed constant.

  2. The technetium phosphate bone scan in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Howie, D.W.; Savage, J.P.; Wilson, T.G.; Paterson, D.

    1983-04-01

    We reviewed the technetium phosphate scans of 280 patients who had been referred with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in order to establish the diagnostic accuracy of this procedure. Strict criteria were established to define two subgroups: one of patients with proved osteomyelitis and one of patients who definitely did not have osteomyelitis. The scan correctly identified osteomyelitis at fifty-five of sixty-two sites, and was correctly negative in seventy-four of seventy-nine patients without osteomyelitis. The scan correctly distinguished all cases of cellulitis or soft-tissue abscess from osteomyelitis, but identified osteomyelitis in eight of thirty-nine patients with septic arthritis. The phosphate bone scan maintained this accuracy through any duration of symptoms, and performed almost equally well at all skeletal sites and in all age groups.

  3. Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Cooper, Cyrus; Tobias, Jonathan H.

    2013-01-01

    A finding of high BMD on routine DXA scanning is not infrequent and most commonly reflects degenerative disease. However, BMD increases may also arise secondary to a range of underlying disorders affecting the skeleton. Although low BMD increases fracture risk, the converse may not hold for high BMD, since elevated BMD may occur in conditions where fracture risk is increased, unaffected or reduced. Here we outline a classification for the causes of raised BMD, based on identification of focal or generalized BMD changes, and discuss an approach to guide appropriate investigation by clinicians after careful interpretation of DXA scan findings within the context of the clinical history. We will also review the mild skeletal dysplasia associated with the currently unexplained high bone mass phenotype and discuss recent advances in osteoporosis therapies arising from improved understanding of rare inherited high BMD disorders. PMID:23445662

  4. False negative bone scans in pediatric sepsis of the axial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, K.G.; Glancy, G.L.; Perloff, J.J.

    1988-12-01

    The early diagnosis of disk space infections and sacroiliitis in children can be difficult because of protean presenting symptoms, nonspecific laboratory studies, and normal plain films. Technetium phosphate scintigraphy has been reported as a diagnostic method with an accuracy of up to 100% in some series. In this case report we present two patients with negative technetium bone scans in the face of active infection, illustrating the need to pursue the diagnosis using other modalities.

  5. Huge primary soft tissue sarcoma of the breast on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yeh-You; Wu, Yu-Chin; Kao, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Te-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman had a primary breast sarcoma with rapid enlargement in 3 months. The mass became so huge that it was more than 20 cm in diameter and occupied the entire right breast on presentation. Extraosseous uptake was present in this mass and demonstrated a unique picture, mimicking the posture of a racing driver who holds a helmet under the armpit, on the bone scan. PMID:24152643

  6. Serendipitous diagnosis of appendicovesical fistula by bone scan: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bigler, M E; Wofford, J E; Pratt, S M; Stone, W J

    1989-09-01

    A 71-year-old patient had recurrent urinary tract infections for 7 years after sigmoid colectomy via a Hartmann procedure. Extensive radiological and endoscopic tests were inconclusive as to the cause of bacteriuria. Chronic back pain led to performance of a radionuclide bone scan with the incidental demonstration of a vesicoenteric fistula, confirmed at exploration. Appendectomy with resection of the involved bladder resulted in cessation of bacteriuria. PMID:2769867

  7. Value of a 24-hour image (four-phase bone scan) in assessing osteomyelitis in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Datz, F.; Lawrence, P.; Greenberg, E.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    The delayed images of the four-phase /sup 99m/Tc phosphonate bone scan are compared with the delayed images of the three-phase study in patients with diabetes mellitus and/or peripheral vascular disease and suspected osteomyelitis. Three-phase bone imaging includes an immediate postinjection radionuclide angiogram, a blood-pool image, and delayed static images to 7 hr. The four-phase study adds a 24-hr static image. The scan is positive for osteomyelitis if images show progressively increasing lesion to background activity ratios over time. The results of analyzing 21 three- and four-phase bone scans in 17 patients were correlated with clinical course, cultures, and/or x-rays, gallium scans, and CT scans. The accuracy of four-phase bone imaging for diagnosing osteomyelitis was 85%; for three phase, 80%. Sensitivity for four phase was 80%; specificity was 87%. Sensitivity for three phase was 100%; specificity was 73%.

  8. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  9. Correction of step artefact associated with MRI scanning of long bones.

    PubMed

    Rathnayaka, Kanchana; Cowin, Gary; Schuetz, Michael A; Sahama, Tony; Schmutz, Beat

    2013-07-01

    3D models of long bones are being utilised for a number of fields including orthopaedic implant design. Accurate reconstruction of 3D models is of utmost importance to design accurate implants to allow achieving a good alignment between two bone fragments. Thus for this purpose, CT scanners are employed to acquire accurate bone data exposing an individual to a high amount of ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a potential alternative to computed tomography (CT) for scanning of volunteers for 3D reconstruction of long bones, essentially avoiding the high radiation dose from CT. In MRI imaging of long bones, the artefacts due to random movements of the skeletal system create challenges for researchers as they generate inaccuracies in the 3D models generated by using data sets containing such artefacts. One of the defects that have been observed during an initial study is the lateral shift artefact occurring in the reconstructed 3D models. This artefact is believed to result from volunteers moving the leg during two successive scanning stages (the lower limb has to be scanned in at least five stages due to the limited scanning length of the scanner). As this artefact creates inaccuracies in the implants designed using these models, it needs to be corrected before the application of 3D models to implant design. Therefore, this study aimed to correct the lateral shift artefact using 3D modelling techniques. The femora of five ovine hind limbs were scanned with a 3T MRI scanner using a 3D vibe based protocol. The scanning was conducted in two halves, while maintaining a good overlap between them. A lateral shift was generated by moving the limb several millimetres between two scanning stages. The 3D models were reconstructed using a multi threshold segmentation method. The correction of the artefact was achieved by aligning the two halves using the robust iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, with the help of the overlapping

  10. Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

  11. Bone Scan or 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography; Which Modality Better Shows Bone Metastases of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Tansel A.; Koc, Zehra P.; Komek, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Background In this multicenter study, we aimed to compare concurrent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and bone scan results of breast cancer patient. Patients and Methods 162 patients with breast cancer (158 female, 4 male; mean age 50.6 years) were included in the study. FDG PET/CT examination was performed in all patients, and concurrent bone scintigraphy in 68 patients. The results of FDG PET/CT and bone scan were compared. Results 132 of the 162 patients were operated on because of breast cancer. 89 patients had metastasis, and 4 had recurrent disease according to FDG PET/CT results. Metastatic sites in order of frequency were lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, adrenal gland, local skin or muscle, brain, and peritoneum (peritonitis carcinomatosa). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and negative and positive predictive value of bone scintigraphy versus FDG PET/CT were 96 vs. 100%, 100 vs. 98%, 100 vs. 83%, 100 vs. 100%, and 90 vs. 100%, respectively. Conclusion Although the 2 modalities were in concordance with each other, in 5 (21%) cases, FDG PET/CT could not show bone metastasis which were detected on bone scintigraphy. Hence, bone scintigraphy was superior to FDG PET/CT in the determination of bone metastasis derived from breast cancer. However, FDG PET/CT should be considered for soft tissue metastasis. PMID:24647778

  12. Multimodal imaging of the human temporal bone: A comparison of CT and optical scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voie, Arne H.; Whiting, Bruce; Skinner, Margaret; Neely, J. Gail; Lee, Kenneth; Holden, Tim; Brunsden, Barry

    2003-10-01

    A collaborative effort between Washington University in St. Louis and Spencer Technologies in Seattle, WA has been undertaken to create a multimodal 3D reconstruction of the human cochlea and vestibular system. The goal of this project is to improve the accuracy of in vivo CT reconstructions of implanted cochleae, and to expand the knowledge of high-resolution anatomical detail provided by orthogonal-plane optical sectioning (OPFOS). At WUSL, computed tomography (CT) images of the cochlea are used to determine the position of cochlear implant electrodes relative to target auditory neurons. The cochlear implant position is determined using pre- and post-operative CT scans. The CT volumes are cross-registered to align the semicircular canals and internal auditory canal, which have a unique configuration in 3-D space. The head of a human body donor was scanned with a clinical CT device, after which the temporal bones were removed, fixed in formalin and trimmed prior to scanning with a laboratory Micro CT scanner. Following CT, the temporal bones were sent to the OPFOS Imaging Lab at Spencer Technologies for a further analysis. 3-D reconstructions of CT and OPFOS imaging modalities were compared, and results are presented. [Work supported by NIDCD Grants R44-03623-5 and R01-00581-13.

  13. Scanning transmission electron microscopic tomography of cortical bone using Z-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth; Nan, Feihong; Botton, Gianluigi A; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2013-06-01

    Previously we presented (McNally et al., 2012) a model for the ultrastructure of bone showing that the mineral resides principally outside collagen fibrils in the form of 5 nm thick mineral structures hundreds of nanometers long oriented parallel to the fibrils. Here we use high-angle annular dark-field electron tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm this model and further elucidate the composite structure. Views of a section cut parallel to the fibril axes show bundles of mineral structures extending parallel to the fibrils and encircling them. The mineral density inside the fibrils is too low to be visualized in these tomographic images. A section cut perpendicular to the fibril axes, shows quasi-circular walls composed of mineral structures, wrapping around apparently empty holes marking the sites of fibrils. These images confirm our original model that the majority of mineral in bone resides outside the collagen fibrils. PMID:23545162

  14. Numerical investigation of ultrasonic attenuation through 2D trabecular bone structures reconstructed from CT scans and random realizations.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert P; Guyenne, Philippe; Li, Jing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare ultrasound interrogations of actual CT-scanned images of trabecular bone with artificial randomly constructed bone. Even though it is known that actual bone does not have randomly distributed trabeculae, we find that the ultrasound attenuations are close enough to cast doubt on any microstructural information, such as trabeculae width and distance between trabeculae, being gleaned from such experiments. More precisely, we perform numerical simulations of ultrasound interrogation on cancellous bone to investigate the phenomenon of ultrasound attenuation as a function of excitation frequency and bone porosity. The theoretical model is based on acoustic propagation equations for a composite fluid-solid material and is solved by a staggered-grid finite-difference scheme in the time domain. Numerical experiments are performed on two-dimensional bone samples reconstructed from CT-scanned images of real human calcaneus and from random distributions of fluid-solid particles generated via the turning bands method. A detailed comparison is performed on various parameters such as the attenuation rate and speed of sound through the bone samples as well as the normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation coefficient. Comparing results from these two types of bone samples allows us to assess the role of bone microstructure in ultrasound attenuation. It is found that the random model provides suitable bone samples for ultrasound interrogation in the transverse direction of the trabecular network. PMID:24480174

  15. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  16. Metastatic mimics on bone scan: "All that glitters is not metastatic".

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    In this pictorial review, cases where benign diseases caused a diagnostic dilemma on bone scan are illustrated. This review highlights the value of correlative imaging- single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging in solving the diagnostic problem by exact localization and characterization of the lesions. All these eventually lead to increased diagnostic confidence, better and more accurate reporting and avoidance of delay in initiation of treatment due to equivocal results. The imaging features of these benign pathologies - which are "mimics of metastatic disease," are elaborated so that the reader can incorporate them while reporting so as to avoid mis-interpretations. PMID:27385887

  17. An Unusual Case of Extraosseous Accumulation of Bone Scan Tracer in a Renal Calculus - Demonstration by SPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prathamesh Vijay; Lele, Vikram; Gandhi, Rozil

    2012-01-01

    Extraosseous localization of radioisotope, used in bone scan, in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions is a well-known phenomenon. The causes of extraosseous accumulation of bone-seeking radiotracers should be kept in mind when bone-imaging studies are reviewed to avoid incorrect interpretations. We report an extremely rare occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of bone scintigraphy tracer in a renal calculus, in a patient with adenocarcinoma of prostate, that was demonstrated by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Computed Tomography (SPECT-CT) fusion imaging. PMID:22439128

  18. Mechanical properties, density and quantitative CT scan data of trabecular bone with and without metastases.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tadashi S; Bell, Jason S; Pejcic, Marina R; Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Keyak, Joyce H

    2004-04-01

    Pathologic fracture of the hip due to metastatic lesions in bone is a serious problem. This study examined the effect of metastatic lesions on the material properties and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data of trabecular bone. Twelve distal femora were obtained, four with lytic and/or blastic metastatic lesions (group L), four without lesions but from donors who died from breast, prostate, or lung cancer (group NL), and four from donors with no cancer (group NC). Each specimen was CT scanned, and 56, 15x15x15-mm cubes of trabecular bone were cut. QCT density (rho(QCT)), compressive elastic modulus (E), compressive yield and ultimate strengths (S(y) and S(u)), and ash density (rho(ash)) of each cube were determined. Regression analysis was performed between rho(ash) and E, S(y), S(u) and rho(QCT), and analysis of covariance was used to identify differences between groups. Power relationships that did not depend on group (p >/= 0.1) were found between E and rho(ash) (0.74 /= 0.94; p<0.001). rho(ash) was strongly related to rho(QCT) (r >/= 0.99; p<0.001). These results indicate that metastatic disease does not significantly impair the ability of QCT to provide an accurate and precise estimate of rho(ash) that can be used to estimate mechanical properties of trabecular bone with and without metastases. PMID:14996564

  19. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  20. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 "gold-standard" interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  1. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  2. [Bone scanning with sodium 18F-fluoride PET and PET/CT. German guideline Version 1.0.].

    PubMed

    Hellwig, D; Krause, B-J; Schirrmeister, H; Freesmeyer, M

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, bone scanning is based on the principle of scintigraphy using bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals which accumulate in sites of increased bone formation. From a historical point of view, (18)F-fluoride was one of the first osteotropic tracers which was replaced by (99m)Tc-labelled polyphosphonates. With the development of modern PET equipment the superior diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoride PET for the detection and characterization of osseous lesions was proven in comparison to conventional bone scanning. Recently, its importance as a substitute of conventional skeletal scintigraphy increased in a time with limited availability of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. To ensure health care during this period, (18)F-fluoride PET currently became part of common outpatient care. This guideline comprehends recommendations on indications, protocols, interpretation and reporting of (18)F-fluoride PET and PET/CT. PMID:20838734

  3. Serial Scanning and Registration of High Resolution Quantitative Computed Tomography Volume Scans for the Determination of Local Bone Density Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Napel, Sandy; Yan, Chye H.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in development of the methods required to study bone remodeling as a function of time is reported. The following topics are presented: 'A New Methodology for Registration Accuracy Evaluation', 'Registration of Serial Skeletal Images for Accurately Measuring Changes in Bone Density', and 'Precise and Accurate Gold Standard for Multimodality and Serial Registration Method Evaluations.'

  4. Futility of bone scanning in neonatal osteomyelitis: concise communication. [/sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate or methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one neonates suspected of having acute osteomyelitis were studied by technetium-99m phosphate radiopharmaceuticals. Of the ten infants subsequently proven to have osteomyelitis involving 20 sites in all, only six sites (31.5%) were abnormal by bone imaging. Fifty-eight percent were normal and 10.5% equivocal. These poor results are contrary to the high accuracy rate achieved in slightly older infants; they negate the ability of the bone scan to diagnose neonatal osteomyelitis.

  5. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D; Williamson, S; Alazraki, N

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding. PMID:6262000

  6. Metastatic mimics on bone scan: “All that glitters is not metastatic”

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    In this pictorial review, cases where benign diseases caused a diagnostic dilemma on bone scan are illustrated. This review highlights the value of correlative imaging- single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT), CT, and magnetic resonance imaging in solving the diagnostic problem by exact localization and characterization of the lesions. All these eventually lead to increased diagnostic confidence, better and more accurate reporting and avoidance of delay in initiation of treatment due to equivocal results. The imaging features of these benign pathologies – which are “mimics of metastatic disease,” are elaborated so that the reader can incorporate them while reporting so as to avoid mis-interpretations. PMID:27385887

  7. Silver methenamine staining for scanning electron microscopy of bone sections containing biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Frayssinet, P; Hanker, J S; Rouquet, N; Primout, I; Giammara, B

    1999-01-01

    Sections of tissue containing orthopedic materials are currently used to study the compatibility of those materials and to perform electron probe microanalysis at the material-tissue interface. Identification of the cells in contact with the material by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is of interest. We have developed a method for staining cells and tissue structures embedded in polymethyl methacrylate with silver methenamine once the sections have been obtained. Sections were prepared by grinding, and the silver methenamine was applied after oxidation with periodic acid. The procedure was carried out in a microwave oven. Backscatter SEM showed staining of the cell nucleus membrane, chromatin, the nuclear organizers, and the chromosomes of dividing cells. The cytoplasm and the cytoplasmic membrane were also stained. Collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix and the mineralized matrix of bone were labeled. Material particles in the macrophages were easily recognizable and Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer were not impaired by the presence of silver in the preparation. PMID:10190255

  8. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    SciTech Connect

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

    2012-07-31

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  9. Role of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of the viability of the bone flap in mandibular reconstruction in patients with oromaxillofacial malignancies.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Penumadu, Prasanth; Kumar, Dinesh; Pandit, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Osteo-cutaneous flap are commonly used for reconstruction of bone defect after oncology surgery. The success of surgery depends on the viability of the bone flap. Bone scan is a known, but less performed method, to look for viability of bone flaps. We describe a case of 50-year-old lady, presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of left buccal mucosa (cT4N1M0) involving the skin and mandible. She underwent left segmental mandibulectomy and upper alveolectomy with neck dissection, followed by reconstruction using a fibular osteo-cutaneous flap and anterolateral thigh free flap. On postoperative day 10, the intraoral flap showed signs of nonviability. The patient was sent to nuclear medicine for assessment of viability of the free fibula flap. The patient underwent three phase (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan and single-photon emission computerized tomography. Computerized tomography showing good tracer uptake in fibula confirming viability. The case reflects the use of (99m)Tc-MDP in viability assessment of the bone flap. PMID:26170579

  10. Lung Metastasis From Prostate Cancer Revealed by 18F-FDG PET/CT Without Osseous Metastasis on Bone Scan.

    PubMed

    Su, Hung-Yi; Chen, Meng-Lin; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hsieh, Teh-Sheng; Chao, Ing-Ming

    2016-05-01

    A 54-year-old man, a case of prostate cancer, underwent radical prostatectomy and hormone therapy. Elevated prostate-specific antigen level developed 7 years later, but pelvic MRI and bone scan revealed negative results. Radiotherapy was performed under the suspicion of local recurrence but in vain. F-FDG PET/CT performed 1 more year later showed 3 FDG-avid lesions in the right lung and mediastinum. Lung and lymph node metastases were proved with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Bone scan remained negative at that time. PMID:26859201

  11. Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Tooth Movement and Changes in Alveolar Bone Thickness - A CT Scan Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Bhandari, Ravi; Agarwal, D.K.; Gupta, Ankur; Ansar, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Corticotomy is an effective method of accelerating the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment time for the extraction space closure, between corticotomy assisted and conventional orthodontic tooth movement and to check the alveolar bone thickness before and after corticotomy procedure in the corticotomy group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinical study. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (age>15 y) requiring orthodontic treatment with upper anterior retraction in the extraction space of 1st premolar were selected and were randomised into control and corticotomy group each group consisted of 10 subjects. Pre retraction, corticotomy was performed in the maxillary anterior segment. The pre and post retraction CT scans were recorded and the thickness of the alveolar plates were measured at crestal level (S1), mid root level (S2) and apical level (S3) PreTreatment (T1). The same measurements were repeated after incisor retraction was completed PostTreatment (T2). Statistical Analysis: Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There was a significant difference in retraction time (days) between control and corticotomy groups (p<0.001). Also, there were significant difference in total alveolar bone thickness at the crest region for all the four incisor teeth (p<0.05). A significant difference was observed in total alveolar bone thickness at the S2 and S3 level for 11, 21 and 11, 12 and 22 (p<0.05) respectively. Conclusion: Alveolar corticotomies not only accelerates the orthodontic treatment but, also provides the advantage of increased alveolar width to support the teeth and overlying structures. PMID:25478442

  12. A scanning-slit x-ray videoabsorptiometric technique for bone mineral measurement.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J T; Pedersen, P L; Mazess, R B; Cameron, J R; Hansen, J L; Hefner, L V

    1984-01-01

    An x-ray videoabsorptiometric technique was developed for measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in vivo. The principle utility of this technique is the precise measurement of commonly fractured bones, such as the femoral neck, that are difficult to measure by other techniques because of repositioning problems. Scanning slits reduce scattered radiation and improve linearity of measurements. Heavily filtered, high-kVp beams are used to minimize errors from beam hardening, and data renormalization is employed to compensate for spatial nonuniformities of the beam and detector. Linearity of measured BMC over the range 0.8 to 5 g/cm2 is very good (r = 0.998) and compares well to single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. A 1.6% change in measured BMC is observed for a 10% change (approximately 2 cm) in tissue thickness while a 10% change in marrow type causes a 0.6%-0.8% change in BMC. Manual repositioning of a femur phantom revealed a variation of 0.84% over ten measurements when femur values were referenced to standards. A computer repositioning algorithm provides much easier identification of the region for analysis and yields comparable variation (0.9%). PMID:6503872

  13. Strontium and bone nanostructure in normal and ovariectomized rats investigated by scanning small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Mathias H; Oxlund, Hans; Hansen, Toke K; Sørensen, Søren; Bibby, Bo M; Thomsen, Jesper S; Langdahl, Bente L; Besenbacher, Flemming; Pedersen, Jan S; Birkedal, Henrik

    2010-04-01

    The effect of SrCl(2) treatment on bone nanostructure in a rat ovariectomy model was studied using scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS). Twelve 6-month-old female Wistar rats were used. Six animals were ovariectomized (+ovx) and six were left intact after sham surgery (-ovx). Six animals, three +ovx and three -ovx, were treated with 4 mmol SrCl(2) (aq)/kg/day (+Sr), whereas the remaining six received placebo (-Sr) for 140 days. Rats were labeled with flourochromes at days 7, 126, and 136. Femoral cross sections were studied using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy including energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and sSAXS. The SAXS data comprised about 5,500 measurements and provided information about mineral crystal thickness and orientation in new and old bone. The newly formed bone contained higher levels of Sr(2+) in +Sr than in -Sr animals, indicating that the Sr(2+) was incorporated into the new bone. Mineral plates were significantly thicker in old bone, 2.62 nm (95% CI 2.58-2.66), than in new bone, 2.41 nm (95% CI 2.36-2.46). Surprisingly, mineral plates in new bone were significantly thicker (2.52 [95% CI 2.47-2.57] nm vs. 2.41 [95% CI 2.36-2.46] nm, P = 0.017) in +ovx rats than in -ovx rats. However, no significant effect of SrCl(2) on mineral plate thicknesses in new bone was observed. The statistical model yielded estimates of the difference in bone mineral plate thickness induced by Sr. The estimated effect of Sr was -0.09 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.03) and 0.02 (95% CI -0.10 to 0.14) nm for new bone in -ovx and +ovx rats, respectively. PMID:20221590

  14. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  15. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  16. Implant-guided volumetric analysis of edentulous maxillary bone with cone-beam computerized tomography scan. Maxillary sinus pneumatization classification.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Thai, David; Arellano, Leo

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this anatomic study was to measure the average bone volume of the edentulous maxilla with a cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan and to determine its suitability for implant treatment without additional bone grafting. The secondary goal of the study was to estimate the degree of sinus pneumatization (SP) in reviewed CBCT scans, assess the sinus-to-maxillary bone interrelationship in edentulism, and attempt to classify maxillary sinuses based on the degree of their pneumatization. This retrospective radiographic quantitative study consisted of the analysis of CBCT scans of 30 randomly selected maxillary edentulous patients who presented in 2008-2010 to the University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, for evaluation and treatment of their edentulism. A volume of edentulous maxillary bone mesial to the maxillary sinuses (intersinal region) that can be used for a full-arch implant treatment was evaluated based on specifically selected and clinically relevant measurement criteria. There were 30 CBCT scans of maxillary edentulous patients reviewed (9 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 67.3 years (range, 41 to 92 years). The total mean maxillary bone volume (MMBV) suitable for implantation was 4 408.1 mm(3) and ranged from 1489.7 to 7263.1 mm(3). The MMBV in the study was higher than an assumed or hypothetical bone volume minimally suitable for 4-implant treatment as proposed by the authors for comparative purposes (3500 mm(3)). The degree of SP as seen on a CBCT scan (60 sinuses analyzed on panoramic images of 30 CBCT scans) had the following results in the study: SP0 (clear: not interfering with implant treatment in cases of high/small sinus), 2 sinuses or 3.3%; SP1 (mild sinus enlargement), 29 sinuses or 48.3%; SP2 (moderate SP), 16 sinuses or 26.7%; SP3 (severe SP), 9 sinuses or 15.0%; and SP4 (extreme), 4 sinuses or 6.7%. Most analyzed maxillary sinuses (47 of 60, or 78.3%) were in the clear, mild, or moderate

  17. Comparison of DXA Scans and Conventional X-rays for Spine Morphometry and Bone Age Determination in Children.

    PubMed

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Knoop, Kai; Semler, Oliver; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hellmich, Martin; Schoenau, Eckhard; Koerber, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Conventional lateral spine and hand radiographs are the standard tools to evaluate vertebral morphometry and bone age in children. Beside bone mineral density analyses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements with lower radiation exposure provide high-resolution scans which are not approved for diagnostic purposes. Data about the comparability of conventional radiographs and DXA in children are missing yet. The purpose of the trial was to evaluate whether conventional hand and spine radiographs can be replaced by DXA scans to diminish radiation exposure. Thirty-eight children with osteogenesis imperfecta or secondary osteoporosis or short stature (male, n=20; age, 5.0-17.0 yr) were included and assessed once by additional DXA (GE iDXA) of the spine or the left hand. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to express agreement between X-ray and iDXA assessment. Evaluation of the spine morphometry showed reasonable agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC for fish-shape, 0.75; for wedge-shape, 0.65; and for compression fractures, 0.70). Bone age determination showed excellent agreement between iDXA and radiography (ICC, 0.97). IDXA-scans of the spine in a pediatric population should be used not only to assess bone mineral density but also to evaluate anatomic structures and vertebral morphometry. Therefore, iDXA can replace some radiographs in children with skeletal diseases. PMID:26059565

  18. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  19. When to perform positron emission tomography/computed tomography or radionuclide bone scan in patients with recently diagnosed prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Caldarella, Carmelo; Treglia, Giorgio; Giordano, Alessandro; Giovanella, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases are very common in prostate cancer and represent the main metastatic site in about 80% of prostate cancer patients, with a significant impact in patients' prognosis. Early detection of bone metastases is critical in the management of patients with recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer: radical treatment is recommended in case of localized disease; systemic therapy should be preferred in patients with distant secondary disease. Bone scintigraphy using radiolabeled bisphosphonates is of great importance in the management of these patients; however, its main drawback is its low overall accuracy, due to the nonspecific uptake in sites of increased bone turnover. Positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, choline-derived drugs (fluorine-18-fluorocholine and carbon-11-choline) and sodium fluorine-18-fluoride, are increasingly used in clinical practice to detect metastatic spread, and particularly bone involvement, in patients with prostate cancer, to reinforce or substitute information provided by bone scan. Each radiopharmaceutical has a specific mechanism of uptake; therefore, diagnostic performances may differ from one radiopharmaceutical to another on the same lesions, as demonstrated in the literature, with variable sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy values in the same patients. Whether bone scintigraphy can be substituted by these new methods is a matter of debate. However, greater radiobiological burden, higher costs, and the necessity of an in-site cyclotron limit the use of these positron emission tomography methods as first-line investigations in patients with prostate cancer: bone scintigraphy remains the mainstay for the detection of bone metastases in current clinical practice. PMID:23861598

  20. Relationships between material properties and CT scan data of cortical bone with and without metastatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tadashi S; Pejcic, Marina R; Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Keyak, Joyce H

    2003-07-01

    Breast, prostate, lung, and other cancers can metastasize to bone and lead to pathological fracture. To lay the groundwork for new clinical techniques for assessing the risk of pathological fracture, we identified relationships between density measured using quantitative computed tomography (rhoQCT), longitudinal mechanical properties, and ash density (rhoAsh) of cortical bone from femoral diaphyses with and without metastatic lesions from breast, prostate, and lung cancer (bone with metastases from six donors; bone without metastases from one donor with cancer and two donors without cancer). Moderately strong linear relationships between rhoQCT and elastic modulus, strength, and rhoAsh were found for bone with metastases (0.73bone with metastatic lesions differed from those of bone from donors without cancer (P<0.01). However, differences in tensile strength or compressive yield strain, after controlling for rhoQCT, were not found. Thus, these cancers degrade the elastic modulus and compressive strength, but not the tensile strength, of cortical bone beyond the amount that would be expected from decreased density alone. The rhoQCT-mechanical property relationships reported may be useful for evaluating bone integrity and assessing the risk of fracture of bone with metastases. PMID:12787982

  1. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, S.R.; Proffit, W.R.; Terry, B.C.; Staab, E.V.; Burkes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected.

