Science.gov

Sample records for 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene in Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueying, Ren; Zhenghong, Sui; Xuecheng, Zhang

    2006-04-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in various cellular processes. A cytosolic GAPDH encoding gene ( gpd) of Gracilaria/Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was cloned and characterized. Deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme of G. lemaneiformis had high homology with those of seven red algae. The 5'-untranslated regions of the GAPDHs encoding genes of these red algae varied greatly. GAPDHs of these red algae shared the highly conserved glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase active site ASCTTNCL. However, such active site of Cyanidium caldarium was different from those of the other six algae at the last two residues (CL to LF), thus the spatial structure of its GAPDH active center may be different from those of the other six. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GAPDH of G. lemaneiformis might have undergone an evolution similar to those of Porphyra yezoensis, Chondrus crispus, and Gracilaria verrucosa. C. caldarium had a closer evolutionary relationship with Cyanidioschyzon merolae than with Cyanidium sp. Virtual Northern blot analysis revealed that gpd of G. lemaneiformis expressed constitutively, which suggested that it might be house-keeping and could be adapted as an inner control in gene expression analysis of G. lemaneiformis.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Penicillium expansum PE-12.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Qi, Z; Yu, Q S; Tang, K X

    2013-07-15

    Penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. We isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PeGPD) from P. expansum PE-12 through reverse transcriptase PCR and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The gene is 1266 bp long, including an ORF of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. A phylogenetic tree based on GPD proteins showed that P. expansum is close to Aspergillus species, but comparatively distant from P. marneffei. Southern blot results revealed a single copy of PeGPD, and expression analysis gave evidence of high expression levels. PeGPD genes have potential for genetic engineering of P. expansum for industrial lipase production.

  3. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Encoding Gene as a Useful Taxonomic Tool for Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Yugueros, Javier; Temprano, Alejandro; Berzal, Beatriz; Sánchez, María; Hernanz, Carmen; Luengo, José María; Naharro, Germán

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene of Staphylococcus aureus, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was used as a target to amplify a 933-bp DNA fragment by PCR with a pair of primers 26 and 25 nucleotides in length. PCR products, detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, were also amplified from 12 Staphylococcus spp. analyzed previously. Hybridization with an internal 279-bp DNA fragment probe was positive in all PCR-positive samples. No PCR products were amplified when other gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial genera were analyzed using the same pair of primers. AluI digestion of PCR-generated products gave 12 different restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, one for each species analyzed. However, we could detect two intraspecies RFLP patterns in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans which were different from the other species. An identical RFLP pattern was observed for 112 S. aureus isolates from humans, cows, and sheep. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was very high, with a detection limit for S. aureus cells of 20 CFU when cells were suspended in saline. PCR amplification of the gap gene has the potential for rapid identification of at least 12 species belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, as it is highly specific. PMID:11101563

  4. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene as a useful taxonomic tool for Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Yugueros, J; Temprano, A; Berzal, B; Sánchez, M; Hernanz, C; Luengo, J M; Naharro, G

    2000-12-01

    The gap gene of Staphylococcus aureus, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was used as a target to amplify a 933-bp DNA fragment by PCR with a pair of primers 26 and 25 nucleotides in length. PCR products, detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, were also amplified from 12 Staphylococcus spp. analyzed previously. Hybridization with an internal 279-bp DNA fragment probe was positive in all PCR-positive samples. No PCR products were amplified when other gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial genera were analyzed using the same pair of primers. AluI digestion of PCR-generated products gave 12 different restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns, one for each species analyzed. However, we could detect two intraspecies RFLP patterns in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus simulans which were different from the other species. An identical RFLP pattern was observed for 112 S. aureus isolates from humans, cows, and sheep. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was very high, with a detection limit for S. aureus cells of 20 CFU when cells were suspended in saline. PCR amplification of the gap gene has the potential for rapid identification of at least 12 species belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, as it is highly specific.

  5. PCR-mediated recombination of the amplification products of the Hibiscus tiliaceus cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linghui; Tang, Tian; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

    2007-03-31

    PCR-mediated recombination describes the process of in vitro chimera formation from related template sequences present in a single PCR amplification. The high levels of genetic redundancy in eukaryotic genomes should make recombination artifacts occur readily. However, few evolutionary biologists adequately consider this phenomenon when studying gene lineages. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GapC), which encodes a NADP-dependent nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol, is a classical low-copy nuclear gene marker and is commonly used in molecular evolutionary studies. Here, we report on the occurrence of PCR-mediated recombination in the GapC gene family of Hibiscus tiliaceus. The study suggests that recombinant areas appear to be correlated with DNA template secondary structures. Our observations highlight that recombination artifacts should be considered when studying specific and allelic phylogenies. The authors suggest that nested PCR be used to suppress PCR-mediated recombination.

  6. Cloning and characterisation of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Candida bombicola and use of its promoter.

    PubMed

    Van Bogaert, Inge N A; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Develter, Dirk; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2008-10-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD) of the sophorolipid producing yeast Candida bombicola was isolated using degenerated PCR and genome walking. The obtained 3,740 bp contain the 1,008 bases of the coding sequence and 1,613 and 783 bp of the upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The corresponding protein shows high homology to the other known GPD genes and is 74% identical to the gyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Yarrowia lipolytica. The particular interest in the C. bombicola GPD gene sequence originates from the potential use of its promoter for high and constitutive expression of homologous and heterologous genes. Southern blot analysis did not give any indication for the presence of multiple GPD genes and it can therefore be expected that the promoter can be used for efficient and high expression. This hypothesis was further confirmed by the biased codon usage in the GPD gene. GDP promoter fragments of different lengths were used to construct hygromycin resistance cassettes. The constructs were used for the transformation of C. bombicola and all of them, even the ones with only 190 bp of the GPD promoter, were able to render the cells resistant to hygromycin. The efficacy of a short GPD promoter can be a convenient characteristic for the construction of compact expression cassettes or vectors for C. bombicola. The GenBank accession number of the sequence described in this article is EU315245.

  7. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthoraperniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Lima, Juliana O; Pereira, Jorge F; Rincones, Johana; Barau, Joan G; Araújo, Elza F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Queiroz, Marisa V

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH). The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X) in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  8. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH) from the Giant Panda.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wan-Ru; Hou, Yi-Ling; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Tian; Hao, Yan-Zhe

    2010-01-01

    GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway and it is related to the occurrence of some diseases. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of GAPDH were cloned successfully from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using the RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were analyzed preliminarily. The cDNA of GAPDH cloned from the Giant Panda is 1191 bp in size, contains an open reading frame of 1002 bp encoding 333 amino acids. The genomic sequence is 3941 bp in length and was found to possess 10 exons and 9 introns. Alignment analysis indicates that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence are highly conserved in some mammalian species, including Homo sapiens, Mu musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris and Bos taurus. The homologies for the nucleotide sequences of the Giant Panda GAPDH to that of these species are 90.67, 90.92, 90.62, 95.01 and 92.32% respectively, while the homologies for the amino acid sequences are 94.93, 95.5, 95.8, 98.8 and 97.0%. Primary structure analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the putative GAPDH protein is 35.7899 kDa with a theoretical pI of 8.21. Topology prediction showed that there is one Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase active site, two N-glycosylation sites, four Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, seven Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and eight N-myristoylation sites in the GAPDH protein of the Giant Panda. The GAPDH gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21. The results indicated that the fusion of GAPDH with the N-terminally His-tagged form gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 43 kDa polypeptide. The SDS-PAGE analysis also showed that the recombinant GAPDH was soluble and thus could be used for further functional studies.

  9. HUMAN GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-2 (GAPD2) GENE IS EXPRESSED SPECIFICALLY IN SPERMATOGENIC CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the process of glycolysis is highly conserved in eukaryotes, several glycolytic enzymes have unique structural or functional features in spermatogenic cells. We previously identified and characterized the mouse complementary DNA (cDNA) and a gene for 1 of these enzymes, ...

  10. Over-expression of PsGPD, a mushroom glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, enhances salt tolerance in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Il; Lim, Hye-Min; Siddiqui, Zamin Shaheed; Park, Sung-Han; Kim, A-Ram; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic potatoes expressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), isolated from the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, had increased tolerance to salt stress (Jeong et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:192-196, 2000). To examine the physiological mechanisms enhancing salt tolerance in GPD-transgenic rice plants, the salt tolerance of five GPD transgenic rice lines (T1-T5) derived from Dongjin rice cultivar were evaluated in a fixed 150 mM saline environment in comparison to two known wild-type rice cultivars, Dongjin (salt sensitive) and Pokali (salt tolerant). Transgenic lines, T2, T3, and T5, had a substantial increase in biomass and relative water content compared to Dongjin. Stomatal conductance and osmotic potential were higher in the GPD transgenic lines and were similar to those in Pokali. The results are discussed based on the comparative physiological response of GPD transgenic lines with those of the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars.

  11. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  12. Effects of deletion of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes on glycerol and ethanol metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline worldwide. For economic production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of a main by-product, glycerol, should be prevented or minimized in order to reduce a separation cost of ethanol from fermentation broth. In this study, S. cerevisiae was engineered to investigate the effects of the sole and double disruption of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and NADPH-requiring glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) on the production of glycerol and ethanol from glucose. Even though sole deletion of GPD1 or GDH1 reduced glycerol production, double deletion of GPD1 and GDH1 resulted in the lowest glycerol concentration of 2.31 g/L, which was 46.4% lower than the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the recombinant S. cerevisiae ∆GPD1∆GDH1 strain showed a slight improvement in ethanol yield (0.414 g/g) compared with the wild-type strain (0.406 g/g). Genetic engineering of the glycerol and glutamate metabolic pathways modified NAD(P)H-requiring metabolic pathways and exerted a positive effect on glycerol reduction without affecting ethanol production.

  13. Seasonal freeze resistance of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is generated by differential expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and antifreeze protein genes.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, Ryan S; Richards, Robert C; Lewis, Johanne M; Short, Connie E; Muise, Denise M; Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

    2006-01-01

    In winter, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) accumulate glycerol and produce an antifreeze protein (AFP), which both contribute to freeze resistance. The role of differential gene expression in the seasonal pattern of these adaptations was investigated. First, cDNAs encoding smelt and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and smelt glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were cloned so that all sequences required for expression analysis would be available. Using quantitative PCR, expression of beta actin in rainbow smelt liver was compared with that of GAPDH in order to determine its validity as a reference gene. Then, levels of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), PEPCK, and AFP relative to beta actin were measured in smelt liver over a fall-winter-spring interval. Levels of GPDH mRNA increased in the fall just before plasma glycerol accumulation, implying a driving role in glycerol synthesis. GPDH mRNA levels then declined during winter, well in advance of serum glycerol, suggesting the possibility of GPDH enzyme or glycerol conservation in smelt during the winter months. PEPCK mRNA levels rose in parallel with serum glycerol in the fall, consistent with an increasing requirement for amino acids as metabolic precursors, remained elevated for much of the winter, and then declined in advance of the decline in plasma glycerol. AFP mRNA was elevated at the onset of fall sampling in October and remained elevated until April, implying separate regulation from GPDH and PEPCK. Thus, winter freezing point depression in smelt appears to result from a seasonal cycle of GPDH gene expression, with an ensuing increase in the expression of PEPCK, and a similar but independent cycle of AFP gene expression.

  14. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  15. The Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Associated Cell Cycle (GACC) Genes Correlates with Cancer Stage and Poor Survival in Patients with Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dunrui; Moothart, Daniel R.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Qian, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is often used as a stable housekeeping marker for constant gene expression. However, the transcriptional levels of GAPDH may be highly up-regulated in some cancers, including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Using a publically available microarray database, we identified a group of genes whose expression levels in some cancers are highly correlated with GAPDH up-regulation. The majority of the identified genes are cell cycle-dependent (GAPDH Associated Cell Cycle, or GACC). The up-regulation pattern of GAPDH positively associated genes in NSCLC is similar to that observed in cultured fibroblasts grown under conditions that induce anti-senescence. Data analysis demonstrated that up-regulated GAPDH levels are correlated with aberrant gene expression related to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) in gluconeogenesis in conjunction with up-regulation of most glycolytic genes is closely related to high expression of GAPDH in the tumors. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis. PMID:23620736

  16. Isolation and characterization of rat and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs: genomic complexity and molecular evolution of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tso, J Y; Sun, X H; Kao, T H; Reece, K S; Wu, R

    1985-01-01

    Full length cDNAs encoding the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from rat and man have been isolated and sequenced. Many GAPDH gene-related sequences have been found in both genomes based on genomic blot hybridization analysis. Only one functional gene product is known. Results from genomic library screenings suggest that there are 300-400 copies of these sequences in the rat genome and approximately 100 in the human genome. Some of these related sequences have been shown to be processed pseudogenes. We have isolated several rat cDNA clones corresponding to these pseudogenes indicating that some pseudogenes are transcribed. Rat and human cDNAs are 89% homologous in the coding region, and 76% homologous in the first 100 base pairs of the 3'-noncoding region. Comparison of these two cDNA sequences with those of the chicken, Drosophila and yeast genes allows the analysis of the evolution of the GAPDH genes in detail. Images PMID:2987855

  17. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  18. Buformin suppresses the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akiko; Kubota, Masafumi; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Usui, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Kazuyuki

    2006-05-01

    The biguanides metformin and buformin, which are clinically used for diabetes mellitus, are known to improve resistance to insulin in patients. Biguanides were reported to cause lactic acidosis as a side effect. Since the mechanism of the side effect still remains obscure, we have examined genes whose expression changes by treating HepG2 cells with buformin in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the side effect. A subtraction cDNA library was constructed by the method of suppressive subtractive hybridization and the screening of the library was performed with cDNA probes prepared from HepG2 cells treated with or without buformin for 12 h. The expression of the gene and the protein obtained by the screening was monitored by real-time RT-PCR with specific primers and Western blotting with specific antibody. The amounts of ATP and NAD+ were determined with luciferase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. We found that expression of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene was suppressed by treating HepG2 cells with 0.25 mM buformin for 12 h as a result of the library screening. The decrease in the expression depended on the treatment period. The amount of GAPD protein also decreased simultaneously with the suppression of the gene expression by the treatment with buformin. The amount of ATP and NAD+ in the HepG2 cells treated with buformin decreased to 10 and 20% of the control, respectively. These observations imply that the biguanide causes deactivation of the glycolytic pathway and subsequently the accumulation of pyruvate and NADH and a decrease in NAD+. Therefore, the reaction equilibrium catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase leans towards lactate production and this may result in lactic acidosis.

  19. Characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene RtGPD1 and development of genetic transformation method by dominant selection in oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Koh, Chong Mei John; Sun, Longhua; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Du, Minge; Peng, Ni; Ji, Lianghui

    2013-01-01

    The oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides, which belongs to the Pucciniomycotina subphylum in the Basidiomycota, has attracted strong interest in the biofuel community recently due to its ability to accumulate more than 60% of dry biomass as lipid under high-density fermentation. A 3,543-nucleotide (nt) DNA fragment of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) was isolated from R. toruloides ATCC 10657 and characterized in details. The 1,038-nt mRNA derived from seven exons encodes an open reading frame (ORF) of 345 amino acids that shows high identity (80%) to the Ustilago maydis homolog. Notably, the ORF is composed of codons strongly biased towards cytosine at the Wobble position. GPD1 is transcriptionally regulated by temperature shock, osmotic stress, and carbon source. Nested deletion analysis of the GPD1 promoter by GFP reporter assay revealed that two regions, -975 to -1,270 and -1,270 to -1,429, upstream from the translational start site of GPD1 were important for responses to various stress stimuli. Interestingly, a 176-bp short fragment maintained 42.2% promoter activity of the 795-bp version in U. maydis whereas it was reduced to 17.4% in R. toruloides. The GPD1 promoter drove strong expression of a codon-optimized enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (RtGFP) and a codon-optimized hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt-3), which was critical for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in R. toruloides.

  20. Detection of a mutation in the intron of Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in patients with fibrous sheath dysplasia of the sperm flagellum.

    PubMed

    Elkina, Y L; Kuravsky, M L; Bragina, E E; Kurilo, L F; Khayat, S S; Sukhomlinova, M Y; Schmalhausen, E V

    2017-03-01

    The fibrous sheath is a unique cytoskeletal structure surrounding the axoneme and outer dense fibres of the sperm flagellum. Dysplasia of the fibrous sheath (DFS) is a defect of spermatozoa observed in severe asthenozoospermic patients and characterised by morphologically abnormal flagella with distorted fibrous sheaths. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) is a glycolytic enzyme that is tightly associated with the fibrous sheath of the sperm flagellum. The enzymatic activity of GAPDS was investigated in sperm samples of seven patients with DFS and compared to that of normal spermatozoa (n = 10). The difference in GAPDS activity in DFS and normal spermatozoa was statistically significant (0.19 ± 0.11 and 0.75 ± 0.11 μmol NADH per min per mg protein respectively). Immunochemical staining revealed irregular distribution of GAPDS in the flagellum of DFS spermatozoa. Other five samples with typical alterations in the fibrous sheath were assayed for mutations within human GAPDS gene. In all five cases, a replacement of guanine by adenine was revealed in the intron region between the sixth and the seventh exons of GAPDS. It is assumed that the deficiency in GAPDS observed in most DFS sperm samples is ascribable to a disorder in the regulation of GAPDS expression caused by the mutation in the intron region of GAPDS gene.

  1. Genetic variability of Yersinia pestis isolates as predicted by PCR-based IS100 genotyping and analysis of structural genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD).

    PubMed

    Motin, Vladimir L; Georgescu, Anca M; Elliott, Jeffrey M; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L; Ott, Linda L; Slezak, Tomas R; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Regala, Warren M; Brubaker, Robert R; Garcia, Emilio

    2002-02-01

    A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed.

  2. Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)

    PubMed Central

    Motin, Vladimir L.; Georgescu, Anca M.; Elliott, Jeffrey M.; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Tomas R.; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A.; Regala, Warren M.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Garcia, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed. PMID:11807062

  3. THE HEME BINDING PROPERTIES OF GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Collins, Daniel; Brassard, Julie; Chakravarti, Ritu; Vempati, Rajesh; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Dawson, John H.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that also functions in transcriptional regulation, oxidative stress, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. Because GAPDH is required for cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase (Chakravarti et al, PNAS 2010, 107(42):18004-9), we extensively characterized the heme binding properties of GAPDH. Substoichiometric amounts of ferric heme bound to GAPDH (1 heme per GAPDH tetramer) to form a low-spin complex with UV-visible maxima at 362, 418 and 537 nm, and when reduced to ferrous gave maxima at 424, 527 and 559 nm. Ferric heme association and dissociation rate constants at 10 °C were kon =17,800 M−1s−1 and koff1 = 7.0 × 10−3 s−1; koff2 = 3.3 × 10−4 s−1 respectively, giving approximate affinities of 19–390 nM. Ferrous heme bound more poorly to GAPDH and dissociated with a koff = 4.2 × 10−3 s−1. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), resonance Raman (rR) and EPR spectroscopic data on the ferric, ferrous, and ferrous-CO complexes of GAPDH showed that the heme is bis-ligated with His as the proximal ligand. The distal ligand in ferric complex was not displaced by CN− or N3− but in ferrous complex was displaceable by CO at a rate of 1.75 s−1 (for [CO]>0.2 mM). Studies with heme analogs revealed selectivity toward the coordinating metal and porphyrin ring structure. GAPDH-heme was isolated from bacteria induced to express rabbit GAPDH in the presence of δ-amino levulinic acid. Our finding of heme binding to GAPDH expands the protein’s potential roles. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH is consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells. PMID:22957700

  4. Characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking a cytosolic non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2006-08-01

    Non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NP-GAPDH) is a conserved cytosolic protein found in higher plants. In photosynthetic cells, the enzyme is involved in a shuttle transfer mechanism to export NADPH from the chloroplast to the cytosol. To investigate the role of this enzyme in plant tissues, we characterized a mutant from Arabidopsis thaliana having an insertion at the NP-GAPDH gene locus. The homozygous mutant was determined to be null respect to NP-GAPDH, as it exhibited undetectable levels of both transcription of NP-GAPDH mRNA, protein expression and enzyme activity. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the insertion mutant plant shows altered expression of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Significantly, cytosolic phosphorylating (NAD-dependent) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA levels are induced in the mutant, which correlates with an increase in enzyme activity. mRNA levels and enzymatic activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also elevated, correlating with an increase in NADPH concentration. Moreover, increased ROS levels were measured in the mutant plants. Down-regulation of several glycolytic and photosynthetic genes suggests that NP-GAPDH is important for the efficiency of both metabolic processes. The results presented demonstrate that NP-GAPDH has a relevant role in plant growth and development.

  5. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  6. Purification and properties of rabbit muscle l-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Philip; Dickinson, F. Mark; Jones, Ian G.