  2. Protocol of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound, and triple phase bone scans in the evaluation of the painful pediatric hip

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.E.; Seibert, J.J.; Aronson, J.; Williamson, S.L.; Glasier, C.M.; Rodgers, A.B.; Corbitt, S.L.

    1988-04-01

    A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography. If an effusion was present, the joint was aspirated for diagnosis. If no effusion was present by US or if no diagnosis was reached by aspiration, triple phase radionuclide bone scans were performed. Fifty patients were evaluated by this prospective protocol, and the diagnosis was reached in 48 of the 50 cases (10 by plain radiographs, 16 by US, and aspiration of the joint, and 22 by triple phase bone scans). Hip effusions were found in 20 patients by US, with no false positives or false negatives. Previous studies for detecting effusions by US have emphasized absolute measurements of the capsular width, but we report a typical appearance of the hip capsule when fluid is present (a bulging convex capsule). When no effusion is present, the capsule is concave and parallels the long axis of the femoral neck.

  3. Evaluation of periimplant bone neoformation using different scanning electron microscope methods for measuring BIC. A dog study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Ramírez-Fernández, María P.; Pérez Sánchez, Cristina; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this study was to determine which of three methods for measuring BIC (bone-to-implant contact), using vestibular and lingual scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for different implant systems at 15, 30 and 90 days post-surgery was the most precise. An elemental analysis with SEM was used to evaluate neoformed bone composition for three implant systems at the same study times. Material and Methods: 36 implants were placed in eighteen Beagle dogs mandible about one year old and weighing approximately 12-13 kg in order to evaluate bone apposition to three different implant surfaces. It was used the third and fourth premolar and first molar distal sockets in both quadrants of the mandible (3P3, 4P4 and 1M1). Teeth were hemi-sected and the distal roots were removed. The specimens were prepared for histological examination and each section surface was stained using Masson’s trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stains. BIC evaluations were performed by the three methods, BIC I (the quantity of mineralized bone in direct contact with the implant’s titanium surface across the entire threaded area); BIC II (along a line that passes from apex to apex of the implant threads); BIC III (both in areas around and above the threads and in between threads). Results: Both BIC and bone content were analyzed for all implants placed in P3, P4 y M1 alveoli on both, the buccal and palatine sides (elemental analysis quantified Ca, P, O and C). It was seen it was only at the ninety-day mark that high percentages of calcium were present. Conclusions: This study suggest that BIC III evaluation is the most certain method for establishing the quantity of bone formed as the BIC area. Key words:Bone-to-impant contact, dogs, extraction socket, implants. PMID:24558531

  4. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-02-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported.

  5. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  6. Diffuse bone metastases on (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT in a patient with prostate cancer and normal bone scan.

    PubMed

    Lavalaye, J; Kaldeway, P; van Melick, H H E

    2016-07-01

    A 75-year-old patient was diagnosed with a Gleason 9 prostate carcinoma. His PSA level was 50.4 ng/ml. Routine bone scintigraphy was negative for metastasis (a). Due to the high tumour grading and relatively high PSA level, (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT was ordered to rule out distant metastases. This scan showed numerous skeletal lesions with high tracer accumulation as sign of diffuse osseous metastases (b). On low-dose CT there were no signs of sclerosis (c). (68)Ga-PSMA PET-CT also showed high uptake in the prostate and in para-iliac and para-aortal lymph nodes, without lymph node enlargement. No bone biopsy was obtained to confirm the metastases. Due to this result, the treatment plan was changed to systemic therapy, instead of local therapy. PMID:27121692

  7. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  8. Prediction of trabecular bone principal structural orientation using quantitative ultrasound scanning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liangjun; Cheng, Jiqi; Lin, Wei; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Bone has the ability to adapt its structure in response to the mechanical environment as defined as Wolff’s Law. The alignment of trabecular structure is intended to adapt to the particular mechanical milieu applied to it. Due to the absence of normal mechanical loading, it will be extremely important to assess the anisotropic deterioration of bone during the extreme conditions, i.e., long term space mission and disease orientated disuse, to predict risk of fractures. The propagation of ultrasound wave in trabecular bone is substantially influenced by the anisotropy of the trabecular structure. Previous studies have shown that both ultrasound velocity and amplitude is dependent on the incident angle of the ultrasound signal into the bone sample. In this work, seven bovine trabecular bone balls were used for rotational ultrasound measurement around three anatomical axes to elucidate the ability of ultrasound to identify trabecular orientation. Both ultrasound attenuation (ATT) and fast wave velocity (UV) were used to calculate the principal orientation of the trabecular bone. By comparing to the mean intercept length (MIL) tensor obtained from μCT, the angle difference of the prediction by UV was 4.45°, while it resulted in 11.67° angle difference between direction predicted by μCT and the prediction by ATT. This result demonstrates the ability of ultrasound as a non-invasive measurement tool for the principal structural orientation of the trabecular bone. PMID:22560370

  9. Study of carpal bone morphology and position in three dimensions by image analysis from computed tomography scans of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Canovas, F; Roussanne, Y; Captier, G; Bonnel, F

    2004-06-01

    The morphology and positioning of the carpal bones were studied in three dimensions in 18 normal adults on computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist. The digital data from each CT scan were processed to extract the carpal bones and to automatically characterize their geometry (geometric centroid, principal axes of inertia) using specific software tools. Biometric and angular parameters were defined for this purpose, and most of these parameters showed a normal distribution. The mean distance between the geometric centroid of the capitate and that of the triquetrum, expressed as a relationship to the length of the first principal axis of inertia of the capitate, was found to be the greatest (157.6%+/-8.4%), whereas the smallest mean distance was between the hamate and triquetrum (91.4%+/-7.3%). In the sagittal plane, the first principal axis of inertia of the bones of the first carpal row projected in front of the vertical axis of the orthogonal reference system, whereas the first principal axis of the capitate projected behind it. Measurements using this methodology are far more numerous than those from standard plain radiographs and have the additional advantage of being independent of the examiner. Future investigations on normal wrists should provide a normal range for each quantitative parameter, and comparative study of normal and pathologic wrist measurements should help to define the most relevant parameters for specific traumatic pathologies of the wrist. PMID:15173959

  10. CT scans and 3D reconstructions of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) heads and ear bones.

    PubMed

    Chapla, Marie E; Nowacek, Douglas P; Rommel, Sentiel A; Sadler, Valerie M

    2007-06-01

    The auditory anatomy of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was investigated using computerized tomography (CT), three-dimensional reconstructions, and traditional dissection of heads removed during necropsy. The densities (kg/m3) of the soft tissues of the head were measured directly using the displacement method and those of the soft tissues and bone were calculated from CT measurements (Hounsfield units). The manatee's fatty tissue was significantly less dense than the other soft tissues within the head (p<0.05). The squamosal bone was significantly less dense than the other bones of the head (p<0.05). Measurements of the ear bones (tympanic, periotic, malleus, incus, and stapes) collected during dissection revealed that the ossicular chain was overly massive for the mass of the tympanoperiotic complex. PMID:17420106

  11. Three-dimensional morphology of microdamage in peri-screw bone: a scanning electron microscopy of methylmethacrylate cast replica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Shao, Jin; Ye, Tingjun; Deng, Lianfu; Qiu, Shijing

    2012-10-01

    Screw implantation inevitably causes microdamage in surrounding bone. However, little is known about the detailed characteristics of microdamage in peri-screw bone. In this study, we developed a method to construct microdamage cast with methylmethacrylate (MMA) and observed the cast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In basic fuchsin stained bone sections observed by bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, diffuse damage, cross-hatched damage, and linear cracks were all presented in peri-screw bone. Using MMA casting/SEM method, we found numerous densely packed microcracks in the areas with diffuse damage. The osteocyte canaliculi and the microcracks consisting of diffuse damage had a similar diameter (or width), usually <0.5 μm, but their morphology was largely different. In the area with cross-hatched damage, the orientation of microcracks was similar to that in diffuse damage, but the number was significantly decreased. Many microcracks were thicker than 1 μm and associated with a rough surface. Large linear cracks (∼10 μm in diameter) occurred in different areas. Plenty of microcracks were present on the surface of some linear cracks. In conclusion, the MMA casting/SEM method can demonstrate the three-dimensional morphology of different types of microdamage, particularly the microcracks in diffuse damage, which are unable to be shown by light microscopy. PMID:23046724

  12. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  13. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  14. Biomechanical Role of Bone Anisotropy Estimated on Clinical CT Scans by Image Registration.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Elham; Reyes, Mauricio; Zysset, Philippe; Latypova, Adeliya; Terrier, Alexandre; Büchler, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Image-based modeling is a popular approach to perform patient-specific biomechanical simulations. Accurate modeling is critical for orthopedic application to evaluate implant design and surgical planning. It has been shown that bone strength can be estimated from the bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone architecture. However, these findings cannot be directly and fully transferred to patient-specific modeling since only BMD can be derived from clinical CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to propose a method to predict the trabecular bone structure using a µCT atlas and an image registration technique. The approach has been evaluated on femurs and patellae under physiological loading. The displacement and ultimate force for femurs loaded in stance position were predicted with an error of 2.5% and 3.7%, respectively, while predictions obtained with an isotropic material resulted in errors of 7.3% and 6.9%. Similar results were obtained for the patella, where the strain predicted using the registration approach resulted in an improved mean squared error compared to the isotropic model. We conclude that the registration of anisotropic information from of a single template bone enables more accurate patient-specific simulations from clinical image datasets than isotropic model. PMID:26790866

  15. Reliable fusion of knee bone laser scans to establish ground truth for cartilage thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming-Ching; Trinh, Nhon H.; Fleming, Braden C.; Kimia, Benjamin B.

    2010-03-01

    We are interested in establishing ground truth data for validating morphology measurements of human knee cartilage from MR imaging. One promising approach is to compare the high-accuracy 3D laser scans of dissected cadaver knees before and after the dissolution of their cartilage. This requires an accurate and reliable method to fuse the individual laser scans from multiple views of the cadaver knees. Unfortunately existing methods using Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm from off-the-shell packages often yield unreliable fusion results. We identify two major sources of variation: (i) the noise in depth measurements of the laser scans is significantly high and (ii) the use of point-to-point correspondence in ICP is not suitable due to sampling variation in the laser scans. We resolve the first problem by performing adaptive Gaussian smoothing on each individual laser scans prior to the fusion. For the second problem, we construct a surface mesh from the point cloud of each scan and adopt a point-to-mesh ICP scheme for pairwise alignment. The complete surface mesh is constructed by fusing all the scans in the order maximizing mutual overlaps. In experiments on 6 repeated scanning trials of a cadaver knee, our approach reduced the alignment error of point-to-point ICP by 30% and reduced coefficient of variation (CV) of cartilage thickness measurements from 5% down to 1.4%, significantly improving the method's repeatability.

  16. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  17. Discordance between MRI and bone scan findings in a child with acute complicated osteomyelitis: scintigraphic features that contribute to the early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Arsos, G; Iakovou, I; Dalpa, E; Karatzas, N

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute osteomyelitis are of paramount importance in children because they can prevent irreversible bone damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior spatial resolution and lack of ionizing radiation is routinely preferred over bone scan for this purpose. Increased blood flow, hyperemia and focally increased tracer uptake shown by "three phase" bone scan are the typical scintigraphic findings of acute osteomyelitis. In addition, diffuse uptake along the shaft of long bones and focal "cold" lesions are two special features that may be highly suggestive of infective periostitis, soft tissue sepsis and subperiosteal abscess formation, due to the loose attachment of periosteum to bone during childhood. We present a case of complicated osteomyelitis in a child with inconclusive MRI correctly diagnosed on the basis of these special scintigraphic findings resulting in treatment change from double i.v. Vancomycin--Ceftriaxone scheme to surgical intervention. PMID:23938190

  18. Massive inguinoscrotal herniation of the bladder with ureter: incidental demonstration on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozguven, Mehmet; Emer, Mustafa O; Karacalioglu, Alper O

    2007-08-01

    Inguinoscrotal herniation of the bladder is a rare clinical entity. The condition is often diagnosed incidentally or during the course of surgical repair of inguinal hernias. In a smaller number of cases, bladder hernia can be seen during nuclear medicine studies. We report a rare case of massive inguinoscrotal bladder herniation with ureter, causing urinary stasis on bone scintigraphy. PMID:17705019

  19. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  20. 68Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan in the detection of bone metastases in pediatric neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Reema; Shukla, Jaya; Bansal, Deepak; Sodhi, Kushaljit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of 68Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan for the detection of bone metastases in pediatric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and to compare it with CT scan. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients (18 were males and 12 were females; age range: 1-18 years; mean age 7.6 years) with histologically confirmed NETs referred to our department were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scan at the time of diagnosis for primary staging. Contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed at the time of PET scan acquisition was used for comparison with PET data. Imaging results were analyzed on a per-patient and on a per-lesion basis. Clinical follow-up of all patients and repeat PET/CT imaging (n = 10) was taken as the reference standard. Results: Out of the 30 patients, 17 had no evidence of bone metastases on any imaging modality or on clinical follow-up while the rest of 13 patients showed evidence of bone metastases (nine showing positivity both on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET and CT scan while four showing positivity only on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET). Compared with CT scan, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET detected bone metastases at a significantly higher rate (P = 0.0039). On a per lesion analysis, out of a total of 225 lesions detected by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET, only 84 lesions could be detected by CT scan. Conclusion: 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scan is more useful than CECT scan for the early detection of bone metastases in pediatric NETs. PMID:24591776

  1. Now & Then: From Cashier to Scan Coordinator; From Stones to Bones to PC Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the changes in the scanning of food and the current use of computer technology and UPC bar codes in a grocery store and traces the history of calculating tools from the use of fingers, abacus, slide rule, calculators, and computers. Includes reproducible student activity sheets. (MKR)

  2. False Negative (99m)Tc-Hydroxymethane Diphosphonate Three-phase Bone Scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilesomab Scan in Detecting Tibia Osteomyelitis Concomitant with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teik Hin; Lee, Boon Nang

    2014-09-01

    We described a case of 51-year-old female patient presented with a right calf necrotising fasciitis (NF) where osteomyelitis (OM) was suspected. (99m)Tc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate three-phase bone scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan failed to demonstrate classical features of OM. The final diagnosis was only made by isolating Acinetobacter sp. in both intra-operative bone and tissue cultures from below-knee amputation. As conclusions, the detection of lower limb OM by (99m)Tc-besilosomab scan is not easy when there is concurrence overlying NF. The unusual three-phase bone scan finding of pericortical accumulation of tracer as an early sign of OM is highlighted in this case. PMID:25538491

  3. Frostbite and bone scanning: the use of 99mTc-labeled phosphates in demarcating the line of viability in frostbite victims

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, G.; dos Santos, P.A.; Yamaguchi, K.T.; Stroh-Recor, C.; Ibello, R.

    1986-09-01

    Early diagnosis of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage is a very important step in treating a frostbite victim. The diagnostic use of Tc-99m-phosphates in assessing the viability of soft tissue and bone in frostbite was evaluated in the early post-thaw period. Four patients were treated with a combination of warm baths, rehydration, vasodilators, epidural block, fasciotomy, and debridement. Six scans were done to stage involvement. In three of the four cases, final involvement could be determined as early as the third day. When a specific level of soft tissue or bone uptake was determined, future scanning showed either improvement, or no change in three of the four patients. In our experience, Tc-99m-phosphate scans represent an improvement over other diagnostic tests for viability of tissues.

  4. Disseminated metastatic disease of osteosarcoma of the femur in the abdomen: unusual metastatic pattern on Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, Ozgur; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Kuzhan, Okan; Emer, Ozdes; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2006-07-01

    A 25-year-old patient with osteosarcoma of the right distal femur underwent a bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Whole-body bone scan revealed extensive metastatic disease in the abdominal region. Abdominal computerized tomography confirmed the presence of ascites and calcified masses on the greater omentum and peritoneal surfaces. Here we describe a case of unusual metastatic pattern of an osteosarcoma showing extensive intraabdominal metastases without prominent lung involvement after intensive chemotherapy. PMID:16922473

  5. Scanning electron image analysis to monitor of implant degradation and host healing following implantation of a drug-eluting bone graft void filler - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Sherry N; Lawson, Scott T; Grainger, David W; Brooks, Amanda E

    2013-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and often sourced during orthopedic surgical intervention. Successful treatment or prevention of this bone penetrating infection requires antibiotics be delivered in excess of the minimal inhibitory concentration to prohibit the growth of the causative organism for sufficient duration. Unfortunately, current standard-of-care antibiotic therapies, administered via intravenous or oral delivery, suffer not only from systemic toxicity and low patient compliance but also provide insufficient local concentrations for therapy. To overcome these clinical inadequacies, a synthetic bone graft material was coated with an antibiotic (tobramycin)-releasing polymer (polycaprolactone) matrix to create a polymer-controlled antibiotic- releasing combination therapy for use as a bone void filler in orthopedic surgeries. Even though this local delivery strategy allows antibiotic delivery over a clinically relevant time frame to prevent infection, complete healing requires the host bone to infiltrate and reabsorb the bone void filler, ultimately replacing the defect with healthy tissue. Unfortunately, the same polymer matrix that allows for controlled local antibiotic delivery may also discourage host bone healing. Efficient orthopedic healing requires the rate of polymer degradation to match the rate of host-bone infiltration. Current imaging techniques, such as histological staining and x-ray imaging, are insufficient to simultaneously assess polymer degradation and host bone integration. Alternative techniques relying on backscatter electron detection during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging may allow a visual differentiation between host bone, synthetic bone, and polymer. Analysis of backscattered SEM images was automated using a custom MATLAB program to determine the ratio of bone to polymer based upon the contrast between the bone (white) and polymer (dark grey). By collecting images of the implant over time

  6. Neonatal Death Dwarfism in a Girl with Distinctive Bone Dysplasia Compatible with Grebe Chondrodysplasia: Analysis by CT Scan-based Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a female fetus noted to have severe malformative type of skeletal dysplasia on ultrasonography done at 35 weeks gestation. The girl died shortly after birth. Clinical examination showed a fetus with severe dwarfism, extensive long and short bones, and bone deficiencies associated with multiple dislocations. Computed tomography (CT) scan-based phenotype showed a complex constellation of malformations consistent with the diagnosis of Grebe syndrome. Parents being first cousins (consanguineous marriage) strongly suggests autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal death dwarfism of Grebe syndrome analyzed by CT scan-based phenotype. PMID:25337439

  7. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model.

    PubMed

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R; Hoffman, Michael D; Vella, Joseph B; Benoit, Danielle S W; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-07-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing. PMID:26203392

  8. Non-contact scanning diffuse correlation tomography system for three-dimensional blood flow imaging in a murine bone graft model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Songfeng; Johansson, Johannes; Mireles, Miguel; Proctor, Ashley R.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Vella, Joseph B.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Durduran, Turgut; Choe, Regine

    2015-01-01

    A non-contact galvanometer-based optical scanning system for diffuse correlation tomography was developed for monitoring bone graft healing in a murine femur model. A linear image reconstruction algorithm for diffuse correlation tomography was tested using finite-element method based simulated data and experimental data from a femur or a tube suspended in a homogeneous liquid phantom. Finally, the non-contact system was utilized to monitor in vivo blood flow changes prior to and one week after bone graft transplantation within murine femurs. Localized blood flow changes were observed in three mice, demonstrating a potential for quantification of longitudinal blood flow associated with bone graft healing. PMID:26203392

  9. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma. PMID:25040555

  10. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  11. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a ... the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique ...

  12. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  14. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E.; Paolo, David Di; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), such difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements. PMID:25683520

  15. Random field assessment of inhomogeneous bone mineral density from DXA scans can enhance the differentiation between postmenopausal women with and without hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuanliang Neil; Pinninti, Rajeshwar; Lowe, Timothy; Cussen, Patricia; Ballard, Joyce E; Di Paolo, David; Shirvaikar, Mukul

    2015-04-13

    Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) alone cannot account for all factors associated with the risk of hip fractures. For example, the inhomogeneity of bone mineral density in the hip region also contributes to bone strength. In the stochastic assessment of bone inhomogeneity, the BMD map in the hip region is considered as a random field and stochastic predictors can be calculated by fitting a theoretical model onto the experimental variogram of the BMD map. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of bone mineral density and stochastic assessment of inhomogeneous distribution of bone mineral density in predicting hip fractures for postmenopausal women. DXA scans in the hip region were obtained from postmenopausal women with hip fractures (N=47, Age: 71.3±11.4 years) and without hip fractures (N=45, Age: 66.7±11.4 years). Comparison of BMD measurements and stochastic predictors in assessing bone fragility was based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) from logistic regression analyses. Although stochastic predictors offered higher accuracy (AUC=0.675) in predicting the risk of hip fractures than BMD measurements (AUC=0.625), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.548). Nevertheless, the combination of stochastic predictors and BMD measurements had significantly (p=0.039) higher prediction accuracy (AUC=0.748) than BMD measurements alone. This study demonstrates that stochastic assessment of bone mineral distribution from DXA scans can serve as a valuable tool in enhancing the prediction of hip fractures for postmenopausal women in addition to BMD measurements. PMID:25683520

  16. Measuring muscle and bone in individuals with neurologic impairment; lessons learned about participant selection and pQCT scan acquisition and analysis.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, L M; Gibbs, J C; Craven, B C

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can be used to examine bone strength outcomes and muscle size and fatty infiltration. Our research team and others have used it to examine bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the high prevalence of restricted lower extremity range of motion, spasticity, edema, excessive muscle atrophy, or severe osteoporosis necessitates changes to standard protocols for screening, positioning during scan acquisition, and analysis methods. This manuscript outlines the challenges that we experienced using pQCT in individuals with SCI, and provides solutions, ones that may also be applicable when using pQCT in individuals with other chronic conditions or in older adults. Suggestions for participant screening, positioning individuals for scanning while in a wheelchair, scan site selection, need for attendant assistance, and considerations in the presence of secondary complications, such as contracture, spasticity, and paralysis, are presented. In the presence of very low bone mineral density or severe muscle atrophy, the default analysis modes provided by the manufacturer may not provide valid estimates of bone or muscle indices; we propose alternates. We have used watershed segmentation methods to determine muscle size and density based on lower precision error compared to threshold-based edge-detection segmentation, particularly for adults with SCI, where more fatty infiltration was present. By presenting our "lessons learned," we hope to reduce the learning curve for researchers using pQCT in the future. PMID:27026329

  17. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na18F− PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUVm(t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUVm(ti) − SUVm(tj))/(ti − tj), for pairs of time values ti and tj. A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOIp(ti)/VOIe(ti))−(VOIp(tj)/VOIe(tj)))/(ti − tj), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUVm slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, rs = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and rs = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min−1 or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of −0.06 min−1 usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  18. Predictive value of excretory urography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and liver and bone scan in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Hanash, K.A.; Bissada, N.K.; Abla, A.; Esmail, D.; Dowling, A.