    1973-01-01

    A modified procedure has been developed for the purification of rabbit muscle l-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The product of the preparation satisfies all criteria of homogeneity. Some physical properties of the enzyme have been re-investigated. The results suggest that previous preparations may have been contaminated with significant amounts of heavy-molecular-weight protein. PMID:4778280

  7. Phosphatidic Acid Binds to Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase and Promotes Its Cleavage in Arabidopsis *

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a class of lipid messengers involved in a variety of physiological processes. To understand how PA mediates cell functions in plants, we used a PA affinity membrane assay to isolate PA-binding proteins from Camelina sativa followed by mass spectrometric sequencing. A cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) was identified to bind to PA, and detailed analysis was carried out subsequently using GAPC1 and GAPC1 from Arabidopsis. The PA and GAPC binding was abolished by the cation zinc whereas oxidation of GAPCs promoted the PA binding. PA had little impact on the GAPC catalytic activity in vitro, but the PA treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings induced proteolytic cleavage of GAPC2 and inhibited Arabidopsis seedling growth. The extent of PA inhibition was greater in GAPC-overexpressing than wild-type seedlings, but the greater PA inhibition was abolished by application of zinc to the seedling. The PA treatment also reduced the expression of genes involved in PA synthesis and utilization, and the PA-reduced gene expression was partially recovered by zinc treatment. These data suggest that PA binds to oxidized GAPDH and promotes its cleavage and that the PA and GAPC interaction may provide a signaling link coordinating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:23504314

  8. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH molecules of various organisms and compared GAPDH sequences with human and other small experimental animals. These study revealed that tree shrew was closer to human than mouse, rat, rabbit and guinea pig. The Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR and western blot analysis further demonstrated that GAPDH expressed in various tissues in tree shrew as a general conservative housekeeping proteins as in human. Our findings provide the novel genetic knowledge of the tree shrew and strong evidences that tree shrew can be an experimental model system to study human disorders. PMID:24887411

  9. Comparative molecular analysis of evolutionarily distant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Sardina pilchardus and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Baibai, Tarik; Oukhattar, Laila; Mountassif, Driss; Assobhei, Omar; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2010-12-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12), which is recognized as a key to central carbon metabolism in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and as an important allozymic polymorphic biomarker, was purified from muscles of two marine species: the skeletal muscle of Sardina pilchardus Walbaum (Teleost, Clupeida) and the incompressible arm muscle of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Comparative biochemical studies have revealed that they differ in their subunit molecular masses and in pI values. Partial cDNA sequences corresponding to an internal region of the GapC genes from Sardina and Octopus were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers designed from highly conserved protein motifs. Alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences were used to establish the 3D structures of the active site of two enzymes as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the sardine and octopus enzymes. These two enzymes are the first two GAPDHs characterized so far from teleost fish and cephalopod, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sardina GAPDH is in a cluster with the archetypical enzymes from other vertebrates, while the octopus GAPDH comes together with other molluscan sequences in a distant basal assembly closer to bacterial and fungal orthologs, thus suggesting their different evolutionary scenarios.

  10. Vaccine efficacy of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Edwardsiella ictaluri against E. tarda in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Trung Cao, Thanh; Tsai, Ming-An; Yang, Chung-Da; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Gabriel Chen, Hsu-Chung; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), derived from the outer-membrane protein (OMP) fraction, has been used as a potential candidate for vaccine development. The gene-encoding 37 kDa GAPDH outer membrane protein (OMP) from Edwardsiella ictaluri was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting, and nucleotide and amino acid sequencing were used to analyze the expressed antigenic protein and gene encoding this protein. Comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis of GAPDH from E. ictaluri GAPDHs from several Gram-negative bacterial species within the Enterobacteriaceae family revealed that the GAPDHs within this group are highly conserved and share a sequence similarity of 75-100% with E. ictaluri GDPDH. Rabbit antiserum raised against the E. ictaluri recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) protein recognized purified GADPH, indicating that it has a strong immunogenicity. Tilapia fish were intraperitoneally immunized with formalin-killed E. ictaluri whole cells, and rGAPDH (30 μg fish(-1)) from E. ictaluri, both of which were emulsified in ISA 763A adjuvant. At 3 months after immunization, fish were challenged with the E. tarda strain to assess vaccine efficacy; the relative percent survival (RPS) values were found to exceed 71.4%. The specific mean antibody titer log2 level of groups vaccinated with rGAPDH at 3 months was significantly higher than that of non-vaccinated fish (control group). Therefore, this recombinant protein can be considered a multi-purpose candidate vaccine against several pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Relationship between a stress membrane protein of Oenococcus oeni and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Carreté, Ramon; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Constantí, Magda

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze how the profiles of membrane proteins of Oenococcus oeni change under particular stress conditions of wine. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles of membrane fraction showed that a 40-kDa protein was overexpressed in the presence of SO2. The sequence of its N-terminal fragment showed a significant identity with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs), but the protein showed no GAPDH activity. This sequence was compared with those of other GAPDHs with ClustalW alignment, and it was found to be somewhat similar to that of the cell-wall and membrane proteins of other lactic acid bacteria.

  12. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  13. The Plastidial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is Critical for Viable Pollen Development in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Irles-Segura, Asunción; Mateu, Isabel; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2010-01-01

    Plant metabolism is highly coordinated with development. However, an understanding of the whole picture of metabolism and its interactions with plant development is scarce. In this work, we show that the deficiency in the plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) leads to male sterility in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Pollen from homozygous gapcp double mutant plants (gapcp1gapcp2) displayed shrunken and collapsed forms and were unable to germinate when cultured in vitro. The pollen alterations observed in gapcp1gapcp2 were attributed to a disorganized tapetum layer. Accordingly, the expression of several of the genes involved in tapetum development was down-regulated in gapcp1gapcp2. The fertility of gapcp1gapcp2 was rescued by transforming this mutant with a construct carrying the GAPCp1 cDNA under the control of its native promoter (pGAPCp1::GAPCp1c). However, the GAPCp1 or GAPCp2 cDNA under the control of the 35S promoter (p35S::GAPCp), which is poorly expressed in the tapetum, did not complement the mutant fertility. Mutant GAPCp isoforms deficient in the catalytic activity of the enzyme were unable to complement the sterile phenotype of gapcp1gapcp2, thus confirming that both the expression and catalytic activity of GAPCp in anthers are necessary for mature pollen development. A metabolomic study in flower buds indicated that the most important difference between the sterile (gapcp1gapcp2, gapcp1gapcp2-p35S::GAPCp) and the fertile (wild-type plants, gapcp1gapcp2-pGAPCp1::GAPCp1c) lines was the increase in the signaling molecule trehalose. This work corroborates the importance of plastidial glycolysis in plant metabolism and provides evidence for the crucial role of GAPCps in pollen development. It additionally brings new insights into the complex interactions between metabolism and development. PMID:20107025

  14. Influence of heavy metals on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase interactions in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    PubMed

    Wai, Isaac; Chong, King; Ho, Wing Shing

    2013-08-01

    Some aquatic organisms can live in contaminated environment due to their adaptable defense mechanism related to their inducible detoxification and excretion. A recent study showed glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) can modulate different cellular activities including transcription activation and detoxification. In the present study, the authors report on experiments to test the GAPDH activity of Chironomus riparius toward heavy metals. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was isolated and purified from C. riparius. The kinetics of the enzyme was measured. The results showed that GAPDH was inhibited by heavy metals including Co(2+) , Cu(2+) , Fe(2+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) , but was activated by zinc ions. The kinetics study of the enzyme showed maximum initial velocity (Vmax) of GAPDH increased by 50%. In addition, the substrate and cofactor affinity increased in the presence of zinc. The GAPDH from C. riparius had maximum activities at pH 8.5 and 37 °C. The protein sequence analysis shows that there are 2 additional cysteine and histidine residues in the conserved region of GAPDH from C. riparius, which is believed to play an important role in the interactions with heavy metals. The results suggest that exposure to zinc could modulate GAPDH, which could be related to response of antioxidant defense to other heavy metals.

  15. Moonlighting glycolytic protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): an evolutionarily conserved plasminogen receptor on mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Anoop Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Chaudhary, Surbhi; Patidar, Anil; Dhiman, Asmita; Sheokand, Navdeep; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Chaaya Iyengar; Raje, Manoj

    2017-03-15

    Prokaryotic pathogens establish infection in mammals by capturing the proteolytic enzyme plasminogen (Plg) onto their surface to digest host extracellular matrix (ECM). One of the bacterial surface Plg receptors is the multifunctional glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In a defensive response, the host mounts an inflammatory response, which involves infiltration of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. This requires macrophage exit from the blood and migration across basement membranes, a phenomenon dependent on proteolytic remodeling of the ECM utilizing Plg. The ability of Plg to facilitate inflammatory cell recruitment critically depends on receptors on the surface of phagocyte cells. Utilizing a combination of biochemical, cellular, knockdown, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrated that upon inflammation, macrophages recruit GAPDH onto their surface to carry out the same task of capturing Plg to digest ECM to aid rapid phagocyte migration and combat the invading pathogens. We propose that GAPDH is an ancient, evolutionarily conserved receptor that plays a key role in the Plg-dependent regulation of macrophage recruitment in the inflammatory response to microbial aggression, thus pitting prokaryotic GAPDH against mammalian GAPDH, with both involved in a conserved role of Plg activation on the surface of their respective cells, to conflicting ends.-Chauhan, A. S., Kumar, M., Chaudhary, S., Patidar, A., Dhiman, A., Sheokand, N., Malhotra, H., Raje, C. I., Raje, M. Moonlighting glycolytic protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): an evolutionarily conserved plasminogen receptor on mammalian cells.

  16. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  17. Inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of human malignant cells by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Ray, M; Basu, N; Ray, S

    1997-12-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) of several normal human tissues and benign and malignant tumors has been tested. Methylglyoxal inactivated GA3PD of all the malignant cells (47 samples) and the degree of inactivation was in the range of 25-90%, but it had no inhibitory effect on this enzyme from several normal cells (24 samples) and benign tumors (13 samples). When the effect of methylglyoxal on other two dehydrogenases namely glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) of similar cells was tested as controls it has been observed that methylglyoxal has some inactivating effect on G6PD of all the normal, benign and malignant samples tested, whereas, LDH remained completely unaffected. These studies indicate that the inactivating effect of methylglyoxal on GA3PD specifically of the malignant cells may be a common feature of all the malignant cells, and this phenomenon can be used as a simple and rapid device for the detection of malignancy.

  18. Overexpression and nuclear accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Senatorov, Vladimir V; Charles, Vinod; Reddy, P H; Tagle, Dan A; Chuang, De-Maw

    2003-03-01

    Huntington's disease is due to an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene. Huntingtin interacts with several proteins including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We performed immunohistochemical analysis of GAPDH expression in the brains of transgenic mice carrying the huntingtin gene with 89 CAG repeats. In all wild-type animals examined, GAPDH was evenly distributed among the different cell types throughout the brain. In contrast, the majority of transgenic mice showed GAPDH overexpression, with the most prominent GAPDH changes observed in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, neocortex, and hippocampal formation. Double staining for NeuN and GFAP revealed that GAPDH overexpression occurred exclusively in neurons. Nissl staining analysis of the neocortex and caudate putamen indicated 24 and 27% of cell loss in transgenic mice, respectively. Subcellular fluorescence analysis revealed a predominant increase in GAPDH immunostaining in the nucleus. Thus, we conclude that mutation of huntingtin is associated with GAPDH overexpression and nuclear translocation in discrete populations of brain neurons.

  19. Autonomous folding of the excised coenzyme-binding domain of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Jecht, M.; Tomschy, A.; Kirschner, K.; Jaenicke, R.

    1994-01-01

    An important question in protein folding is whether compact substructures or domains are autonomous units of folding and assembly. The protomer of the tetrameric D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has a complex coenzyme-binding domain, in which residues 1-146 form a compact substructure with the last 31 residues (313-333). Here it is shown that the gene of a single-chain protein can be expressed in Escherichia coli after deleting the 163 codons corresponding to the interspersed catalytic domain (150-312). The purified gene product is a soluble, monomeric protein that binds both NAD+ and NADH strongly and possesses the same unfolding transition induced by guanidinium chloride as the native tetramer. The autonomous folding of the coenzyme-binding domain has interesting implications for the folding, assembly, function, and evolution of the native enzyme. PMID:8019412

  20. Characterization of two proteins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis with homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Goji, Noriko; Potter, Andrew A; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2004-04-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative agent of bovine mastitis and vaccines developed to control this disease showed limited protection due in part to the lack of common antigens among the mastitis isolates. We isolated and identified two genes encoding proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity from a S. aureus strain isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. The GapB and GapC proteins share considerable homology to the GapB and GapC products of human strains of S. aureus. These two proteins could be distinguished by their different GAPDH activities and binding to bovine transferrin properties. Both gapB and gapC genes were conserved in 11 strains tested, and the GapC protein was present on the surface of all S. aureus strains.

  1. Folding domains and intramolecular ionic interactions of lysine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, J M; Perham, R N

    1977-01-01

    1. Treatment with methyl acetimidate was used to probe the topography of several tetrameric glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases, in particular the holoenzymes from rabbit muscle and Bacillus stearothermophilus. During the course of the reaction with the rabbit muscle enzyme, the number of amino groups fell rapidly from the starting value of 27 per subunit to a value of approx. five per subunit. This number could be lowered further to values between one and two per subunit by a second treatment with methyl acetimidate. The enzyme remained tetrameric throughout and retained 50% of its initial catalytic activity at the end of the experiment. 2. Use of methyl [1-14C]acetimidate and small-scale methods of protein chemistry showed that only one amino group per subunit, that of lysine-306, was completely unavailable for reaction with imido ester in the native enzyme. This results is consistent with the structure of the highly homologous glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of lobster muscle deduced from X-ray-crystallographic analysis, since lysine-306 can be seen to form an intrachain ion-pair with aspartic acid-241 in the hydrophobic environment of a subunit-subunit interface. 3. Several other amino groups in the rabbit muscle enzyme that reacted only slowly with the reagent were also identified chemically. These were found to be located entirely in the C-terminal half of the polypeptides chain, which comprises a folding domain associated with catalytic activity and subunit contact in the three-dimensional structure. Slow reaction of these 'surface' amino groups with methyl acetimidate is attributed to intramolecular ionic interactions of the amino groups with neighbouring side-chain carboxyl groups, a conclusion that is compatible with the reported three-dimensional structure and with the dependence of the reaction of ionic stength. 4. Very similar results were obtained with the enzymes from B. stearothermophilus and from ox muscle and ox liver, supporting

  2. Synergistic interaction of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ArsJ, a novel organoarsenical efflux permease, confers arsenate resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Garbinski, Luis D; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-06-01

    Microbial biotransformations are major contributors to the arsenic biogeocycle. In parallel with transformations of inorganic arsenic, organoarsenicals pathways have recently been recognized as important components of global cycling of arsenic. The well-characterized pathway of resistance to arsenate is reduction coupled to arsenite efflux. Here, we describe a new pathway of arsenate resistance involving biosynthesis and extrusion of an unusual pentavalent organoarsenical. A number of arsenic resistance (ars) operons have two genes of unknown function that are linked in these operons. One, gapdh, encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The other, arsJ, encodes a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) protein. The two genes were cloned from the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When expressed together, but not alone, in Escherichia coli, gapdh and arsJ specifically conferred resistance to arsenate and decreased accumulation of As(V). Everted membrane vesicles from cells expressing arsJ accumulated As(V) in the presence of purified GAPDH, D-glceraldehylde 3-phosphate (G3P) and NAD(+) . GAPDH forms the unstable organoarsenical 1-arseno-3-phosphoglycerate (1As3PGA). We propose that ArsJ is an efflux permease that extrudes 1As3PGA from cells, where it rapidly dissociates into As(V) and 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA), creating a novel pathway of arsenate resistance.

  3. Conformational and activity changes during guanidine denaturation of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xie, G F; Tsou, C L

    1987-01-05

    Changes in intrinsic protein fluorescence of lobster muscle D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating), EC 1.2.1.12) have been compared with inactivation of the enzyme during denaturation in guanidine solutions. The holoenzyme is completely inactivated at guanidine concentrations less than 0.5 M and this is accompanied by a red shift of the emission maximum at 335 nm and a marked decrease in intensity of the intrinsic fluorescence. At 0.5 M guanidine, the inactivation is a slow process, with a first-order rate constant of 2.4 X 10(-3) s-1. A further red shift in the emission maximum and a decrease in intensity occur at guanidine concentrations higher than 1.5 M. The emission peak at 410 nm of the fluorescent NAD derivative introduced at the active site of this enzyme (Tsou, C.L. et al. (1983) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 11, 425-429) shows both a red shift and a marked decrease in intensity at the same guanidine concentration required to bring about the inactivation and the initial changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of the holoenzyme. It appears that treatment by low guanidine concentrations leads to both complete inactivation and perturbation of the active site conformation and that a tryptophan residue is situated at or near the active site.

  4. Succination of proteins by fumarate: mechanism of inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blatnik, Matthew; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2008-04-01

    S-(2-succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is a chemical modification of proteins formed by a Michael addition reaction between the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, and thiol groups in protein--a process known as succination of protein. Succination causes irreversible inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in vitro. GAPDH was immunoprecipitated from muscle of diabetic rats, then analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy. Succination of GAPDH was increased in muscle of diabetic rats, and the extent of succination correlated strongly with the decrease in specific activity of the enzyme. We propose that 2SC is a biomarker of mitochondrial and oxidative stress in diabetes and that succination of GAPDH and other thiol proteins may provide the chemical link between glucotoxicity and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

  5. Daily Variations in the Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isoforms Expression in Triatoma infestans Flight Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Stroppa, María M.; Carriazo, Carlota S.; Gerez de Burgos, Nelia M.; Garcia, Beatríz A.

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease, is a blood-sucking insect. Flight dispersal of adults is the most important mechanism for reinfestation of houses after insecticide spraying. Flight muscles have two glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) isoforms: GPDH-1 is involved in flight metabolism and GPDH-2 provides lipid precursors. In this study, we explored the profile of GPDH expression in females and males adult flight muscles under light/dark cycle, constant light, and constant dark conditions. Under constant dark conditions, GPDH-1 flight muscles of T. infestans showed a rhythmic pattern of transcription synchronous with a rhythmic profile of activity suggesting regulation by the endogenous circadian clock. Otherwise, the GPDH-2 expression analysis showed no regulation by the endogenous clock, but showed that an external factor, such as the dark/light period, was necessary for synchronization of GPDH-2 transcription and activity. PMID:24914000

  6. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a specific substrate of yeast metacaspase.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Almeida, B; Sampaio-Marques, B; Reis, M I R; Ohlmeier, S; Rodrigues, F; Vale, A do; Ludovico, P

    2011-12-01

    Yeast metacaspase (Yca1p) is required for the execution of apoptosis upon a wide range of stimuli. However, the specific degradome of this yeast protease has not been unraveled so far. By combining different methodologies described as requisites for a protein to be considered a protease substrate, such as digestome analysis, cleavage of recombinant GAPDH by metacaspase and evaluation of protein levels in vivo, we show that upon H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a specific target of metacaspase. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling, which mediates H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, is required for metacaspase specific GAPDH cleavage. In conclusion, in this work we identified GAPDH as the first direct yeast metacaspase substrate described so far. Although mammalian caspases and yeast metacaspase apparently have distinct target cleavage sites, GAPDH arises as a common substrate for these proteases.

  7. Receptor protein kinase FERONIA controls leaf starch accumulation by interacting with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Long; Li, Chiyu; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Sirui; Qi, Yinyao; Liu, Xuanming; Lin, Qinglu; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2015-09-11

    Cell expansion is coordinated by several cues, but available energy is the major factor determining growth. Receptor protein kinase FERONIA (FER) is a master regulator of cell expansion, but the details of its control mechanisms are not clear. Here we show that FER interacts with cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, GAPC1 and GAPC2), that catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, which contributes to energy production. When there is an FER deficiency, there are corresponding decreases in the enzyme activity of GAPDH and increased amounts of starch. More importantly, gapc1/2 mutants mimic fer4 mutants. These data indicate that FER regulated starch content is an evolutionarily conserved function in plants that connects the cell expansion and energy metabolism pathways.

  8. Lysine post-translational modification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulates hepatic and systemic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bond, Simon T; Howlett, Kirsten F; Kowalski, Greg M; Mason, Shaun; Connor, Timothy; Cooper, Adrian; Streltsov, Victor; Bruce, Clinton R; Walder, Ken R; McGee, Sean L

    2017-03-03

    Reciprocal regulation of hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. Recent evidence from lower order organisms has found that reversible post-translational modification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), particularly acetylation, contributes to the reciprocal regulation of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. However, whether this occurs in mammalian hepatocytes in vitro or in vivo is unknown. Several proteomics studies have identified 4 lysine residues in critical regions of mammalian GAPDH that are altered by multiple post-translational modifications. In FAO hepatoma cells, mutation of all 4 lysine residues (4K-R GAPDH) to mimic their unmodified state reduced GAPDH glycolytic activity and glycolytic flux and increased gluconeogenic GAPDH activity and glucose production. Hepatic expression of 4K-R GAPDH in mice increased GAPDH gluconeogenic activity and the contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production in the unfed state. Consistent with the increased reliance on the energy-consuming gluconeogenic pathway, plasma free fatty acids and ketones were elevated in mice expressing 4K-R GAPDH, suggesting enhanced lipolysis and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. In normal mice, food withholding and refeeding, as well as hormonal regulators of reciprocal glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, such as insulin, glucagon, and norepinephrine, had no effect on global GAPDH acetylation. However, GAPDH acetylation was reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. These findings show that post-translational modification of GAPDH lysine residues regulates hepatic and systemic metabolism, revealing an unappreciated role for hepatic GAPDH in substrate selection and utilization.-Bond, S. T., Howlett, K. F., Kowalski, G. M., Mason, S., Connor, T., Cooper, A., Streltsov, V., Bruce, C. R., Walder, K. R., McGee, S. L. Lysine post-translational modification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulates hepatic and systemic

  9. Evidence for ligand-induced conformational changes in rabbit-muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henis, Y I; Levitzki, A; Gafni, A

    1979-07-01

    The tetrameric glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle binds NAD+ and some of its analogues in a negatively cooperative manner, whereas other NAD+ analogues bind non-cooperatively to this enzyme. Subsequent to alkylation of a fraction of the active sites of the enzyme with the fluorescent SH reagent N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine, it was found that the alkylated sites bind NAD+ and NAD+ analogues with a markedly reduced affinity as compared with non-alkylated sites. It was therefore feasible to measure the fluorescence and the circular polarization of the luminescence of the enzyme-bound alkyl groups as a function of binding of NAD+ and of NAD+ analogues to the non-alkylated sites. The changes observed indicate that ligand binding to the non-alkylated sites induces changes in the fluorescence properties of the alkyl groups bound to neighbouring subunits, most likely through the protein moiety. The nature of these changes appears to depend on the structure of the coenzyme analogue. The binding of the non-cooperative binders acetyl-pyridine--adenine dinucleotide, ATP and ADP-ribose induce different conformational changes in the neighbouring vacant subunit, as monitored by the spectroscopic properties of the bound alkyl group. These results in conjunction with other data support the view that the negative cooperativity in NAD+ binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase results from ligand-induced conformational changes. Furthermore, these results further support the view that subtle structural changes in the coenzyme molecule determine the nature of the conformational changes induced within the enzyme tetramer.

  10. Sperm-Specific Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase - An Evolutionary Acquisition of Mammals.

    PubMed

    Muronetz, V I; Kuravsky, M L; Barinova, K V; Schmalhausen, E V

    2015-12-01

    This review is focused on the mammalian sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS). GAPDS plays the major role in the production of energy required for sperm cell movement and does not perform non-glycolytic functions that are characteristic of the somatic isoenzyme of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The GAPDS sequence is composed of 408 amino acid residues and includes an additional N-terminal region of 72 a.a. that binds the protein to the sperm tail cytoskeleton. GAPDS is present only in the sperm cells of mammals and lizards, possibly providing them with certain evolutionary advantages in reproduction. In this review, studies concerning the problems of GAPDS isolation, its catalytic properties, and its structural features are described in detail. GAPDS is much more stable compared to the somatic isoenzyme, perhaps due to the necessity of maintaining the enzyme function in the absence of protein expression. The site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed the two GAPDS-specific proline residues, as well as three salt bridges, which seem to be the basis of the increased stability of this protein. As distinct from the somatic isoenzyme, GAPDS exhibits positive cooperativity in binding of the coenzyme NAD+. The key role in transduction of structural changes induced by NAD+ is played by the salt bridge D311-H124. Disruption of this salt bridge cancels GAPDS cooperativity and twofold increases its enzymatic activity instead. The expression of GAPDS was detected in some melanoma cells as well. Its role in the development of certain pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed.

  11. The sweet side of RNA regulation: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a noncanonical RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael R.; Garcin, Elsa D.

    2016-01-01

    The glycolytic protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has a vast array of extraglycolytic cellular functions, including interactions with nucleic acids. GAPDH has been implicated in the translocation of transfer RNA (tRNA), the regulation of cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and translation, as well as the regulation of replication and gene expression of many single-stranded RNA viruses. A growing body of evidence supports GAPDH–RNA interactions serving as part of a larger coordination between intermediary metabolism and RNA biogenesis. Despite the established role of GAPDH in nucleic acid regulation, it is still unclear how and where GAPDH binds to its RNA targets, highlighted by the absence of any conserved RNA-binding sequences. This review will summarize our current understanding of GAPDH-mediated regulation of RNA function. PMID:26564736

  12. The influence of oxygen on radiation-induced structural and functional changes in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Bubinski, Michal; Krokosz, Anita; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2012-07-01

    Proteins are major targets for oxidative damage due to their abundance in cells and high reactivity with free radicals. In the present study we examined the influence of oxygen on radiation-induced inactivation and structural changes of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We chose these two enzymes because they occur at high concentrations and participate in the most important processes in organisms; furthermore, they show considerable similarity in their structure. Protein solutions were irradiated with X-rays in doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 kGy, in air and N2O. The much higher radiation inactivation of GAPDH as compared to LDH is correlated with substantially greater structural changes in this protein, mainly involving the loss of free thiol groups (-SH). Of lesser importance in the differentiation of the radiosensitivity of the studied enzymes are tryptophan residues. Molecular oxygen, present during irradiation, increased to a significantly greater extent the inactivation and structural changes of GAPDH than that of LDH. The results suggest that the greater effect of oxygen on GAPDH is due to the higher efficiency of the superoxide radical, the higher amount of hydroperoxides generated, and the higher degree of unfolding of this protein.

  13. Improving ethanol productivity by modification of glycolytic redox factor generation in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants of an industrial ethanol yeast.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2011-08-01

    The GPD2 gene, encoding NAD(+)-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in an industrial ethanol-producing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was deleted. And then, either the non-phosphorylating NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN) from Bacillus cereus, or the NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Kluyveromyces lactis, was expressed in the obtained mutant AG2 deletion of GPD2, respectively. The resultant recombinant strain AG2A (gpd2Δ P (PGK)-gapN) exhibited a 48.70 ± 0.34% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and a 7.60 ± 0.12% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increase in ethanol yield, while recombinant AG2B (gpd2Δ P (PGK)-GAPDH) exhibited a 52.90 ± 0.45% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and a 7.34 ± 0.15% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increase in ethanol yield compared with the wild-type strain. More importantly, the maximum specific growth rates (μ (max)) of the recombinant AG2A and AG2B were higher than that of the mutant gpd2Δ and were indistinguishable compared with the wild-type strain in anaerobic batch fermentations. The results indicated that the redox imbalance of the mutant could be partially solved by expressing the heterologous genes.

  14. Dengue Virus NS1 Protein Modulates Cellular Energy Metabolism by Increasing Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Allonso, Diego; Andrade, Iamara S.; Conde, Jonas N.; Coelho, Diego R.; Rocha, Daniele C. P.; da Silva, Manuela L.; Ventura, Gustavo T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue is one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Recent estimates indicate that over 390 million people are infected annually with the dengue virus (DENV), resulting in thousands of deaths. Among the DENV nonstructural proteins, the NS1 protein is the only one whose function during replication is still unknown. NS1 is a 46- to 55-kDa glycoprotein commonly found as both a membrane-associated homodimer and a soluble hexameric barrel-shaped lipoprotein. Despite its role in the pathogenic process, NS1 is essential for proper RNA accumulation and virus production. In the present study, we identified that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interacts with intracellular NS1. Molecular docking revealed that this interaction occurs through the hydrophobic protrusion of NS1 and the hydrophobic residues located at the opposite side of the catalytic site. Moreover, addition of purified recombinant NS1 enhanced the glycolytic activity of GAPDH in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that DENV infection promoted the relocalization of GAPDH to the perinuclear region, where NS1 is commonly found. Both DENV infection and expression of NS1 itself resulted in increased GAPDH activity. Our findings indicate that the NS1 protein acts to increase glycolytic flux and, consequently, energy production, which is consistent with the recent finding that DENV induces and requires glycolysis for proper replication. This is the first report to propose that NS1 is an important modulator of cellular energy metabolism. The data presented here provide new insights that may be useful for further drug design and the development of alternative antiviral therapies against DENV. IMPORTANCE Dengue represents a serious public health problem worldwide and is caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV). Estimates indicate that half of the global population is at risk of infection, with almost 400 million cases occurring per year. The NS1 glycoprotein is found in both the

  15. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of (14)C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  16. Short-term hypothermia activates hepatic mitochondrial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and thermogenic systems.

    PubMed

    Bobyleva, V; Pazienza, L; Muscatello, U; Kneer, N; Lardy, H

    2000-08-15

    The contribution of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) shuttle in the control of energy metabolism is well established. It is also known that its activity may be modulated by hormones involved in thermogenesis, such as thyroid hormones or dehydroepiandrosterone and its metabolites, that act by inducing de novo synthesis of mitochondrial G-3-P dehydrogenase (mGPDH). However, little is known as to the factors that may influence the activity without enzyme induction. In the present study we investigated the possible role of the G-3-P shuttle in the thermogenic response to different hypothermic stresses. It was found that a decrease of body temperature causes the liver rapidly to enhance mGPDH activity and G-3-P-dependent respiration. The enhancement, which does not result from de novo synthesis of enzymes, has the potential of increasing heat production both by decreased ATP synthesis during the oxidation of G-3-P and by activation of the glycolytic pathway.

  17. The influence of cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) on potato tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Biemelt, Sophia; Peisker, Martin; Lytovchenko, Anna; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the importance of cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) in potato carbohydrate metabolism. For this purpose, the cytosolic isoform of phosphorylating GAPC was cloned and used for an antisense approach to generate transgenic potato plants that exhibited constitutively decreased GAPDH activity. Potato lines with decreased activities of phosphorylating GAPC exhibited no major changes in either whole-plant or tuber morphology. However, the levels of 3-phosphoglycerate were decreased in leaves of the transformants. A broad metabolic phenotyping of tubers from the transformants revealed an increase in sucrose and UDPglucose content, a decrease in the glycolytic intermediates 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate but little change in the levels of other metabolites. Moreover, the transformants displayed no differences in cold sweetening with respect to the wild type. Taken together these data suggest that phosphorylating GAPC plays only a minor role in the regulation of potato metabolism. The results presented here are discussed in relation to current models regarding primary metabolism in the potato tuber parenchyma.

  18. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-telomere association correlates with redox status in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA.

  19. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Telomere Association Correlates with Redox Status in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA. PMID:25775131

  20. Occurrence of a multimeric high-molecular-weight glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kunjithapatham, Rani; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Devine, Lauren; Boronina, Tatiana N; O'Meally, Robert N; Cole, Robert N; Torbenson, Michael S; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-04-03

    Cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a phylogenetically conserved, ubiquitous enzyme that plays an indispensable role in energy metabolism. Although a wealth of information is available on cellular GAPDH, there is a clear paucity of data on its extracellular counterpart (i.e., the secreted or extracellular GAPDH). Here, we show that the extracellular GAPDH in human serum is a multimeric, high-molecular-weight, yet glycolytically active enzyme. The high-molecular-weight multimers of serum GAPDH were identified by immunodetection on one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using multiple antibodies specific for various epitopes of GAPDH. Partial purification of serum GAPDH by DEAE Affigel affinity/ion exchange chromatography further established the multimeric composition of serum GAPDH. In vitro data demonstrated that human cell lines secrete a multimeric, high-molecular-weight enzyme similar to that of serum GAPDH. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis of extracellular GAPDH from human cell lines confirmed the presence of unique peptides of GAPDH in the high-molecular-weight subunits. Furthermore, data from pulse-chase experiments established the presence of high-molecular-weight subunits in the secreted, extracellular GAPDH. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the presence of a high-molecular-weight, enzymatically active secretory GAPDH in human serum that may have a hitherto unknown function in humans.

  1. Effector-induced dissociation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase discriminated by urea solvation.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, V; Krusteva, N; Atanasov, B

    1995-08-01

    The dissociation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) from pig muscle in water solutions (0.1 M phosphate, pH 7) at increased urea concentrations was studied by means of frontal-gel chromatography, intrinsic (TRP) fluorescence, differential absorption spectroscopy and selective chemical modification at TRP0193. The results are in agreement with a consecutive two-step model of dissociation of the tetramer and the dimer (C*T = 0.42 M urea < C*D = 1.39 M urea). The binding effector(s) destabilizes the oligomeric structures (delta GT changes from -1.00 to -0.54 kcal/mol; delta GD from -2.30 to -1.22 kcal/mol). The introduction of the bulky Koshland-reagent group to TRP-193 at the subunit-subunit interface leads to a decrease of the stability with delta delta G approximate to 1 kcal/mol, owing to TRP-193...TYR-39...TYR-92 cluster destruction. By using lobster GAPD atomic coordinates (PDB file 1GPD) and pig muscle GAPD amino-acid sequence, a tentative molecular model was constructed and the subunit contacts in terms of the Lee-Richard static accessibilities were described. A detailed analysis of the dissociation as a transfer of the buried residues from the molecular interface to the urea solutions was performed.

  2. Evidence for thiol/disulfide exchange reactions between tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Landino, Lisa M; Hagedorn, Tara D; Kennett, Kelly L

    2014-12-01

    While thiol redox reactions are a common mechanism to regulate protein structure and function, protein disulfide bond formation is a marker of oxidative stress that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Both tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) contain multiple cysteines that have been identified as targets for oxidation to disulfides, S-nitrosation and S-glutathionylation. We show that GAPDH is one of three prominent brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), in addition to MAP-2 and tau, with reactive cysteines. We detected a threefold to fourfold increase in tubulin cysteine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of rabbit muscle GAPDH by 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein labeling and by Western blot detection of higher molecular weight inter-chain tubulin disulfides. In thiol/disulfide exchange experiments, tubulin restored ∼50% of oxidized GAPDH cysteines and the equilibrium favored reduced GAPDH. Further, we report that oxidized GAPDH is repaired by the thioredoxin reductase system (TRS). Restoration of GAPDH activity after reduction by both tubulin and the TRS was time-dependent suggesting conformational changes near the active site cysteine149. The addition of brain MAPs to oxidized tubulin reduced tubulin disulfides and labeling of MAP-2 and of GAPDH decreased. Because the extent of tubulin repair of oxidized GAPDH was dependent on buffer strength, we conclude that electrostatics influence thiol/disulfide exchange between the two proteins. The novel interactions presented herein may protect GAPDH from inhibition under oxidative stress conditions.

  3. Structure and kinetic characterization of human sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDS.

    PubMed

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Shafqat, Naeem; Al-Mokhtar, Ruby; Cameron, Gus; Clarke, Anthony R; Brady, R Leo; Oppermann, Udo; Frayne, Jan; Yue, Wyatt W

    2011-04-15

    hGAPDS (human sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is a glycolytic enzyme essential for the survival of spermatozoa, and constitutes a potential target for non-hormonal contraception. However, enzyme characterization of GAPDS has been hampered by the difficulty in producing soluble recombinant protein. In the present study, we have overexpressed in Escherichia coli a highly soluble form of hGAPDS truncated at the N-terminus (hGAPDSΔN), and crystallized the homotetrameric enzyme in two ligand complexes. The hGAPDSΔN-NAD+-phosphate structure maps the two anion-recognition sites within the catalytic pocket that correspond to the conserved Ps site and the newly recognized Pi site identified in other organisms. The hGAPDSΔN-NAD+-glycerol structure shows serendipitous binding of glycerol at the Ps and new Pi sites, demonstrating the propensity of these anion-recognition sites to bind non-physiologically relevant ligands. A comparison of kinetic profiles between hGAPDSΔN and its somatic equivalent reveals a 3-fold increase in catalytic efficiency for hGAPDSΔN. This may be attributable to subtle amino acid substitutions peripheral to the active centre that influence the charge properties and protonation states of catalytic residues. Our data therefore elucidate structural and kinetic features of hGAPDS that might provide insightful information towards inhibitor development.

  4. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologue is differentially regulated in phases of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Mônica S; Cunha Passos, Daniela A; Felipe, M Sueli S; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; de Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2004-07-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in various cellular processes. Here we report the sequence and analysis of a novel developmentally regulated gene and cDNA (Pbgadph), encoding a GAPDH homologue (PbGAPDH), of the pathogenic dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We have analyzed the protein, the cDNA and genomic sequences to provide insights into the structure, function, and potential regulation of PbGAPDH. That Pbgapdh encodes PbGAPDH was demonstrated by micro-sequencing of the native protein homologue isolated from the fungus proteome. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pbgapdh showed identity to those of from other species (88-76%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GAPDH could be useful for the determination of evolutionary relationships. Expression of the Pbgapdh gene and the cognate protein were developmentally regulated in phases of P. brasiliensis, with a higher expression in the yeast parasitic phase and was induced during the transition from mycelium to yeast and decreased during the reverse process, transition from yeast to mycelium.

  5. Oxidation of an Exposed Methionine Instigates the Aggregation of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Andre L.; Knaupp, Anja S.; Kass, Itamar; Kleifeld, Oded; Marijanovic, Emilia M.; Hughes, Victoria A.; Lupton, Chris J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Medcalf, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous and abundant protein that participates in cellular energy production. GAPDH normally exists in a soluble form; however, following necrosis, GAPDH and numerous other intracellular proteins convert into an insoluble disulfide-cross-linked state via the process of “nucleocytoplasmic coagulation.” Here, free radical-induced aggregation of GAPDH was studied as an in vitro model of nucleocytoplasmic coagulation. Despite the fact that disulfide cross-linking is a prominent feature of GAPDH aggregation, our data show that it is not a primary rate-determining step. To identify the true instigating event of GAPDH misfolding, we mapped the post-translational modifications that arise during its aggregation. Solvent accessibility and energy calculations of the mapped modifications within the context of the high resolution native GAPDH structure suggested that oxidation of methionine 46 may instigate aggregation. We confirmed this by mutating methionine 46 to leucine, which rendered GAPDH highly resistant to free radical-induced aggregation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that oxidation of methionine 46 triggers a local increase in the conformational plasticity of GAPDH that likely promotes further oxidation and eventual aggregation. Hence, methionine 46 represents a “linchpin” whereby its oxidation is a primary event permissive for the subsequent misfolding, aggregation, and disulfide cross-linking of GAPDH. A critical role for linchpin residues in nucleocytoplasmic coagulation and other forms of free radical-induced protein misfolding should now be investigated. Furthermore, because disulfide-cross-linked aggregates of GAPDH arise in many disorders and because methionine 46 is irrelevant to native GAPDH function, mutation of methionine 46 in models of disease should allow the unequivocal assessment of whether GAPDH aggregation influences disease progression. PMID:25086035

  6. Inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in tissues of the rat by acrylamide and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Vyas, I; Lowndes, H E; Howland, R D

    1985-01-01

    In previous investigations acrylamide was found to inhibit several enzymes of glycolysis both in vitro and in vivo. The present study examines the characteristics of the in vitro inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and compares the in vivo effects of acrylamide on GAPDH activity to other analogs. Inhibition of GAPDH produced by acrylamide was characteristic of an irreversible or slowly reversible mechanism. In vivo, GAPDH activity was determined in sciatic nerve, brain, skeletal muscle and liver after cumulative doses of 250, 350 or 500 mg/kg of acrylamide. Specific activities were significantly lower in extensor muscle and liver after the 250 mg/kg dose. Activities in brain and sciatic nerve tended to be decreased but the differences were not statistically significant. Specific activity of GAPDH was decreased in medulla pons, cerebellum and the rest of the brain after a 350 mg/kg cumulative dose of acrylamide, although protein concentrations were not different from those in controls. The maximum decrease was about 20%. Treatment with acrylamide, methylene-bis-acrylamide (non-neurotoxic), or N-isopropylacrylamide (neurotoxic) significantly decreased the weight of the cortex and associated brain areas as well as general body weights. No signs of developing neuropathy were observed during treatment with methylene-bis-acrylamide to a cumulative dose (8.1 mmoles/kg) equivalent to that of acrylamide causing frank paralysis. Although the compound exhibited some ability to inhibit GAPDH in vitro, no decrease in GAPDH activity was found in rat brain. Treatment with N-isopropylacrylamide resulted in progressive neurologic impairment. After treatment to a cumulative dose of the compound causing a severe hind-limb paralysis (9.2 mmoles/kg), a small but significant decrease in GAPDH was found in the three areas of brain examined.

  7. Cellular recovery of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and thiol status after exposure to hydroperoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, A.E.; Reed, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The activity of the thiol-dependent enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), in vertebrate cells, was modulated by a change in the intracellular thiol:disulfide redox status. Human lung carcinoma cells (A549) were incubated with 1-120 mM H2O2, 1-120 mM t-butyl hydroperoxide, 1-6 mM ethacrynic acid, or 0.1-10 mM N-ethylmaleimide for 5 min. Loss of reduced protein thiols, as measured by binding of the thiol reagent iodoacetic acid to GPD, and loss of GPD enzymatic activity occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of the cells, following oxidative treatment, in saline for 30 min or with 20 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) partially reversed both changes in GPD. The enzymatic recovery of GPD activity was observed either without addition of thiols to the medium or by incubation of a sonicated cell mixture with 2 mM cysteine, cystine, cysteamine, or glutathione (GSH); GSSG had no effect. Treatment of cells with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to decrease cellular GSH by varying amounts caused a dose-related increase in sensitivity of GPD activity to inactivation by H2O2 and decreased cellular ability for subsequent recovery. GPD responded in a similar fashion with oxidative treatment of another lung carcinoma cell line (A427) as well as normal lung tissue from human and rat. These findings indicate that the cellular thiol redox status can be important in determining GPD enzymatic activity.