    1984-07-01

    The role of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and radioisotopic scanning in the staging of bilharzial bladder cancer has not been reported previously. Forty patients with invasive bladder cancer seen at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between January 1978 and June 1981 underwent complete preoperative workup for staging of their tumors prior to radical cystectomy. The preoperative radiologic investigations included excretory urography (IVP), ultrasonography (US), CT of the pelvis, and liver and bone scans. The results of these investigations were compared with the operative and pathologic staging. Ninety-three percent of the patients with bilharzial cancer had evidence of ureteric obstruction on IVP compared with 22% of the nonbilharzial cancer patients. The presence of ureteric obstruction in these patients did not correlate with the stage of the disease with 83% of the patients with superficial tumors (T1 and T2) having hydroureteronephrosis. Ultrasonography and CT had an 83% accuracy in the staging of superficial tumors. Stage T3 tumors were understaged in 14% of the cases. Ultrasonography did not differentiate Stages T3 and T4 tumors while CT scan differentiated these two stages in 57% of the cases. Bone scan failed to reveal evidence of metastatic disease in any of the bilharzial cancer patients. Liver scan was suspicious for liver metastases in two patients with bilharzial cancers in whom open liver biopsy revealed only hepatic bilharziasis. Of all the radiographic studies, US or preferably CT scan seem to be of some value in the staging of bilharzial tumors localized to the bladder. Bone and liver scans are probably of no cost effective benefit.

  19. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  20. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  1. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Risks Allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals may occur but are extremely rare and are usually mild. Nevertheless, you should inform the nuclear medicine personnel of any allergies you may have ...

  2. Evaluation of LED therapy at 945nm on bone repair by micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantino, Alexandre G.; Nicolau, Renata A.; de Oliveira, Marco A.; Santo, Ana Maria E.

    2011-07-01

    Phototherapy is able to modulate cellular metabolism of bone tissue and consequently accelerate the repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this therapy in repair of bone monocortical defects in femurs of thirty male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into six groups (five animals for group), including three controls and three irradiated groups with different experimental times (14, 21, and 28 days after surgery). LED was used for the irradiation, emitting non-coherent light in the spectral range of 945+/-20 nm and output power of 48 mW, on one point of irradiation for four minutes. Seven treatment sessions were performed with 48 hours between sessions. For analysis on the bone repair, qualitative and quantitative assessments of Ca and P contents were done by micro x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF) and the morphological structure was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed the efficiency of infrared LED therapy, because the amount of mineral components analyzed by μXRF and the morphological features of cortical and trabecular bones, demonstrated by the SEM images, showed enhanced bone repair in the irradiated groups when compared to their corresponding control groups at all stages.

  3. Recurrent surgical site infection of the spine diagnosed by dual (18)F-NaF-bone PET/CT with early-phase scan.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Jeong Won; Jeon, Min Hyok; Lee, Sang Mi

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of a 31-year-old man who showed recurrently elevated level of the serum inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) after spinal operation. He underwent (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and dual (18)F-sodium-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET/CT with an additional early-phase scan to find a hidden inflammation focus. Only mildly increased (18)F-FDG was found at the surgical site of T11 spine on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, dual (18)F-NaF bone PET/CT with early-phase scan demonstrated focal active inflammation at the surgical site of T11 spine. After a revision operation of the T11 spine, serum CRP level decreased to the normal range without any symptom or sign of inflammation. Inflammatory focus in the surgical site of the spine can be detected with using dual (18)F-NaF bone PET/CT scan with early-phase scan. PMID:27388912

  4. Incidental finding of sacral hemiagenesis on the (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan as a casual regression syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Karacalioglu, A Ozgur; Soylu, Kenan; Emer, Ozdeş; Ayan, Asli; Ozguven, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    A 69 years old woman with chronic low back pain referred to our Department for bone scintigraphy. Patient did not have any other complaint and his physical examination of the patient was normal. Whole-body scan was acquired 3 h after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). Distal sacrococcygeal region could not be observed during the visual analysis of the whole-body scan. Pelvic X-rays radiography and pelvic computed tomography of the patient, demonstrated hemiagenesis of the sacrum, which was consistent with type-2 sacral agenesis. Other structural abnormalities were not detected on the pelvic CT scan of the patient. This case is presented to demonstrate the rare congenital anomaly of sacral hemiagenesis causing empty pelvis appearance in the posterior projection of (99m)Tc-MDP whole body bone scan. This congenital anomaly could be associated with extensive abnormalities of the lower vertebrae, pelvis, and spine. PMID:19081863

  5. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and {sup 111}In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses.

  6. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND OXIDE ETHYLENE STERILIZATION ON CORTICAL AND CANCELLOUS RAT BONE: A LIGHT AND ELECTRON SCANNING MICROSCOPY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marcello Teixeira; da Silva, Juliano Voltarelli F.; Frezarim Thomazini, José Armendir; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, under microscopic examination, the structural changes displayed by the trabecular and cortical bones after being processed chemically and sterilized by ethylene oxide. Methods: Samples of cancellous and cortical bones obtained from young female albinus rats (Wistar) were assigned to four groups according to the type of treatment: Group I- drying; Group II- drying and ethylene oxide sterilization; III- chemical treatment; IV- chemical treatment and ethylene oxide sterilization. Half of this material was analyzed under ordinary light microscope and the other half using scanning electron microscopy. Results: In all the samples, regardless the group, there was good preservation of the general morphology. For samples submitted to the chemical processing there was better preservation of the cellular content, whereas there was amalgamation of the fibres when ethylene oxide was used. Conclusion: Treatment with ethylene oxide caused amalgamation of the fibers, possibly because of heating and the chemical treatment contributed to a better cellular preservation of the osseous structure. PMID:26998450

  7. Accuracy of DXA scanning of the thoracic spine: cadaveric studies comparing BMC, areal BMD and geometric estimates of volumetric BMD against ash weight and CT measures of bone volume.

    PubMed

    Sran, Meena M; Khan, Karim M; Keiver, Kathy; Chew, Jason B; McKay, Heather A; Oxland, Thomas R

    2005-12-01

    Biomechanical studies of the thoracic spine often scan cadaveric segments by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to obtain measures of bone mass. Only one study has reported the accuracy of lateral scans of thoracic vertebral bodies. The accuracy of DXA scans of thoracic spine segments and of anterior-posterior (AP) thoracic scans has not been investigated. We have examined the accuracy of AP and lateral thoracic DXA scans by comparison with ash weight, the gold-standard for measuring bone mineral content (BMC). We have also compared three methods of estimating volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a novel standard-ash weight (g)/bone volume (cm3) as measured by computed tomography (CT). Twelve T5-T8 spine segments were scanned with DXA (AP and lateral) and CT. The T6 vertebrae were excised, the posterior elements removed and then the vertebral bodies were ashed in a muffle furnace. We proposed a new method of estimating vBMD and compared it with two previously published methods. BMC values from lateral DXA scans displayed the strongest correlation with ash weight (r=0.99) and were on average 12.8% higher (p<0.001). As expected, BMC (AP or lateral) was more strongly correlated with ash weight than areal bone mineral density (aBMD; AP: r=0.54, or lateral: r=0.71) or estimated vBMD. Estimates of vBMD with either of the three methods were strongly and similarly correlated with volumetric BMD calculated by dividing ash weight by CT-derived volume. These data suggest that readily available DXA scanning is an appropriate surrogate measure for thoracic spine bone mineral and that the lateral scan might be the scan method of choice. PMID:15616862

  8. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  9. Imaging Non-Specific Wrist Pain: Interobserver Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of SPECT/CT, MRI, CT, Bone Scan and Plain Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Huellner, Martin W.; Bürkert, Alexander; Strobel, Klaus; Pérez Lago, María del Sol; Werner, Lennart; Hug, Urs; von Wartburg, Urs; Seifert, Burkhardt; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hand and wrist pain is a common clinical issue for orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. The purpose of this study was 1. To analyze the interobserver agreement of SPECT/CT, MRI, CT, bone scan and plain radiographs in patients with non-specific pain of the hand and wrist, and 2. to assess the diagnostic accuracy of these imaging methods in this selected patient population. Materials and Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients with non-specific pain of the hand or wrist were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had been imaged by plain radiographs, planar early-phase imaging (bone scan), late-phase imaging (SPECT/CT including bone scan and CT), and MRI. Two experienced and two inexperienced readers analyzed the images with a standardized read-out protocol. Reading criteria were lesion detection and localisation, type and etiology of the underlying pathology. Diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement were determined for all readers and imaging modalities. Results The most accurate modality for experienced readers was SPECT/CT (accuracy 77%), followed by MRI (56%). The best performing, though little accurate modality for inexperienced readers was also SPECT/CT (44%), followed by MRI and bone scan (38% each). The interobserver agreement of experienced readers was generally high in SPECT/CT concerning lesion detection (kappa 0.93, MRI 0.72), localisation (kappa 0.91, MRI 0.75) and etiology (kappa 0.85, MRI 0.74), while MRI yielded better results on typification of lesions (kappa 0.75, SPECT/CT 0.69). There was poor agreement between experienced and inexperienced readers in SPECT/CT and MRI. Conclusions SPECT/CT proved to be the most helpful imaging modality in patients with non-specific wrist pain. The method was found reliable, providing high interobserver agreement, being outperformed by MRI only concerning the typification of lesions. We believe it is beneficial to integrate SPECT/CT into the diagnostic imaging algorithm of chronic wrist

  10. Menopause and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You reach your highest bone mass (size and density) at about age 30. Then, sometime between age ... your bones, your doctor may do a bone density test (DEXA scan). This test gives exact measurements ...

  11. Orbit CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may mean: Bleeding Broken eye socket bone Graves disease Infection Tumor Risks CT scans and other x- ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 66. Read More CT scan Graves disease Tumor Update Date 1/18/2015 Updated by: ...

  12. Percutaneous Bone Biopsies: Comparison between Flat-Panel Cone-Beam CT and CT-Scan Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Tselikas, Lambros Joskin, Julien; Roquet, Florian; Farouil, Geoffroy; Dreuil, Serge; Hakimé, Antoine Teriitehau, Christophe; Auperin, Anne; Baere, Thierry de Deschamps, Frederic

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to compare the accuracy of targeting and the radiation dose of bone biopsies performed either under fluoroscopic guidance using a cone-beam CT with real-time 3D image fusion software (FP-CBCT-guidance) or under conventional computed tomography guidance (CT-guidance).MethodsSixty-eight consecutive patients with a bone lesion were prospectively included. The bone biopsies were scheduled under FP-CBCT-guidance or under CT-guidance according to operating room availability. Thirty-four patients underwent a bone biopsy under FP-CBCT and 34 under CT-guidance. We prospectively compared the two guidance modalities for their technical success, accuracy, puncture time, and pathological success rate. Patient and physician radiation doses also were compared.ResultsAll biopsies were technically successful, with both guidance modalities. Accuracy was significantly better using FP-CBCT-guidance (3 and 5 mm respectively: p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in puncture time (32 and 31 min respectively, p = 0.51) nor in pathological results (88 and 88 % of pathological success respectively, p = 1). Patient radiation doses were significantly lower with FP-CBCT (45 vs. 136 mSv, p < 0.0001). The percentage of operators who received a dose higher than 0.001 mSv (dosimeter detection dose threshold) was lower with FP-CBCT than CT-guidance (27 vs. 59 %, p = 0.01).ConclusionsFP-CBCT-guidance for bone biopsy is accurate and reduces patient and operator radiation doses compared with CT-guidance.

  13. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with (99m)Tc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with (99m)Tc-marked diphosphonates ((99m)Tc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of (99m)Tc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  14. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  15. Primitive Sca-1 Positive Bone Marrow HSC in Mouse Model of Aplastic Anemia: A Comparative Study through Flowcytometric Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Basak, Pratima; Das, Prosun; Das, Madhurima; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Dutta, Ranjan Kumar; Chaklader, Malay; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are responsible for reconstitution of all blood cell lineages. Sca-1 is the “stem cell antigen” marker used to identify the primitive murine HSC population, the expression of which decreases upon differentiation to other mature cell types. Sca-1+ HSCs maintain the bone marrow stem cell pool throughout the life. Aplastic anemia is a disease considered to involve primary stem cell deficiency and is characterized by severe pancytopenia and a decline in healthy blood cell generation system. Studies conducted in our laboratory revealed that the primitive Sca-1+ BM-HSCs (bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell) are significantly affected in experimental Aplastic animals pretreated with chemotherapeutic drugs (Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide) and there is increased Caspase-3 activity with consecutive high Annexin-V positivity leading to premature apoptosis in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell population in Aplastic condition. The Sca-1bright, that is, “more primitive” BM-HSC population was more affected than the “less primitive” BM-HSC Sca-1dim  population. The decreased cell population and the receptor expression were directly associated with an empty and deranged marrow microenvironment, which is evident from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The above experimental evidences hint toward the manipulation of receptor expression for the benefit of cytotherapy by primitive stem cell population in Aplastic anemia cases. PMID:21048851

  16. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  17. Posttraumatic tibia valga: a case demonstrating asymmetric activity at the proximal growth plate on technetium bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Zionts, L.E.; Harcke, H.T.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Posttraumatic tibia valga is a well-recognized complication following fracture of the upper tibial metaphysis in young children. We present a case of a child who developed a valgus deformity following fracture of the proximal tibia and fibula in which quantitative bone scintigraphy at 5 months after injury demonstrated increased uptake at the proximal tibial growth plate with proportionally greater uptake on the medial side. This finding suggests that the valgus deformity in this patient was due to a relative increase in vascularity and consequent overgrowth of the medial portion of the proximal tibial physis.

  18. Osseous and Nonosseous Bone Scan Findings in Liver Transplant Candidates with end-stage Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erhamamcı, Seval; Aktaş, Ayşe; Bahçeci, Tatiana; Kavak, Kevser

    2013-01-01

    Objective: End-stage chronic liver disease (CLD) adversely affects the function of multiple organ systems including the skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess osseous and nonosseous bone scintigraphy (BS) findings in liver transplant (LT) candidates with end-stage CLD. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated BS findings in 50 consecutive patients with end-stage CLD who were undergoing preoperative assessment for LT from January 2006 to December 2011. All the patients were analyzed with respect to clinical and laboratory parameters, and BS findings. Scintigrams were visually assessed for the presence of osseous and nonosseous abnormalities. Osseous abnormalities were classified as those indicating bone metabolism changes or metastatic bone disease. Typical scintigraphic findings denoting to changes in bone metabolism were the presence of decreased osseous uptake, increased periarticular uptake, asymmetrical or unusual uptake patterns. Nonosseous findings were classified according to the degree of soft-tissue uptake as mild and severe. Results: The group consisted of 46 adult and 4 adolescent patients. All adolescent patients had normal skeletal accumulation with growth plate uptake and one had mildly increased renal cortical activity. A total of 46 adult patients had one or more of the following osseous findings: generalized decrease in osseous uptake (n=4, 8.7%); bilateral decrease in lower extremity uptake (n=26, 56.5%); symmetrically increased periarticular uptake (n=26, 56.5%); bilateral cortical/periosteal increased uptake in the lower extremity indicating hepatic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) (n=8, 17.4%); bilateral increased sacroiliac activity (n=16, 34.8%); sacral activity (n=10, 21.7%), coccygeal activity (n=2, 4.3%), focally increased uptake suggestive of metastases (n=5, 10.9%). Three rib metastases appeared to be linear. Nonosseous findings observed in adult patients were mild diffuse liver uptake (n=4, 8.7%) and bilateral diffuse mild

  19. Exceptional case of bone resorption in an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis study.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, S; Falcinelli, G; Pintucci, S

    1990-01-01

    This article reports the findings of investigations on an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis in an eye that was enucleated owing to severe complications 12 years after implantation. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed extensive resorption of the bone that was used as a supporting element in the kind of transcorneal prosthesis developed by Strampelli. The destructive process, in addition to surgical trauma, has been associated with the early and recurrent bacterial infections relating to the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The need to control the occurrence of primary bacterial infections in traumatized tissues during operations as well as further infectious situations, given the enhanced antibiotic-resistence of bacteria, is emphasized. PMID:2297990

  20. Gamma correction 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate pinhole bone scan diagnosis and histopathological verification of trabecular contusion in young rats.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Yong-Whee; Chung, Yong-An; Lee, U-Young; Park, Sang In

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this rat experiment using gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS) was two-fold: first, to confirm whether specific unwashed micro Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (Tc-HDP) uptake occurs in trabecular contusion (TC) and washed out uptake occurs in edema and/or hemorrhage-irritated trabeculae, and, second, to histopathologically identify the tissue in which the Tc-HDP uptake is unwashed. Five young Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the contusion model and one rat was used as a control. Trauma was inflicted on the femoral shaft with a free-falling iron ball. The presence of injury was confirmed by means of Tc-HDP pinhole bone scan and radiography with built-in scales. All rats were carefully killed for histopathologic verification. The size and shape of the unwashed high Tc-HDP uptake in TC were assessed on a 50-fold magnified GCPBS (mGCPBS), and the findings were compared with those of hematoxylin eosin (H&E) stain findings. mGCPBS showed TC with osteoblastic rimming and high unwashed Tc-HDP uptake. H&E stain findings showed osteoblastic rimming. The smallest TC was 0.03 mm in transaxial diameter on both mGCPBS and H&E stain findings. The four shapes of TC were bar-like, round, ovoid, and pinpointed in the longitudinal, oblique, and transaxial sections. The size and shape shown on mGCPBS and H&E stain findings were in good accord, demonstrating that TC was coated with osteoblastic rimming, which is pathognomonic of contusion. This sign was not seen for the control rat. mGCPBS is useful in the diagnosis of TC because osteoblastic rimming, typically stained in the base, is marked with unwashed high Tc-HDP uptake. PMID:27159588

  1. A scanning electron microscopic study of in vitro toxicity of ethylene-oxide-sterilized bone repair materials.

    PubMed

    Zislis, T; Martin, S A; Cerbas, E; Heath, J R; Mansfield, J L; Hollinger, J O

    1989-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) have been under investigation for use in the management of hard- and soft-tissue wounds. Current research has included the incorporation of osteo-inductive substances into a PLA-PGA copolymer alloplastic implant material for enhancement of the healing of osseous defects. Conventional methods of sterilization--such as dry heat, steam heat, or 60Co--tend either to destroy or attenuate osteo-inductive activity and alter polymer biodegradation. Ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization is currently being tested as an alternate method. This study examined the relationship of EO-induced cytotoxicity to the length of time of polymer aeration following EO sterilization. Three groups of copolymer implant discs were studied: (1) 50:50 PLA-PGA copolymer, (2) PLA-PGA polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), and (3) PLA-PGA with autolyzed, antigen-extracted (AA) bone particles. Polymer discs, as well as particulate HA and AA bone controls, were sterilized with EO for 12 hours. Following periods of two weeks, one week, one day, or no subsequent vacuum aeration, samples were placed into 24-well culture plates. A suspension of human fibroblasts was added to each well. Cell growth and attachment were permitted for 24 hours. Medium was then removed, and solutions for cell fixation, buffer washing, and dehydration were added to each well. SEM examination revealed changes in cell growth with increasing periods of aeration suggestive of increasing cell vitality. Cells growing on discs having no aeration were small, round, and lobulated, whereas those of seven to 14 days' aeration were more numerous, and flattened with many microvilli, pseudopodia, and dendritic processes, features consistent with normal cell morphology. These results suggest that EO-sterilized polymer implants should be aerated for least seven to 14 days prior to surgical use. PMID:2561372

  2. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  3. Personalized estimation of dose to red bone marrow and the associated leukaemia risk attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography scans in image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibao; Yan, Yulong; Nath, Ravinder; Bao, Shanglian; Deng, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the imaging dose to red bone marrow (RBM) and the associated leukaemia risks attributable to pelvic kilo-voltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) scans in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The RBM doses of 42 patients (age 2.7-86.4 years) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The trabecular spongiosa was segmented to substitute RBM rather than the whole bone. Quantitative correlations between anthropometric variables such as age, physical bone density (PBD) and RBM dose were established. Personalized leukaemia risk was evaluated using an improved Boice model which included the age-associated RBM involvement. An incremental leukaemia risk of 29%-82% (mean = 45%) was found to be associated with 40 pelvic kVCBCT scans in the subject group used in a typical external beam radiation therapy course. Higher risks were observed in children. Due to the enhanced photoelectric effect in high atomic number materials, PBD was observed to strongly affect the RBM dose. Considerable overestimations (9%-42%, mean = 28%) were observed if the whole bone doses were used as surrogates of RBM doses. The personalized estimation of RBM dose and associated leukaemia risk caused by pelvic kVCBCT scans is clinically feasible with the proposed empirical models. Higher radiogenic cancer risks are associated with repeated kVCBCT scans in IGRT of cancer patients, especially children.

  4. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  5. Monitoring the glioma tropism of bone marrow–derived progenitor cells by 2-photon laser scanning microscopy and positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbach, Kathy; Wiehr, Stefan; Herrmann, Caroline; Mannheim, Julia; Cay, Funda; von Kürthy, Gabriele; Bolmont, Tristan; Grathwohl, Stefan A.; Weller, Michael; Lengerke, Claudia; Pichler, Bernd J.; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral experimental gliomas attract intravenously injected murine or human bone marrow–derived hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HPC) in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, indicating that these progenitor cells might be suitable vehicles for a cell-based delivery of therapeutic molecules to malignant gliomas. With regard to therapeutic application, it is important to investigate cell fates in vivo (i.e., the time-dependent intratumoral and systemic distribution after intravenously injection). Conventional histological analysis has limitations in this regard because longitudinal monitoring is precluded. Here, we used 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), positron emission tomography (PET), and MRI to study the fate of intravenously injected HPC carrying fluorescence, bioluminescence, and PET reporter genes in glioma-bearing mice. Our 2PLSM-based monitoring studies revealed that HPC homing to intracerebral experimental gliomas occurred already within the first 6 h and was most efficient within the first 24 h after intravenous injection. The highest PET signals were detected in intracerebral gliomas, whereas the tracer uptake in other organs, notably spleen, lung, liver, and muscle, remained at background levels. The results have important implications for designing schedules for therapeutic cell-based anti-glioma approaches. Moreover, the PET reporter-based imaging technique will allow noninvasive monitoring of cell fate in future cell-based therapeutic antiglioma approaches. PMID:22298526

  6. Basic bone radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

  7. TU-C-12A-12: Differentiating Bone Lesions and Degenerative Joint Disease in NaF PET/CT Scans Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Perk, T; Bradshaw, T; Muzahir, S; Jeraj, R; Meyer, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]NaF PET can be used to image bone metastases; however, tracer uptake in degenerative joint disease (DJD) often appears similar to metastases. This study aims to develop and compare different machine learning algorithms to automatically identify regions of [F-18]NaF scans that correspond to DJD. Methods: 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients received whole body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans prior to treatment. Image segmentation resulted in 852 ROIs, 69 of which were identified by a nuclear medicine physician as DJD. For all ROIs, various PET and CT textural features were computed. ROIs were divided into training and testing sets used to train eight different machine learning classifiers. Classifiers were evaluated based on receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). We also assessed the added value of including CT features in addition to PET features for training classifiers. Results: The training set consisted of 37 DJD ROIs with 475 non-DJD ROIs, and the testing set consisted of 32 DJD ROIs with 308 non-DJD ROIs. Of all classifiers, generalized linear models (GLM), decision forests (DF), and support vector machines (SVM) had the best performance. AUCs of GLM (0.929), DF (0.921), and SVM (0.889) were significantly higher than the other models (p<0.001). GLM and DF, overall, had the best sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, and gave a significantly better performance (p<0.01) than all other models. PET/CT GLM classifiers had higher AUC than just PET or just CT. GLMs built using PET/CT information had superior or comparable sensitivities, specificities and PPVs to just PET or just CT. Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms trained with PET/CT features were able to identify some cases of DJD. GLM outperformed the other classification algorithms. Using PET and CT information together was shown to be superior to using PET or CT features alone. Research supported by the Prostate

  8. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25464807

  9. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25508438

  10. Growth Arrest Line Mimicking Lymphoma Involvement: The Findings of (99m)Tc-MDP Bone SPECT/CT and Serial Bone Scan in a Child with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanwoo; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-06-01

    Growth arrest lines appear as dense sclerotic lines parallel to the growth plate of long bones on radiography. We describe the case of a 9-year-old female with growth arrest lines initially masquerading as lymphoma involvement on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy who had been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma about 3 years previously. Subsequent regional bone SPECT/CT clearly diagnosed the growth arrest lines, and retrograde review of previous bone scintigraphy demonstrated line migration in this patient. Growth arrest lines should be considered a possible diagnosis on bone scintigraphy, especially in the surveillance of children who have experienced severe childhood infections, malnutrition, immobilization, or treatment with immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic drugs that may inhibit bone growth. PMID:27275365

  11. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several ways. The most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x- ...