  8. Halophilic class I aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: some salt-dependent structural features.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, G; Altekar, W

    1993-01-26

    Aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Haloarcula vallismortis are stable only in high concentrations of KCl present within the physiological environment. Data concerning the structural changes in the two enzymes as a result of lowering of salt concentration and changes in pH were obtained by monitoring the intrinsic protein fluorescence in the presence of quenchers. When the KCl concentrations were lowered below 2 M or in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, the emission maximum shifted to a longer wavelength, indicating enhanced exposure of tryptophyl residues to the solvent. The spectral characteristics of the two proteins in guanidine hydrochloride and 0.4 M KCl were identical. However, these denatured states appear to be different than those observed after acid denaturation. Further perturbation of fluorescence was observed due to I-, and application of the Stern-Volmer law showed that the total fluorescence was available to the quenchers only in 0.4 M KCl solutions. The unfolding of proteins in 0.4 M KCl was a gradual process which was accompanied by a time-dependent loss in enzyme activity. The activity loss was complete within 30 min for aldolase whereas in the case of GAPDH nearly 3 h was required for the destruction of activity. For both enzymes, inactivation and protein denaturation were strongly correlated. The data on activity and thermostability measurements of the two enzymes in varying concentrations of KCl and potassium phosphate revealed that though both proteins are halophilic, the forces in the maintenance of their stability could be different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Aggregates Accelerate Amyloid-β Amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Kubo, Takeya; Semi, Yuko; Kume, Satoshi; Higashida, Shusaku; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Harada, Naoki; Kita, Akinori; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of neurons and formation of pathological extracellular deposits induced by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Numerous studies have established Aβ amyloidogenesis as a hallmark of AD pathogenesis, particularly with respect to mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown that glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) forms amyloid-like aggregates upon exposure to oxidative stress and that these aggregates contribute to neuronal cell death. Here, we report that GAPDH aggregates accelerate Aβ amyloidogenesis and subsequent neuronal cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Co-incubation of Aβ40 with small amounts of GAPDH aggregates significantly enhanced Aβ40 amyloidogenesis, as assessed by in vitro thioflavin-T assays. Similarly, structural analyses using Congo red staining, circular dichroism, and atomic force microscopy revealed that GAPDH aggregates induced Aβ40 amyloidogenesis. In PC12 cells, GAPDH aggregates augmented Aβ40-induced cell death, concomitant with disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, mice injected intracerebroventricularly with Aβ40 co-incubated with GAPDH aggregates exhibited Aβ40-induced pyramidal cell death and gliosis in the hippocampal CA3 region. These observations were accompanied by nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytosolic release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Finally, in the 3×Tg-AD mouse model of AD, GAPDH/Aβ co-aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction were consistently detected in an age-dependent manner, and Aβ aggregate formation was attenuated by GAPDH siRNA treatment. Thus, this study suggests that GAPDH aggregates accelerate Aβ amyloidogenesis, subsequently leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:26359500

  10. 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal-Modified Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is Degraded by Cathepsin G in Rat Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Okada, Go; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Hojo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of oxidized or oxidatively modified proteins is an essential part of the antioxidant defenses of cells. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal, a major reactive aldehyde formed by lipid peroxidation, causes many types of cellular damage. It has been reported that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway or, in some cases, by the lysosomal pathway. However, our previous studies using U937 cells showed that 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is degraded by cathepsin G. In the present study, we isolated the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-degrading enzyme from rat neutrophils to an active protein fraction of 28 kDa. Using the specific antibody, the 28 kDa protein was identified as cathepsin G. Moreover, the degradation activity was inhibited by cathepsin G inhibitors. These results suggest that cathepsin G plays a crucial role in the degradation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. PMID:21904640

  11. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein and mRNA are both differentially expressed in adult chickens but not chick embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, R J; Brow, M D; Cleveland, D W; Shinnick, T M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the 679 nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone which, by hybridization-translation experiments, corresponds to a 36K chick brain protein. Our studies provide a partial amino acid sequence for this protein, identifying it as chicken glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Antisera raised against purified chicken GAPDH reacted with a 36K protein present in chick brain extracts and estimated to be the fourth most prevalent protein, as determined by either Coomassie Blue staining or by in vitro translation of chick brain mRNA. The amounts of GAPDH mRNA in chick brain, liver and muscle and adult chicken brain are similar, whereas the relative amount of adult chicken muscle GPDH mRNA is greatly elevated and that of adult liver lowered. The GAPDH protein levels showed a similar variation between tissues, suggesting that the levels of GAPDH protein are largely regulated by the amount of available GAPDH mRNA. The chicken GAPDH clone does not hybridize to rat mRNA, even though GAPDH is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins, indicating that selection pressures are heavier at the primary protein sequence level than at the nucleic acid sequence level for this gene, a situation contrasting to that of the tubulins. Images PMID:6687938

  12. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  13. Sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Weber, Jana; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur Mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent, which is acutely toxic to a variety of organ systems including skin, eyes, respiratory system and bone marrow. The underlying molecular pathomechanism was mainly attributed to the alkylating properties of SM. However, recent studies have revealed that cellular responses to SM exposure are of more complex nature and include increased protein expression and protein modifications that can be used as biomarkers. In order to confirm already known biomarkers, to detect potential new ones and to further elucidate the pathomechanism of SM, we conducted large-scale proteomic experiments based on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) exposed to SM. Surprisingly, our analysis identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as one of the up-regulated proteins after exposure of HaCaT cells to SM. In this paper we demonstrate the sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH in HaCaT cells by 2D gel-electrophoresis (2D GE), immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB) and a combination thereof. 2D GE in combination with MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis identified GAPDH as an up-regulated protein after SM exposure. Immunocytochemistry revealed a distinct nuclear translocation of GAPDH after exposure to 300μM SM. This finding was confirmed by fractionated WB analysis. 2D GE and subsequent immunoblot staining of GAPDH demonstrated two different spot locations of GAPH (pI 7.0 and pI 8.5) that are related to cytosolic or nuclear GAPDH respectively. After exposure to 300μM SM a significant increase of nuclear GAPDH at pI 8.5 occurred. Nuclear GAPDH has been associated with apoptosis, detection of structural DNA alterations, DNA repair and regulation of genomic integrity and telomere structure. The results of our study add new aspects to the pathophysiology of sulfur mustard toxicity, yet further studies will be necessary to reveal the specific function of nuclear GAPDH in the pathomechanism of sulfur mustard.

  14. Construction and immune effect of Haemophilus parasuis DNA vaccine encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shulin; Zhang, Minmin; Ou, Jiwen; Liu, Huazhen; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2012-11-06

    Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of swine polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis, is one of the most important bacterial diseases of pigs worldwide. The development of a vaccine against H. parasuis has been impeded due to the lack of induction of reliable cross-serotype protection. In this study the gapA gene that encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was shown to be present and highly conserved in various serotypes of H. parasuis and we constructed a novel DNA vaccine encoding GAPDH (pCgap) to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy against infection with H. parasuis MD0322 serovar 4 or SH0165 serovar 5 in mice. A significant antibody response against GAPDH was generated following pCgap intramuscular immunization; moreover, antibodies to the pCgap DNA vaccine were bactericidal, suggesting that it was expressed in vivo. The gapA transcript was detected in muscle, liver, spleen, and kidney of the mice seven days post-vaccination. The IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG2a) analysis indicated that the DNA vaccine induced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but the IgG1 response was greater than the IgG2a response. Moreover, the groups vaccinated with the pCgap vaccine exhibited 83.3% and 50% protective efficacy against the H. parasuis MD0322 serovar 4 or SH0165 serovar 5 challenges, respectively. The pCgap DNA vaccine provided significantly greater protective efficacy compared to the negative control groups or blank control groups (P<0.05 for both). Taken together, these findings indicate that the pCgap DNA vaccine provides a novel strategy against infection of H. parasuis and offer insight concerning the underlying immune mechanisms of a bacterial DNA vaccine.

  15. Regulation of adenine nucleotide translocase and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression by thyroid hormones in different rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Dümmler, K; Müller, S; Seitz, H J

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent gene expression of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and the FAD-linked glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) was investigated in several rat tissues. Both proteins provide an important link between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways and seem to be involved in the stimulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to T3. Here we show that two ANT isoforms are expressed in rat, the muscle-specific ANT1 form and the ubiquitous ANT2 form. The expression of ANT1 mRNA is not sensitive to T3 whereas the amount of ANT2 mRNA is increased 7-9-fold in liver and heart within 12-48 h after T3 application. Little or no effect of T3 on ANT2 mRNA was observed in kidney and brain. The mRNA changes are paralleled by an increase in ANT protein, thus explaining the accelerated ADP/ATP exchange observed in mitochondria isolated from hyperthyroid rats. The key role of ANT2 in the control of hyperthyroid metabolism is evident because the expression of the mersalyl-sensitive phosphate carrier and the mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA, which are functionally linked to ANT, did not respond to T3. Similarly to the ADP/ATP exchange, the transfer of cytosolic NADH to the respiratory chain via the glycerophosphate shuttle is very sensitive to T3. Recently we demonstrated the 10-15-fold induction of mGPDH mRNA in rat liver after administration of T3 [Müller and Seitz (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 10581-10585]. Here we show that, in contrast with ANT2, the time course of induction is fast (4-6 h). Furthermore, mGPDH mRNA is induced 6-fold by T3 in heart and 4-fold in kidney. From these results we conclude that the T3-mediated transcriptional induction leading to increased activity of ANT2 and mGPDH contributes considerably to the increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in rat tissues. PMID:8760382

  16. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 2}. The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.

  17. A critical role of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the control of plant metabolism and development

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Alaiz, Manuel; Segura, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway that provides energy and generates precursors for the synthesis of primary metabolites such as amino acids and fatty acids.1–3 In plants, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and plastids, which complicates the understanding of this essential process.1 As a result, the contribution of each glycolytic pathway to the specific primary metabolite production and the degree of integration of both pathways is still unresolved. The glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Both cytosolic (GAPCs) and plastidial (GAPCps) GAPDH activities have been described biochemically. But, up to now, little attention had been paid to GAPCps, probably because they have been considered as “minor isoforms” that catalyze a reversible reaction in plastids where it has been assumed that key glycolytic intermediates are in equilibrium with the cytosol. In the associated study,4 we have elucidated the crucial role of Arabidopsis GAPCps in the control of primary metabolism in plants. GAPCps deficiency affects amino acid and sugar metabolism and impairs plant development. Specifically, GAPCp deficiency affects the serine supply to roots, provoking a drastic phenotype of arrested root development. Also, we show that the phosphorylated serine biosynthesis pathway is critical to supply serine to non-photosynthetic organs such as roots. These studies provide new insights of the contribution of plastidial glycolysis to plant metabolism and evidence the complex interactions existing between metabolism and development. PMID:20592814

  18. Crystal Structures of Group B Streptococcus Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Apo-Form, Binary and Ternary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schormann, Norbert; Ayres, Chapelle A.; Fry, Alexandra; Green, Todd J.; Banerjee, Surajit; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH is an evolutionarily conserved glycolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the two step oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using inorganic phosphate and NAD+ as cofactor. GAPDH of Group B Streptococcus is a major virulence factor and a potential vaccine candidate. Moreover, since GAPDH activity is essential for bacterial growth it may serve as a possible drug target. Crystal structures of Group B Streptococcus GAPDH in the apo-form, two different binary complexes and the ternary complex are described here. The two binary complexes contained NAD+ bound to 2 (mixed-holo) or 4 (holo) subunits of the tetrameric protein. The structure of the mixed-holo complex reveals the effects of NAD+ binding on the conformation of the protein. In the ternary complex, the phosphate group of the substrate was bound to the new Pi site in all four subunits. Comparison with the structure of human GAPDH showed several differences near the adenosyl binding pocket in Group B Streptococcus GAPDH. The structures also reveal at least three surface-exposed areas that differ in amino acid sequence compared to the corresponding areas of human GAPDH. PMID:27875551

  19. Crystal Structures of Group B Streptococcus Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Apo-Form, Binary and Ternary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Schormann, Norbert; Ayres, Chapelle A; Fry, Alexandra; Green, Todd J; Banerjee, Surajit; Ulett, Glen C; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH is an evolutionarily conserved glycolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the two step oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using inorganic phosphate and NAD+ as cofactor. GAPDH of Group B Streptococcus is a major virulence factor and a potential vaccine candidate. Moreover, since GAPDH activity is essential for bacterial growth it may serve as a possible drug target. Crystal structures of Group B Streptococcus GAPDH in the apo-form, two different binary complexes and the ternary complex are described here. The two binary complexes contained NAD+ bound to 2 (mixed-holo) or 4 (holo) subunits of the tetrameric protein. The structure of the mixed-holo complex reveals the effects of NAD+ binding on the conformation of the protein. In the ternary complex, the phosphate group of the substrate was bound to the new Pi site in all four subunits. Comparison with the structure of human GAPDH showed several differences near the adenosyl binding pocket in Group B Streptococcus GAPDH. The structures also reveal at least three surface-exposed areas that differ in amino acid sequence compared to the corresponding areas of human GAPDH.

  20. Analysis of l-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants in Drosophila melanogaster: complementation for intracellular degradation of the mutant polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bewley, G C; DeZurik, J M; Pagelson, G

    1980-01-01

    Null and low activity alleles at the genetic locus coding for L-Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH, NAD+ oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.1.1.8) in Drosophila melanogaster have been analyzed by a combination of rocket immunoelectrophoresis, interallelic complementation, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In addition to proving information on the molecular weight, charged state, and steady state level of CRM in each of these mutants, it is suggested that each mutation has resulted in a genetic lesion within the structural element, Gpdh+. CRM levels appear to be the result of differential sensitivity to the normal intracellular degradative process and the CRM- mutants represent "hypersensitive" alleles, such that the mutant polypeptide does not accumulate in the intracellular environment.

  1. Homocysteine induces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase acetylation and apoptosis in the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a

    PubMed Central

    Fang, M.; Jin, A.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, X.

    2016-01-01

    High plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) promote the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism by which Hcy mediates neurotoxicity has not been elucidated. We observed that upon incubation with Hcy, the viability of a neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a declined in a dose-dependent manner, and apoptosis was induced within 48 h. The median effective concentration (EC50) of Hcy was approximately 5 mM. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) nuclear translocation and acylation has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. We found that nuclear translocation and acetylation of GAPDH increased in the presence of 5 mM Hcy and that higher levels of acetyltransferase p300/CBP were detected in Neuro2a cells. These findings implicate the involvement of GAPDH in the mechanism whereby Hcy induces apoptosis in neurons. This study highlights a potentially important pathway in neurodegenerative disorders, and a novel target pathway for neuroprotective therapy. PMID:26785692

  2. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase augments the intercellular transmission and toxicity of polyglutamine aggregates in a cell model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Elena R; Lazarev, Vladimir F; Nikotina, Alina D; Margulis, Boris A; Guzhova, Irina V

    2016-03-01

    The common feature of Huntington disease is the accumulation of oligomers or aggregates of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), which causes the death of a subset of striatal neuronal populations. The cytotoxic species can leave neurons and migrate to other groups of cells penetrating and damaging them in a prion-like manner. We hypothesized that the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), previously shown to elevate the aggregation of mHTT, is associated with an increased efficiency of intercellular propagation of mHTT. GAPDH, on its own or together with polyglutamine species, was shown to be released into the extracellular milieu mainly from dying cells as assessed by a novel enzyme immunoassay, western blotting, and ultrafiltration. The conditioned medium of cells with growing GAPDH-polyQ aggregates was toxic to naïve cells, whereas depletion of the aggregates from the medium lowered this cytotoxicity. The GAPDH component of the aggregates was found to increase their toxicity by two-fold in comparison with polyQ alone. Furthermore, GAPDH-polyQ complexes were shown to penetrate acceptor cells and to increase the capacity of polyQ to prionize its intracellular homolog containing a repeat of 25 glutamine residues. Finally, inhibitors of intracellular transport showed that polyQ-GAPDH complexes, as well as GAPDH itself, penetrated cells using clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This suggested a pivotal role of the enzyme in the intercellular transmission of Huntington disease pathogenicity. In conclusion, GAPDH occurring in complexes with polyglutamine strengthens the prion-like activity and toxicity of the migrating aggregates. Aggregating polygluatmine tracts were shown to release from the cells over-expressing mutant huntingtin in a complex with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The enzyme enhances the intracellular transport of aggregates to healthy cells, prionization of normal cellular proteins and finally cell death, thus

  3. Evolutionary engineering of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-negative, acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enables anaerobic growth at high glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Medina, Víctor; Metz, Benjamin; Oud, Bart; van Der Graaf, Charlotte M; Mans, Robert; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for redox-cofactor balancing in anaerobic cultures, causes yield reduction in industrial bioethanol production. Recently, glycerol formation in anaerobic S. cerevisiae cultures was eliminated by expressing Escherichia coli (acetylating) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by mhpF) and simultaneously deleting the GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus coupling NADH reoxidation to reduction of acetate to ethanol. Gpd⁻ strains are, however, sensitive to high sugar concentrations, which complicates industrial implementation of this metabolic engineering concept. In this study, laboratory evolution was used to improve osmotolerance of a Gpd⁻ mhpF-expressing S. cerevisiae strain. Serial batch cultivation at increasing osmotic pressure enabled isolation of an evolved strain that grew anaerobically at 1 M glucose, at a specific growth rate of 0.12 h⁻¹. The evolved strain produced glycerol at low concentrations (0.64 ± 0.33 g l⁻¹). However, these glycerol concentrations were below 10% of those observed with a Gpd⁺ reference strain. Consequently, the ethanol yield on sugar increased from 79% of the theoretical maximum in the reference strain to 92% for the evolved strains. Genetic analysis indicated that osmotolerance under aerobic conditions required a single dominant chromosomal mutation, and one further mutation in the plasmid-borne mhpF gene for anaerobic growth.

  4. Purification and properties of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the liver of the hibernating ground squirrel, Urocitellus richardsonii.

    PubMed

    Ruberto, Anthony A; Childers, Christine L; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-12-01

    Cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH, EC 1.1.1.8) is an important branch point enzyme connecting lipid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. We investigated the dynamic nature of G3PDH by purifying the enzyme from the liver of Richardson's ground squirrel (Urocitellus richardsonii), a hibernating species, and analyzing its structural and functional changes during hibernation. Kinetic parameters of purified G3PDH from ground squirrel liver were characterized at 37, 22 and 5°C and compared between euthermic and hibernating states. Relative to euthermic liver G3PDH, hibernator liver G3PDH had a decreased affinity for its substrate, glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), at 37°C and 22°C. However, at 5°C, there was a significant increase in the affinity for G3P in the hibernating form of the enzyme, relative to the euthermic form. Furthermore, the structure of G3PDH in the species' hibernating state showed greater thermal stability compared to its structure in the euthermic state. Western blot analysis revealed greater tyrosine phosphorylation in hibernator G3PDH as compared to euthermic G3PDH. In addition, using the protein sequence of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and bioinformatics tools, a three-dimensional model of G3PDH was built to identify the potential phosphorylation site ((83)Tyr) responsible for the differential phosphorylation between euthermic and hibernator G3PDH. The structural and functional changes in G3PDH support the enzyme's function at a low core body temperature experienced during the species hibernating season.

  5. Glyceradehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a suitable vaccine candidate for protection against bacterial and parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Perez-Casal, Jose; Potter, Andrew A

    2016-02-17

    The enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been identified as having other properties in addition to its key role in glycolysis. The ability of GAPDH to bind to numerous extracellular matrices, modulation of host-immune responses, a role in virulence and surface location has prompted numerous investigators to postulate that GAPDH may be a good vaccine candidate for protection against numerous pathogens. Although immune responses against GAPDH have been described for many microorganisms, vaccines containing GAPDH have been successfully tested in few cases including those against the trematode-Schistosoma mansoni, the helminth-Enchinococcus multilocularis; the nematode filaria- Litomosoides sigmodontis; fish pathogens such as Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., Edwarsiella spp., and Streptococcus iniae; and environmental streptococci, namely, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Before GAPDH-based vaccines are considered viable options for protection against numerous pathogens, we need to take into account the homology between the host and pathogen GAPDH proteins to prevent potential autoimmune reactions, thus protective GAPDH epitopes unique to the pathogen protein must be identified.

  6. Nuclear translocation and accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase involved in diclazuril-induced apoptosis in Eimeria tenella (E. tenella).

    PubMed

    Wang, Congcong; Han, Chunzhou; Li, Tao; Yang, Dehao; Shen, Xiaojiong; Fan, Yinxin; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Wenli; Fei, Chenzhong; Zhang, Lifang; Xue, Feiqun

    2013-05-07

    In mammalian cells, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) has recently been shown to be implicated in numerous apoptotic paradigms, especially in neuronal apoptosis, and has been demonstrated to play a vital role in some neurodegenerative disorders. However, this phenomenon has not been reported in protists. In the present study, we report for the first time that such a mechanism is involved in diclazuril-induced apoptosis in Eimeria tenella (E. tenella). We found that upon treatment of parasites with diclazuril, the expression levels of GAPDH transcript and protein were significantly increased in second-generation merozoites. Then, we examined the subcellular localization of GAPDH by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. The results show that a considerable amount of GAPDH protein appeared in the nucleus within diclazuril-treated second-generation merozoites; in contrast, the control group had very low levels of GAPDH in the nucleus. The glycolytic activity of GAPDH was kinetically analyzed in different subcellular fractions. A substantial decrease (48.5%) in glycolytic activity of GAPDH in the nucleus was displayed. Moreover, the activities of caspases-3, -9, and -8 were measured in cell extracts using specific caspase substrates. The data show significant increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in the diclazuril-treated group.