  12. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  13. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  14. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  15. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  16. Scanning, Scanning, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia; Myers, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Discusses uses of scanning (process of copying or converting text, images, and objects into information that the computer can recognize and manipulate) in schools and notes possible desktop publishing projects. Describes popular scanners and ways to edit a scanned image. A sidebar gives costs and telephone numbers for nine scanners. (AEF)

  17. Paget’s disease of the bone

    MedlinePlus

    Tests that may indicate Paget's disease include: Bone scan Bone x-ray Elevated markers of bone breakdown (for instance, N-telopeptide) This disease may also affect the results of the following tests: ...

  18. Extramedullary Pulmonary Hematopoiesis Causing Pulmonary Hypertension and Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Detected by Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Bone Marrow Scan and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Michael John; Kannivelu, Anbalagan; Chinchure, Dinesh; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Extramedullary pulmonary hematopoiesis is a rare entity with a limited number of case reports in the available literature only. We report the case of a 66-year-old man with known primary myelofibrosis, in whom a Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scan with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT revealed a pulmonary hematopoiesis as the cause of pulmonary hypertension and severe tricuspid regurgitation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition. PMID:24843243

  19. The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end –products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Results Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (P<0.05). Doxycycline was also effective in reducing bone loss as documental by histopathological study. Conclusion The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the

  20. Bone and lymph node metastases from neuroblastoma detected by 18F-DOPA-PET/CT and confirmed by posttherapy 131I-MIBG but negative on diagnostic 123I-MIBG scan.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Arnoldo; Lopci, Egesta; Conte, Massimo; Cabria, Manlio; Cistaro, Angelina; Garaventa, Alberto; Villavecchia, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old child with stage 4 neuroblastoma, previously treated with chemotherapy, which relapsed in the right mandibular branch, right submandibular lymph nodes, and bone marrow. These sites of recurrence were detected on diagnostic (123)I-MIBG and confirmed by (18)F-DOPA-PET/CT, which revealed the following 2 additional sites of disease: in the skull base and the left supraclavicular lymph nodes. The patient was scheduled for radioiodine therapy and received a total dose of 7400 MBq (200 mCi) of (131)I-MIBG. The whole-body scan, acquired 72 hours later, revealed all sites of disease detected by (18)F-DOPA-PET/CT, including those negative on (123)I-MIBG scan. PMID:23579975

  1. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Surgeons use bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some ...

  2. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Effects of Al2O3 phase and Cl component on dehydrogenation of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Changcheng; Ma, Aizeng; Rong, Junfeng; Da, Zhijian; Zheng, Aiguo; Qin, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of two Al2O3 phases, γ- and θ-Al2O3, and Cl component on the performances of Pt-Al2O3 catalysts in the dehydrogenation of propane were investigated in this work. The catalysts were systematically characterized by various techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), temperature-programmed desorption with ammonia as probe molecules (NH3-TPD) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). The characterizations and catalytic results show that: (i) the pore structures and acid properties of the two Al2O3 phases can change the quantity, location and property of the carbon deposition, (ii) the existence of Cl plays a significant role on the agglomeration of Pt particles and carbon deposition, which further influence the catalytic performances of Pt-Al2O3 catalysts with different support phases for propane dehydrogenation.

  4. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate and polymethylmethacrylate bone cements on root ends prepared using an Erbium: Yttriumaluminium garnet laser and ultrasonics evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Girish, C Sabari; Ponnappa, KC; Girish, TN; Ponappa, MC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical endodontic therapy comprises of exposure of the involved root apex, resection of the apical end of the root, preparation of a class I cavity, and insertion of a root end filling material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is now the gold standard among all root end filling materials. MTA is however difficult to handle, expensive and has a very slow setting reaction. Aim: (1) To compare the sealing ability of MTA, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and CHITRA Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root end filling material using Rhodamine B dye evaluated under a confocal laser scanning microscope. (2) To compare the seal of root ends prepared using an ultrasonic retroprep tip and an Er: YAG laser using three different root end filling materials. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and Scheffe's post hoc test using SPSS Version 16 for Windows. Results: All the three materials, namely MTA, PMMA BONE CEMENT and CHITRA CPC, showed microleakage. Comparison of microleakage showed maximum peak value of 0.86 mm for MTA, 0.24 mm for PMMA bone cement and 1.37 mm for CHITRA CPC. The amount of dye penetration was found to be lesser in root ends prepared using Er: YAG laser when compared with ultrasonics, but the difference was found to be not statistically significant. Conclusion: PMMA bone cement is a better material as root end filling material to prevent apical microleakage. MTA still continues to be a gold standard root end filling material showing minimum microleakage. Er: YAG laser is a better alternative to ultrasonics for root end preparations. PMID:23956530

  5. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gilday, D L; Ash, J M

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of 99mTc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions. PMID:1082170

  6. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. It is a type of nuclear scan . How the Test is Performed Blood will ... radiation. Due to the slight radiation exposure, most nuclear scans (including WBC scan) are not recommended for ...

  7. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan; Computed axial tomography scan; Computed tomography scan ... Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ...

  8. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  9. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  10. Bone imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Zohar A

    2008-08-01

    Bone metastases of solid tumors are common, and about 80% of them occur in patients with breast, lung or prostate cancer. Bone metastases can be suspected clinically and by laboratory tests; however, a final diagnosis relies on radiographic evidence. Bone metastases of prostate cancer usually have osteoblastic characteristics, manifested by pathological bone resorption and formation. Conventional bone scans (e.g. with (99m)Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate) are preferred to plain-film radiography for surveillance of the entire skeleton. Radiologic diagnosis of bone metastases, particularly in patients with low burden of disease, is difficult because noncancerous bone lesions that mimic cancer are common. Conventional bone scans are limited by their low sensitivity and high false-negative rate (up to 40%) compared with advanced bone-imaging modalities such as PET, PET-CT and MRI, which might assist or replace conventional scanning methods. The correct diagnosis of bone involvement in prostate cancer is crucial to assess the effects of therapy on the primary tumor, the patient's prognosis, and the efficacy of bone-specific treatments that can reduce future bone-associated morbidity. In addition, predictive tools such as nomograms enable the identification of patients at risk of bone involvement during the course of their disease. Such tools may limit treatment costs by avoidance of unnecessary tests and might reduce both short-term and long-term complication rates. PMID:18682719

  11. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    You may feel a sharp sting when the needle with the tracer is placed into your vein. A PET scan causes no pain. The table may be ... The amount of radiation used in a PET scan is about the same amount as used in most CT scans. These scans use ...

  12. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  13. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Brixen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman plots. A moderate correlation between phalangeal BMD versus total hip (r = 0.47) and lumbar spine (r = 0.51), and an AUC on 0.80 was found. The mean difference between phalangeal T score and total hip T score/lumbar spine T score was low, and ranged from -0.26 SD to -0.31 SD depending on site and reference database used for calculation of T scores, but, large variation was seen at an individual level. When applying a triage approach approx. one-third of all DXA scan could be avoided and only 6 % of women in the low-risk group would be false negatives. PMID:26590810

  14. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  15. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Cancer Goiter - simple Hyperthyroidism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II PET scan Skin ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid ...

  16. Comparison of 2- and 3-Phase Bearingless Slice Motor Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürcher, Franz; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Gruber, Wolfgang; Kolar, Johann W.

    Several processes in chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and semiconductor industry require contactless levitation and rotation through a hermetically closed process chamber. A highly interesting topology for these applications is the “bearingless slice motor” concept, where already some research has been done in the past, especially focusing on topology and implementation issues. However, only little work has been done to evaluate the ideal number of motor phases. In this paper, a performance evaluation between 2-phase and 3-phase bearingless slice motor concepts is undertaken. It is shown, that 3-phase systems can supply almost the same power as state-of-the-art 2-phase systems and achieve nearly the same acceleration behavior, although they have significantly less power electronics effort.

  17. Current control loop of 3-phase grid-connected inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbar, A. F.; Mansor, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of current control loop in 3-phase inverter which is used to control the active and reactive output power. Generally, current control loop, power control loop and phase lock-loop are the conventional parameters that can be found in an inverter system controlled by the conventional linear control type, for instance proportional (P), integral (I) and derivative (D). If the grid remains stable throughout the day, PID control can be use. However variation of magnitude, frequency, voltage dips, transient, and other related power quality issues occur in a 3-phase grid often affects the control loop. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the available current control techniques used in grid connected system.

  18. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... also avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases, which are caused by poor nutrition, genetics, or ...

  19. Bone Grafts

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone ...

  20. Fiber-matrix interface studies on bioabsorbable composite materials for internal fixation of bone fractures. II. A new method using laser scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Slivka, M A; Chu, C C

    1997-12-01

    In this study, a new visual characterization method was developed using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to study morphologic properties, particularly at the fiber-matrix interface, by optical sectioning of bioabsorbable single-fiber composites. The interface gap width (IGW) between the fiber and matrix, and the changes in IGW after in vitro hydrolysis, named the gap rate (Rg), were measured from images obtained using the LSCM. Higher values for IGW and Rg showed faster degradation of the fiber-matrix interface. These parameters were used to investigate the effects of strain, wicking, different reinforcing fibers, and gamma-irradiation on the fiber-matrix interface morphology. The component materials used were nonbioabsorbable AS4 carbon (C) fibers, bioabsorbable calcium phosphate (CaP), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), and chitin fibers, and bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix. The application of strain on CaP/PLLA composites increased the IGW up to about 15%, after which there was no change up to 25%. The Rg for CaP/PLLA composites with the fiber ends exposed in vitro (permitting wicking) was greater than for CaP/PLLA with the fiber ends embedded completely within the matrix (preventing wicking). Open-end C/PLLA composites had the slowest rate of interface degradation in vitro, followed by chitin/PLLA, PGA/PLLA, and CaP/PLLA. The exposure of closed-end CaP/PLLA composites to 4 Mrad of gamma-irradiation, in air at room temperature or in vaccuum at 77K, accelerated the rate of interface degradation in vitro. In conclusion, an effective new visual characterization method was developed using LSCM, and it was used to show that (a) moderate strain could accelerate the degradation of the interface, (b) fiber-matrix interface wicking could accelerate the rate of degradation of the interface, (c) the rate of interface degradation depends on the type of fiber used, and (d) gamma-irradiation could accelerate the rate of interface degradation. Furthermore, the

  1. Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.M.; Cromey, D.W. )

    1990-05-01

    A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed.

  2. Tree Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Maxwell, Taylor; Posada, David; Stengård, Jari H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    We use evolutionary trees of haplotypes to study phenotypic associations by exhaustively examining all possible biallelic partitions of the tree, a technique we call tree scanning. If the first scan detects significant associations, additional rounds of tree scanning are used to partition the tree into three or more allelic classes. Two worked examples are presented. The first is a reanalysis of associations between haplotypes at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster that was previously analyzed using a nested clade analysis, a more complicated technique for using haplotype trees to detect phenotypic associations. Tree scanning and the nested clade analysis yield the same inferences when permutation testing is used with both approaches. The second example is an analysis of associations between variation in various lipid traits and genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in three human populations. Tree scanning successfully identified phenotypic associations expected from previous analyses. Tree scanning for the most part detected more associations and provided a better biological interpretative framework than single SNP analyses. We also show how prior information can be incorporated into the tree scan by starting with the traditional three electrophoretic alleles at APOE. Tree scanning detected genetically determined phenotypic heterogeneity within all three electrophoretic allelic classes. Overall, tree scanning is a simple, powerful, and flexible method for using haplotype trees to detect phenotype/genotype associations at candidate loci. PMID:15371364

  3. Bone scintigraphy in diabetic osteoarthropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Eymontt, M.J.; Alavi, A.; Dalinka, M.K.; Kyle, G.C.

    1981-08-01

    Bone scans of patients with diabetic osteoarthropathy of the ankle and foot were characterized by a combination of diffuse and focal increased uptake, similar to that seen with hyperemia and reactive new bone formation. Scintigraphy showed more extensive abnormalities than radiography, with the scan abnormalities sometimes preceding the radiographic changes. The clinical and scintigraphic appearance of osteoarthropathy may improve following strict diabetic control and non-weight-bearing.

  4. Unsuspected pregnancy during bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.; Becker, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite careful screening efforts to avoid it, nuclear medicine studies are unintentionally performed on pregnant patients. Three-phase bone scanning is a common procedure performed in women of child-bearing age. Unsuspected pregnancies have been discovered on the flow and early view of the pelvis. The authors present a case of a pregnant girl, aged 15, who had a bone scan. They explain how this occurred and how they plan to prevent a recurrence. Dosimetry for the fetus also is considered.

  5. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this classroom activity, engineering, nutrition, and physical activity collide when students design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increas...

  6. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  7. Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is ... Whether your osteoporosis treatment is working Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis ...

  8. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common types of primary bone cancer are: • Multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone cancer. It ... Any bone can be affected by this cancer. Multiple myeloma affects approximately six people per 100,000 each ...

  9. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  10. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... functions inside your body. They use a special camera that detects radioactivity. Before the test, you receive ... you lie still on a table while the camera makes images. Most scans take 20 to 45 ...

  11. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  12. Infrared Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    United Scanning Technologies, Inc.'s Infrared thermography is a relatively new noncontact, nondestructive inspection and testing tool which makes temperatures visible to the human eye. Infrared scanning devices produce images that show, by color or black and white shading differences, heat losses through damaged or inadequately insulated walls or roofs. The MISS Aeroscan services are designed to take the guesswork out of industrial roof maintenance and provide companies big savings by identifying the location of moisture damage from roof leaks, effectively targeting maintenance attention.

  13. Short bones

    MedlinePlus

    Short bones in the human body are often cube-like, their length, width, and height are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones of the hands and wrist, and the tarsal bones of the feet and ankles.

  14. Effect of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite bone cement on bone remodeling following hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo X; Lin, Jian H; Chiu, Peter K Y; Li, Zhao Y; Lu, William W

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether the use of bioactive bone cement has any beneficial effect on local bone adaptation following hip replacement. In this study, twelve goats underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty unilaterally, with either PMMA bone cement or strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bioactive bone cement. Nine months later, the femoral cortical bones at different levels were analyzed by microhardness testing and micro-CT scanning. Extensive bone remodeling was found at proximal and mid-levels in both PMMA and Sr-HA groups. However, with regard to the differences of bone mineral density, cortical bone area and bone hardness between implanted and non-implanted femur, less decreases were found in Sr-HA group than PMMA group at proximal and mid-levels, and significant differences were shown for bone area and hardness at proximal level. The results suggested that the use of Sr-HA cement might alleviate femoral bone remodeling after hip replacement. PMID:19728042

  15. Automatic recognition of bone for x-ray bone densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepp, Larry A.; Vardi, Y.; Lazewatsky, J.; Libeau, James; Stein, Jay A.

    1991-06-01

    We described a method for automatically identifying and separating pixels representing bone from those representing soft tissue in a dual- energy point-scanned projection radiograph of the abdomen. In order to achieve stable quantitative measurement of projected bone mineral density, a calibration using sample bone in regions containing only soft tissue must be performed. In addition, the projected area of bone must be measured. We show that, using an image with a realistically low noise, the histogram of pixel values exhibits a well-defined peak corresponding to the soft tissue region. A threshold at a fixed multiple of the calibration segment value readily separates bone from soft tissue in a wide variety of patient studies. Our technique, which is employed in the Hologic QDR-1000 Bone Densitometer, is rapid, robust, and significantly simpler than a conventional artificial intelligence approach using edge-detection to define objects and expert systems to recognize them.

  16. [Comparative studies on the material performances of natural bone-like apatite from different bone sources].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoxia; Ren, Haohao; Chen, Shutian; Wang, Guangni; Deng, Tianyu; Chen, Xingtao; Yan, Yonggang

    2014-04-01

    The compressive strength of the original bone tissue was tested, based on the raw human thigh bone, bovine bone, pig bone and goat bone. The four different bone-like apatites were prepared by calcining the raw bones at 800 degrees C for 8 hours to remove organic components. The comparison of composition and structure of bone-like apatite from different bone sources was carried out with a composition and structure test. The results indicated that the compressive strength of goat bone was similar to that of human thigh bone, reached (135.00 +/- 7.84) MPa; Infrared spectrum (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results showed that the bone-like apatite from goat bone was much closer to the structure and phase composition of bone-like apatite of human bones. Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) test results showed that the content of trace elements of bone-like apatite from goat bone was closer to that of apatite of human bone. Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) results showed that the Ca/P value of bone-like apatite from goat bone was also close to that of human bone, ranged to 1.73 +/- 0.033. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) patterns indicated that the macrographs of the apatite from human bone and that of goat bone were much similar to each other. Considering all the results above, it could be concluded that the goat bone-like apatite is much similar to that of human bone. It can be used as a potential natural bioceramic material in terms of material properties. PMID:25039141

  17. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  18. Evidence for arrested bone formation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Bobyn, J. D.; Duvall, P.; Morey, E. R.; Baylink, D. J.; Spector, M.

    1982-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the bone formed in space is unusual, the morphology of bone made at the tibial diaphysis of rats before, during, and after spaceflight is studied. Evidence of arrest lines in the bone formed in space is reported suggesting that bone formation ceases along portions of the periosteum during spaceflight. Visualized by microradiography, the arrest lines are shown to be less mineralized than the surrounding bone matrix. When viewed by scanning electron microscopy, it is seen that bone fractures more readily at the site of an arrest line. These observations are seen as suggesting that arrest lines are a zone of weakness and that their formation may result in decreased bone strength in spite of normalization of bone formation after flight. The occurrence, location, and morphology of arrest lines are seen as suggesting that they are a visible result of the phenomenon of arrested bone formation.

  19. Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Straten, Marcel van; Venema, Henk W.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2004-10-01

    In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose.

  20. Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Marcel; Venema, Henk W; Streekstra, Geert J; Majoie, Charles B L M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Grimbergen, Cornelis A

    2004-10-01

    In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose. PMID:15543801

  1. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  2. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  3. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  4. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  5. Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Schuepbach, Jonas; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Demard, Francois

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. Methods In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. Results In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the bone with high accuracy (p < 10-6) and a sensitivity that was superior to the sensitivity of clinical monitoring (92% and 75% respectively). Conclusion When performing bone scintigraphy during the first three postoperative days, it not only helps to detect complications with high accuracy, as described in earlier studies, but it is also an additional reliable monitoring tool to decide whether or not microvascular revision surgery should be performed. Bone scans were especially useful in buried free flaps where early postoperative monitoring depended exclusively on scans. According to our experience, we recommend bone scans as soon as possible after surgery and immediately in cases suspicious of vascularized bone graft failure. PMID:17448223

  6. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  7. Nuclear scan-guided rib biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Moores, D.W.; Line, B.; Dziuban, S.W. Jr.; McKneally, M.F. )

    1990-04-01

    The bone scan is a sensitive screening device that is frequently used to stage the condition of patients with known or suspected malignant disease. Abnormal findings on bone scan are associated with corresponding normal findings on radiographs in approximately 50% of cases. Definitive tissue diagnosis of the bone lesion is often needed to determine optimal therapy, but localization of the lesion is imprecise unless it is palpable. Use of the nuclear scan to localize and mark the rib enhances the precision of the biopsy procedure. Thirty-three consecutive patients with cancer who had bone scans suggestive of rib abnormalities underwent nuclear scan-guided biopsy. Each patient had a repeat localizing scan with a maximum permissible dose of technetium 99m radionuclide on the day of the planned biopsy. The site of abnormality was marked with methylene blue injected into the skin overlying the lesion and down to the periosteum at the specific site. The patient was then taken to the operating room and the marked area was excised through a small incision. Pathologic abnormality was identified in all but one of the resected specimens, an accuracy rate of 97%. Despite a presumed or proved diagnosis of cancer in 33 patients, 16 specimens (48%) were benign. There were no complications associated with this technique, which reduces the morbidity and increases the precision of rib biopsy.

  8. Mechanical stimulation of bone marrow in situ induces bone formation in trabecular explants.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Kreipke, T C; Dolan, E B; Coughlin, T R; Owens, P; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L; McHugh, P E

    2015-04-01

    Low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) loading has been shown to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in vivo. However, the precise mechanical signal imposed on the bone marrow cells by LMHF loading, which induces a cellular response, remains unclear. This study investigates the influence of LMHF loading, applied using a custom designed bioreactor, on bone adaptation in an explanted trabecular bone model, which isolated the bone and marrow. Bone adaptation was investigated by performing micro CT scans pre and post experimental LMHF loading, using image registration techniques. Computational fluids dynamic models were generated using the pre-experiment scans to characterise the mechanical stimuli imposed by the loading regime prior to adaptation. Results here demonstrate a significant increase in bone formation in the LMHF loaded group compared to static controls and media flow groups. The calculated shear stress in the marrow was between 0.575 and 0.7 Pa, which is within the range of stimuli known to induce osteogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Interestingly, a correlation was found between the bone formation balance (bone formation/resorption), trabecular number, trabecular spacing, mineral resorption rate, bone resorption rate and mean shear stresses. The results of this study suggest that the magnitude of the shear stresses generated due to LMHF loading in the explanted bone cores has a contributory role in the formation of trabecular bone and improvement in bone architecture parameters. PMID:25281407

  9. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - heart; Computed axial tomography scan - heart; Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agaston score; Coronary calcium scan

  10. Symmetry analysis of talus bone

    PubMed Central

    Islam, K.; Dobbe, A.; Komeili, A.; Duke, K.; El-Rich, M.; Dhillon, S.; Adeeb, S.; Jomha, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The main object of this study was to use a geometric morphometric approach to quantify the left-right symmetry of talus bones. Methods Analysis was carried out using CT scan images of 11 pairs of intact tali. Two important geometric parameters, volume and surface area, were quantified for left and right talus bones. The geometric shape variations between the right and left talus bones were also measured using deviation analysis. Furthermore, location of asymmetry in the geometric shapes were identified. Results Numerical results showed that talus bones are bilaterally symmetrical in nature, and the difference between the surface area of the left and right talus bones was less than 7.5%. Similarly, the difference in the volume of both bones was less than 7.5%. Results of the three-dimensional (3D) deviation analyses demonstrated the mean deviation between left and right talus bones were in the range of -0.74 mm to 0.62 mm. It was observed that in eight of 11 subjects, the deviation in symmetry occurred in regions that are clinically less important during talus surgery. Conclusions We conclude that left and right talus bones of intact human ankle joints show a strong degree of symmetry. The results of this study may have significance with respect to talus surgery, and in investigating traumatic talus injury where the geometric shape of the contralateral talus can be used as control. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:139–45. PMID:24802391

  11. A Boon for Bone Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA studies for astronaut health in long-term space missions led to the development of the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), a research tool for astronaut disuse, osteoporosis and related bone disorders among the general population. Ames Research Center and Stanford University generated a workable device and with Gait Scan, Inc., refined and commercialized it. The MRTA is a portable dsinstrument that measures the bending stiffness of bones using electrically-induced vibration and detects and analyzes the frequencies of the resonating bone. Unlike some other methods, the MRTA uses no radiation and is fast, simple and relatively inexpensive.

  12. Stress fractures and bone pain

    SciTech Connect

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method.

  13. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  14. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:26946704

  15. Multiple atypical bone involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mañá, J; Segarra, M I; Casas, R; Mairal, L; Fernández-Nogués, F

    1993-02-01

    We describe a patient with right paratracheal and left hilar lymph nodes detected by chance on chest radiography that followed a spontaneous remission. However, a few months later she complained of multiple scalp nodules. Skull roentgenogram and computerized tomogram scan showed multiple osteolytic lesions with increased uptake in bone and gallium scans. Lytic lesions were also detected in her right mandibular bone and right clavicle. Noncaseating granulomas were demonstrated in skull and cervical lymph node biopsies. PMID:8474084

  16. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of mastoiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Goodman, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    Bone scintigraphy has proven utility in the early diagnosis of osteomyelitis, but the authors were unable to find any report of its specific application to mastoiditis. Three cases of mastoiditis are presented in which the bone scan findings predicted the histopathologic findings.

  17. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with /sup 111/In oxide labeled while blood cells and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p less than 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attenuation coefficient of the medullary cavities in the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  18. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  19. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  20. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2014:chap 67. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  1. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  2. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... gov/pubmed/18381118 . Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, ...

  3. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Mosby; 2012:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  4. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... or other growth (mass) Cerebral atrophy (loss of brain tissue) ... with the hearing nerve Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  5. Investigation of using bone texture analysis on bone densitometry images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinander, Michael R.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Shah, Ruchi D.; Vokes, Tamara

    2002-05-01

    We previously developed bone texture analysis methods to assess bone strength on digitized radiographs. Here, we compare the analyses performed on digitized screen-film to those obtained on peripheral bone densitometry images. A leg phantom was imaged with both a PIXI (GE Medical Systems; Milwaukee, WI) bone densitometer (0.200-mm pixel size) and a screen-film system, with the films being subsequently digitized by a laser film digitizer (0.100-mm pixel size). The phantom was radiographically scanned multiple times with the densitometer at the default parameters and for increasing exposure times. Fourier-based texture features were calculated from regions of interest from images from both modalities. The bone densitometry images contained more quantum noise than the radiographs resulting in increased values for the first moment of the power spectrum texture feature (1.22 times higher than from the standard radiograph). Presence of such noise may adversely affect the texture feature's ability to distinguish between strong and weak bone. By either increasing the exposure time or averaging multiple scans in the spatial frequency domain, we showed a reduction in the effect of the quantum mottle on the first moment of the power spectrum.

  6. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  7. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  8. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  9. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent injury to the bone. You may also be at risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and fever Swelling, warmth, and redness A blood ...

  10. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z

    1991-02-01

    Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

  11. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Paget's Disease of Bone What is Paget's Disease of Bone? Click for more information Enlarged and Misshapen Bones Paget's disease of bone causes affected bones to ...