  7. SIRT1 interacts with and protects glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from nuclear translocation: Implications for cell survival after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Woo, Seon Rang; Shen, Yan-Nan; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Joon; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 serves to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, preventing GAPDH nuclear translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When SIRT1 is depleted, GAPDH translocation occurs even in the absence of stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, SIRT1 interacts with GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 prevents irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 presence rather than activity is essential for inhibiting GAPDH translocation. -- Abstract: Upon apoptotic stimulation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytosolic enzyme normally active in glycolysis, translocates into the nucleus and activates an apoptotic cascade therein. In the present work, we show that SIRT1 prevents nuclear translocation of GAPDH via interaction with GAPDH. SIRT1 depletion triggered nuclear translocation of cytosolic GAPDH even in the absence of apoptotic stress. Such translocation was not, however, observed when SIRT1 enzymatic activity was inhibited, indicating that SIRT1 protein per se, rather than the deacetylase activity of the protein, is required to inhibit GAPDH translocation. Upon irradiation, SIRT1 prevented irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH, accompanied by interaction of SIRT1 and GAPDH. Thus, SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. This serves as a mechanism whereby SIRT1 regulates cell survival upon induction of apoptotic stress by means that include irradiation.

  8. Molecular basis for covalent inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by a 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone small molecule.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Stefano; Uliassi, Elisa; Zaffagnini, Mirko; Prati, Federica; Bergamini, Christian; Amorati, Riccardo; Paredi, Gianluca; Margiotta, Marilena; Conti, Paola; Costi, Maria Paola; Kaiser, Marcel; Cavalli, Andrea; Fato, Romana; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2017-01-12

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has recently gained attention as an antiprotozoan and anticancer drug target. We have previously identified 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone as an inhibitor of both Trypanosoma brucei and human GAPDH. Herein, through multiple chemical, biochemical, and biological studies, and through the design of analogs, we confirmed the formation of a covalent adduct, we clarified the inhibition mechanism, and we demonstrated antitrypanosomal, antiplasmodial, and cytotoxic activities in cell cultures. The overall results lent support to the hypothesis that 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone binds the GAPDH catalytic cysteine covalently through a phenolate displacement mechanism. By investigating the reactivity of 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and its analogs with four GAPDH homologs, we showed that the covalent inhibition is not preceded by the formation of a strong non-covalent complex. However, an up to fivefold difference in inactivation rates among homologs hinted at structural or electrostatic differences of their active sites that could be exploited to further design kinetically selective inhibitors. Moreover, we preliminarily showed that 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone displays selectivity for GAPDHs over two other cysteine-dependent enzymes, supporting its suitability as a warhead starting fragment for the design of novel inhibitors.

  9. A Dimer Interface Mutation in Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulates Its Binding to AU-rich RNA*

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael R.; Khan, Mohd M.; Deredge, Daniel; Ross, Christina R.; Quintyn, Royston; Zucconi, Beth E.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Wintrode, Patrick L.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Garcin, Elsa D.

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme best known for its role in glycolysis. However, extra-glycolytic functions of GAPDH have been described, including regulation of protein expression via RNA binding. GAPDH binds to numerous adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs) from various mRNA 3′-untranslated regions in vitro and in vivo despite its lack of a canonical RNA binding motif. How GAPDH binds to these AREs is still unknown. Here we discovered that GAPDH binds with high affinity to the core ARE from tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA via a two-step binding mechanism. We demonstrate that a mutation at the GAPDH dimer interface impairs formation of the second RNA-GAPDH complex and leads to changes in the RNA structure. We investigated the effect of this interfacial mutation on GAPDH oligomerization by crystallography, small-angle x-ray scattering, nano-electrospray ionization native mass spectrometry, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. We show that the mutation does not significantly affect GAPDH tetramerization as previously proposed. Instead, the mutation promotes short-range and long-range dynamic changes in regions located at the dimer and tetramer interface and in the NAD+ binding site. These dynamic changes are localized along the P axis of the GAPDH tetramer, suggesting that this region is important for RNA binding. Based on our results, we propose a model for sequential GAPDH binding to RNA via residues located at the dimer and tetramer interfaces. PMID:25451934

  10. A multidomain enzyme, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, is involved in a chloroplastic pathway for glycerol synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sánchez, Daniela; Kim, Yeongho; Terng, Ee Leng; Peterson, Laura; Cerutti, Heriberto

    2017-03-08

    Understanding the unique features of algal metabolism may be necessary to realize the full potential of algae as feedstock for the production of biofuels and biomaterials. Under nitrogen deprivation, the green alga C. reinhardtii showed substantial triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and up-regulation of a gene, GPD2, encoding a multidomain enzyme with a putative phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) motif fused to glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) domains. Canonical GPD enzymes catalyze the synthesis of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) by reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). G3P forms the backbone of TAGs and membrane glycerolipids and it can be dephosphorylated to yield glycerol, an osmotic stabilizer and compatible solute under hypertonic stress. Recombinant Chlamydomonas GPD2 showed both reductase and phosphatase activities in vitro and it can work as a bifunctional enzyme capable of synthesizing glycerol directly from DHAP. In addition, GPD2 and a gene encoding glycerol kinase were up-regulated in Chlamydomonas cells exposed to high salinity. RNA-mediated silencing of GPD2 revealed that the multidomain enzyme was required for TAG accumulation under nitrogen deprivation and for glycerol synthesis under high salinity. Moreover, a GPD2-mCherry fusion protein was found to localize to the chloroplast, supporting the existence of a GPD2-dependent plastid pathway for the rapid synthesis of glycerol in response to hyperosmotic stress. We hypothesize that the reductase and phosphatase activities of PSP-GPD multidomain enzymes may be modulated by post-translational modifications/mechanisms, allowing them to synthesize primarily G3P or glycerol depending on environmental conditions and/or metabolic demands in algal species of the core Chlorophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-evaluation of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme system. Evidence against the direct transfer of NADH between active sites.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, S P; Storey, K B

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the direct transfer of metabolites from rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) to glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH, EC 1.1.1.8) revealed discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental results. Measurements of the GPDH reaction rate at a fixed NADH concentration and in the presence of increasing LDH concentrations gave experimental results similar to those previously obtained by Srivastava, Smolen, Betts, Fukushima, Spivey & Bernhard [(1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6464-6468]. However, a mathematical solution of the direct-transfer-mechanism equations as described by Srivastava et al. (1989) showed that the direct-transfer model did not adequately describe the experimental behaviour of the reaction rate at increasing LDH concentrations. In addition, experiments designed to measure the formation of an LDH4.NADH.GPDH2 complex, predicted by the direct-transfer model, indicated that no significant formation of tertiary complex occurred. An examination of other kinetic models, developed to describe the LDH/GPDH/NADH system better, revealed that the experimental results may be best explained by assuming that free NADH, and not E1.NADH, is the sole substrate for GPDH. These results suggest that direct transfer of NADH between rabbit muscle LDH and GPDH does not occur in vitro. PMID:1898374

  12. Enhanced enzymatic activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the cryophilic Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno M; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    During the evolution of the different species classified within the Saccharomyces genus, each one has adapted to live in different environments. One of the most important parameters that have influenced the evolution of Saccharomyces species is the temperature. Here we have focused on the study of the ability of certain species as Saccharomyces kudriavzevii to grow at low temperatures, in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that S. kudriavzevii strains isolated from several regions are able to synthesize higher amounts of glycerol, a molecule that has been shown to accumulate in response to freeze and cold stress. To explain this observation at the molecular level we studied the expression of glycerol biosynthetic pathway genes and we observed a higher expression of GPD1 gene in S. kudriavzevii compared to S. cerevisiae in micro-vinification conditions. We observed higher enzymatic activity of Gpd1p in S. kudriavzevii in response to osmotic and cold stress. Also, we determined that S. kudriavzevii Gpd1p enzyme presents increased catalytic properties that will contribute to increase glycerol production. Finally, we evaluated the glycerol production with S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii or a recombinant Gpd1p variant in the same background and observed that the S. kudriavzevii enzyme produced increased glycerol levels at 12 or 28°C. This suggests that glycerol is increased in S. kudriavzevii mainly due to increased V max of the Gpd1p enzyme. All these differences indicate that S. kudriavzevii has changed the metabolism to promote the branch of the glycolytic pathway involved in glycerol production to adapt to low temperature environments and maintain the NAD(+)/NADH ratio in alcoholic fermentations. This knowledge is industrially relevant due to the potential use, for example, of S. cerevisiae-S. kudriavzevii hybrids in the wine industry where glycerol content is an important quality parameter.

  13. Immunoprotection of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Lactococcus garvieae against Lactococcosis in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Cao, Thanh-Trung; Liao, Pei-Chih; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the gene encoding 40 kDa GAPDH of L. garvieae was determined and overexpressed by using the Escherichia coli expression system. Analysis results indicated that the sequences of GAPDH of L. garvieae nucleotide and its amino acid are highly homologous (80.4-100%) to several products of GAPDH from L. garvieae and other Streptococcus-related bacteria. According to Western blotting results, rabbit antiserum and tilapia infection serum reacted strongly to the recombinant GAPDH protein. In another experiment, tilapia were immunized intraperitoneally with formalin-killed L. garvieae whole cells, recombinant GAPDH (50 μg fish(-1)) from L. garvieae or both. ISA 763A was used as an adjuvant for vaccine and saline was used as a negative control. The fish challenged at 4 weeks after immunization with GAPDH+WC+ISA had the highest survival rate at 100%, followed by fish immunized with WC+ISA or GAPDH+ISA, which had RPS values of 87.5% and 50%, respectively. Additionally, specific antibody responses against L. garvieae whole cells and GAPDH were based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following 4 weeks of immunization, the specific antibody level of all vaccine groups significantly increased, except for antibody responses against L. garvieae GAPDH of those immunized with formalin-killed L. garvieae whole cells. Our results further demonstrated that GAPDH from L. garvieae protected tilapia from experimental L. garvieae infection, implying the potential use of L. garvieae GAPDH as a vaccine against L. garvieae.

  14. Two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isogenes from Candida versatilis SN-18 play an important role in glycerol biosynthesis under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Daiki; Iwata, Hisashi; Ishimaki, Yuki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Two isogenes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) from Candida versatilis SN-18 were cloned and sequenced. These intronless genes (Cagpd1 and Cagpd2) were both predicted to encode a 378 amino acid polypeptide, and the deduced amino acid sequences mutually showed 76% identity. Interestingly, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 were located tandemly in a locus of genomic DNA within a 262 bp interval. To our knowledge, this represents a novel instance of isogenic genes relating to glucose metabolism. The stress response element (STRE) was found respectively at -93 to -89 bp upstream of the 5'end of Cagpd1 and -707 to -703 bp upstream of Cagpd2, indicating that these genes are involved in osmotic stress response. In heterologous expression using a gpd1Δgpd2Δ double deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants complemented the function of GPD, with Cagpd2 being much more effective than Cagpd1 in promoting growth and glycerol synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are NADP(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.94). However, crude enzyme extract from Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants showed GPD activity with only NAD(+) as cofactor. Hence, both Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are likely NAD(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.8), similar to GPDs from S. cerevisiae and Candida magnoliae.

  15. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Negatively Regulates the Replication of Bamboo Mosaic Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA▿†

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, K. Reddisiva; Huang, Ying-Wen; Liou, Ming-Ru; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hu, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Meng, Menghsiao; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2011-01-01

    The identification of cellular proteins associated with virus replicase complexes is crucial to our understanding of virus-host interactions, influencing the host range, replication, and virulence of viruses. A previous in vitro study has demonstrated that partially purified Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) replicase complexes can be employed for the replication of both BaMV genomic and satellite BaMV (satBaMV) RNAs. In this study, we investigated the BaMV and satBaMV 3′ untranslated region (UTR) binding proteins associated with these replicase complexes. Two cellular proteins with molecular masses of ∼35 and ∼55 kDa were specifically cross-linked with RNA elements, whereupon the ∼35-kDa protein was identified as the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Gel mobility shift assays confirmed the direct interaction of GAPDH with the 3′ UTR sequences, and competition gel shift analysis revealed that GAPDH binds preferentially to the positive-strand BaMV and satBaMV RNAs over the negative-strand RNAs. It was observed that the GAPDH protein binds to the pseudoknot poly(A) tail of BaMV and stem-loop-C poly(A) tail of satBaMV 3′ UTR RNAs. It is important to note that knockdown of GAPDH in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances the accumulation of BaMV and satBaMV RNA; conversely, transient overexpression of GAPDH reduces the accumulation of BaMV and satBaMV RNA. The recombinant GAPDH principally inhibits the synthesis of negative-strand RNA in exogenous RdRp assays. These observations support the contention that cytosolic GAPDH participates in the negative regulation of BaMV and satBaMV RNA replication. PMID:21715476

  16. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is stabilized by additional proline residues and an interdomain salt bridge.

    PubMed

    Kuravsky, Mikhail; Barinova, Kseniya; Marakhovskaya, Aleksandra; Eldarov, Mikhail; Semenyuk, Pavel; Muronetz, Vladimir; Schmalhausen, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) exhibits enhanced stability compared to the somatic isoenzyme (GAPD). A comparative analysis of the structures of these isoenzymes revealed characteristic features, which could be important for the stability of GAPDS: six specific proline residues and three buried salt bridges. To evaluate the impact of these structural elements into the stability of this isoenzyme, we obtained two series of mutant GAPDS: 1) six mutants each containing a substitution of one of the specific prolines by alanine, and 2) three mutants each containing a mutation breaking one of the salt bridges. Stability of the mutants was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and by their resistance towards guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The most effect on thermostability was observed for the mutants P326A and P164A: the Tm values of the heat-absorption curves decreased by 6.0 and 3.3°C compared to the wild type protein, respectively. The resistance towards GdnHCl was affected most by the mutation D311N breaking the salt bridge between the catalytic and NAD(+)-binding domains: the inactivation rate constant in the presence of GdnHCl increased six-fold, and the value of GdnHCl concentration corresponding to the protein half-denaturation decreased from 1.83 to 1.35M. Besides, the mutation D311N enhanced the enzymatic activity of the protein two-fold. The results suggest that the residues P164 (β-turn), P326 (first position of α-helix), and the interdomain salt bridge D311-H124 are significant for the enhanced stability of GAPDS. The salt bridge D311-H124 enhances stability of the active site of GAPDS at the expense of the catalytic activity.

  17. Identification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of epithelial cells as a second molecule that binds to Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Sojar, Hakimuddin T; Genco, Robert J

    2005-07-01

    Binding of Porphyromonas gingivalis to the host cells is an essential step in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. P. gingivalis binds to and invades epithelial cells, and fimbriae are thought to be involved in this process. In our earlier studies, two major epithelial cell components of 40 and 50 kDa were identified as potential fimbrial receptors. Sequencing of a cyanogen bromide digestion fragment of the 50-kDa component resulted in an internal sequence identical to keratin I molecules, and hence this cytokeratin represents one of the epithelial cell receptors for P. gingivalis fimbriae. In this study, the 40-kDa component of KB cells was isolated and its amino-terminal sequence determined. The N-terminal amino sequence was found to be GKVKVGVNGF and showed perfect homology with human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Furthermore, purified P. gingivalis fimbriae were found to bind to rabbit muscle GAPDH. Antibodies directed against internal peptide 49-68 and 69-90 of fimbrillin were shown to inhibit the binding of P. gingivalis and of fimbriae to epithelial cells. Antibodies against these peptides also inhibited the binding of fimbriae to GAPDH. Our results confirmed that the amino-terminal domain corresponding to amino residues 49-68 of the fimbrillin protein is the major GAPDH binding domain. These studies point to GAPDH as a major receptor for P. gingivalis major fimbriae and, as such, GAPDH likely plays a role in P. gingivalis adherence and colonization of the oral cavity, as well as triggering host cell processes involved in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis infections.

  18. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and galectin from Dirofilaria immitis participate in heartworm disease endarteritis via plasminogen/plasmin system.

    PubMed

    González-Miguel, Javier; Larrazabal, Carmen; Loa-Mesón, Diana; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Simón, Fernando; Morchón, Rodrigo

    2016-06-15

    The interaction between parasitic protozoa and helminths, both in the blood and in tissues and the fibrinolytic system of their hosts is usually considered as a survival parasite mechanism since this system is the physiological route responsible for degrading fibrin clots. The broad-range proteolytic activity of plasmin, the final enzyme of the route, implies that its recruitment by these parasites is an important mechanism that mediates their invasion and establishment in the hosts. However, recent studies have proposed a dual role for plasmin by linking its over-production with pathological mechanisms at vascular level. Most of these studies have been conducted in Dirofilaria immitis, a blood-borne parasite that survives in the pulmonary arteries of its host for years while it produces a chronic inflammatory disease, whose main pathogenic mechanism is the appearance of proliferative endarteritis. Recently, the participation of two proteins from D. immitis, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (DiGAPDH) and galectin (DiGAL), in the activation of the fibrinolytic system of its host has been demonstrated, which has been a priori associated with parasite survival mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to study the role of plasmin generated by these proteins in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis. An in vitro model of canine endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as well as the two parasitic recombinant proteins were employed. The results show that DiGAPDH and DiGAL stimulate the proliferation and migration of both cell types, as well as the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via plasminogen (PLG)/plasmin system, being all of these mechanisms related to the appearance of proliferative endarteritis. Due to the high degree of evolutionary conservation of these antigens, these data support the hypothesis of the survival/pathology ambivalence in the interactions between parasites and the fibrinolytic system of their hosts and represent an

  19. Active site cysteine-null glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) rescues nitric oxide-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takeya; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Nakatsuji, Masatoshi; Itakura, Masanori; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Inui, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-02-29

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a homotetrameric enzyme involved in a key step of glycolysis, also has a role in mediating cell death under nitrosative stress. Our previous reports suggest that nitric oxide-induced intramolecular disulfide-bonding GAPDH aggregation, which occurs through oxidation of the active site cysteine (Cys-152), participates in a mechanism to account for nitric oxide-induced death signaling in some neurodegenerative/neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a rescue strategy for nitric oxide-induced cell death accompanied by GAPDH aggregation in a mutant with a substitution of Cys-152 to alanine (C152A-GAPDH). Pre-incubation of purified wild-type GAPDH with C152A-GAPDH under exposure to nitric oxide inhibited wild-type GAPDH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Several lines of structural analysis revealed that C152A-GAPDH extensively interfered with nitric oxide-induced GAPDH-amyloidogenesis. Overexpression of doxycycline-inducible C152A-GAPDH in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma significantly rescued nitric oxide-induced death, concomitant with the decreased formation of GAPDH aggregates. Further, both co-immunoprecipitation assays and simulation models revealed a heterotetramer composed of one dimer each of wild-type GAPDH and C152A-GAPDH. These results suggest that the C152A-GAPDH mutant acts as a dominant-negative molecule against GAPDH aggregation via the formation of this GAPDH heterotetramer. This study may contribute to a new therapeutic approach utilizing C152A-GAPDH against brain damage in nitrosative stress-related disorders.

  20. Structure of holo-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 1.8 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Skarzyński, T; Moody, P C; Wonacott, A J

    1987-01-05

    The structure of holo-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been crystallographically refined at 1.8 A resolution using restrained least-squares refinement methods. The final crystallographic R-factor for 93,120 reflexions with F greater than 3 sigma (F) is 0.177. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains a complete tetramer, the final model of which incorporates a total of 10,272 unique protein and coenzyme atoms together with 677 bound solvent molecules. The structure has been analysed with respect to molecular symmetry, intersubunit contacts, coenzyme binding and active site geometry. The refined model shows the four independent subunits to be remarkable similar apart from local deviations due to intermolecular contacts within the crystal lattice. A number of features are revealed that had previously been misinterpreted from an earlier 2.7 A electron density map. Arginine at position 195 (previously thought to be a glycine) contributes to the formation of the anion binding sites in the active site pocket, which are involved in binding of the substrate and inorganic phosphates during catalysis. This residue seems to be structurally equivalent to the conserved Arg194 in the enzyme from other sources. In the crystal both of the anion binding sites are occupied by sulphate ions. The ND atom of the catalytically important His176 is hydrogen-bonded to the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Ser177, thus fixing the plane of the histidine imidazole ring and preventing rotation. The analysis has revealed the presence of several internal salt-bridges stabilizing the tertiary and quaternary structure. A significant number of buried water molecules have been found that play an important role in the structural integrity of the molecule.

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.

  2. The complete sequence of a full length cDNA for human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Arcari, P; Martinelli, R; Salvatore, F

    1984-01-01

    A recombinant M13 clone (O42) containing a 65 b.p. cDNA fragment from human fetal liver mRNA coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase has been identified and it has been used to isolate from a full-length human adult liver cDNA library a recombinant clone, pG1, which has been subcloned in M13 phage and completely sequenced with the chain terminator method. Besides the coding region of 1008 b.p., the cDNA sequence includes 60 nucleotides at the 5'-end and 204 nucleotides at the 3'-end up to the polyA tail. Hybridization of pG1 to human liver total RNA shows only one band about the size of pG1 cDNA. A much stronger hybridization signal was observed using RNA derived from human hepatocarcinoma and kidney carcinoma cell lines. Sequence homology between clone 042 and the homologous region of clone pG1 is 86%. On the other hand, homology among the translated sequences and the known human muscle protein sequence ranges between 77 and 90%; these data demonstrate the existence of more than one gene coding for G3PD. Southern blot of human DNA, digested with several restriction enzymes, also indicate that several homologous sequences are present in the human genome. Images PMID:6096821

  3. Comparison of the regulation, metabolic functions, and roles in virulence of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase homologues gapA and gapB in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Purves, Joanne; Cockayne, Alan; Moody, Peter C E; Morrissey, Julie A

    2010-12-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus contains two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) homologues known as GapA and GapB. GapA has been characterized as a functional GAPDH protein, but currently there is no biological evidence for the role of GapB in metabolism in S. aureus. In this study we show through a number of complementary methods that S. aureus GapA is essential for glycolysis while GapB is essential in gluconeogenesis. These proteins are reciprocally regulated in response to glucose concentrations, and both are influenced by the glycolysis regulator protein GapR, which is the first demonstration of the role of this regulator in S. aureus and the first indication that GapR homologues control genes other than those within the glycolytic operon. Furthermore, we show that both GapA and GapB are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus in a Galleria mellonella model of infection, showing for the first time in any bacteria that both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis have important roles in virulence.

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus agalactiae NEM316

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Revathi; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an essential enzyme involved in glycolysis. Despite lacking the secretory signal sequence, this cytosolic enzyme has been found localized at the surface of several bacteria and fungi. As a surface protein, GAPDH exhibits various adhesive functions, thereby facilitating colonization and invasion of host tissues. Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B streptococcus (GBS), binds onto the host using its surface adhesins and causes sepsis and pneumonia in neonates. GAPDH is one of the surface adhesins of GBS binding to human plasminogen and is a virulent factor associated with host colonization. Although the surface-associated GAPDH has been shown to bind to a variety of host extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in various bacteria, the molecular mechanism underlying their interaction is not fully understood. To investigate this, structural studies on GAPDH of S. agalactiae were initiated. The gapC gene of S. agalactiae NEM316 encoding GAPDH protein was cloned into pET-28a vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The GAPDH crystals obtained in two different crystallization conditions diffracted to 2.8 and 2.6 Å resolution, belonging to two different space groups P21 and P212121, respectively. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is now in progress. PMID:25005093

  5. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase acts as an adhesin in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae adhesion to porcine endothelial cells and as a receptor in recruitment of host fibronectin and plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jingtao; Wei, Yanmin; Cai, Chengzhi; Liu, Liang; Xu, Zhongmin; Jin, Meilin

    2017-03-21

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of animal erysipelas and human erysipeloid. Previous studies suggested glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a role in the pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae infection. We studied E. rhusiopathiae GAPDH interactions with pig vascular endothelial cells, fibronectin, and plasminogen. Recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) was successfully obtained, and it was shown that it plays a role in E. rhusiopathiae adhesion to pig vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, rGAPDH could bind fibronectin and plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a moonlighting protein plays a role in pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae infections.

  6. The 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone could be explored to develop new inhibitors against the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Thais G; Torres, Fábio A E; Nogueira, Camila T; de Almeida, Leticia; Del Cistia, Mayara L; dos Santos, Mariana B; Regasini, Luis O; Graminha, Márcia A S; Marchetto, Reinaldo; Zottis, Aderson

    2015-09-01

    The enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) from Leishmania species is considered as an attractive target to design new antileishmanial drugs and a previous in silico study reported on the importance of chalcones to achieve its inhibition. Here, we report the identification of a synthetic chalcone in our in vitro assays with promastigote cells from Leishmania amazonensis, its biological activity in animal models, and docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the molecular interactions and structural patterns that are crucial to achieve the inhibition complex between this compound and G3PDH. A molecular fragment of this natural product derivative can provide new inhibitors with increased potency and selectivity.

  7. Calcium- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Nuclear Accumulation of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Response to Long Chain Bases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Testard, Ambroise; Da Silva, Daniel; Ormancey, Mélanie; Pichereaux, Carole; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Grat, Sabine; Robe, Eugénie; Brière, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie; Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid long chain bases (LCBs) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In addition, in tobacco BY-2 cells, it has been shown that DHS triggers a rapid production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Recently, in analogy to what is known in the animal field, plant cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis, has been suggested to fulfill other functions associated with its oxidative post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues. In particular, in mammals, stress signals inducing NO production promote S-nitrosylation of GAPC and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus where the protein participates in the establishment of apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the behavior of GAPC in tobacco BY-2 cells treated with DHS. We found that upon DHS treatment, an S-nitrosylated form of GAPC accumulated in the nucleus. This accumulation was dependent on NO production. Two genes encoding GAPCs, namely Nt(BY-2)GAPC1 and Nt(BY-2)GAPC2, were cloned. Transient overexpression of Nt(BY-2)GAPC-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric constructs indicated that both proteins localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Mutating into serine the two cysteine residues thought to be S-nitrosylated in response to DHS did not modify the localization of the proteins, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of GAPCs was probably not necessary for their nuclear relocalization. Interestingly, using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments, we showed that Nt(BY-2)GAPCs interact with nucleic acids in the nucleus. When GAPCs were mutated on their cysteine residues, their interaction with nucleic acids was abolished, suggesting a role for GAPCs in the protection of nucleic acids against oxidative stress.

  8. The specific role of plastidial glycolysis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells under scrutiny through the study of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Anoman, Armand Djoro; Flores-Tornero, María; Rosa-Telléz, Sara; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2016-01-01

    The cellular compartmentalization of metabolic processes is an important feature in plants where the same pathways could be simultaneously active in different compartments. Plant glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and plastids of green and non-green cells in which the requirements of energy and precursors may be completely different. Because of this, the relevance of plastidial glycolysis could be very different depending on the cell type. In the associated study, we investigated the function of plastidial glycolysis in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells by specifically driving the expression of plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double mutant background (gapcp1gapcp2). We showed that GAPCp is not functionally significant in photosynthetic cells, while it plays a crucial function in heterotrophic cells. We also showed that (i) GAPCp activity expression in root tips is necessary for primary root growth, (ii) its expression in heterotrophic cells of aerial parts and roots is necessary for plant growth and development, and (iii) GAPCp is an important metabolic connector of carbon and nitrogen metabolism through the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis (PPSB). We discuss here the role that this pathway could play in the control of plant growth and development.

  9. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  10. Functional characterization of the phosphorylating D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the archaeon Methanothermus fervidus by comparative molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Talfournier, F; Colloc'h, N; Mornon, J P; Branlant, G

    1999-10-01

    Phosphorylating archaeal D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GraP-DHs) share only 15-20% identity with their glycolytic bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. Unlike the latter which are NAD-specific, archaeal GraP-DHs exhibit a dual-cofactor specificity with a marked preference for NADP. In the present study, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of the Methanothermus fervidus GraP-DH based upon the X-ray structures of the Bacillus stearothermophilus and Escherichia coli GraP-DHs. The overall structure of the archaeal enzyme is globally similar to homology modelling-derived structures, in particular for the cofactor binding domain, which might adopt a classical Rossmann fold. M. fervidus GraP-DH can be considered as a dimer of dimers which exhibits negative and positive cooperativity in binding the coenzymes NAD and NADP, respectively. As expected, the differences between the model and the templates are located mainly within the loops. Based on the predictions derived from molecular modelling, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to characterize better the cofactor binding pocket and the catalytic domain. The Lys32Ala, Lys32Glu and Lys32Asp mutants led to a drastic increase in the Km value for NADP (i.e. 165-, 500- and 1000-fold, respectively), thus demonstrating that the invariant Lys32 residue is one of the most important determinants favouring the adenosine 2'-PO42- binding of NADP. The involvement of the side chain of Asn281, which was postulated to play a role equivalent to that of the Asn313 of bacterial and eukaryotic GraP-DHs in fixing the position of the nicotinamide ring in a syn orientation [Fabry, S. & Hensel, R. (1988) Gene 64, 189-197], was ruled out. Most of the amino acids involved in catalysis and in substrate recognition in bacterial and eukaryotic GraP-DHs are not conserved in the archaeal enzyme except for the essential Cys149. Inspection of our model suggests that side chains of invariant residues Asn150, Arg176, Arg177 and

  11. Differential response of the catalase, superoxide dismutase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to different environmental stresses in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sawan; Kalyanasundaram, Gayathiri T; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2011-02-01

    The effect of salt, pH, and temperature stress on the cellular level of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was studied in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413, a halotolerant yeast. The catalase activity increased in different phases, while SOD and G3PDH activities declined in late stationary phase. A significant increase in SOD activity was observed under different stress as compared to control. Salt and temperature stress enhanced the catalase activity where as it was suppressed by pH stress. G3PDH level increased with salt stress, however, no significant change was observed under pH and temperature stress. The observations recorded in this investigation suggested that D. nepalensis has an efficient protective mechanism of antioxidant enzymes and G3PDH against salt, pH, and temperature stresses.

  12. Characterization of Arabidopsis lines deficient in GAPC-1, a cytosolic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-11-01

    Phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPC-1) is a highly conserved cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-P to 1,3-bis-phosphoglycerate; besides its participation in glycolysis, it is thought to be involved in additional cellular functions. To reach an integrative view on the many roles played by this enzyme, we characterized a homozygous gapc-1 null mutant and an as-GAPC1 line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both mutant plant lines show a delay in growth, morphological alterations in siliques, and low seed number. Embryo development was altered, showing abortions and empty embryonic sacs in basal and apical siliques, respectively. The gapc-1 line shows a decrease in ATP levels and reduced respiratory rate. Furthermore, both lines exhibit a decrease in the expression and activity of aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase and reduced levels of pyruvate and several Krebs cycle intermediates, as well as increased reactive oxygen species levels. Transcriptome analysis of the gapc-1 mutants unveils a differential accumulation of transcripts encoding for enzymes involved in carbon partitioning. According to these studies, some enzymes involved in carbon flux decreased (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD-malic enzyme, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase) or increased (NAD-malate dehydrogenase) their activities compared to the wild-type line. Taken together, our data indicate that a deficiency in the cytosolic GAPC activity results in modifications of carbon flux and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an alteration of plant and embryo development with decreased number of seeds, indicating that GAPC-1 is essential for normal fertility in Arabidopsis plants.

  13. Separate physiological roles for two isozymes of pyridine nucleotide-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in chicken.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, H. B., III; Kaplan, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The isozymes considered are designated 'liver type' and 'muscle type' based on the tissue of highest concentration. Electrophoretic analysis shows that the liver type is found in small amounts or is undetectable in all tissues studied except liver. The muscle type is found in skeletal muscles and kidney. Presumptive hybrid enzymes occur at low levels in chicken liver and kidney. The tissue distribution of glyceron-3-P dehydrogenase in several birds capable of sustained flight is different than in chicken.

  14. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts.

  15. Modulation of glycerol and ethanol yields during alcoholic fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressed or disrupted for GPD1 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Michnick, S; Roustan, J L; Remize, F; Barre, P; Dequin, S

    1997-07-01

    The possibility of the diversion of carbon flux from ethanol towards glycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation was investigated. Variations in the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) level and similar trends for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphatase were found when low and high glycerol-forming wine yeast strains were compared. GPDH is thus a limiting enzyme for glycerol production. Wine yeast strains with modulated GPD1 (encoding one of the two GPDH isoenzymes) expression were constructed and characterized during fermentation on glucose-rich medium. Engineered strains fermented glucose with a strongly modified [glycerol] : [ethanol] ratio. gpd1delta mutants exhibited a 50% decrease in glycerol production and increased ethanol yield. Overexpression of GPD1 on synthetic must (200 g/l glucose) resulted in a substantial increase in glycerol production ( x 4) at the expense of ethanol. Acetaldehyde accumulated through the competitive regeneration of NADH via GPDH. Accumulation of by-products such as pyruvate, acetate, acetoin, 2,3 butane-diol and succinate was observed, with a marked increase in acetoin production.

  16. Nucleotide variability in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Chong, J L; Wickneswari, R; Ismail, B S; Salmijah, S

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the results of the partial DNA sequence analysis of the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn from Peninsular Malaysia. Sequencing results revealed point mutation at nucleotide position 875 in the R biotypes of Bidor, Chaah and Temerloh. In the Chaah R population, substitution of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) resulted in the change of threonine (Thr106) to proline (Pro106) and from C to thymidine (T) in the Bidor R population, leading to serine (Ser106) from Pro106. As for the Temerloh R, C was substituted by T resulting in the change of Pro106 to Ser106. A new mutation previously undetected in the Temerloh R was revealed with C being substituted with A, resulting in the change of Pro106 to Thr106 indicating multiple founding events rather than to the spread of a single resistant allele. There was no point mutation recorded at nucleotide position 875 previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in conferring glyphosate resistance to E. indica for the Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor, Melaka R populations. Thus, there may be another resistance mechanism yet undiscovered in the resistant Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor and Melaka populations.

  17. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (GAPOR) and nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN), key enzymes of the respective modified Embden-Meyerhof pathways in the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Aeropyrum pernix.

    PubMed

    Reher, Matthias; Gebhard, Susanne; Schönheit, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The growth of Pyrobaculum aerophilum on yeast extract and nitrate was stimulated by the addition of maltose. Extracts of maltose/yeast extract/nitrate-grown cells contained all enzyme activities of a modified Embden-Meyerhof (EM) pathway, including ATP-dependent glucokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, fructose-1,6-phosphate aldolase, triose-phosphate isomerase, GAPOR, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and pyruvate kinase. The activity of GAPOR was stimulated about fourfold by maltose, indicating a role in sugar degradation. GAPOR was purified 200-fold to homogeneity and characterized as a 67 kDa monomeric, extremely thermostable protein. The enzyme showed high specificity for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and did not use glyceraldehyde, acetaldehyde or formaldehyde as substrates. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis of the purified enzyme, ORF PA1029 was identified as a coding gene, gapor, in the sequenced genome of Pyrobaculum aerophilum. The data indicate that the (micro)aerophilic Pyrobaculum aerophilum contains a functional GAPOR as part of a modified EM pathway. Cells of the strictly aerobic crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix also contain enzyme activities of a modified EM pathway similar to that of Pyrobaculum aerophilum, except that a GAPN activity replaces GAPOR activity.

  18. High-resolution crystal structures of the photoreceptor glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with three and four-bound NAD molecules.

    PubMed

    Baker, Bo Y; Shi, Wuxian; Wang, Benlian; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-11-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the oxidative phosphorylation of d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 1,3-diphosphoglycerate (BGP) in the presence of the NAD cofactor. GAPDH is an important drug target because of its central role in glycolysis, and nonglycolytic processes such as nuclear RNA transport, DNA replication/repair, membrane fusion and cellular apoptosis. Recent studies found that GAPDH participates in the development of diabetic retinopathy and its progression after the cessation of hyperglycemia. Here, we report two structures for native bovine photoreceptor GAPDH as a homotetramer with differing occupancy by NAD, bGAPDH(NAD)4 , and bGAPDH(NAD)3 . The bGAPDH(NAD)4 was solved at 1.52 Å, the highest resolution for GAPDH. Structural comparison of the bGAPDH(NAD)4 and bGAPDH(NAD)3 models revealed novel details of conformational changes induced by cofactor binding, including a loop region (residues 54-56). Structure analysis of bGAPDH confirmed the importance of Phe34 in NAD binding, and demonstrated that Phe34 was stabilized in the presence of NAD but displayed greater mobility in its absence. The oxidative state of the active site Cys149 residue is regulated by NAD binding, because this residue was found oxidized in the absence of dinucleotide. The distance between Cys149 and His176 decreased upon NAD binding and Cys149 remained in a reduced state when NAD was bound. These findings provide an important structural step for understanding the mechanism of GAPDH activity in vision and its pathological role in retinopathies.

  19. Plastidial Glycolytic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is an Important Determinant in the Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Heterotrophic Cells in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Anoman, Armand D; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Flores-Tornero, María; Serrano, Ramón; Bueso, Eduardo; Fernie, Alisdair R; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2015-11-01

    This study functionally characterizes the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastidial glycolytic isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells. We expressed the enzyme in gapcp double mutants (gapcp1gapcp2) under the control of photosynthetic (Rubisco small subunit RBCS2B [RBCS]) or heterotrophic (phosphate transporter PHT1.2 [PHT]) cell-specific promoters. Expression of GAPCp1 under the control of RBCS in gapcp1gapcp2 had no significant effect on the metabolite profile or growth in the aerial part (AP). GAPCp1 expression under the control of the PHT promoter clearly affected Arabidopsis development by increasing the number of lateral roots and having a major effect on AP growth and metabolite profile. Our results indicate that GAPCp1 is not functionally important in photosynthetic cells but plays a fundamental role in roots and in heterotrophic cells of the AP. Specifically, GAPCp activity may be required in root meristems and the root cap for normal primary root growth. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicate that the lack of GAPCp activity affects nitrogen and carbon metabolism as well as mineral nutrition and that glycerate and glutamine are the main metabolites responding to GAPCp activity. Thus, GAPCp could be an important metabolic connector of glycolysis with other pathways, such as the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, the ammonium assimilation pathway, or the metabolism of γ-aminobutyrate, which in turn affect plant development.

  20. A H2 very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GapDH) more efficiently than UV photons and heat combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelmann, Katharina; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Buerger, Ines; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to commonly used sterilization techniques, because the conventional methods suffer from certain limitations, e.g. incompatibility with heat-sensitive materials, or use of toxic agents. However, plasma-based sterilization mechanisms are not fully understood yet. A low-pressure very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma is used to investigate the impact of a hydrogen discharge on the protein glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH). GapDH is an enzyme of glycolysis. As a part of the central metabolism, it occurs in nearly all organisms from bacteria to humans. The plasma is investigated with absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy in order to identify and to quantify plasma components that can contribute to enzyme inactivation. The contribution of UV photons and heat to GapDH inactivation is investigated separately, and neither seems to be a major factor. In order to investigate the mechanisms of GapDH inactivation by the hydrogen discharge, samples are investigated for etching, induction of amino acid backbone breaks, and chemical modifications. While neither etching nor strand breaks are observed, chemical modifications occur at different amino acid residues of GapDH. Deamidations of asparagines as well as methionine and cysteine oxidations are detected after VHF-CCP treatment. In particular, oxidation of the cysteine in the active centre is known to lead to GapDH inactivation.

  1. Iron starvation causes release from the group A streptococcus of the ADP-ribosylating protein called plasmin receptor or surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z; Green, B D; Scott, J R

    1996-01-01

    In many pathogenic bacteria, iron starvation serves as an environmental signal that triggers the expression of virulence factors, many of which are found on the cell surface or secreted into the culture supernatant. Using the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid, we have established conditions for iron starvation of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus) and determined that iron limitation results in the specific appearance of several new proteins in the culture supernatant. One of these supernatant proteins is the ADP-ribosylating protein known as streptococcal plasmin receptor (Plr) or as the streptococcal surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase because of its other activities. Upon iron starvation, Plr is specifically released into the culture supernatant in a time-dependent manner, and its appearance in the supernatant is not accompanied by induction of plr mRNA synthesis. Release of Plr from the bacteria may be important for the virulence of group A streptococci and the manifestation of diseases. PMID:8675293

  2. Plastidial Glycolytic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Is an Important Determinant in the Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism of Heterotrophic Cells in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Anoman, Armand D.; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Flores-Tornero, María; Serrano, Ramón; Bueso, Eduardo; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2015-01-01

    This study functionally characterizes the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plastidial glycolytic isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) in photosynthetic and heterotrophic cells. We expressed the enzyme in gapcp double mutants (gapcp1gapcp2) under the control of photosynthetic (Rubisco small subunit RBCS2B [RBCS]) or heterotrophic (phosphate transporter PHT1.2 [PHT]) cell-specific promoters. Expression of GAPCp1 under the control of RBCS in gapcp1gapcp2 had no significant effect on the metabolite profile or growth in the aerial part (AP). GAPCp1 expression under the control of the PHT promoter clearly affected Arabidopsis development by increasing the number of lateral roots and having a major effect on AP growth and metabolite profile. Our results indicate that GAPCp1 is not functionally important in photosynthetic cells but plays a fundamental role in roots and in heterotrophic cells of the AP. Specifically, GAPCp activity may be required in root meristems and the root cap for normal primary root growth. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicate that the lack of GAPCp activity affects nitrogen and carbon metabolism as well as mineral nutrition and that glycerate and glutamine are the main metabolites responding to GAPCp activity. Thus, GAPCp could be an important metabolic connector of glycolysis with other pathways, such as the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, the ammonium assimilation pathway, or the metabolism of γ-aminobutyrate, which in turn affect plant development. PMID:26134167

  3. Overexpression of the triose phosphate translocator (TPT) complements the abnormal metabolism and development of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Tornero, María; Anoman, Armand D; Rosa-Téllez, Sara; Toujani, Walid; Weber, Andreas P M; Eisenhut, Marion; Kurz, Samantha; Alseekh, Saleh; Fernie, Alisdair R; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc

    2017-03-01

    The presence of two glycolytic pathways working in parallel in plastids and cytosol has complicated the understanding of this essential process in plant cells, especially the integration of the plastidial pathway into the metabolism of heterotrophic and autotrophic organs. It is assumed that this integration is achieved by transport systems, which exchange glycolytic intermediates across plastidial membranes. However, it is unknown whether plastidial and cytosolic pools of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) can equilibrate in non-photosynthetic tissues. To resolve this question, we employed Arabidopsis mutants of the plastidial glycolytic isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPCp) that express the triose phosphate translocator (TPT) under the control of the 35S (35S:TPT) or the native GAPCp1 (GAPCp1:TPT) promoters. TPT expression under the control of both promoters complemented the vegetative developmental defects and metabolic disorders of the GAPCp double mutants (gapcp1gapcp2). However, as the 35S is poorly expressed in the tapetum, full vegetative and reproductive complementation of gapcp1gapcp2 was achieved only by transforming this mutant with the GAPCp1:TPT construct. Our results indicate that the main function of GAPCp is to supply 3-PGA for anabolic pathways in plastids of heterotrophic cells and suggest that the plastidial glycolysis may contribute to fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds. They also suggest a 3-PGA deficiency in the plastids of gapcp1gapcp2, and that 3-PGA pools between cytosol and plastid do not equilibrate in heterotrophic cells.