  12. Metastatic Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone Disease cont. Page ( 4 ) MBD vs. Primary Bone Cancer The diagnosis of metastatic bone disease should not ... from an unknown primary carcinoma or a primary bone cancer (sarcoma). For example, if an area of bone ...

  13. Bone x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  14. Diagnostic value of routine bone scintigraphy renal imaging in renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chancellor, M.B.; Konnak, J.W.; Grossman, H.B.

    1989-05-01

    Technetium-99m-phosphate compounds used in bone scanning are excreted by the kidney, and excellent renal images can be obtained on routine bone scintigrams. The preoperative bone scans of 49 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma between 1981 and 1985 were reviewed for renal imaging. Ninety-four percent of the patients had abnormal bone scan renal images (82% had focal decreased uptake, and 12% had focal increased uptake). Six percent of the renal images were symmetrical bilaterally. When bone scans are employed in the postoperative follow-up of patients with renal cancer, they can be used to assess the status of the remaining kidney.

  15. Effects of prostaglandin on experimental bone malignancy and on scintigrams of bone and marrow. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, N.; Ito, Y.; Nagai, K.; Terashima, H.; Yanagimoto, S.; Muranaka, A.

    1981-05-01

    The correlation between prostaglandin E (PgE) and scintigrams of bone (Tc-99m MDP) and bone marrow (Tc-99m SC) was investigated in normal and VX-2-bearing rabbits. PgE in plasma of normal rabbits was 486.2. In rabbits with VX-2 transplanted into femoral muscles, PgE was in the normal range unless the tumor invaded bone. PgE was not increase significantly in rabbits when the tumor was transplanted into the marrow cavity. When tumor invaded bone, PgE increassed markedly (to 1335). Elevation of PgE did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not necessarily coincide with the appearance of positive bone scans. PgE in an indomethacin-treated group did not higher than in the untreated group. Indomethacin may suppress the local acceleration of calcium metabolism.

  16. ACR appropriateness criteria on metastatic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Catherine C; Daffner, Richard H; Weissman, Barbara N; Bancroft, Laura; Bennett, D Lee; Blebea, Judy S; Bruno, Michael A; Fries, Ian Blair; Germano, Isabelle M; Holly, Langston; Jacobson, Jon A; Luchs, Jonathan S; Morrison, William B; Olson, Jeffrey J; Payne, William K; Resnik, Charles S; Schweitzer, Mark E; Seeger, Leanne L; Taljanovic, Mihra; Wise, James N; Lutz, Stephen T

    2010-06-01

    Appropriate imaging modalities for screening, staging, and surveillance of patients with suspected and documented metastatic disease to bone include (99m)Tc bone scanning, MRI, CT, radiography, and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-PET. Clinical scenarios reviewed include asymptomatic stage 1 breast carcinoma, symptomatic stage 2 breast carcinoma, abnormal bone scan results with breast carcinoma, pathologic fracture with known metastatic breast carcinoma, asymptomatic well-differentiated and poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma, vertebral fracture with history of malignancy, non-small-cell lung carcinoma staging, symptomatic multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma staging and surveillance, and suspected bone metastasis in a pregnant patient. No single imaging modality is consistently best for the assessment of metastatic bone disease across all tumor types and clinical situations. In some cases, no imaging is indicated. The recommendations contained herein are the result of evidence-based consensus by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Radiology. PMID:20522392

  17. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  18. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  19. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... Saunders; 2015:chap 93. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  20. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  1. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  2. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  3. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  4. Lyotropic liquid crystalline L3 phase silicated nanoporous monolithic composites and their production

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Kathryn M.; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2003-10-28

    A mesoporous ceramic material is provided having a pore size diameter in the range of about 10-100 nanometers produced by templating with a ceramic precursor a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase consisting of a three-dimensional, random, nonperiodic network packing of a multiple connected continuous membrane. A preferred process for producing the inesoporous ceramic material includes producing a template of a lyotropic liquid crystalline L.sub.3 phase by mixing a surfactant, a co-surfactant and hydrochloric acid, coating the template with an inorganic ceramic precursor by adding to the L.sub.3 phase tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then converting the coated template to a ceramic by removing any remaining liquids.

  5. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  6. Bone densitometry in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using /sup 153/Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references.

  7. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells ...

  8. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's ...

  9. Genetics of Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... study linked 32 novel genetic regions to bone mineral density. The findings may help researchers understand why ... or treating osteoporosis. Bones are made of a mineral and protein scaffold filled with bone cells. Bone ...

  10. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  11. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  12. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  13. Association between Bone Mass and Dental Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, J T; Elfrink, M E C; Vucic, S; Heppe, D H M; Veerkamp, J S J; Jaddoe, V W V; Rivadeneira, F; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Wolvius, E B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) and hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs)/molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 6-y-old children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, starting from fetal life until adulthood in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were used to score the intraoral photographs on the presence or absence of HSPMs and MIH. Bone mass was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Intraoral photographs and DXA scans were available in 6,510 6-y-old children. Binary logistic regression models were used to study the association between the bone mass and HSPMs/MIH. In total, 5,586 children had their second primary molars assessed and a DXA scan made; 507 children were diagnosed with HSPM. Of 2,370 children with data on their permanent first molars, 203 were diagnosed with MIH. In the fully adjusted model, children with lower BMC (corrected for bone area) were more likely to have HSPMs (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.26 per 1-standard deviation decrease). A lower BMC (corrected for bone area) was not associated with MIH (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.20 per 1-standard deviation decrease). We observed a negative association between BMC (corrected for bone area) and HSPMs. No association was found between BMC (corrected for bone area) and MIH. Future research should focus on investigating the mechanism underlying the negative association between the bone mass and HSPMs. Our study, in a large population of 6-y-old children, adds the finding that BMC (corrected for bone size) is associated with HSPMs but not with MIH in childhood. PMID:26747420

  14. Engineering anatomically shaped human bone grafts

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Chan, M. Ete; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Wan, Leo Q.; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The ability to engineer anatomically correct pieces of viable and functional human bone would have tremendous potential for bone reconstructions after congenital defects, cancer resections, and trauma. We report that clinically sized, anatomically shaped, viable human bone grafts can be engineered by using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and a “biomimetic” scaffold-bioreactor system. We selected the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar bone as our tissue model, because of its clinical importance and the challenges associated with its complex shape. Anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from fully decellularized trabecular bone by using digitized clinical images, seeded with hMSCs, and cultured with interstitial flow of culture medium. A bioreactor with a chamber in the exact shape of a human TMJ was designed for controllable perfusion throughout the engineered construct. By 5 weeks of cultivation, tissue growth was evidenced by the formation of confluent layers of lamellar bone (by scanning electron microscopy), markedly increased volume of mineralized matrix (by quantitative microcomputer tomography), and the formation of osteoids (histologically). Within bone grafts of this size and complexity cells were fully viable at a physiologic density, likely an important factor of graft function. Moreover, the density and architecture of bone matrix correlated with the intensity and pattern of the interstitial flow, as determined in experimental and modeling studies. This approach has potential to overcome a critical hurdle—in vitro cultivation of viable bone grafts of complex geometries—to provide patient-specific bone grafts for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions. PMID:19820164

  15. Bone Quality in Paget's Disease of Bone.

    PubMed

    Singer, Frederick R

    2016-04-01

    Paget's disease of bone is produced by a localized increase in osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity which can progress slowly to involve an entire bone if untreated. A common feature is enlarged bones which are deformed, particularly in weight-bearing regions of the skeleton such as the lower extremity. Pathologic fractures may be a consequence, and nonunion of femoral fractures is not uncommon. Analyses of bone biopsies from patients with Paget's disease indicate that there is a lower, heterogeneous degree of bone mineralization and a younger tissue age than that found in control bone. Pagetic bone also has less resistance to plastic deformation and a straighter crack path than control bone. PMID:26943142

  16. BONE BANKS

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; Vieira, Inácio Facó Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Bone banks are necessary for providing biological material for a series of orthopedic procedures. The growing need for musculoskeletal tissues for transplantation has been due to the development of new surgical techniques, and this has led to a situation in which a variety of hospital services have been willing to have their own source of tissue for transplantation. To increase the safety of transplanted tissues, standards for bone bank operation have been imposed by the government, which has limited the number of authorized institutions. The good performance in a bone bank depends on strict control over all stages, including: formation of well-trained harvesting teams; donor selection; conducting various tests on the tissues obtained; and strict control over the processing techniques used. Combination of these factors enables greater scope of use and numbers of recipient patients, while the incidence of tissue contamination becomes statistically insignificant, and there is traceability between donors and recipients. This paper describes technical considerations relating to how a bone bank functions, the use of grafts and orthopedic applications, the ethical issues and the main obstacles encountered. PMID:27026958

  17. Broken bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a height Motor vehicle accidents Direct blow Child abuse Repetitive forces, such as those caused by running, ... you can clearly see a deformity, assume the child has a broken bone and get medical help. Prevention Take the following steps to reduce your risk ...

  18. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  19. Fat embolism syndrome following bone marrow harvesting.

    PubMed

    Baselga, J; Reich, L; Doherty, M; Gulati, S

    1991-06-01

    A case of fat embolism syndrome is reported following an uncomplicated bone marrow harvest. The presenting symptoms were restlessness, shortness of breath and arterial hypoxemia. A lung perfusion scan ruled out the presence of a lung thromboembolism. The patient received supportive therapy and recovered within a few hours. We speculate that the larger gauge needle (13 vs 15) used to aspirate the bone marrow may have represented increased trauma to the iliac crest leading to fat embolism. PMID:1873595

  20. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 甲状腺スキャン検査 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Bone Scan 골 (骨) 스캔 - 한국어 (Korean) ...

  1. Comparison of single- and dual-photon absorptiometry in postmenopausal bone mineral loss

    SciTech Connect

    Nilas, L.; Borg, J.; Gotfredsen, A.; Christiansen, C.

    1985-11-01

    The authors describe a single photon absorptiometric (SPA) technique, which enables differential estimation of the rates of loss from trabecular and cortical bone. Ten scans are obtained in the forearm: six in an area with about 7% trabecular bone and four scans in the adjacent distal area with a trabecular bone content of 25%. By comparing bone masses of these two sites in 19 postmenopausal and 53 premenopausal women, the postmenopausal trabecular bone loss was estimated to be approximately seven times greater than cortical loss within the first years of cessation of regular vaginal bleeding. On a group basis the bone loss at the distal forearm scan site (by SPA) corresponded closely to the spinal bone loss (by dual-photon absorptiometry). The reproducibility of the two scan sites in the forearm was 1-1.5% (CV%), which makes the method suitable for longitudinal studies. Corrections for variations in fatty tissue covering can be made without deterioration of the reproducibility.

  2. Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characterization of the tumor matrix and detection of associated osseous changes such as bone remodeling, destruction or periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging is of limited value in the evaluation of maxillofacial bone tumors. PMID:21666818

  3. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  5. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007469.htm Breast PET scan To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. A breast positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive ...

  6. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... any concerns you have about radiation with the health care provider who recommends the test. ... Usually the health care provider will recommend this scan based on ... the scan. For this reason, this test is not often done anymore.

  7. A quantification strategy for missing bone mass in case of osteolytic bone lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Fränzle, Andrea Giske, Kristina; Bretschi, Maren; Bäuerle, Tobias; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean

  8. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Strobel, K

    2009-11-01

    Conventional bone scintigraphy is still the standard investigation for the detection of bone metastases, especially in breast and prostate cancer. In unclear scintigraphic uptakes in the appendicular skeleton conventional x-rays are problem solving in most of the cases. In unclear uptakes in the axial skeleton additional performance of SPECT/CT can increase the specificity. Fluoride-PET/CT is superior to conventional bone scintigraphy but is not yet available in clinical routine. Patients with high-risk breast cancer and patients with lung cancer should be staged with FDG-PET/CT primarily. An additional bone scan is than superfluous. The great advantage of FDG-PET/CT is the fact that bone metastases and organ metastases can be detected in the same investigation. There is a clear trend of shifting patients from conventional nuclear medicine to PET/CT. PMID:20029782

  9. Bone banking and sterilization of bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, I.; Itoman, M.; Maehara, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    1995-08-01

    The use of banked bone (preserved allograft bone) is various and essential, because it has numerous advantages including the relative ease in retrieval a large amount of bone material and requisite shape and size. But bone banking and allografting must be promoted under obligation to stably supply safe and high-quality bone. To avoid transferring disease perfectly, irradiation sterilization is especially recommended at the present time.

  10. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  11. Optical scanning cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a technique called optical scanning cryptography (OSC). The technique can perform encryption on-the-fly using laser beams and can be implemented using an optical heterodyne scanning. We shall first describe the optical heterodyne scanning system and then provide some computer simulations to clarify and confirm the idea of encryption and decryption.

  12. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health ...

  13. New bone formation by murine osteoprogenitor cells cultured on corticocancellous allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ehren R; Huang, Zhinong; Ma, Ting; Lindsey, Derek; Jacobs, Christopher; Smith, Robert L; Goodman, Stuart B

    2008-12-01

    The gold standard for bone grafting in orthopedics is autograft, however autograft has a limited supply and is associated with significant morbidity at the harvest site. One alternative, allograft bone, provides an osteoconductive scaffold, is in less limited supply, and it does not require a harvest from the patient. However, allograft lacks both osteogenic cells and osteoinductive proteins that make autograft bone so advantageous. This study provides a model to investigate strategies for augmentation of corticocancellous allograft bone discs with bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) plus exogenous growth factors in vitro. In this model, allograft bone discs were created by cutting 1-mm thick slices from the distal femur and proximal tibia of euthanized mice. The allografts were sterilized and scanned by micro-computed tomography (microCT) to provide the pre-culture graft volume and trabecular characteristics. The discs were then seeded with OPCs harvested from murine bone marrow. The seeded grafts were placed in organ culture until harvest, after which they were re-scanned by microCT and the data compared to the corresponding pre-culture data. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7, also know as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and OP-1 combined with bFGF were added on a daily basis to the cultures. After final microCT scanning, all grafts were sectioned and evaluated histologically after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. microCT scans of cultured allografts with cells at 3, 5, and 9 weeks showed a time-dependent, statistically significant increase in bone volume. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.) of grafts, from both groups that were augmented with OP-1, showed a statistically significant increase in trabecular thickness of allografts with OPCs. These data suggest that bone marrow-derived OPCs adhere to, and produce, new bone on corticocancellous allograft in vitro. When exogenous OP-1 is added to

  14. Reliable 3-phase PWM boost rectifiers employing a stacked dual boost converter subtopology

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes circuit topologies for 3-phase pulse-width modulation (PWM) boost rectifiers that operate with a unity fundamental power factor and a low-distortion ac line current. Overlap delays between the switching of the upper and lower devices in a PWM rectifier leg are not critical and diodes eliminates the possibility of the dc-link capacitor discharging into short circuits and shoot-through fault conditions. The rectifiers are controlled using a stacked dual boost converter cell subtopology model that can be used in two current control modes. The dual current-control mode shapes two line currents and can achieve current distortion levels below 5%. The single current-control mode shapes one line current and can achieve current distortion levels close to 5% with the rectifier output dc voltage at the standard level associated with a rectified mains voltage. The per-unit current ratings for the switches in the 3-phase PWM switch networks are around 15--20% of the input rms line current as compared to 71% for a standard 3-phase PWM rectifier. Circuit simulations and experimental results are used to demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the rectifiers described.

  15. [Bone quantitative ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mami

    2016-01-01

    The conventional ultrasonic bone densitometry system can give us information of bone as ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation. However, the data reflect both structural and material properties of bone. In order to focus only on the bone matrix properties without the effect of bone structure, studies of microscopic Brillouin scattering technique are introduced. The wave velocity in a trabecula was anisotropic and depended on the position and structure of the cancellous bone. The glycation also affected on the wave velocities in bone. As a new bone quality, the piezoelectricity of bone is also discussed. PMID:26728531

  16. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  17. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  18. Digital radiographic localization for CT scanning of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.; Rauch, R.F.

    1983-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx is the preferred method for staging laryngeal carcinoma and assessing the extent of injury from trauma. The standard method of examination consists of 5 mm contiguous scans throughout the larynx in quiet respiration. Scans are performed with the patient supine with the neck slightly extended allowing the long axis of the larynx to be perpendicular to the scanning plane. A complete examination requires scanning from the supraglottic region (level of hyoid bone) to the subglottic region (level of cricoid cartlage). In the authors' experience when this method is used, multiple scans are performed cephalad to the level of interest because no upper limit of the examination is established before transaxial scans are done. We have used the lateral digital radiograph of the neck to identify specific landmarks so that the upper and lower limets of the examination can be established before scanning.

  19. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  20. Bone Scintigraphy and CT Findings in Transverse Process Apophysitis.

    PubMed

    Dua, Sumeet G; Ali, Amjad

    2016-07-01

    A 14-year-old avid gymnast presented with recent onset of increasing lower thoracic back pain. Clinical examination revealed point tenderness at about T10 level. Focal uptake was seen to the left of the midline on a bone scan ordered to exclude stress fracture. Spine CT when read in conjunction with the bone scan revealed apophysitis of the transverse process. Apophysitis of the posterior elements of the vertebrae is a rare cause of back pain in adolescents. PMID:26914575

  1. Stress fracture of the navicular bone. Nine cases in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S; Peltokallio, P; Tulikoura, I; Walden, M

    1985-12-01

    Nine cases of stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone were treated in athletes. The diagnosis was made with radiographs and bone scan within 6 months. Only two patients were treated surgically. The only poor result was seen in a patient in whom the fracture was only explored. PMID:4090953

  2. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Dynamic CT scanning of spinal column trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Cann, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    Dynamic sequential computed tomographic scanning with automatic table incrementation uses low milliampere-second technique to eliminate tube cooling delays between scanning slices and, thus, markedly shortens examination times. A total of 25 patients with spinal column trauma involving 28 levels were studied with dynamic scans and retrospectively reviewed. Dynamic studies were considerably faster than conventional spine examinations and yielded reliable diagnosis. Bone disruption and subluxation was accurately evaluated, and the use of intrathecal metrizamide in low doses allowed direct visualization of spinal cord or radicular compromise. Multiplanar image reformation was aided by the dynamic incrementation technique, since motion between slices (and the resulting misregistration artifact on image reformation) was minimized. A phantom was devised to test spatial resolution of computed tomography for objects 1-3 mm in size and disclosed minimal differences for dynamic and conventional computed tomographic techniques in resolving medium-to-high-contrast objects.

  4. Negative radionuclide scan in osteoid osteoma. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Fehring, T.K.; Green, N.E.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in radionuclide imaging have facilitated the accurate diagnosis and surgical excision of osteoid osteoma. While radionuclide imaging has been inconsistent in the diagnosis of certain problems, its accuracy in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma has been frequently stressed. To date, no case of a negative bone scan in the presence of a histologically proven osteoid osteoma has been reported. The present case report emphasizes that a negative bone scan does not preclude the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Clinical suspicion remains the most sensitive indicator of this lesion.

  5. Facts about Broken Bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... las fracturas de huesos Your bones are tough stuff — but even tough stuff can break. Like a wooden pencil, bones will ... that? Get a lot of physical activity, especially stuff like jumping and running. Feed your bones the ...

  6. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003658.htm Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  7. Smoking and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density. Analyzing the impact of cigarette smoking on bone ... hard to determine whether a decrease in bone density is due to smoking itself or to other ...

  8. [Evaluation of bone sterngth].

    PubMed

    Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical testing of the bone provides the most important and direct information about bone strength. This article explains biomechanical priciples including structural mechanical properties and intrinsic material properties, and serves actual biomechanical testing tedhniques for bone specimens. PMID:26728529

  9. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  10. Assumption or Fact? Line-to-Neutral Voltage Expression in an Unbalanced 3-Phase Circuit during Inverter Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrur, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the situation in a 3-phase motor or any other 3-phase system operating under unbalanced operating conditions caused by an open fault in an inverter switch. A dc voltage source is assumed as the input to the inverter, and under faulty conditions of the inverter switch, the actual voltage applied between the line to neutral…

  11. Trabecular bone as a hierarchical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiuk, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Trabecular bone is studied as a hierarchical material. The analysis includes the experimental characterization of bone's structure, the measurement of its mechanical properties, and the mechanics modeling at several different length scales: nanoscale (under 1 micron, crystal/fiber level), sub-microscale (1-10 microns, single lamella level), microscale (10-500 microns, single trabecula level), and mesoscale (1 mm - 10 cm, trabecular structure, random network of struts or plates). Experiments include the characterization of bone's ultrastructure using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) at nano and sub-microscale levels. In addition, we use the x-ray microtomography, a nondestructive technique, which can provide the three-dimensional details of bone at mesostructural level. Measurements of mechanical properties are done using the MTS machine and nanoindentation apparatus. We use the MTS testing machine to determine constitutive relations of bone at mesoscale and the nanoindentation technique to determine the properties at lower scales. The experimental observations of bone's hierarchical structure are used in the theoretical analysis of bone's mechanical properties. The calculated results are compared with the experimentally measured ones. The material properties are determined at each scale both analytically (using micromechanics theories) and numerically (using a finite element method, a spring network, and beam network approaches). The computational challenges include a complex irregular, random structure at each level, spatial heterogeneity of bone's structure, applicability of separation of scales law, size of the representative volume element, and in general the dependence of properties on specimen size and boundary conditions.

  12. Hologic QDR 2000 whole-body scans: a comparison of three combinations of scan modes and analysis software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, E.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the short-term in vivo precision and absolute measurements of three combinations of whole-body scan modes and analysis software using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray densitometer. A group of 21 normal, healthy volunteers (11 male and 10 female) were scanned six times, receiving one pencil-beam and one array whole-body scan on three occasions approximately 1 week apart. The following combinations of scan modes and analysis software were used: pencil-beam scans analyzed with Hologic's standard whole-body software (PB scans); the same pencil-beam analyzed with Hologic's newer "enhanced" software (EPB scans); and array scans analyzed with the enhanced software (EA scans). Precision values (% coefficient of variation, %CV) were calculated for whole-body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass, %fat and total mass. In general, there was no significant difference among the three scan types with respect to short-term precision of BMD and only slight differences in the precision of BMC. Precision of BMC and BMD for all three scan types was excellent: < 1% CV for whole-body values, with most regional values in the 1%-2% range. Pencil-beam scans demonstrated significantly better soft tissue precision than did array scans. Precision errors for whole-body lean mass were: 0.9% (PB), 1.1% (EPB) and 1.9% (EA). Precision errors for whole-body fat mass were: 1.7% (PB), 2.4% (EPB) and 5.6% (EA). EPB precision errors were slightly higher than PB precision errors for lean, fat and %fat measurements of all regions except the head, although these differences were significant only for the fat and % fat of the arms and legs. In addition EPB precision values exhibited greater individual variability than PB precision values. Finally, absolute values of bone and soft tissue were compared among the three combinations of scan and analysis modes. BMC, BMD, fat mass, %fat and lean mass were significantly different between

  13. Screw insertion in trabecular bone causes peri-implant bone damage.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Juri A; Ferguson, Stephen J; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2016-04-01

    Secure fracture fixation is still a major challenge in orthopedic surgery, especially in osteoporotic bone. While numerous studies have investigated the effect of implant loading on the peri-implant bone after screw insertion, less focus has been put on bone damage that may occur due to the screw insertion process itself. Therefore, the aim of this study was to localize and quantify peri-implant bone damage caused by screw insertion. We used non-invasive three-dimensional micro-computed tomography to scan twenty human femoral bone cores before and after screw insertion. After image registration of the pre- and post-insertion scans, changes in the bone micro-architecture were identified and quantified. This procedure was performed for screws with a small thread size of 0.3mm (STS, N=10) and large thread size of 0.6mm (LTS, N=10). Most bone damage occurred within a 0.3mm radial distance of the screws. Further bone damage was observed up to 0.6mm and 0.9mm radial distance from the screw, for the STS and LTS groups, respectively. While a similar amount of bone damage was found within a 0.3mm radial distance for the two screw groups, there was significantly more bone damage for the LTS group than the STS group in volumes of interest between 0.3-0.6mm and 0.6-0.9mm. In conclusion, this is the first study to localize and quantify peri-implant bone damage caused by screw insertion based on a non-invasive, three-dimensional, micro-CT imaging technique. We demonstrated that peri-implant bone damage already occurs during screw insertion. This should be taken into consideration to further improve primary implant stability, especially in low quality osteoporotic bone. We believe that this technique could be a promising method to assess more systematically the effect of peri-implant bone damage on primary implant stability. Furthermore, including peri-implant bone damage due to screw insertion into patient-specific in silico models of implant-bone systems could improve the

  14. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  15. Detection of musculoskeletal infection with the indium-III leukocyte scan

    SciTech Connect

    Prchal, C.L.; Kahen, H.L.; Blend, M.J.; Barmada, R.

    1987-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans were performed on 39 patients with suspected musculoskeletal infections to assess the usefulness of this study in detecting bone and joint infections. Results of these scans, as well as results of technetium-99m bone scans, were correlated with the patients' final diagnoses. The indium scan had an overall sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 69%, and an accuracy of 72%. In 10 patients with a duration of symptoms of six weeks or less, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 75%. In 29 patients with symptoms of greater than six weeks, the sensitivity and specificity were lower at 50% and 71% respectively. Technetium-99m bone scans were performed on 23 patients; sensitivity for infection was 100% while specificity was 60%. Our results suggest that the indium-111 leukocyte scan is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of acute musculoskeletal infections, but may be inconclusive in chronic infections.

  16. Experiment M-6: Bone Demineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Pauline B.; Vose, George; Vogt, Fred B.; LaChance, Paul A.

    1966-01-01

    Densitometric evaluations of serial radiographs of "normal" subjects have often shown rather frequent changes in bone mass within relatively short periods of time. For this reason it was decided to make two pre-flight and two post flight radiographs of the Gemini V backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and post flight as the conventional os calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. In comparing the changes observed preflight and postflight as the conventional o calcis scanning site between the two crews, it was found that no changes greater than 4 percent were evident in either member of the backup crew. This is in contract to the 15.1 and 8.9 percent losses observed in the prime crew. It has long been known that the skeletal system experiences a general loss of mineral under immobilization or extended bed rest. However, in both Gemini IV and Gemini V studies, bone mass losses were greater in both the os calcis and phalanx than were shown by the TWU bed-rest subjects during the same period of time. Although the bone mass losses in the 8-day Gemini V flight were generally greater than in the 4-day Gemini IV flight, the information to date is still insufficient to conclude that the losses tend to progress linearly with time, or whether a form of physiological adaptation may occur in longer space flights.

  17. Analysis of axially non-uniform loss distribution in 3-phase induction motor considering skew effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kown, B.I.; Kim, B.T.; Jun, C.S.; Park, S.C. )

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses the phenomena of the axially non-uniform distribution of magnetic flux densities and losses in a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor of which the rotor bars are skewed. A 2-dimensional complex finite element method taking account of the effects of the skewed rotor bars is utilized for the analysis of characteristics such as copper and iron losses and the loss distributions are examined. The summing up values of non-uniform losses resulted from the finite element analysis are compared with measurement values.

  18. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with indium-111 oxine labeled white blood cells and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p < 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attentuation coefficient of the medullary cavities of the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  19. Bone demineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, P. B.; Vose, G. P.; Vogt, F. B.; Lachance, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Crew members of the Gemini 4, Gemini 5, and Gemini 7 missions were compared regarding skeletal changes in three major anatomic sites with respect to changes in skeletal density during space flight. Bone-mass changes have been found for the command pilot and the pilot of each mission in the conventional os calcis section, in the combined sections covering 60 percent of the os calcis, and in hand phalanges 5-2 and 4-2. Comparison of radiographically determined losses in X-ray absorbence with X-ray absorbence losses in healthy young men subjected to bedrest immobilization for the same length of time showed that losses for the crewmembers exceeded losses for the bedrest subjects in all cases; this was an indication that restriction of body movement did not represent the only factor involved.

  20. Technetium bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in children

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, J.; Asha, M.; Mallouh, A.; Usta, H.; Talab, Y.; Ahmad, M.

    1987-06-01

    In a 5 1/2-year retrospective study of hospitalized children with osteomyelitis who had technetium bone scans, we found that 32 of 38 (84%) had increased radionuclide uptake, 4 (11%) had normal uptake and 2 (5%) had decreased uptake. The two patients with decreased uptake had a stormy course with extensive bone destruction and pathologic fractures in spite of prolonged courses of antibiotic therapy. Decreased uptake on bone scan in patients with clinical evidence of osteomyelitis could indicate a poor prognosis and early surgical drainage is indicated in order to decrease morbidity.

  1. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density is the amount of bone ...

  2. Guided Bone Regeneration of an Atrophic Mandible with a Heterologous Bone Block.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Greco, Gian Battista; Riboli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of using enzymatically deantigenated equine bone block as a scaffold for guided bone regeneration (GBR) during a horizontal augmentation of the lower jaw. A partially edentulous atrophic mandible was augmented using an equine-derived block with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. After 8.5 months, two bone core samples were collected at the augmentation site, and implants were placed. A definitive prosthesis delivered 6 months after implant placement provided excellent functional and aesthetic rehabilitation throughout the follow-up period. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis of the biopsies showed newly formed bone to be present and the residual biomaterial was still undergoing remodeling. Comparison of cone beam computed tomography scans taken before augmentation and 26 months later showed maintenance of ridge width and possible corticalization of the vestibular augmented ridge side. The equine-derived bone block placed in accordance with GBR principles provided a successful clinical, radiographic, and histological outcome. PMID:26889354

  3. Detection of micrometastatic prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow of patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, T.; Yang, M.; Ehara, H.; Ito, S.; Nishino, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Shimokawa, K.; Tanaka, T.; Imaeda, T.; Doi, T.; Kawada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer were examined for micrometastases to the bone marrow using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific for the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene. Of nine patients with bone metastases detectable by bone scan imaging, five patients had PSA mRNA expression in the bone marrow detectable by RT-PCR. Of 26 patients with negative bone scan findings, seven patients had PSA mRNA expression detectable in the bone marrow. RT-PCR could detect micrometastatic prostate cancer cells in the bone marrow that were not detectable by bone scan imaging. Of 16 patients with a serum PSA concentration of 25 ng ml(-1) or greater, only nine (56.3%) had bone metastases detected by bone scans. Of the remaining seven patients, five had micrometastases to the bone marrow detected by RT-PCR. Overall, 14 of 16 patients (87.5%) with a serum PSA concentration of 25 ng ml(-1) or greater had metastatic bone diseases including bone marrow micrometastases. Of 19 patients with a serum PSA concentration of less than 25 ng ml(-1), two (10.5%) had only micrometastatic disease detected by RT-PCR. A significant correlation was observed between the incidence of bone involvement and the serum PSA concentration. This study suggests that RT-PCR will potentially develop into a relevant tool to assess bone involvement including bone marrow micrometastases and establish a precise correlation between serum PSA concentration and metastatic bone disease in patients with prostate cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:9043017

  4. Mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone following cemented hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, G X; Lu, W W; Chiu, P K Y; Wang, Y; Li, Z Y; Zhang, Y G; Xu, B; Deng, L F; Luk, K D K

    2007-11-01

    Femoral bone remodeling following total hip replacement is a big concern and has never been examined mechanically. In this study, six goats underwent unilateral cemented hip hemiarthroplasty with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Nine months later animals were sacrificed, and the femoral cortical bone slices at different levels were analysed using microhardness testing and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanning. Implanted femurs were compared to contralateral nonimplanted femurs. Extensive bone remodeling was demonstrated at both the proximal and middle levels, but not at the distal level. Compared with the nonimplanted side, significant decreases were found in the implanted femur in cortical bone area, bone mineral density, and cortical bone hardness at the proximal level, as well as in bone mineral density and bone hardness at the middle level. However, no significant difference was observed in either variable for the distal level. In addition, similar proximal-to-distal gradient changes were revealed both in cortical bone microhardness and bone mineral density. From the mechanical point of view, the results of the present study suggested that stress shielding is an important mechanical factor associated with bone adaptation following total hip replacement. PMID:17506504

  5. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  6. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  7. Environmental Scanning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    This report describes Truckee Meadows Community College's (Nevada) environmental scanning process and results. The college decided that environmental scanning and forecasting techniques should be used to plan for both short-term and long-term external factors that impact programs, enrollment, and budgets. Strategic goals include: (1) keeping pace…

  8. Bone metastasis on Tc99-m sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Lachin; Jabi, Feraas

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to our department for a stress myocardial perfusion imaging study with Tc99m-sestamibi. Incidental focal uptake, found in the left upper anterior chest, was initially felt to be located in the left breast. After additional single-photon CT imaging was performed the same day, extracardiac foci within the ribs, spine, and left lung (worrisome for active metastases) were shown to be present, with the initial focus located within a left rib rather than a breast. A review of previous radiographic and nuclear imaging studies confirmed metastatic disease from recurrent follicular thyroid cancer. Atypical focal extracardiac activity must be closely scrutinized for the possibility of malignancy, as Tc99m-sestamibi (in addition to being myocardium-avid) is tumor-avid.

  9. Spectroscopic and Structural Investigations of alpha-beta-, and gamma-AIH3 Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Manciu, F.S.; Graetz, J.; Reza, L.; Durrer, W.G.; Bronson, A.; Lacina, D.

    2010-07-01

    With its reputation as a high-energy density fuel, aluminum hydride (AlH{sub 3}) has received renewed attention as a material that is particularly suitable, not only for hydrogen storage but also for rocket propulsion. While the various phases of AlH{sub 3} have been investigated theoretically, there is a shortage of experimental studies corroborating the theoretical findings. In response to this, we present here an investigation of these compounds based primarily on two research areas in which there is the greatest scarcity of information in the literature, namely Raman and infrared (IR) absorption analysis. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of experimental far-IR absorption results on these compounds. Two different samples prepared by broadly similar ethereal reactions of AlCl{sub 3} with LiAlH{sub 4} were analyzed. Both Raman and IR absorption measurements indicate that one sample is purely {gamma}-AlH{sub 3} and that the other is a mixture of {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-AlH{sub 3} phases. X-ray diffraction confirms the spectroscopic findings, most notably for the {beta}-AlH{sub 3} phase, for which optical spectroscopic data are reported here for the first time.

  10. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer in bone scintigraphy of a rare case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Babak; Ghafary, Bahar Moasses; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare diffuse pulmonary disease representing microliths formed by deposition of calcium phosphonate in the alveolar airspaces. PAM is often diagnosed incidentally during chest X-ray imaging. Most of them are asymptomatic. We present a 39-year-old man referring for a bone scan due to a complaint of right leg pain. Bone scan showed diffuse uptake of bone-seeking radiotracer on both lung fields predominantly in basal regions. The bronchoalveolar lavage test confirmed the diagnosis of PAM. PMID:26170578

  11. Splenic concentration of bone imaging agents in functional asplenia

    SciTech Connect

    Dhekne, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    Three cases of sickle cell disease associated with functional asplenia are described. The spleen was not visualized on routine Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scan. The bone scan performed with Tc-99m-phosphate compounds revealed abnormal splenic activity in all three cases. The previous case reports and the literature on this subject are reviewed.

  12. Primary bone marrow oedema syndromes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    MRI scanning in patients with rheumatological conditions often shows bone marrow oedema, which can be secondary to inflammatory, degenerative, infective or malignant conditions but can also be primary. The latter condition is of uncertain aetiology and it is also uncertain whether it represents a stage in the progression to osteonecrosis in some patients. Patients with primary bone marrow oedema usually have lower limb pain, commonly the hip, knee, ankle or feet. The diagnosis is one of exclusion with the presence of typical MRI findings. Treatment is usually conservative and includes analgesics and staying off the affected limb. The natural history is that of gradual resolution of symptoms over a number of months. Evidence for medical treatment is limited, but open-label studies suggest bisphosphonates may help in the resolution of pain and improve radiological findings. Surgical decompression is usually used as a last resort. PMID:24080251

  13. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  14. NOTE: An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J. C. W.; Huisman, Henk Jan; Kooloos, Jan G.; Huizenga, Henk; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients.

  15. Bone grafts in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Vinitha, Belliappa; Fathima, Ghousia

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation. PMID:23946565

  16. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  17. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

  18. Laser Scanning In Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

  19. Positron emission tomography and bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Ignac; Cook, Gary; Israel, Ora; Van der Wall, Hans

    2005-04-01

    The use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the evaluation and management of patients with malignancy continues to increase. However, its role in the identification of bone metastases is far from clear. FDG has the advantage of demonstrating all metastatic sites, and in the skeleton it is assumed that its uptake is directly into tumor cells. It is probable that for breast and lung carcinoma, FDG-PET has similar sensitivity, although poorer specificity, when compared with the isotope bone scan, although there is conflicting evidence, with several articles suggesting that it is less sensitive than conventional imaging in breast cancer. There is convincing evidence that for prostate cancer, FDG-PET is less sensitive than the bone scan and this may be tumor specific. There is very little data relating to lymphoma, but FDG-PET seems to perform better than the bone scan. There is an increasing body of evidence relating to the valuable role of FDG-PET in myeloma, where it is clearly better than the bone scan, presumably because FDG is identifying marrow-based disease at an early stage. There are, however, several other important variables that should be considered. The morphology of the metastasis itself appears to be relevant. At least in breast cancer, different patterns of FDG uptake have been shown in sclerotic, lytic, or lesions with a mixed pattern, Furthermore, the precise localization of a metastasis in the skeleton may be important with regard to the extent of the metabolic response induced. Previous treatment is highly relevant and it has been found that although the majority of untreated bone metastases are positive on PET scans and have a lytic pattern on computed tomography (CT), after treatment, incongruent CT-positive/PET-negative lesions are significantly more prevalent and generally are blastic, which presumably reflects a direct effect of treatment. Finally, the aggressiveness of the tumor itself may be relevant

  20. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  1. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  2. Evaluation of Lunar small animal software for measuring bone mineral content in excised rat bones.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Meyer, M H; Meyer, R A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate software from Lunar Corporation (Madison, WI) designed for the measurement of bone mineral content ([BMC],g) in excised rat femurs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femurs were harvested from intact 2- to 12-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, stripped of soft tissues, wrapped in saline-soaked gauze, and frozen at -20 degrees F. Thawed bones were scanned in air on a 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate that was laid on the manufacturer's supplied Delrin platform. Bones were in an anteroposterior position and scanned in a proximal-to-distal manner. Small animal software version 1.0d was used with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the middle one-third of the diaphysis, a small central area of the distal metaphysis, and the total bone. Precision (n = 6 femurs) was calculated for each region of interest. After DXA scanning, one group of bones (n = 10 femurs) was dried and incinerated in a muffle furnace to obtain bone ash. The ash was then digested in acid and aliquots assayed for calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This group of bones was used to correlate BMC with ash weight and areal bone mineral density (BMD) with calcium concentration. A second group of bones (n = 14 femurs) was used to correlate BMC with maximal load to failure (N), a biomechanical variable that provides information about bone strength. Precision of repetitive measurements for the three ROIs was 1.2, 3.0, and 0.65%, respectively. Total femur BMC and total femur ash weights were significantly correlated (r = 0.974, p <0.0001). Total femur area BMD (g/cm2) was significantly correlated with calcium concentration (microM) of the bone hydrolysate (r = 0.686, p = 0.029). Total femur BMC and maximum load to midshaft fracture were also significantly correlated (r = 0.914, p<0.0001). The greatest problem with the software was with edge detection: operator intervention was necessary to place edges manually during scan

  3. Anorexia nervosa and bone.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising additional concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, and hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiological estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age, given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  4. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  5. Cost-Optimal Design of a 3-Phase Core Type Transformer by Gradient Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, R.; Das, A.; Sensarma, A. K.; Sanyal, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    3-phase core type transformers are extensively used as power and distribution transformers in power system and their cost is a sizable proportion of the total system cost. Therefore they should be designed cost-optimally. The design methodology for reaching cost-optimality has been discussed in details by authors like Ramamoorty. It has also been discussed in brief in some of the text-books of electrical design. The paper gives a method for optimizing design, in presence of constraints specified by the customer and the regulatory authorities, through gradient search technique. The starting point has been chosen within the allowable parameter space the steepest decent path has been followed for convergence. The step length has been judiciously chosen and the program has been maneuvered to avoid local minimal points. The method appears to be best as its convergence is quickest amongst different optimizing techniques.

  6. Stabilization of ZnMnO3 Phase from Sol-gel Synthesized Nitrate Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.

    2010-02-01

    The stabilization and analysis of pure ZnMnO3 spinel phase may help to understand the solubility limits of Mn in ZnO in wurtzite and spinel cubic structures. In this report, synthesis and characterization of stable ZnMnO3 phase is discussed which is extracted from sol-gel synthesis of zinc and manganese nitrate precursors. The reflections at higher diffraction angles for this known cubic system with space group Fd3m were calculated with the help of JADE 8.0 program. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of Mn3p position of ZnMnO3 compared with ZnMn2O4 showed a higher binding energy shift ~0.85 eV indicating Mn4+ valence state in ZnMnO3.

  7. VERIFICATION OF 3-PHASES COMPOSITE MODEL FOR DRYING SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE WITH DEFFERENT AGGREGATE PROPERTIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kie; Shima, Hiroshi

    Properties of aggregate are not taken into account in current codes for drying shrinkage of concrete although the drying shrinkage is affected by the properties of aggregate. Aggregate restrains cement paste from shrinkage so that the drying shrinkage of concrete is controlled by drying shrinkage and Young's modulus of aggregate itself. The effect of the aggregate properties on drying shrinkage of concrete can be calculated by composite model in which concrete consists of cement paste and aggregate. Several different kind of coarse aggregate were used in order to verify a 3-phases composite model for drying shrinkage. Drying shrinkage and Young's modulus of cement paste, aggregate and concrete were measured. It was verified that drying shrinkage of concrete can be estimated accurately by the composite model associating with both drying shrinkage and Young's modulus of aggregate.

  8. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  9. Gas and grain chemical composition in cold cores as predicted by the Nautilus 3-phase model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruaud, Maxime; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck

    2016-04-01

    We present an extended version of the 2-phase gas-grain code NAUTILUS to the 3-phase modelling of gas and grain chemistry of cold cores. In this model, both the mantle and the surface are considered as chemically active. We also take into account the competition among reaction, diffusion and evaporation. The model predictions are confronted to ice observations in the envelope of low-mass and massive young stellar objects as well as toward background stars. Modelled gas-phase abundances are compared to species observed toward TMC-1 (CP) and L134N dark clouds. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed ice species. It is found that the reaction-diffusion competition strongly enhances reactions with barriers and more specifically reactions with H2, which is abundant on grains. This finding highlights the importance to have a good approach to determine the abundance of H2 on grains. Consequently, it is found that the major N-bearing species on grains go from NH3 to N2 and HCN when the reaction-diffusion competition is accounted. In the gas-phase and before few 105 yrs, we find that the 3-phase model does not have a strong impact on the observed species compared to the 2-phase model. After this time, the computed abundances dramatically decrease due to the strong accretion on dust, which is not counterbalanced by the desorption less efficient than in the 2-phase model. This strongly constrains the chemical-age of cold cores to be of the order of few 105 yrs.

  10. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  11. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  12. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  13. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  14. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  15. CT scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  16. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  17. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  18. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  19. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... pictures to create a very detailed, three-dimensional (3D) model of organs. Sometimes, a substance called contrast dye is injected into a vein in your arm for the CT scan. This substance highlights areas in your chest, which ...

  20. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  1. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the lower part of ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  2. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.; Weiss, S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Chemla, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed a general technique which combines the temporal resolution of ultrafast laser spectroscopy with the spatial resolution of scanned probe microscopy (SPM). Using this technique with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), they have obtained simultaneous 2 ps time resolution and 50 {angstrom} spatial resolution. This improves the time resolution currently attainable with STM by nine orders of magnitude. The potential of this powerful technique for studying ultrafast dynamical phenomena on surfaces with atomic resolution is discussed.

  3. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  4. Advances in noninvasive bone measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Vetter, J.; Ettinger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Several noninvasive measurement methods are used for evaluation of metabolic disease. Single-photon (/sup 125/I) scans of the peripheral skeleton are useful in some diseases but are ineffective in osteoporosis (even on the distal radius or os calcis) because they cannot predict spinal or femoral density. Also, peripheral measurements show high percentages of false negatives, that is many patients with fractures have normal peripheral density. Dual-photon (/sup 153/Gd) scans of the spine, femur, and total skeleton are precise and accurate (2% error) and provide direct measurements of bone strength at fracture sites. This gives the best discrimination of abnormality and the most sensitive monitoring. Quantitative computed computed tomography (QCT) allows measurement of the spine but not the critical proximal femur area. QCT has a large accuracy error because (a) the limited area measured (under 5 cm3) fails to represent the total vertebral body, (b) technical errors, and (c) variable fat and osteoid influence the results. 25 references.

  5. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  6. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  7. Bisphosphonates and bone quality

    PubMed Central

    Pazianas, Michael; van der Geest, Stefan; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are bone-avid compounds used as first-line medications for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. They are also used in other skeletal pathologies such as Paget's and metastatic bone disease. They effectively reduce osteoclast viability and also activity in the resorptive phase of bone remodelling and help preserve bone micro-architecture, both major determinants of bone strength and ultimately of the susceptibility to fractures. The chemically distinctive structure of each BP used in the clinic determines their unique affinity, distribution/penetration throughout the bone and their individual effects on bone geometry, micro-architecture and composition or what we call ‘bone quality'. BPs have no clinically significant anabolic effects. This review will touch upon some of the components of bone quality that could be affected by the administration of BPs. PMID:24876930

  8. [Microdestruction of the bone].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, V É

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the detection of microcracks in the compact bone tissue surrounding the fracture and in deformed bone undergoing subcritical loading. The portions of deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones were obtained in the form of blocks longitudinally sawcut from the regions of primary and secondary bone rupture. A total of 300 such blocks were available for the examination. All portions of the deformed bone tissue and terminal fragments of broken bones showed up microcracks commensurate with the bone structures. They were actually hardened traces of deformation that preceded the fracture and reflected the volume of the destroyed bone tissue; moreover, in certain cases they allowed to identify the kind of the object that exerted the external action (either a blow or slow bending). PMID:25269164

  9. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  10. Infant formula promotes bone growth in neonatal piglets by enhancing osteoblastogenesis through bone morphogenic protein signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively few studies have examined the effects of formula feeding relative to breast-feeding on bone in the neonate. Using peripheral quantitative CT scan and histomorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that neonatal piglets fed with soy-based formula (SF) and cow milk-based formula (MF) for 21 or...

  11. Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1994-09-01

    Preface; List of acronyms; Introduction; Part I. Experimental Methods and Theoretical Background of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy: 1. Scanning tunnelling microscopy; 2. Scanning force microscopy; 3. Related scanning probe techniques; Part II. Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy: 4. Condensed matter physics; 5. Chemistry; 6. Organic materials; 7. Metrology and standards; 8. Nanotechnology; References; Index.

  12. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  13. Bone strength: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles H

    2006-04-01

    Bones serve several mechanical functions, including acoustic amplification in the middle ear, shielding vital organs from trauma, and serving as levers for muscles to contract against. Bone is a multiphase material made up of a tough collagenous matrix intermingled with rigid mineral crystals. The mineral gives bone its stiffness. Without sufficient mineralization, bones will plastically deform under load. Collagen provides toughness to bone making it less brittle so that it better resists fracture. Bone adapts to mechanical stresses largely by changing its size and shape, which are major determinants of its resistance to fracture. Tissue is added in regions of high mechanical stress providing an efficient means for improving bone strength. Experiments have shown that small additions of bone mineral density (BMD) (5-8%) caused by mechanical loading can improve bone strength by over 60% and extend bone fatigue life by 100-fold. Consequently, it is clear that bone tissue possesses a mechanosensing apparatus that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed for improving bone strength. The biological processes involved in bone mechanotransduction are poorly understood and further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved might uncover drug targets for osteoporosis. Several pathways are emerging from current research, including membrane ion channels, ATP signaling, second messengers, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, insulin-like growth factors, and Wnt signaling. PMID:16831941

  14. Comparative value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in monitoring tumor response in systemially treated prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, R.M.; Sauerbrunn, B.J.; Bates, H.R.; Newman, R.D.; Eddy, J.L.; Ihde, D.C.

    1983-02-01

    Radionuclide bone scans and skeletal radiographs were obtained before and during combination chemotherapy or initial hormonal treatment in 46 patients with disseminated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The purpose of the study was to determine the usefulness of these two modalities in evaluating tumor response to therapy. Prior to treatment, bone scans were positive in 44 patients (96%). In all but one patient either bone radiographs or bone marrow biopsy revealed evidence of osseous metastases. In 22 patients partial response to therapy was documented by a variety of other staging tests.Eleven of these patients showed concurrent or later improvement on bone scans; one showed improvement on a radiograph. ''Flare phenomena'' were observed relatively frequently since 23% of the scans and 50% of the radiographs showed worsening at the time of response. Bone scans revealed worsening in 79% of 33 patients with disease progression of extraosseous tumor; radiographs were equally sensitive (82% worsening). It is concluded that bone scans in particular are ueful for monitoring tumor status in systemically treated patients with prostate cancer. However, because of the lack of sensitivity for response and paradoxical worsening with tumor regression in some patients, scans are not accurate enough to be employed as the sole test in following these patients.

  15. Comparative value of bone scintigraphy and radiography in monitoring tumor response in systemically treated prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, R.M.; Sauerbrunn, B.J.; Bates, H.R.; Newman, R.D.; Eddy, J.L.; Ihde, DC

    1983-02-01

    Radionuclide bone scans and skeletal radiographs were obtained before and during combination chemotherapy or initial hormonal treatment in 46 patients with disseminated adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The purpose of the study was to determine the usefulness of these two modalities in evaluating tumor response to therapy. Prior to treatment, bone scans were positive in 44 patients (96%). In all but one patient either bone radiographs or bone marrow biopsy revealed evidence of osseous metastases. In 22 patients partial response to therapy was documented by a variety of other staging tests. Eleven of these patients showed concurrent or later improvement on bone scans; one showed improvement on a radiograph. Flare phenomena were observed relatively frequently since 23% of the scans and 50% of the radiographs showed worsening at the time of response. Bone scans revealed worsening in 79% of 33 patients with disease progression of extraosseous tumor; radiographs were equally sensitive (82% worsening). It is concluded that bone scans in particular are useful for monitoring tumor status in systemically treated patients with prostate cancer. However, because of the lack of sensitivity for response and paradoxical worsening with tumor regression in some patients, scans are not accurate enough to be employed as the sole test in following these patients.

  16. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  17. Shipborne hydrographic laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfennigbauer, Martin; Rieger, Peter; Schaich, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Applications like hydro-archeology, hydrobiology, or hydraulic engineering sometimes require accurate surveying of submerged areas with point densities usually only achieved with mobile or terrestrial laser scanning. For navigable waterbodies, hydrographic laser scanning from a floating platform represents a viable solution. RIEGL's new hydrographic laser scanner VQ-820-G with its exceptionally high measurement rate of up to 110,000 net measurements per second and its small laser footprint is optimally suited for such applications. We present results from a measurement campaign surveying prehistoric lake dwellings at Lake Constance in Germany. While the aim of typical hydrographic laser scanning applications is to roughly acquire the ground's shape and structure, in this case it was tried to determine the exact position, shape, and attitude of the remainders of the piles. The special requirements with respect to mission planning and data processing are discussed and the performance of the laser scanner is assessed.