  4. Proteome profiling of the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei extracellular proteins and identification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as an important adhesion factor for conidial attachment.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Chan, Joanna S Y; Zhou, Anna C; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lau, Candy C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2013-12-01

    Despite being the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia, the pathogenic mechanisms of Penicillium marneffei remain largely unknown. By comparing the extracellular proteomes of P. marneffei in mycelial and yeast phases, we identified 12 differentially expressed proteins among which glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) were found to be upregulated in mycelial and yeast phases respectively. Based on previous findings in other pathogens, we hypothesized that these two extracellular proteins may be involved in adherence during P. marneffei-host interaction. Using inhibition assays with recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH) proteins and anti-rGAPDH sera, we demonstrated that adhesion of P. marneffei conidia to fibronectin and laminin was inhibited by rGAPDH or rabbit anti-rGAPDH serum in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, a dose-dependent inhibition of conidial adherence to A549 pneumocytes by rGAPDH or rabbit anti-rGAPDH serum was observed, suggesting that P. marneffei GAPDH can mediate binding of conidia to human extracellular matrix proteins and pneumocytes. However, HSP60 did not exhibit similar inhibition on conidia adherence, and neither GAPDH norHSP60 exhibited inhibition on adherence to J774 or THP-1 macrophage cell lines. This report demonstrates GAPDH as an adherence factor in P. marneffei by mediating conidia adherence to host bronchoalveolar epithelium during the early establishment phase of infection.

  5. The complex of band 3 protein of the human erythrocyte membrane and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: stoichiometry and competition by aldolase.

    PubMed

    von Rückmann, Bogdan; Schubert, Dieter

    2002-02-10

    The cytoplasmic domain of band 3, the main intrinsic protein of the erythrocyte membrane, possesses binding sites for a variety of other proteins of the membrane and the cytoplasm, including the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aldolase. We have studied the stoichiometry of the complexes of human band 3 protein and GAPDH and the competition by aldolase for the binding sites. In addition, we have tried to verify the existence of mixed band 3/GAPDH/aldolase complexes, which could represent the nucleus of a putative glycolytic multienzyme complex on the erythrocyte membrane. The technique applied was analytical ultracentrifugation, in particular sedimentation equilibrium analysis, on mixtures of detergent-solubilized band 3 and dye-labelled GAPDH, in part of the experiments supplemented by aldolase. The results obtained were analogous to those reported for the binding of hemoglobin, aldolase and band 4.1 to band 3: (1) the predominant or even sole band 3 oligomer forming the binding site is the tetramer. (2) The band 3 tetramer can bind up to four tetramers of GAPDH. (3) The band 3/GAPDH complexes are unstable. (4) Artificially stabilized band 3 dimers also represent GAPDH binding sites. In addition it was found that aldolase competes with GAPDH for binding to the band 3 tetramer, and that ternary complexes of band 3 tetramers, GAPDH and aldolase do exist.

  6. Oxygen transfer as a tool for fine-tuning recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris under glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2016-07-01

    Effects of oxygen transfer on recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris under glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter were investigated. Recombinant glucose isomerase was chosen as the model protein. Two groups of oxygen transfer strategies were applied, one of which was based on constant oxygen transfer rate where aeration rate was Q O/V = 3 and 10 vvm, and agitation rate was N = 900 min(-1); while the other one was based on constant dissolved oxygen concentrations, C DO = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 % in the fermentation broth, by using predetermined exponential glucose feeding with μ o = 0.15 h(-1). The highest cell concentration was obtained as 44 g L(-1) at t = 9 h of the glucose fed-batch phase at C DO = 20 % operation while the highest volumetric and specific enzyme activities were obtained as 4440 U L(-1) and 126 U g(-1) cell, respectively at C DO = 15 % operation. Investigation of specific enzyme activities revealed that keeping C DO at 15 % was more advantageous with an expense of relatively higher by-product formation and lower specific cell growth rate. For this strategy, the highest oxygen transfer coefficient and oxygen uptake rate were K L a = 0.045 s(-1) and OUR = 8.91 mmol m(-3) s(-1), respectively.

  7. S100B impairs glycolysis via enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rodent muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kaori; Hamada, Yoji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Murase, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Ryuya; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Izumoto, Takako; Seino, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shin; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-02-07

    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Glycolytic metabolites were investigated by enzyme assays or metabolome analysis, and insulin signaling was assessed by western blot analysis. Enzyme activity and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of GAPDH was evaluated by an enzyme assay and immunoprecipitation followed by dot blot with an anti-poly(ADP-ribose) antibody, respectively. S100B significantly decreased glucose consumption, glucose analog uptake, and lactate production in L6 cells, in either the presence or absence of insulin. In contrast, S100B had no effect on glycogen accumulation and insulin signaling. Metabolome analysis revealed that S100B increased the concentration of glycolytic intermediates upstream of GAPDH. S100B impaired GAPDH activity and increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated GAPDH proteins. The effects of S100B on glucose metabolism were mostly canceled by a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. Similar results were obtained in C2C12 myotube cells. We conclude that S100B as a humoral factor may impair glycolysis in muscle cells independently of insulin action, and the effect may be attributed to the inhibition of GAPDH activity from enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the enzyme.

  8. An asynchronous unfolding among molecular different regions of lobster D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and maltotetraose-forming amylase from an Alcaligenes sp. during guanidine denaturation.

    PubMed

    He, R Q; Zhao, K Y; Yan, Z Z; Li, M

    1993-06-04

    Changes in ultraviolet absorbance and intrinsic protein fluorescence of 1,4-alpha-D-glucan maltotetrahydrolase (EC 3.2.1.60) from an Alcaligenes sp. (Gram-negative bacteria 537.1) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) have been compared with their inactivation during denaturation in guanidinium-Cl solutions. The two enzymes were completely inactivated at GuHCl concentrations less than 0.6 M and this was accompanied by marked absorbance and intrinsic fluorescence changes suggesting exposure of aromatic residues. The changes of the intrinsic fluorescence of the amylase have a relatively constant plateau in emission intensities and maxima at GuHCl concentrations from 0.8-2.0 M, similar to that of muscle GAPDH. The relative activity of the enzyme increased markedly in dilute GuHCl solutions accompanied by very little change of its intrinsic fluorescence at 8 degrees C. The kinetic decrease in emission intensities, excited respectively by 230 nm and 292 nm, was different for the two enzymes. The inactivation was a biphasic process with a fast phase faster than the unfolding rate as measured by fluorescence changes in 0.5 M GuHCl solution. Similar to the inactivation process, changes in intensity of 410 nm NAD fluorescent derivative of GAPDH which is in situ at the active site is also a biphasic process under the same condition. It appears that there may be an unfolding intermediate state of the enzymes and an asynchronous unfolding process among the different regions in the molecules during GuHCl denaturation, this may be due to differences in their flexibility.

  9. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship.

  10. The proline-rich region of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human sperm may bind SH3 domains, as revealed by a bioinformatic study of low-complexity protein segments.

    PubMed

    Tatjewski, Marcin; Gruca, Aleksandra; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Grynberg, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human sperm (GAPDHS) provides energy to the sperm flagellum, and is therefore essential for sperm motility and male fertility. This isoform is distinct from somatic GAPDH, not only in being specific for the testis but also because it contains an additional amino-terminal region that encodes a proline-rich motif that is known to bind to the fibrous sheath of the sperm tail. By conducting a large-scale sequence comparison on low-complexity sequences available in databases, we identified a strong similarity between the proline-rich motif from GAPDHS and the proline-rich sequence from Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-like (EVL), which is known to bind an SH3 domain of dynamin-binding protein (DNMBP). The putative binding partners of the proline-rich GAPDHS motif include SH3 domain-binding protein 4 (SH3BP4) and the IL2-inducible T-cell kinase/tyrosine-protein kinase ITK/TSK (ITK). This result implies that GAPDHS participates in specific signal-transduction pathways. Gene Ontology category-enrichment analysis showed several functional classes shared by both proteins, of which the most interesting ones are related to signal transduction and regulation of hydrolysis. Furthermore, a mutation of one EVL proline to leucine is known to cause colorectal cancer, suggesting that mutation of homologous amino acid residue in the GAPDHS motif may be functionally deleterious.

  11. The FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Giardia duodenalis: an unconventional enzyme that interacts with the g14-3-3 and it is a target of the antitumoral compound NBDHEX

    PubMed Central

    Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Finelli, Renata; Sferra, Gabriella; Müller, Joachim; Ricci, Giorgio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide parasite causing giardiasis, an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. Metabolism in G. duodenalis has a limited complexity thus making metabolic enzymes ideal targets for drug development. However, only few metabolic pathways (i.e., carbohydrates) have been described so far. Recently, the parasite homolog of the mitochondrial-like glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gG3PD) has been identified among the interactors of the g14-3-3 protein. G3PD is involved in glycolysis, electron transport, glycerophospholipids metabolism, and hyperosmotic stress response, and is emerging as promising target in tumor treatment. In this work, we demonstrate that gG3PD is a functional flavoenzyme able to convert glycerol-3-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and that its activity and the intracellular glycerol level increase during encystation. Taking advantage of co-immunoprecipitation assays and deletion mutants, we provide evidence that gG3PD and g14-3-3 interact at the trophozoite stage, the intracellular localization of gG3PD is stage dependent and it partially co-localizes with mitosomes during cyst development. Finally, we demonstrate that the gG3PD activity is affected by the antitumoral compound 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol, that results more effective in vitro at killing G. duodenalis trophozoites than the reference drug metronidazole. Overall, our results highlight the involvement of gG3PD in processes crucial for the parasite survival thus proposing this enzyme as target for novel antigiardial interventions. PMID:26082764

  12. The FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Giardia duodenalis: an unconventional enzyme that interacts with the g14-3-3 and it is a target of the antitumoral compound NBDHEX.

    PubMed

    Lalle, Marco; Camerini, Serena; Cecchetti, Serena; Finelli, Renata; Sferra, Gabriella; Müller, Joachim; Ricci, Giorgio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    The flagellated protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide parasite causing giardiasis, an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. Metabolism in G. duodenalis has a limited complexity thus making metabolic enzymes ideal targets for drug development. However, only few metabolic pathways (i.e., carbohydrates) have been described so far. Recently, the parasite homolog of the mitochondrial-like glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gG3PD) has been identified among the interactors of the g14-3-3 protein. G3PD is involved in glycolysis, electron transport, glycerophospholipids metabolism, and hyperosmotic stress response, and is emerging as promising target in tumor treatment. In this work, we demonstrate that gG3PD is a functional flavoenzyme able to convert glycerol-3-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and that its activity and the intracellular glycerol level increase during encystation. Taking advantage of co-immunoprecipitation assays and deletion mutants, we provide evidence that gG3PD and g14-3-3 interact at the trophozoite stage, the intracellular localization of gG3PD is stage dependent and it partially co-localizes with mitosomes during cyst development. Finally, we demonstrate that the gG3PD activity is affected by the antitumoral compound 6-(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio)hexanol, that results more effective in vitro at killing G. duodenalis trophozoites than the reference drug metronidazole. Overall, our results highlight the involvement of gG3PD in processes crucial for the parasite survival thus proposing this enzyme as target for novel antigiardial interventions.

  13. miR-181a Modulates Chondrocyte Apoptosis by Targeting Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 1-Like Protein (GPD1L) in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xicheng; Meng, Ru; Li, Hongbiao; Li, Jie; Jing, Lei; Qin, Lei; Gao, Yulei

    2017-01-01

    Background miR-181a is a small non-coding RNA known to be dysregulated in osteoarthritis (OA), but the role of miR-181a in human OA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify its function and molecular target in chondrocytes during OA pathogenesis. Material/Methods The function of miR-181a was assessed by gain-of-function studies in human OA chondrocytes. Potential targets of miR-181a were predicted using series of bioinformatics and intersection analysis, then confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Gene expression was quantified using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, and protein production was quantified by Western blot analysis. Results The FITC apoptosis assay results indicated that the upregulation of miR-181a led to an increase of apoptosis rate in chondrocytes. Then bioinformatic analysis identified potential target sites of the miR-181a located in the 3′ untranslated region of GPD1L. Dual-luciferase reporter assays results showed that GPD1L is a target gene of miR-181a. Furthermore, Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that miR-181a inhibited GPD1L gene expression. Increased GPD1L and decreased miRNA-181a were observed in tissues from osteoarthritis patients. Moreover, we found a highly negative correlation between miRNA-181a and GPD1L. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that miR-181a may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA through targeting GPD1L and regulating chondrocyte apoptosis. PMID:28280258

  14. Characterization of the developmentally regulated Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, K A; Uratani, B; Chaudhry, G R; Ramaley, R F; Rudikoff, S

    1986-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the structural gene for glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) of Bacillus subtilis was determined and comprises 780 base pairs. The subunit molecular weight of glucose dehydrogenase as deduced from the nucleotide sequence is 28,196, which agrees well with the subunit molecular weight of 31,500 as determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the 49 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of glucose dehydrogenase purified from sporulating B. subtilis cells matched the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence. Glucose dehydrogenase was purified from an Escherichia coli strain harboring pEF1, a plasmid that contains the B. subtilis gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase. This enzyme has the identical amino acid sequence at the NH2 terminus as the B. subtilis enzyme. A putative ribosome-binding site, 5'-AGGAGG-3', which is complementary to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of B. subtilis, was found 6 base pairs preceding the translational start codon of the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. No known promoterlike DNA sequences that are recognized by B. subtilis RNA polymerases were present immediately preceding the translational start site of the glucose dehydrogenase structural gene. The glucose dehydrogenase gene was found to be under sporulation control at the trancriptional level. A transcript of 1.6 kilobases hybridized to a DNA fragment within the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. This transcript was synthesized 3 h after the cessation of vegetative growth concomitant to the appearance of glucose dehydrogenase. Images PMID:3082854

  15. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate, a Bactericidal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chu-Tay; Engel, Robert; Tropp, Burton E.

    1977-01-01

    At a concentration of 2.5 mM, dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate has a bactericidal effect upon Escherichia coli. The glycerol 3-phosphate transport system is required for the entry of the biologically active l-enantiomer. l-Glyceraldehyde must be phosphorylated by the cell to exert its full effect upon growth. The addition of dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to a culture of E. coli caused no preferential inhibition of the accumulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or phosphoglycerides, although protein accumulation was less affected. Studies with mutant strains ruled out catabolic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, anabolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidoreductase, and fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase as the primary sites of action. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the reactions catalyzed by acyl coenzyme A:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (Ki of 1.8 mM) and cytidine 5′-diphosphate-diglyceride:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase (Ki of 2.7 mM). A Km mutant for the former enzyme was susceptible to the inhibitor. l-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate does not affect acyl coenzyme A:lysophosphatidate acyltransferase activity. In vivo, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol accumulation are inhibited to the same extent by the addition of dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to a culture of E. coli. PMID:319747

  16. Effects of supplementation on food intake, body weight and hepatic metabolites in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double-knockout mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Katsura, Natsumi; Yokogawa, Mana; Yoshidumi, Yukari; Furuie, Sumie; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2012-11-01

    The C57BL/6:Slc23a13(-/-);Gpd2(-/-) double-knockout (a.k.a., citrin/mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knockout or Ctrn/mGPD-KO) mouse displays phenotypic attributes of both neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2), making it a suitable model of human citrin deficiency. In the present study, we show that when mature Ctrn/mGPD-KO mice are switched from a standard chow diet (CE-2) to a purified maintenance diet (AIN-93M), this resulted in a significant loss of body weight as a result of reduced food intake compared to littermate mGPD-KO mice. However, supplementation of the purified maintenance diet with additional protein (from 14% to 22%; and concomitant reduction or corn starch), or with specific supplementation with alanine, sodium glutamate, sodium pyruvate or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), led to increased food intake and body weight gain near or back to that on chow diet. No such effect was observed when supplementing the diet with other sources of fat that contain long-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, when these supplements were added to a sucrose solution administered enterally to the mice, which has been shown previously to lead to elevated blood ammonia as well as altered hepatic metabolite levels in Ctrn/mGPP-KO mice, this led to metabolic correction. The elevated hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and citrulline levels after sucrose administration were suppressed by the administration of sodium pyruvate, alanine, sodium glutamate and MCT, although the effect of MCT was relatively small. Low hepatic citrate and increased lysine levels were only found to be corrected by sodium pyruvate, while alanine and sodium glutamate both corrected hepatic glutamate and aspartate levels. Overall, these results suggest that dietary factors including increased protein content, supplementation of specific amino acids like alanine and sodium glutamate, as well as sodium pyruvate and MCT all show beneficial

  17. Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Cardiac Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Martucci, Victoria L.; Emaminia, Abbas; del Rivero, Jaydira; Lechan, Ronald M.; Magoon, Bindiya T.; Galia, Analyza; Fojo, Tito; Leung, Steve; Lorusso, Roberto; Jimenez, Camilo; Shulkin, Barry L.; Audibert, Jennifer L.; Adams, Karen T.; Rosing, Douglas R.; Vaidya, Anand; Dluhy, Robert G.; Horvath, Keith A.; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are chromaffin cell tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells. At least one third of paragangliomas are related to germline mutations in one of 17 genes. While these tumors can occur throughout the body, cardiac paragangliomas are very rare, accounting for less than 0.3% of mediastinal tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with cardiac paragangliomas, particularly focusing on their genetic backgrounds. A retrospective chart analysis of fifteen patients with cardiac paraganglioma was performed to determine clinical presentation, genetic background, diagnostic work-up, and outcomes. The average age at diagnosis was 41.9 years. Typical symptoms of paraganglioma (e.g., hypertension, sweating, palpitations, headache) were reported at initial presentation in 13 patients (86.7%); the remaining 2, as well as 4 symptomatic patients, initially presented with cardiac-specific symptoms (e.g., chest pain, dyspnea). Genetic testing was done in 13 cases (86.7%); 10 (76.9%) were positive for mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) subunits B, C, or D. Thirteen cases (86.7%) underwent surgery to remove the paraganglioma with no intraoperative morbidity or mortality; one additional patient underwent surgical resection but experienced intraoperative complications after removal of the tumor due to comorbities and did not survive. SDHx mutations are known to be associated with mediastinal locations and malignant behavior of paragangliomas. In this report, we extend the locations of predominantly SDHx-related paragangliomas to cardiac tumors. In conclusion, cardiac paragangliomas are frequently associated with underlying SDHx germline mutations, suggesting a need for genetic testing of all patients with this rare tumor. PMID:25896150

  18. Inactivation of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Fumarate in Diabetes: Formation of S-(2-Succinyl)Cysteine, a Novel Chemical Modification of Protein and Possible Biomarker of Mitochondrial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Blatnik, Matthew; Frizzell, Norma; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Baynes, John W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE S-(2-succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by a Michael addition reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, with cysteine residues in protein. We investigated the role of fumarate in chemical modification and inhibition of the sulfhydryl enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in vitro and in tissues of diabetic rats. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS GAPDH was incubated with fumarate in PBS to assess effects of fumarate on enzyme activity in vitro. Sites of 2SC formation were determined by analysis of tryptic peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 2SC and fumarate in gastrocnemius muscle of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. GAPDH was isolated from muscle by immunoprecipitation, and sites of modification of GAPDH were determined by mass spectrometry analysis. RESULTS 2SC was found, both in vitro and in vivo, about equally at active-site Cys-149 and nucleophilic Cys-244. Inactivation of GAPDH by fumarate in vitro correlated with formation of 2SC. In diabetic compared with control rats, fumarate and 2SC concentration increased approximately fivefold, accompanied by an ~25% decrease in GAPDH specific activity. The fractional modification of GAPDH by 2SC was significantly increased in diabetic versus control animals, consistent with the decreased specific activity of GAPDH in muscle of diabetic animals. CONCLUSIONS Fumarate contributes to inactivation of GAPDH in diabetes. 2SC may be a useful biomarker of mitochondrial stress in diabetes. Modification of GAPDH and other enzymes and proteins by fumarate may contribute to the metabolic changes underlying the development of diabetes complications. PMID:17934141

  19. Transgenic tobacco simultaneously overexpressing glyphosate N-acetyltransferase and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase are more resistant to glyphosate than those containing one gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunjun; Cao, Gaoyi; Chen, Rongrong; Zhang, Shengxue; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2015-08-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and glyphosate N-acetyltransferase (GAT) can detoxify glyphosate by alleviating the suppression of shikimate pathway. In this study, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AM79 aroA, GAT, and both of them, respectively, to evaluate whether overexpression of both genes could confer transgenic plants with higher glyphosate resistance. The transgenic plants harboring GAT or AM79 aroA, respectively, showed good glyphosate resistance. As expected, the hybrid plants containing both GAT and AM79 aroA exhibited improved glyphosate resistance than the transgenic plants overexpressing only a single gene. When grown on media with high concentration of glyphosate, seedlings containing a single gene were severely inhibited, whereas plants expressing both genes were affected less. When transgenic plants grown in the greenhouse were sprayed with glyphosate, less damage was observed for the plants containing both genes. Metabolomics analysis showed that transgenic plants containing two genes could maintain the metabolism balance better than those containing one gene after glyphosate treatment. Glyphosate treatment did not lead to a huge increase of shikimate contents of tobacco leaves in transgenic plants overexpressing two genes, whereas significant increase of shikimate contents in transgenic plants containing only a single gene was observed. These results demonstrated that pyramiding both aroA and GAT in transgenic plants can enhance glyphosate resistance, and this strategy can be used for the development of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops.