  18. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  19. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  20. [State of the art in nuclear imaging for the diagnosis of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Matthieu-John; Vignot, Stéphane; Thariat, Juliette

    2013-11-01

    Cancers prone to spread to bone include prostate, lung, kidney, breast and thyroid cancers. While bone scanner has been widely used in the past decades, PET-based imaging modalities are increasingly used. Current modalities of PET imaging of bone metastases include tumor and inflammatory targeting with FDG-PET, bone imaging with NaF-PET, and direct cancer-specific markers such as FDOPA-PET or PET using choline. The cancer-specific metastatic patterns and the relative prognosis conferred by osseous metastases (versus visceral metastases) may determine the need for bone scan, FDG-PET for the detection of bone metastases. Because some cancers have a mixed skeletal and visceral, cocktails PET radiopharmaceuticals may also be discussed in the future. The cancer-specific context and performances of bone scan and PET imaging are discussed. PMID:24153039

  1. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  2. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  3. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  4. Bone Composition Diagnostics: Photoacoustics Versus Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lifeng; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Tan, Joel W. Y.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) backscatter from bones depends on the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the interrogated bone. On the other hand, photoacoustics (PA) is sensitive to optical properties of tissue and can detect composition variation. Therefore, PA can provide complementary information about bone health and integrity. In this work, a comparative study of US backscattering and PA back-propagating signals from animal trabecular bones was performed. Both methods were applied using a linear frequency modulation chirp and matched filtering. A 2.2 MHz ultrasonic transducer was employed to detect both signals. The use of the frequency domain facilitates spectral analysis. The variation of signals shows that in addition to sensitivity to mineral changes, PA exhibits sensitivity to changes in the organic part of the bone. It is, therefore, concluded that the combination of both modalities can provide complementary detailed information on bone health than either method separately. In addition, comparison of PA and US depthwise images shows the higher penetration of US. Surface scan images exhibit very weak correlation between US and PA which could be caused by the different signal generation origins in mechanical versus optical properties, respectively.

  5. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cell transplant; Allogeneic-donation ... There are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. "Auto" means self. Allogenic bone marrow transplant is when another person ...

  6. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic How is bone cancer staged? How is bone cancer diagnosed? A patient’s symptoms, physical exam, and results ... and other imaging tests. Imaging tests to detect bone cancer X-rays Most bone cancers show up on ...

  7. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Human bone density changes can be determined by a device originally developed for in-flight testing of astronauts' bones during extended space missions. Device is comparable in size, weight and power consumption to portable television set.

  8. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... creates suction. A small sample of bone marrow fluid flows into the tube. The needle is removed. Pressure and then a bandage are applied to the skin. The bone marrow fluid is sent to a laboratory and examined under ...

  9. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be responsible. It tends to run in families. Many people do not know they have Paget's disease because their symptoms are mild. For others, symptoms can include Pain Enlarged bones Broken bones Damaged cartilage in joints Doctors use blood ...

  10. What Is Bone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a soft framework, and calcium phosphate is a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework. This ... bone formation continues at a faster pace than removal until bone mass peaks during the third decade ...

  11. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series To use the sharing features on ... to slide 4 out of 4 Indications Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  12. Bone Loss in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  13. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  14. Adenosine and Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic organ that undergoes continuous remodeling whilst maintaining a balance between bone formation and resorption. Osteoblasts, which synthesize and mineralize new bone, and osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone, act in concert to maintain bone homeostasis. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of purinergic regulation of bone metabolism. Adenosine, released locally, mediates its physiologic and pharmacologic actions via interactions with G-protein coupled receptors and recent work has indicated that these receptors are involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function, as well as osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Moreover, adenosine receptors also regulate chondrocyte and cartilage homeostasis. These recent findings underscore the potential therapeutic importance of adenosine receptors in regulating bone physiology and pathology. PMID:23499155

  15. Characterization of bone microstructure using photoacoustic spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ting; Perosky, Joseph E; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Xu, Guan; Cheng, Qian; Du, Sidan; Yuan, Jie; Deng, Cheri X; Wang, Xueding

    2015-09-21

    Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and the deterioration in bone microarchitecture. This study investigates the feasibility of characterizing bone microstructure by analyzing the frequency spectrum of the photoacoustic (PA) signal from the bone. Modeling and numerical simulation of PA signal were performed on trabecular bone simulations and CT scans with different trabecular thicknesses. The resulting quasi-linear photoacoustic spectra were fittted by linear regression, from which the spectral parameter slope was quantified. The simulation based on two different models both demonstrate that bone specimens with thinner trabecular thicknesses have higher slope. Experiment on osteoporotic rat femoral heads with different mineral content was conducted. The finding from the experiment was in good agreement with the simulation, demonstrating that the frequency-domain analysis of PA signals can provide an objective assessment of bone microstructure and deterioration. Considering that PA measurement is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and has sufficient penetration in both calcified and non-calcified tissues, this new bone evaluation method based on photoacoustic spectral analysis holds potential for clinical management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. PMID:26406719

  16. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of orthorhombic crystal structure contained in nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S.; Jana, A.; Kundu, T. K.

    2007-09-01

    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of a Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure is synthesized from a chemical method using a polymer complex of Ba2+ and Ti4+ with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). After burning out the polymer at temperature as high as 550 °C in air for 2 h results in an average 15 nm crystallite BaTiO3 size, with lattice parameters a =0.6435 nm, b =0.5306 nm, c =0.8854 nm, and density 5.124 g/cm3. The relationship between dielectric constant ɛr and temperature showed a single Curie transition temperature TC=131 °C, with as large a ɛr value as 263 at TC. A low value of dissipation factor tan δ, as small as 0.033 at room temperature (frequency f =1 kHz), with good insulating properties made the sample promising for use in uncooled infrared detectors and thermal imaging applications. The ɛr value is nearly independent of f value up to 100 kHz. A spectrum of sharp EPR signals of g values 2.21 to 1.88 characterizes three major kinds of VBa-, VTi3-, and Ti3+-Vo2+ paramagnetic species present in the imperfections.

  17. Spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi3 phase in Ni-Bi bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva, Vantari; Senapati, Kartik; Satpati, Biswarup; Prusty, Sudakshina; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, Pratap K.

    2015-02-01

    We report the spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi3 phase in thermally evaporated Ni-Bi bilayer films. High reaction-diffusion coefficient of Bi is believed to drive the formation of NiBi3 during the deposition of Bi on the Ni film. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and glancing incidence X-ray depth profiling confirmed the presence of NiBi3 throughout the top Bi layer. Superconducting transition at ˜3.9 K, close to the bulk value, was confirmed by transport and magnetization measurements. The bilayers were irradiated with varying fluence of 100 MeV Au ions to study the robustness of superconducting order in presence of large concentration of defects. Superconducting parameters of NiBi3, such as transition temperature and upper critical field, remained unchanged upto an ion dose of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffusive formation of NiBi3 in Ni opens the possibility of studying superconducting proximity effect at a truly clean superconductor-ferromagnet interface.

  18. Spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in Ni-Bi bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Siva, Vantari; Senapati, Kartik Prusty, Sudakshina; Sahoo, Pratap K.; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-02-28

    We report the spontaneous formation of superconducting NiBi{sub 3} phase in thermally evaporated Ni-Bi bilayer films. High reaction-diffusion coefficient of Bi is believed to drive the formation of NiBi{sub 3} during the deposition of Bi on the Ni film. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy and glancing incidence X-ray depth profiling confirmed the presence of NiBi{sub 3} throughout the top Bi layer. Superconducting transition at ∼3.9 K, close to the bulk value, was confirmed by transport and magnetization measurements. The bilayers were irradiated with varying fluence of 100 MeV Au ions to study the robustness of superconducting order in presence of large concentration of defects. Superconducting parameters of NiBi{sub 3}, such as transition temperature and upper critical field, remained unchanged upto an ion dose of 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The diffusive formation of NiBi{sub 3} in Ni opens the possibility of studying superconducting proximity effect at a truly clean superconductor-ferromagnet interface.

  19. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Harken, A. D.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2 mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions.

  20. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D; Harken, A D; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2 mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions. PMID:25860401

  1. Eating disorders and bone.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  2. [Bone tissue engineering scaffolds].

    PubMed

    Fang, Liru; Weng, Wenjian; Shen, Ge; Han, Gaorong; Santos, J D; Du, Peiyi

    2003-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering may provide an alternative to the repairs to skeletal defects resulting from disease, trauma or surgery. Scaffold has played an important role in bone tissue engineering, which functions as the architecture for bone in growth. In this paper, the authors gave a brief introduction about the requirement of bone tissue engineering scaffold, the key of the design of scaffolds and the current research on this subject. PMID:12744187

  3. Muscle force regulates bone shaping for optimal load-bearing capacity during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharir, Amnon; Stern, Tomer; Rot, Chagai; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2011-08-01

    The vertebrate skeleton consists of over 200 individual bones, each with its own unique shape, size and function. We study the role of intrauterine muscle-induced mechanical loads in determining the three-dimensional morphology of developing bones. Analysis of the force-generating capacity of intrauterine muscles in mice revealed that developing bones are subjected to significant and progressively increasing mechanical challenges. To evaluate the effect of intrauterine loads on bone morphogenesis and the contribution of the emerging shape to the ability of bones to withstand these loads, we monitored structural and mineral changes during development. Using daily micro-CT scans of appendicular long bones we identify a developmental program, which we term preferential bone growth, that determines the specific circumferential shape of each bone by employing asymmetric mineral deposition and transient cortical thickening. Finite element analysis demonstrates that the resulting bone structure has optimal load-bearing capacity. To test the hypothesis that muscle forces regulate preferential bone growth in utero, we examine this process in a mouse strain (mdg) that lacks muscle contractions. In the absence of mechanical loads, the stereotypical circumferential outline of each bone is lost, leading to the development of mechanically inferior bones. This study identifies muscle force regulation of preferential bone growth as the module that shapes the circumferential outline of bones and, consequently, optimizes their load-bearing capacity during development. Our findings invoke a common mechanism that permits the formation of different circumferential outlines in different bones. PMID:21750035

  4. L-arginine prevents bone loss and bone collagen breakdown in cyclosporin A-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Fiore, C E; Pennisi, P; Cutuli, V M; Prato, A; Messina, R; Clementi, G

    2000-11-24

    Cyclosporin A is implicated in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation bone disease. Because of recent evidence that cyclosporin A may cause renal and cardiovascular toxicity by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) activity, and that NO slows bone remodeling and bone loss in animal and human studies, we investigated a possible link between NO production and beneficial effects on bone health in cyclosporin A-treated rats. Thirty-six 10-week-old male rats were assigned to six groups of six animals each, and treated for 4 weeks with: vehicle; cyclosporin A; L-arginine; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, a general inhibitor of NO synthase activity); a combination of cyclosporin A+L-arginine; and a combination of cyclosporin A+L-NAME. Whole body and regional (spine and pelvis) bone mineral content of rats were measured under basal conditions and at the end of the treatment period by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Femur weights and serum concentrations of pyridinoline, a reliable marker of bone resorption, were measured at the end of the study period. Cyclosporin A-, L-NAME-, and cyclosporin A+L-NAME-treated rats had significantly lower bone mineral content and femur weights, and significantly higher pyridinoline levels than did control animals. The administration of L-arginine appeared to prevent bone loss caused by cyclosporin A, suggesting that this amino acid, which can be converted to produce NO, might prove useful in preventing disturbed bone modeling and inhibition of bone growth associated with cyclosporin A therapy. PMID:11090650

  5. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  6. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may ... This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are ...

  7. What's a Funny Bone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  8. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... or if your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ... injury. As you age, your body still needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Most experts recommend at least ...

  9. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  10. Scan This Book!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  12. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  13. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  14. THE 2016 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Gene

    2015-09-01

    Every year, the American Hospital Association compiles the Environmental Scan to provide hospital leaders with insight and information about market forces that are likely to affect the health care field. One common theme this year is the pace of change. PMID:26495611

  15. Teratoma - MRI scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This MRI scan shows a tumor (teratoma) at the base of the spine (seen on the left lower edge of the screen), located in the sacrum and coccyx (sacrococcygeal) area. Teratomas are present at birth and may contain hair, teeth, and other tissues.

  16. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  17. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of pigeon osteoblasts seeded on xenogeneic demineralised cancellous bone scaffold for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Harvanová, Denisa; Hornák, Slavomír; Amrichová, Judita; Spaková, Tímea; Mikes, Jaromír; Plsíková, Jana; Ledecký, Valent; Rosocha, Ján

    2014-09-01

    Avian osteoblasts have been isolated particularly from chicken embryo, but data about other functional tissue sources of adult avian osteoblast precursors are missing. The method of preparation of pigeon osteoblasts is described in this study. We demonstrate that pigeon cancellous bone derived osteoblasts have particular proliferative capacity in vitro in comparison to mammalian species and developed endogenous ALP. Calcium deposits formation in vitro was confirmed by alizarin red staining. Only a few studies have attempted to investigate bone grafting and treatment of bone loss in birds. Lack of autologous bone grafts in birds has prompted investigation into the use of avian xenografts for bone augmentation. Here we present a method of xenografting of ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold seeded with allogeneic adult pigeon osteoblasts. Ostrich demineralised cancellous bone scaffold supported proliferation of pigeon osteoblasts during two weeks of co - cultivation in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated homogeneous adult pigeon osteoblasts attachment and distribution on the surface of xenogeneic ostrich demineralised cancellous bone. Our preliminary in vitro results indicate that demineralised cancellous bone from ostrich tibia could provide an effective biological support for growth and proliferation of allogeneic osteoblasts derived from cancellous bone of pigeons. PMID:24915787

  18. Tl-201 uptake in bone and soft tissue involvement of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, B; Mavi, A; Ozkal, S; Itil, O; Havitcioglu, H; Ozaksoy, D; Yilmaz, M; Kaya, G C

    2001-06-01

    The authors describe a 38-year-old man who was referred to the nuclear medicine department because of pain and swelling of his fingers in both hands. Tc-99m MDP and Tl-201 scans were performed to evaluate the lesions. A Tc-99m MDP bone scan showed hyperemia and increased uptake in the lesions. A Tl-201 scan showed marked uptake in both early and delayed images in the lesions of his fingers. Bone biopsy and histologic examination confirmed sarcoidosis. This case indicates that Tl-201 uptake can be seen in bone lesions resulting from sarcoidosis. PMID:11353294

  19. [Bone quality and strength relating with bone remodeling].

    PubMed

    Mori, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The bone has the functions of mineral reservoir and mechanical support as skeleton. Bone remodeling is the adult mode of bone metabolism, replacing old bone tissue to new one. Bone strength is determined by bone volume, structure and quality such as micro damage, degree of mineralization and collagen cross linkage, which are all controlled by bone remodeling. Bone strength decreases under high turn-over condition by decreasing bone volume and deterioration of bone structure, which also decreases under low turn-over condition by increased micro damage, increasing mineralization and AGE collagen cross linkage. PMID:26728527

  20. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  1. Oxytocin and bone.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2014-10-15

    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR(-/-) mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  2. Advanced Ultrasonic Tomograph of Children's Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaygues, Philippe; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Guillermin, Régine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Berteau, Jean-Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Petit, Philippe

    This study deals with the development of an experimental device for performing ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT) on bone in pediatric degrees. The children's bone tomographs obtained in this study, were based on the use of a multiplexed 2-D ring antenna (1 MHz and 3 MHz) designed for performing electronic and mechanical scanning. Although this approach is known to be a potentially valuable means of imaging objects with similar acoustical impedances, problems arise when quantitative images of more highly contrasted media such as bones are required. Various strategies and various mathematical procedures for modeling the wave propagation based on Born approximations have been developed at our laboratory, which are suitable for use with pediatric cases. Inversions of the experimental data obtained are presented.

  3. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, Judith R.; Anderson, Gerhard D.; Bigio, Irving J.; Johnson, Tamara M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for fusing bone. The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.

  4. Bone healing after median sternotomy: A comparison of two hemostatic devices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone wax is traditionally used as part of surgical procedures to prevent bleeding from exposed spongy bone. It is an effective hemostatic device which creates a physical barrier. Unfortunately it interferes with subsequent bone healing and increases the risk of infection in experimental studies. Recently, a water-soluble, synthetic, hemostatic compound (Ostene®) was introduced to serve the same purpose as bone wax without hampering bone healing. This study aims to compare sternal healing after application of either bone wax or Ostene®. Methods Twenty-four pigs were randomized into one of three treatment groups: Ostene®, bone wax or no hemostatic treatment (control). Each animal was subjected to midline sternotomy. Either Ostene® or bone wax was applied to the spongy bone surfaces until local hemostasis was ensured. The control group received no hemostatic treatment. The wound was left open for 60 min before closing to simulate conditions alike those of cardiac surgery. All sterni were harvested 6 weeks after intervention. Bone density and the area of the bone defect were determined with peripheral quantitative CT-scanning; bone healing was displayed with plain X-ray and chronic inflammation was histologically assessed. Results Both CT-scanning and plain X-ray disclosed that bone healing was significantly impaired in the bone wax group (p < 0.01) compared with the other two groups, and the former group had significantly more chronic inflammation (p < 0.01) than the two latter. Conclusion Bone wax inhibits bone healing and induces chronic inflammation in a porcine model. Ostene® treated animals displayed bone healing characteristics and inflammatory reactions similar to those of the control group without application of a hemostatic agent. PMID:21106051

  5. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  6. Proteomics in bone research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengwei; Recker, Robert; Lee, Wai-Nang Paul; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2010-02-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent among the elderly and is a major cause of bone fracture in this population. Bone integrity is maintained by the dynamic processes of bone resorption and bone formation (bone remodeling). Osteoporosis results when there is an imbalance of the two counteracting processes. Bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has been the primary method to assess fracture risk for decades. Recent studies demonstrated that measurement of bone turnover markers allows for a dynamic assessment of bone remodeling, while imaging techniques, such as dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, do not. The application of proteomics has permitted discoveries of new, sensitive, bone turnover markers, which provide unique information for clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with bone diseases. This review summarizes the recent findings of proteomic studies on bone diseases, properties of mesenchymal stem cells with high expansion rates and osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, with emphasis on the role of quantitative proteomics in the study of signaling dynamics, biomarkers and discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:20121480

  7. Ultrasound simulation in bone.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jonathan J; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    The manner in which ultrasound interacts with bone is of key interest in therapy and diagnosis alike. These may include applications directly to bone, as, for example, in treatment to accelerate the healing of bone fractures and in assessment of bone density in osteoporosis, or indirectly in diagnostic imaging of soft tissue with interest in assessing exposure levels to nearby bone. Because of the lack of analytic solutions to virtually every "practical problem" encountered clinically, ultrasound simulation has become a widely used technique for evaluating ultrasound interactions in bone. This paper provides an overview of the use of ultrasound simulation in bone. A brief description of the mathematical model used to characterize ultrasound propagation in bone is first provided. A number of simulation examples are then presented that explain how simulation may be utilized in a variety of practical configurations. The focus of this paper in terms of examples presented is on diagnostic applications in bone, and, in particular, for assessment of osteoporosis. However, the use of simulation in other areas of interest can easily be extrapolated from the examples presented. In conclusion, this paper describes the use of ultrasound simulation in bone and demonstrates the power of computational methods for ultrasound research in general and tissue and bone applications in particular. PMID:18599409

  8. X-ray microscopy study of bone mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé, M.; Lafage-Proust, M. H.; Vico, L.; Amblard, D.; Kaulich, B.; Oestreich, S.; Susini, J.; Barrett, R.

    2000-05-01

    Transmission spectro-microscopy around the calcium K-edge and fluorescence microscopy were performed respectively on the Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and Scanning X-ray Microscope (SXM) end-stations of ID21 beamline at ESRF, to map the calcium distribution and the Ca/P ratio in bone samples. Preliminary results are presented. The motivation for these experiments is the study of the genetic determinism of bone mineralisation parameters in two different strains of mice.

  9. Nanomaterials and bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Xie, Jing; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Shiyu; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has been increasing. Bone is a nanomaterials composed of organic (mainly collagen) and inorganic (mainly nano-hydroxyapatite) components, with a hierarchical structure ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. In consideration of the serious limitation in traditional therapies, nanomaterials provide some new strategy in bone regeneration. Nanostructured scaffolds provide a closer structural support approximation to native bone architecture for the cells and regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, which results in the formation of functional tissues. In this article, we focused on reviewing the classification and design of nanostructured materials and nanocarrier materials for bone regeneration, their cell interaction properties, and their application in bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Furthermore, some new challenges about the future research on the application of nanomaterials for bone regeneration are described in the conclusion and perspectives part. PMID:26558141

  10. Marble Bone Disease: A Rare Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harinathbabu, Maheswari; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Prabhu, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is a rare skeletal disorder due to a defective function of the osteoclasts. This defect renders bones more susceptible to osteomyelitis due to decreased vascularity. This disorder is inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive. Healthcare professionals should urge these patients to maintain their oral health as well as general health, as this condition makes these patients more susceptible to frequent infections and fractures. This case report emphasizes the signs and symptoms of marble bone disease and presents clinical and radiographic findings.  PMID:26594603

  11. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  12. Dynamic radioisotope bone imaging as a noninvasive indicator of canine tibial blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nutton, R.W.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Brown, M.L.; Kelly, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The relative values of dynamic and static bone imaging with hydroxymethylenediphosphonate technetium /sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc HDP) as an indicator of bone blood flow was investigated in the tibia of mature dogs. The dynamic bone scan consisted of 60 1-s images formed after the intravenous injection of /sup 99m/Tc HDP, and the static bone scan was a 45-min uptake image. Blood flow to the tibia was determined by using radioactively labeled microspheres. Studies were carried out in control dogs, in dogs in which blood flow was increased in one leg with ATP, and in dogs in which blood flow was decreased in one leg with norepinephrine. A significant linear relationship between the dynamic scan values and bone blood flow was found at a wide range of blood flow rates. When blood flow increased by more than 50%, the effects of diffusion limitation were seen in the static scans: increase in tracer uptake was disproportionately small for a significant increase in blood flow. There is no method currently available for estimating bone blood flow by a noninvasive technique. The method described here may be useful for providing a semiquantitative measure of bone blood flow. This improved versatility of bone imaging may have a role in the management of osteomyelitis or complicated fractures, or in assessing the viability of vascularized bone grafts.

  13. Prospective Analysis of Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M Gokul Chandra; Babu, V Ramesh; Rao, V Eswar; Chaitanya, J Jaya; Allareddy, S; Reddy, C Charan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the success of the uptake of bone graft in cleft alveolus of the cleft lip and palate patients, quantitatively through computed tomography (CT) scan 6 months postoperative. To assess the successful eruption of permanent lateral incisor or canine in the bone grafted area. Materials and Methods: The children age group of 9-21 years with unilateral cleft lip and palate came to the hospital, needing secondary alveolar bone grafting. A detailed history and clinical examination of the patient was taken. A 3D CT scan was taken and the volume of the cleft was measured pre-operatively. After ambulatory period, 3D CT scan of the alveolar cleft region was taken and volume of the bone grafted was measured and patient was discharged from the hospital. After 6 months, patient was recalled and again 3D CT scan was taken and the volume of remaining bone was measured. Results: The mean volume of the defect pre-operatively is 0.80 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.36 cm3 with minimum volume of the defect 0.44 cm3 and maximum volume of the defect 1.60 cm3. The mean volume of the bone post-operative immediately after grafting is 1.01 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.52 cm3 with minimum of bone volume is 0.48 cm3 and maximum of 2.06 cm3. The mean volume of the bone after 6 months after bone grafting is 0.54 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.33 cm3, minimum bone volume of 0.22 cm3 and maximum bone volume of 1.42 cm3. Conclusion: The CT scan is a valuable radiographic imaging modality to assess and follow the clinical outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting. PMID:25954076

  14. OSTEOBLAST ADHESION OF BREAST CANCER CELLS WITH SCANNING ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaki Miyasaka; Robyn R. Mercer; Andrea M. Mastro; Ken L. Telschow

    2005-03-01

    Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone. Upon colonizing bone tissue, the cancer cells stimulate osteoclasts (cells that break bone down), resulting in large lesions in the bone. The breast cancer cells also affect osteoblasts (cells that build new bone). Conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. Under these conditions the osteoblasts acquired a changed morphology and appeared to adherer in a different way to the substrate and to each other. To characterize cell adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for two days, and then assayed with a mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope (SAM). The SAM indicated that in normal medium the MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were firmly attached to their plastic substrate. However, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium displayed both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The cells were fixed and stained to visualize cytoskeletal components using optical microscopic techniques. We were not able to observe these differences until the cells were quite confluent after 7 days of culture. However, using the SAM, we were able to detect these changes within 2 days of culture with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium

  15. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  16. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  17. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  18. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  19. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  20. Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G.; Meyyappan, A.

    1988-07-01

    The technology for "seeing" with sound has an important and interesting history. Some of nature's creatures have been using sound waves for many millenia to image otherwise unobservable objects. The human species, lacking this natural ability, have overcome this deficiency by developing several different ultrasonic imaging techniques. acoustic microscopy is one such technique, which produces high resolution images of detailed structure of small objects in a non-destructive fashion. Two types of acoustic microscopes have evolved for industrial exploitation. They are the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). In this paper, we review the principles of SLAM and describe how we use elements of SLAM to realize the scanning tomographic acoustic microscope (STAM). We describe the data acquisition process and the image reconstruction procedure. We also describe techniques to obtain projection data from different angles of wave incidence enabling us to reconstruct different planes of a complex specimen tomo-graphically. Our experimental results show that STAM is capable of producing high-quality high-resolution subsurface images.

  1. Scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hua

    2002-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of the scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy (STAM). This research effort spans over a period of more than 12 years, which successfully elevated the acoustic microscopy from the traditional intensity-mapping mode to the level of holographic and tomographic imaging. The tomographic imaging capability of STAM was developed on the platform of the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM), which operates in a coherent transmission mode with plane-wave illumination and scanning laser wavefield detection. The image formation techniques were based on the backward propagation method implemented in the plane-to-plane format. In this paper, the key elements of the design and development, including the modification of the data-acquisition hardware, implementation of image reconstruction algorithms for multiple-frequency and multiple-angle tomography, and the high-precision phase-correction and image registration techniques for the superposition of coherent sub-images, will be discussed. Results of full-scale experiments will also be included to demonstrate the capability of holographic and tomographic image formation in microscopic scale.

  2. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  3. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  4. Image registration of proximal femur with substantial bone changes: application in 3D visualization of bone loss of astronauts after long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjun; Sode, Miki; Saeed, Isra; Lang, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    We recently studied bone loss in crewmembers making 4 to 6 months flights on the International Space Station. We employed Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) technology (Lang et. al., J Bone Miner Res. 2004; v. 19, p. 1006), which made measurements of both cortical and trabecular bone loss that could not be obtained by using 2-dimensional dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) imaging technology. To further investigate the bone loss after spaceflight, we have developed image registration technologies to align serial scans so that bone changes can be directly visualized in a subregional level, which can provide more detailed information for understanding bone physiology during long-term spaceflight. To achieve effective and robust registration when large bone changes exist, we have developed technical adaptations to standard registration methods. Our automated image registration is mutual-information based. We have applied an automatically adaptive binning method in calculating the mutual information. After the pre- and post-flight scans are geometrically aligned, the interior bone changes can be clearly visualized. Image registration can also be applied to Finite Element Modeling (FEM) to compare bone strength change, where consistent loading conditions must be applied to serial scans.

  5. On-line analysis of cracking in cortical bone under wedge penetration.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Kerckhofs, Greet; Mitrofanov, Alexander V; Lomov, Stepan; Wevers, Martin; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of crack propagation during bone cutting is necessary for the development of realistic bone cutting models. This article studies the on-line fractural behaviour of cortical bone caused by penetration with a sharp metallic wedge mounted on an on-line loading stage within an X-ray microfocus computed tomography system. The experimental results demonstrated anisotropy in crack propagation depending on the penetration direction with regard to the longitudinal bone axis and relate the crack growth to the extent of penetration. Scanning electron microscopy is performed to analyse the mechanism of cracking in the two phase microstructure of compact bone. PMID:23025172

  6. Study of cellular adhesion with scanning acoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tittmann, Bernhard R; Miyasaka, Chiaki; Mastro, Andrea M; Mercer, Robyn R

    2007-08-01

    A mechanical scanning acoustic reflection microscope was applied to living cells (e.g., osteoblasts) to observe their undisguised shapes and to evaluate their adhesive conditions at a substrate interface. A conditioned medium was collected from a bone-metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and cultured with an immature osteoblast cell line, MC3T3-E1. To characterize the cellular adhesion, MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured with or without MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium for 2 days, then assayed with the scanning acoustic reflection microscope. At 600 MHz the scanning acoustic reflection microscope clearly indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium had both an abnormal shape and poor adhesion at the substrate interface. The results are compared with those obtained with laser scanning confocal microscopy and are supported by a simple multilayer model. PMID:17703653

  7. Removal of bone in CT angiography by multiscale matched mask bone elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gratama van Andel, H. A. F.; Venema, H. W.; Streekstra, G. J.; Straten, M. van; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Heeten, G. J. den; Grimbergen, C. A.

    2007-10-15

    For clear visualization of vessels in CT angiography (CTA) images of the head and neck using maximum intensity projection (MIP) or volume rendering (VR) bone has to be removed. In the past we presented a fully automatic method to mask the bone [matched mask bone elimination (MMBE)] for this purpose. A drawback is that vessels adjacent to bone may be partly masked as well. We propose a modification, multiscale MMBE, which reduces this problem by using images at two scales: a higher resolution than usual for image processing and a lower resolution to which the processed images are transformed for use in the diagnostic process. A higher in-plane resolution is obtained by the use of a sharper reconstruction kernel. The out-of-plane resolution is improved by deconvolution or by scanning with narrower collimation. The quality of the mask that is used to remove bone is improved by using images at both scales. After masking, the desired resolution for the normal clinical use of the images is obtained by blurring with Gaussian kernels of appropriate widths. Both methods (multiscale and original) were compared in a phantom study and with clinical CTA data sets. With the multiscale approach the width of the strip of soft tissue adjacent to the bone that is masked can be reduced from 1.0 to 0.2 mm without reducing the quality of the bone removal. The clinical examples show that vessels adjacent to bone are less affected and therefore better visible. Images processed with multiscale MMBE have a slightly higher noise level or slightly reduced resolution compared with images processed by the original method and the reconstruction and processing time is also somewhat increased. Nevertheless, multiscale MMBE offers a way to remove bone automatically from CT angiography images without affecting the integrity of the blood vessels. The overall image quality of MIP or VR images is substantially improved relative to images processed with the original MMBE method.

  8. Descreening of scanned images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Lee, HoKeun; Kim, Sang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Screen or halftone pattern appears on the majority of images printed on electrophotographic and ink-jet printers as well as offset machines. When such halftoned image is scanned, a noisy effect called a Moiré pattern often appears on the image. There are plenty of methods proposed for descreening of images. Common way is adaptive smoothing of scanned images. However the descreening techniques face the following dilemma: deep screen reduction and restoration of contone images leads to blurring of sharp edges of text and other graphics primitives, on the other hand insufficient smoothing keeps screen in halftoned areas. We propose novel descreening algorithm that is primarily intended for preservation of sharpness and contrast of text edges and for restoration contone images from halftone ones accurately. Proposed technique for descreening of scanned images comprises five steps. The first step is decrease of edge transition slope length via local tone mapping with ordering; it is carried out before adaptive smoothing, and it allows better preservation of edges. Adaptive low-pass filter applies simplified idea of Non-Local Means filter for area classification; similarity is calculated between central block of window and different adjacent block that is selected randomly. If similarity is high then current pixel relates to flat region, otherwise pixel relates to edge region. For prevention of edges blurring, flat regions are smoothed stronger than edge regions. By random selection of blocks we avoid the computational overhead related to excessive directional edge detection. Final three stages include additional decrease of edge transition slope length using local tone mapping, increase of local contrast via modified unsharp mask filter, that uses bilateral filter with special edge-stop function for modest smoothing of edges, and global contrast stretching. These stages are intended to compensate decreasing of sharpness and contrast due to low-pass filtering, it allows

  9. Bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Timothy T.; Rosenbaum, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The biology of fracture healing is better understood than ever before, with advancements such as the locking screw leading to more predictable and less eventful osseous healing. However, at times one’s intrinsic biological response, and even concurrent surgical stabilization, is inadequate. In hopes of facilitating osseous union, bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics are being relied on more than ever before. The osteoinductive, osteoconductive and osteogenic properties of these substrates have been elucidated in the basic science literature and validated in clinical orthopaedic practice. Furthermore, an industry built around these items is more successful and in demand than ever before. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic science, clinical utility and economics of bone grafts, bone substitutes and orthobiologics. PMID:23247591

  10. Study on the Formation and Precipitation Mechanism of Mn5Si3 Phase in the MBA-2 Brass Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Jie, Jinchuan; Zhang, Pengchao; Jia, Chunxu; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2016-06-01

    Mn5Si3 is an attractive dispersion in the special brass, owing to its high hardness and high wear resistance. In the present study, synchrotron X-ray radiography and rapid cooling were applied to investigate the formation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase in the MBA-2 brass alloy. The primary Mn5Si3 phase is proved to exist stably in the alloy melt and nucleate from the melt at temperatures above 1373 K (1100 °C). In addition, the precipitation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase is addressed systematically by the isothermal heat treatment. The Mn5Si3 particles are observed to precipitate from the matrix at temperatures above 1023 K (750 °C), and a crystallographic orientation relationship is found between the precipitated Mn5Si3 particle and β phase: (110)_{β } //(1overline{1} 00)_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} and [overline{1} 11]_{β } //[11overline{2} overline{2} ]_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} . However, the precipitation of Mn5Si3 phase is thermodynamically inhibited at lower temperatures, which can be ascribed to the increase in the Gibbs free energy of formation of Mn5Si3 with decreasing the temperature.

  11. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  12. Spontaneous Resorption of a Penetrating Orbital Bone Fracture Fragment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ashley A; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Dunn, Gavin P; Gray, Stacy Tutt; Lefebvre, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a 20-year-old man who sustained multiple facial fractures in a high-speed motor vehicle crash, including a bone fragment from a skull base fracture that penetrated the orbital soft tissues superomedially. Serial CT scans documented spontaneous resorption over a 6-month period. While it is known that autologous bone grafts used in craniofacial reconstruction exhibit variable amounts of bone resorption, the complete resorption of an intraorbital fracture fragment has not been documented in the literature. His clinical care and the report of his case were undertaken in a fashion in accordance with the principles of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. PMID:24833452

  13. Paget's disease with craniofacial and skeletal bone involvement.

    PubMed

    Rai, Narendra Prakash; Anekar, Jayaprasad; Mustafa, Shabil Mohamed; Devang Divakar, Darshan

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease is a metabolic disorder of bone caused due to defect in the remodelling process and is very common in western countries but is very rare in Asians and Africans. It was first described by a British scientist Sir James Paget in 1877. It can be monostotic or polyostotic depending on the number of bones involved. It most commonly affects older people of more than 50 years. Disease involvement can be symptomatic or asymptomatic depending on the extent of the disease process. Diagnosis of Paget's disease can be made by raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels, radiological examination and by radioisotope bone scans. PMID:27587747

  14. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-05-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

  15. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion. PMID:2040248

  16. Effect of micro-computed tomography voxel size and segmentation method on trabecular bone microstructure measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-12-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) is currently the gold standard for determining trabecular bone microstructure in small animal models. Numerous parameters associated with scanning and evaluation of μCT scans can strongly affect morphologic results obtained from bone samples. However, the effect of these parameters on specific trabecular bone outcomes is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of μCT scanning with nominal voxel sizes between 6-30 μm on trabecular bone outcomes quantified in mouse vertebral body trabecular bone. Additionally, two methods for determining a global segmentation threshold were compared: based on qualitative assessment of 2D images, or based on quantitative assessment of image histograms. It was found that nominal voxel size had a strong effect on several commonly reported trabecular bone parameters, in particular connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and bone tissue mineral density. Additionally, the two segmentation methods provided similar trabecular bone outcomes for scans with small nominal voxel sizes, but considerably different outcomes for scans with larger voxel sizes. The Qualitatively Selected segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness across different voxel sizes, but the Histogram segmentation method more consistently estimated trabecular number, trabecular separation, and structure model index. Altogether, these results suggest that high-resolution scans be used whenever possible to provide the most accurate estimation of trabecular bone microstructure, and that the limitations of accurately determining trabecular bone outcomes should be considered when selecting scan parameters and making conclusions about inter-group variance or between-group differences in studies of trabecular bone microstructure in small animals. PMID:27430011

  17. Carboxylation of osteocalcin may be related to bone quality: a possible mechanism of bone fracture prevention by vitamin K.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Kawai, S

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues, such as osteocalcin. Recent studies have reported that vitamin K reduces vertebral and hip fractures without increasing bone mass in patients with osteoporosis, suggesting that vitamin K could affect bone quality. However, the mechanism is unknown. To investigate the involvement of the carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone quality, the present preliminary study examined serum bone markers and ultrasound velocity, a possible indicator of bone quality, in 14 healthy prepubertal children (eight boys and six girls) aged between 7 and 12 years. Venous blood was collected between 0800 and 0900 h after an overnight fast, and serum levels of intact, carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and type I procollagen carboxyl extension peptide were measured. Speed of sound in the right tibia was measured using a SoundScan 2000 Compact (Myriad Ultrasound System, Rehovot, Israel). As a result, there was no significant correlation between the serum bone markers and the Z score for the speed of sound. In contrast, the ratio of serum carboxylated osteocalcin to serum intact osteocalcin was positively correlated with the Z score for the speed of sound (r = 0.621, P = 0.016). These findings suggest, for the first time, that carboxylation of osteocalcin is related to bone quality. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone, and this will provide a new insight into the mechanism of vitamin K treatment in osteoporosis. PMID:11368299

  18. Visualization of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone tunnels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Non-anatomic bone tunnel placement is the most common cause of a failed ACL reconstruction. Accurate and reproducible methods to visualize and document bone tunnel placement are therefore important. We evaluated the reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans, and a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) approach in visualizing and measuring ACL reconstruction bone tunnel placement. Methods 50 consecutive patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstructions were evaluated postoperatively by standard radiographs, CT scans, and 3D VR images. Tibial and femoral tunnel positions were measured by 2 observers using the traditional methods of Amis, Aglietti, Hoser, Stäubli, and the method of Benereau for the VR approach. Results The tunnel was visualized in 50–82% of the standard radiographs and in 100% of the CT scans and 3D VR images. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the inter- and intraobserver agreement was between 0.39 and 0.83 for the standard femoral and tibial radiographs. CT scans showed an ICC range of 0.49–0.76 for the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The agreement in 3D VR was almost perfect, with an ICC of 0.83 for the femur and 0.95 for the tibia. Interpretation CT scans and 3D VR images are more reliable in assessing postoperative bone tunnel placement following ACL reconstruction than standard radiographs. PMID:21999625

  19. Adaptive optics two-photon scanning laser fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaopeng; Bifano, Thomas; Lin, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy provides a powerful tool for deep tissue imaging. However, optical aberrations from illumination beam path limit imaging depth and resolution. Adaptive Optics (AO) is found to be useful to compensate for optical aberrations and improve image resolution and contrast from two-photon excitation. We have developed an AO system relying on a MEMS Deformable Mirror (DM) to compensate the optical aberrations in a two-photon scanning laser fluorescence microscope. The AO system utilized a Zernike polynomial based stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to optimize the DM shape for wavefront correction. The developed microscope is applied for subsurface imaging of mouse bone marrow. It was demonstrated that AO allows 80% increase in fluorescence signal intensity from bone cavities 145um below the surface. The AO-enhanced microscope provides cellular level images of mouse bone marrow at depths exceeding those achievable without AO.

  20. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  1. Study of bone-like hydroxyapatite/polyamino acid composite materials for their biological properties and effects on the reconstruction of long bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ling; Jiang, Dian-ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bone-like hydroxyapatite/polyamino acid (BHA/PAA) in the osteogenesis and reconstruction of long segmental bone defects. Methods In vitro, MG63 cells were cultured with BHA/PAA. The osteoinductive activity of the BHA/PAA material was evaluated using inverted microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, MTT proliferation assay, and the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca2+ content. In vivo, the radial bone defect was made in 20 New Zealand White rabbits, and then these animal were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), the experimental group (with BHA/PAA) and the control group (without BHA/PAA). Postoperatively, the osteogenesis effect of BHA/PAA was evaluated through X-ray, hematoxylin–eosin staining, observation of the gross bone specimen, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent confocal scanning microscopy. Results In vitro, BHA/PAA promoted the adhesion, growth, and calcium nodule formation of MG63 cells, and it had good osteogenesis activity. In vivo, with BHA/PAA material degradation and absorption, the new bone gradually formed, and the bone defect gradually recovered in the experimental group. In the control group, a limited bone formation was found at the bone broken ends, and the bone defect was obviously visible. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo, we confirmed that BHA/PAA was effective in inducing osteogenesis and reconstructing a long segmental bone defect. PMID:26719675

  2. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component of study. A standard for bone mineral is clearly needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is the documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers in most of the bone, but enrichment of thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy shows the rostrum mostly consists of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, i.e., Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  3. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more-serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss [Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, http://research.hq.nasa.gov/code_u/bcpr/index.cfm]. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It shows that an extrapolation of the microgravity induced bone loss rates to longer time scales, such as a 2.5 year round-trip to Mars (6 months out at 0 g, 1.5 year stay on Mars at 0.38 g, 6 months back at 0 g), could severely compromise the skeletal system of such a person.

  4. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  5. Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Dong Lei Zhang Lifei; Wang He; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Mohan, Radhe

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

  6. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; Suraya, A; Tan, SP

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour. PMID:22279501

  7. Nanocomposites and bone regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Roshan; Deng, Meng; Laurencin, Cato T.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2011-12-01

    This manuscript focuses on bone repair/regeneration using tissue engineering strategies, and highlights nanobiotechnology developments leading to novel nanocomposite systems. About 6.5 million fractures occur annually in USA, and about 550,000 of these individual cases required the application of a bone graft. Autogenous and allogenous bone have been most widely used for bone graft based therapies; however, there are significant problems such as donor shortage and risk of infection. Alternatives using synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed, and some are commercially available for clinical applications requiring bone grafts. However, it remains a great challenge to design an ideal synthetic graft that very closely mimics the bone tissue structurally, and can modulate the desired function in osteoblast and progenitor cell populations. Nanobiomaterials, specifically nanocomposites composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or collagen are extremely promising graft substitutes. The biocomposites can be fabricated to mimic the material composition of native bone tissue, and additionally, when using nano-HA (reduced grain size), one mimics the structural arrangement of native bone. A good understanding of bone biology and structure is critical to development of bone mimicking graft substitutes. HA and collagen exhibit excellent osteoconductive properties which can further modulate the regenerative/healing process following fracture injury. Combining with other polymeric biomaterials will reinforce the mechanical properties thus making the novel nano-HA based composites comparable to human bone. We report on recent studies using nanocomposites that have been fabricated as particles and nanofibers for regeneration of segmental bone defects. The research in nanocomposites, highlight a pivotal role in the future development of an ideal orthopaedic implant device, however further significant advancements are necessary to achieve clinical use.

  8. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  9. Phase Equilibria of the Cu-Ti-Er System at 773 K (500 °C) and Stability of the CuTi3 Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yongzhong; Peng, Dan; She, Jia

    2012-11-01

    The phase relationships of the Cu-Ti-Er ternary phase diagram at 773 K (500 °C) were investigated mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It is confirmed in this work that the binary compounds Cu9Er2 and Cu7Er2 exist in the Cu-Er binary system at 773 K (500 °C). The stability of the CuTi3 phase is confirmed in the Cu-Ti system. After heat treatment at 1023 K (750 °C) for 90 hours, the phase CuTi3 is observed in the microstructure of the alloy 25Cu75Ti. The temperature of the eutectoid transformation, namely, β-Ti ↔ α-Ti + CuTi3, is determined to be 1078 K (805 °C) in this work. The 773 K (500 °C) isothermal section consists of 14 single-phase regions, 25 two-phase regions, and 12 three-phase regions. None of the phases in this system reveals a remarkable homogeneity range at 773 K (500 °C).

  10. Determination of Small Animal Long Bone Properties Using Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Goldberg, BethAnn K.; Whalen, Robert T.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of bone structural property changes due to loading regimens or pharmacological treatment typically requires destructive mechanical testing and sectioning. Our group has accurately and non-destructively estimated three dimensional cross-sectional areal properties (principal moments of inertia, Imax and Imin, and principal angle, Theta) of human cadaver long bones from pixel-by-pixel analysis of three non-coplanar densitometry scans. Because the scanner beam width is on the order of typical small animal diapbyseal diameters, applying this technique to high-resolution scans of rat long bones necessitates additional processing to minimize errors induced by beam smearing, such as dependence on sample orientation and overestimation of Imax and Imin. We hypothesized that these errors are correctable by digital image processing of the raw scan data. In all cases, four scans, using only the low energy data (Hologic QDR-1000W, small animal mode), are averaged to increase image signal-to-noise ratio. Raw scans are additionally processed by interpolation, deconvolution by a filter derived from scanner beam characteristics, and masking using a variable threshold based on image dynamic range. To assess accuracy, we scanned an aluminum step phantom at 12 orientations over a range of 180 deg about the longitudinal axis, in 15 deg increments. The phantom dimensions (2.5, 3.1, 3.8 mm x 4.4 mm; Imin/Imax: 0.33-0.74) were comparable to the dimensions of a rat femur which was also scanned. Cross-sectional properties were determined at 0.25 mm increments along the length of the phantom and femur. The table shows average error (+/- SD) from theory of Imax, Imin, and Theta) over the 12 orientations, calculated from raw and fully processed phantom images, as well as standard deviations about the mean for the femur scans. Processing of phantom scans increased agreement with theory, indicating improved accuracy. Smaller standard deviations with processing indicate increased

  11. Skeletal assessment in neuroblastoma--the pitfalls of iodine-123-MIBG scans

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.; Gutman, A.; Morony, S.; Dicks-Mireaux, C.; Pritchard, J. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((I123I)MIBG) and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans ({sup 99m}Tc-MDP) in the detection of skeletal involvement by neuroblastoma. Forty-four children with neuroblastoma underwent both ({sup 123}I) MIBG and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scans within a 4-wk period; bone marrow examination also was performed; all these investigations were done both at diagnosis and at follow-up. At diagnosis, four children with Stage 4 disease had normal ({sup 123}I)MIBG scans but abnormal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scans, while at follow-up there were four children with negative ({sup 123}I)MIBG studies who later died from disseminated neuroblastoma. All eight scans are considered false-negative. In 24 children, the ({sup 123}I)MIBG revealed more extensive disease with 161 positive sites while the {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan showed only 100 positive sites; 34 of these sites were common to both studies. This study shows that underassessment of skeletal involvement by neuroblastoma occurred using ({sup 123}I)MIBG scans and that one cannot therefore substitute ({sup 123}I)MIBG for {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scans in the staging of neuroblastoma.

  12. Free Motion Scanning System

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, Charles K.

    1998-06-18

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner and method for the imaging of a part surface, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface including at least two tracking signals for emitting electromagnetic radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of said waves to be reflected from the surface, at least one detector for receiving the electromagnetic radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive said radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzing means for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on said emitted electromagnetic radiation, a differential conversion means for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a means for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe-over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  13. A-Scan Echoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    White, D. Naldrett

    1966-01-01

    The technique of A-scan echoencephalography is criticized in so far as it lacks objectivity and reproducibility. In the author's laboratory, the M-echo, being of higher amplitude than other intracranial echoes, is distinguished from other echoes by an averaging technique—a time exposure. Double transmission pulses indicate the theoretical position of echoes from the true mid-line and superimposition of far-side echoes ensures that the transducers are correctly aligned. The very considerable difficulties in identifying the anatomical structures giving rise to other echoes seen within the skull are outlined. They are largely due to variations in the reflected energy, depending upon the shape and orientation and position of the various interfaces with respect to the ultrasonic beam. Despite these difficulties and limitations, A-scan echoencephalography appears to have an important part to play as a simple, safe and quick form of neurological examination, if the technique can be made truly objective. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5901162

  14. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  15. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  16. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  17. Bone marrow fat.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  18. Genetics of aging bone.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas J; Rowe, David W; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    With aging, the skeleton experiences a number of changes, which include reductions in mass and changes in matrix composition, leading to fragility and ultimately an increase of fracture risk. A number of aspects of bone physiology are controlled by genetic factors, including peak bone mass, bone shape, and composition; however, forward genetic studies in humans have largely concentrated on clinically available measures such as bone mineral density (BMD). Forward genetic studies in rodents have also heavily focused on BMD; however, investigations of direct measures of bone strength, size, and shape have also been conducted. Overwhelmingly, these studies of the genetics of bone strength have identified loci that modulate strength via influencing bone size, and may not impact the matrix material properties of bone. Many of the rodent forward genetic studies lacked sufficient mapping resolution for candidate gene identification; however, newer studies using genetic mapping populations such as Advanced Intercrosses and the Collaborative Cross appear to have overcome this issue and show promise for future studies. The majority of the genetic mapping studies conducted to date have focused on younger animals and thus an understanding of the genetic control of age-related bone loss represents a key gap in knowledge. PMID:27272104

  19. Bone Quality in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk of fracture, although type 2 diabetes is characterized by normal bone mineral density (BMD). The fracture risk of type 1 diabetes increases beyond an explained by a decrease of BMD. Thus, diabetes may be associated with a reduction of bone strength that is not reflected in the measurement of BMD. Based on the present definition, both bone density and quality, which encompass the structural and material properties of bone, are important factors in the determination of bone strength. Diabetes reduces bone quality rather than BMD. Collagen cross-linking plays an important role in bone strength. Collagen cross-links can be divided into lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase-mediated enzymatic immature divalent cross-links, mature trivalent cross-links, and glycation- or oxidation-induced non-enzymatic cross-links (Advanced Glycation End-products: AGEs) such as pentosidine. These types of cross-links differ in the mechanism of formation and in function. Not only hyperglycemia, but also oxidative stress induces the reduction in enzymatic beneficial cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous AGEs in bone. In this review, we describe the mechanism of low bone quality in diabetes. PMID:23785354

  20. Method for fusing bone

    DOEpatents

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1996-03-12

    The present invention is a method for joining hard tissue which includes chemically removing the mineral matrix from a thin layer of the surfaces to be joined, placing the two bones together, and heating the joint using electromagnetic radiation. The goal of the method is not to produce a full-strength weld of, for example, a cortical bone of the tibia, but rather to produce a weld of sufficient strength to hold the bone halves in registration while either external fixative devices are applied to stabilize the bone segments, or normal healing processes restore full strength to the tibia.