  20. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K; Danilova, Tatiana V; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E; Tranel, Patrick J; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S; Jugulam, Mithila

    2017-02-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A tuberculatus In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A tuberculatus.

  1. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, H Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R; Aghaabdollahian, S; Mofid, M R; Ghaemi, Y; Abedi, D

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities.

  2. Cloning and molecular characterization of a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) gene from Echium (Boraginaceae) involved in the biosynthesis of cutin polyesters.

    PubMed

    Mañas-Fernández, Aurora; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico

    2010-09-01

    The glycerol-based lipid polyester called cutin is a main component of cuticle, the protective interface of aerial plant organs also controlling compound exchange with the environment. Though recent progress towards understanding of cutin biosynthesis has been made in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known in other plants. One key step in this process is the acyl transfer reaction to the glycerol backbone. Here we report the cloning and molecular characterization of EpGPAT1, a gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) from Echium pitardii (Boraginaceae) with high similarity to the AtGPAT4/AtGPAT8 of Arabidopsis. Quantitative analysis by qRT-PCR showed highest expression of EpGPAT1 in seeds, roots, young leaves and flowers. Acyltransferase activity of EpGPAT1 was evidenced by heterologous expression in yeast. Ectopic expression in leaves of tobacco plants lead to an increase of C16 and C18 hydroxyacids and alpha,omega-diacids in the cell wall fraction, indicating a role in the biosynthesis of polyesters. Analysis of the genomic organization in Echium revealed the presence of EpGPAT2, a closely related gene which was found to be mostly expressed in developing leaves and flowers. The presence of a conserved HAD-like domain at the N-terminal moiety of GPATs from Echium, Arabidopsis and other plant species suggests a possible phosphohydrolase activity in addition to the reported acyltransferase activity. Evolutive implications of this finding are discussed.

  3. Structural organization of the human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene (SORD)

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, T.; Carper, D.; Popescu, N.C.

    1995-03-01

    The primary structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) was determined by cDNA and genomic cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA covers 2471 bp including an open reading frame that yields a protein of 356 amino acid residues. The gene structure of SORD spans approximatley 30 kb divided into 9 exons and 8 introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.1 by in situ hybridization. Two transcription initiation sites were detected. Three Sp1 sites and a repetitive sequence (CAAA){sub 5} were observed in the 5{prime} noncoding region; no classical TATAA or CCAAT elements were found. The related alcohol dehydrogenases and {zeta}-crystallin have the same gene organization split by 8 introns, but no splice points coincide between SORD and these gene types. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SORD structure differs at a few positions from the directly determined protein sequence, suggesting allelic forms of the enzyme. High levels of SORD transcripts were observed in lens and kidney, as judged from Northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [Sorbitol-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Polymorhism in Malus Mill. (Rosaceae)].

    PubMed

    Boris, K V; Kudryavtsev, A M; Kochieva, E Z

    2015-11-01

    The sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (S6PDH) sequences of six representatives of the genus Malus, which belong to five different taxonomic sections, were examined for the first time. The exon-intron structure and polymorphism of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these genes was characterized. The intraspecific polymorphism of the S6PDH gene was assessed for the first time in 40 Russian and foreign apple (Malus domestica) cultivars. It was demonstrated that the interspecific polymorphism level of the S6PDH coding sequences in the studied. representatives of the genus Malus was 4%, and the intraspecific polymorphism level of M. domestica cultivars was very low, constituting 0.96%.

  5. Single amino acid polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini Christy, J; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily comprises of 19 genes and 3 pseudogenes. These superfamily genes play a vital role in the formation of molecules that are involved in life processes, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. ALDH superfamily genes associated mutations are implicated in various diseases, such as pyridoxine-dependent seizures, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, type II Hyperprolinemia, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of large DNA variations data especially Single Amino acid Polymorphisms (SAPs) in public databases related to ALDH superfamily genes insisted us to conduct a survey on the disease associated mutations and predict their function impact on protein structure and function. Overall this study provides an update and highlights the importance of pathogenic mutations in associated diseases. Using KD4v and Project HOPE a computational based platform, we summarized all the deleterious properties of SAPs in ALDH superfamily genes by the providing valuable insight into structural alteration rendered due to mutation. We hope this review might provide a way to define the deleteriousness of a SAP and helps to understand the molecular basis of the associated disease and also permits precise diagnosis and treatment in the near future.

  6. Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: differential gene expression and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Hesberg, Christine; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian

    2004-04-02

    Xanthine dehydrogenase from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed on molecular and biochemical levels. Whereas most other organisms appear to own only one gene for xanthine dehydrogenase A. thaliana possesses two genes in tandem orientation spaced by 704 base pairs. The cDNAs as well as the proteins AtXDH1 and AtXDH2 share an overall identity of 93% and show high homologies to xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms. Whereas AtXDH2 mRNA is expressed constitutively, alterations of AtXDH1 transcript levels were observed at various stresses like drought, salinity, cold, and natural senescence, but also after abscisic acid treatment. Transcript alteration did not mandatorily result in changes of xanthine dehydrogenase activities. Whereas salt treatment had no effect on xanthine dehydrogenase activities, cold stress caused a decrease, but desiccation and senescence caused a strong increase of activities in leaves. Because AtXDH1 presumably is the more important isoenzyme in A. thaliana it was expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and used for biochemical studies. AtXDH1 protein is a homodimer of about 300 kDa consisting of identical subunits of 150 kDa. Like xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms AtXDH1 uses hypoxanthine and xanthine as main substrates and is strongly inhibited by allopurinol. AtXDH1 could be activated by the purified molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 that converts inactive desulfo-into active sulfoenzymes. Finally it was found that AtXDH1 is a strict dehydrogenase and not an oxidase, but is able to produce superoxide radicals indicating that besides purine catabolism it might also be involved in response to various stresses that require reactive oxygen species.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  8. Cloning, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes for aromatic amine dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes faecalis and evolution of amine dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Chistoserdov, A Y

    2001-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the aromatic amine utilization (aau) gene region from Alcaligenes faecalis contained nine genes (orf-1, aauBEDA, orf-2, orf-3, orf-4 and hemE) transcribed in the same direction. The aauB and aauA genes encode the periplasmic aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) large and small subunit polypeptides, respectively, and were homologous to mauB and mauA, the genes for the large and small subunits of methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). aauE and aauD are homologous to mauE and mauD and apparently carry out the same function of transport and folding of the small subunit polypeptide in the periplasm. No analogues of the mauF, mauG, mauL, mauM and mauN genes responsible for biosynthesis of tryptophan tryptophylquinone (the prosthetic group of amine dehydrogenases) were found in the aau cluster. orf-2 was predicted to encode a small periplasmic monohaem c-type cytochrome. No biological function can be assigned to polypeptides encoded by orf-1, orf-3 and orf-4 and mutations in these genes appeared to be lethal. Mutants generated by insertions into mauD were not able to use phenylethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine as a source of carbon and phenylethylamine, 3'-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) and tyramine as a source of nitrogen, indicating that AADH is the only enzyme involved in utilization of primary amines in A. faecalis. AADH genes are present in Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. xylosoxydans, but not in other beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of amine dehydrogenases (MADH and AADH) indicated that AADH and MADH evolutionarily diverged before separation of proteobacteria into existing subclasses.

  9. The gene encoding proline dehydrogenase modulates sensorimotor gating in mice.

    PubMed

    Gogos, J A; Santha, M; Takacs, Z; Beck, K D; Luine, V; Lucas, L R; Nadler, J V; Karayiorgou, M

    1999-04-01

    Hemizygous cryptic deletions of the q11 band of human chromosome 22 have been associated with a number of psychiatric and behavioural phenotypes, including schizophrenia. Here we report the isolation and characterization of PRODH, a human homologue of Drosophila melanogaster sluggish-A (slgA), which encodes proline dehydrogenase responsible for the behavioural phenotype of the slgA mutant. PRODH is localized at chromosome 22q11 in a region deleted in some psychiatric patients. We also isolated the mouse homologue of slgA (Prodh), identified a mutation in this gene in the Pro/Re hyperprolinaemic mouse strain and found that these mice have a deficit in sensorimotor gating accompanied by regional neurochemical alterations in the brain. Sensorimotor gating is a neural filtering process that allows attention to be focused on a given stimulus, and is affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that proline may serve as a modulator of synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Our observations, in conjunction with the chromosomal location of PRODH, suggest a potential involvement of this gene in the 22q11-associated psychiatric and behavioural phenotypes.

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D A

    1980-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated by utilizing a mutant strain in which the Adh locus is deleted. Adult RNA from wild-type flies was enriched in ADH sequences by gel electrophoresis and then used to prepare labeled cDNA for screening a bacteriophage lambda library of genomic Drosophila DNA. Of the clones that hybridized in the initial screen, one clone was identified that hybridized with labeled cDNA prepared from a wild-type Drosophila strain but did not hybridize with cDNA prepared from an Adh deletion strain. This clone was shown to contain ADH structural gene sequences by three criteria: in situ hybridization, in vitro translation of mRNA selected by hybridization to the cloned DNA, and comparison of the ADH protein sequence with a nucleotide sequence derived from the cloned DNA. Comparison of the restriction site maps from clones of three different wild-type Drosophila strains revealed the presence of a 200-nucleotide sequence in one strain that was absent from the other two strains. The ADH mRNA sequences were located within the cloned DNA by hybridization mapping experiments. Two intervening sequences were identified within Adh by S1 nuclease mapping experiments. Images PMID:6777776

  11. Sequences and expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, J L; Cutfield, J F; Lamont, I L

    1997-01-01

    A mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, OT2100, which appeared to be defective in the production of the fluorescent yellow-green siderophore pyoverdine had been isolated previously following transposon mutagenesis (T. R. Merriman and I. L. Lamont, Gene 126:17-23, 1993). DNA from either side of the transposon insertion site was cloned, and the sequence was determined. The mutated gene had strong identity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) components of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) from other bacterial species. Enzyme assays revealed that the mutant was defective in the E2 subunit of PDH, preventing assembly of a functional complex. PDH activity in OT2100 cell extracts was restored when extract from an E1 mutant was added. On the basis of this evidence, OT2100 was identified as an aceB or E2 mutant. A second gene, aceA, which is likely to encode the E1 component of PDH, was identified upstream from aceB. Transcriptional analysis revealed that aceA and aceB are expressed as a 5-kb polycistronic transcript from a promoter upstream of aceA. An intergenic region of 146 bp was located between aceA and aceB, and a 2-kb aceB transcript that originated from a promoter in the intergenic region was identified. DNA fragments upstream of aceA and aceB were shown to have promoter activities in P. aeruginosa, although only the aceA promoter was active in Escherichia coli. It is likely that the apparent pyoverdine-deficient phenotype of mutant OT2100 is a consequence of acidification of the growth medium due to accumulation of pyruvic acid in the absence of functional PDH. PMID:9171401

  12. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  13. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrongenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and after a number of forms of toxic exposure. If unique elements in the signaling pathways for the PD or toxic apoptosis can be identified and their apoptosis signaling impeded, neuronal loss may be slowed or reduced in the conditions. The research proposed in this grant was designed to examine the role of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in apoptotic neuronal signaling. Recent studies in postmortem brain have implicated GAPDH apoptosis signaling in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Propargylamines, with

  14. Molecular characterization of an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, R V; Bennett, G N; Papoutsakis, E T

    1994-01-01

    A gene (aad) coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) was identified immediately upstream of the previously cloned ctfA (J. W. Cary, D. J. Petersen, E. T. Papoutsakis, and G. N. Bennett, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1576-1583, 1990) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and sequenced. The 2,619-bp aad codes for a 96,517-Da protein. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 83 and 243 bp upstream of the aad start codon. The N-terminal section of AAD shows homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases of bacterial, fungal, mammalian, and plant origin, while the C-terminal section shows homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of bacterial (which includes three clostridial alcohol dehydrogenases) and yeast origin. AAD exhibits considerable amino acid homology (56% identity) over its entire sequence to the trifunctional protein encoded by adhE from Escherichia coli. Expression of aad from a plasmid in C. acetobutylicum showed that AAD, which appears as a approximately 96-kDa band in denaturing protein gels, provides elevated activities of NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and a small increase in NADH-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase. A 957-bp open reading frame that could potentially encode a 36,704-Da protein was identified upstream of aad. Images PMID:8300540

  15. Physical Mapping of Amplified Copies of the 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene in Glyphosate-Resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Andrew; Varanasi, Vijay K.; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Nakka, Sridevi; Peterson, Dallas E.; Friebe, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A. tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-P synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A. tuberculatus using fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis mapped the EPSPS gene to pericentromeric regions of two homologous chromosomes in glyphosate sensitive A. tuberculatus. In glyphosate-resistant plants, a cluster of EPSPS genes on the pericentromeric region on one pair of homologous chromosomes was detected. Intriguingly, two highly glyphosate-resistant plants harbored an additional chromosome with several EPSPS copies besides the native chromosome pair with EPSPS copies. These results suggest that the initial event of EPSPS gene duplication may have occurred because of unequal recombination mediated by repetitive DNA. Subsequently, gene amplification may have resulted via several other mechanisms, such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletion/insertion, transposon-mediated dispersion, or possibly by interspecific hybridization. This report illustrates the physical mapping of amplified EPSPS copies in A. tuberculatus. PMID:27956489

  16. Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A; Dillon, Rod J

    2008-06-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis are vectors of medically important visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Blood-fed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate. Large amounts of heme are also released during digestion with potentially damaging consequences, as heme can generate oxygen radicals that damage lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. However, urate is an antioxidant that may prevent such oxidative damage produced by heme. We investigated xanthine dehydrogenase by developing the RNAi technique for sand flies and used this technique to knock down the Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase gene to evaluate its role in survival of adult females after blood feeding. The gene sequence of Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase is described together with expression in different life cycle stages and RNAi knock down. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR of xanthine dehydrogenase expression showed a significant increase in expression after bloodmeal ingestion. Microinjection of dsRNA via the thorax of 1-day-old adult female sand flies resulted in approximately 40% reduction of xanthine dehydrogenase gene expression in comparison to flies injected with a control dsRNA. A significant reduction of urate in the whole body and excretions of Lu. longipalpis was observed after dsRNA xanthine dehydrogenase microinjection and feeding 96h later on rabbit blood. Sand flies injected with XDH dsRNA also exhibit significantly reduced life span in comparison with the mock-injected group when fed on sucrose or when rabbit blood fed, showing that urate could be indeed an important free radical scavenger in Lu. longipalpis. The demonstration of xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjection, low mortality of microinjected insects and the successful bloodfeeding of injected insects demonstrated the utility of RNAi as a tool for functional analysis of genes in phlebotomine

  17. Thermal stability of chimeric isopropylmalate dehydrogenase genes constructed from a thermophile and a mesophile.

    PubMed

    Numata, K; Muro, M; Akutsu, N; Nosoh, Y; Yamagishi, A; Oshima, T

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric isopropylmalate dehydrogenases were constructed by connecting the genes isolated from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus, and a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis. These genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes were purified and analysed. Enzymes of T.thermophilus and B.subtilis and chimeric enzymes showed similar enzymological characteristics except for thermal stability. The stability of each enzyme was approximately proportional to the content of the amino acid sequence from the T.thermophilus enzyme. The results suggested that amino acid residues contributing the thermal stability distribute themselves, in general, evenly at least in the N-terminal half of the amino acid sequence of T.thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase.

  18. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  19. Generation of stable 'low phytic acid' transgenic rice through antisense repression of the 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase gene (RINO1) using the 18-kDa oleosin promoter.

    PubMed

    Kuwano, Mio; Mimura, Tetsuro; Takaiwa, Fumio; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid acts as the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds and is poorly digested by monogastric animals. The degradation of phytic acid in animal diets is necessary to overcome both environmental and nutritional issues. The enzyme 1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate [Ins(3)P(1)] synthase (EC 5.5.1.4) catalyses the first step of myo-inositol biosynthesis and directs phytic acid biosynthesis in seeds. The rice Ins(3)P(1) synthase gene (RINO1) is highly expressed in developing seed embryos and in the aleurone layer, where phytic acid is synthesized and stored. In rice seeds, 18-kDa oleosin (Ole18) is expressed in a seed-specific manner, and its transcripts are restricted to the embryo and the aleurone layer. Therefore, to effectively suppress phytic acid biosynthesis, antisense RINO1 cDNA was expressed under the control of the Ole18 promoter, directing the same spatial pattern in seeds as RINO1 in transgenic rice plants. The generated transgenic rice plants showed strong 'low phytic acid' (lpa) phenotypes, in which seed phytic acid was reduced by 68% and free available phosphate was concomitantly increased. No negative effects on seed weight, germination or plant growth were observed. The available phosphate levels of the stable transgenic plants surpassed those of currently available rice lpa mutants.

  20. Metabolic engineering of enhanced glycerol-3-phosphate synthesis to increase lipid production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Xiong, Xiaochao; Sa, Na; Roje, Sanja; Chen, Shulin

    2016-07-01

    With the growing attention to global warming and energy sustainability, biosynthesis of lipids by photosynthetic microorganisms has attracted more interest for the production of renewable transportation fuels. Recently, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been widely used for biofuel production through metabolic engineering because of its efficient photosynthesis and well-developed genetic tools. In lipid biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is a key node for both CO2 fixation and lipid metabolism in cyanobacteria. However, few studies have explored the use of G3P synthesis to improve photosynthetic lipid production. In this study, metabolic engineering combined with flux balance analysis (FBA) was conducted to reveal the effect of G3P synthesis on lipid production. Heterologous genes that encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) were engineered into Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to enhance G3P supply and lipid production. The resultant recombinant Synechocystis produced higher levels of lipids without a significant reduction in cell growth. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipid content and productivity of the engineered cyanobacteria increased by up to 36 and 31 %, respectively, under autotrophic conditions. Lipid production under mixotrophic conditions of the engineered cyanobacteria was also investigated. This work demonstrated that enhanced G3P synthesis was an important factor in photosynthetic lipid production and that introducing heterologous GPD and DGAT genes was an effective strategy to increase lipid production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  1. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4 (PDK4) gene expression by glucocorticoids and insulin.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Sara; Chowdhury, Farhana; Attia, Ramy R; Song, Shulan; Zhang, Yi; Elam, Marshall B; Cook, George A; Park, Edwards A

    2010-02-05

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. Transcription of the PDK4 gene is elevated by glucocorticoids and inhibited by insulin. In this study, we have investigated the factors involved in the regulation of the PDK4 gene by these hormones. Glucocorticoids stimulate PDK4 through two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites located more than 6000 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site. Insulin inhibits the glucocorticoid induction in part by causing dissociation of the GR from the promoter. Previously, we found that the estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) stimulates the expression of PDK4. Here, we determined that one of the ERRalpha binding sites contributes to the insulin inhibition of PDK4. A binding site for the forkhead transcription factor (FoxO1) is adjacent to the ERRalpha binding sites. FoxO1 participates in the glucocorticoid induction of PDK4 and the regulation of this gene by insulin. Our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids and insulin each modulate PDK4 gene expression through complex hormone response units that contain multiple factors.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  3. Periplasmic protein related to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, T J; Hartig-Beecken, I; Boos, W

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of shock fluids of Escherichia coli K-12 revealed the presence of a periplasmic protein related to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport (GLPT) that is under the regulation of glpR, the regulatory gene of the glp regulon. Mutants selected for their resistance to phosphonomycin and found to be defective in sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport either did not produce GLPT or produced it in reduced amounts. Other mutations exhibited no apparent effect of GLPT. Transductions of glpT+ nalA phage P1 into these mutants and selection for growth on sn-glycerol-3-phosphate revealed a 50% cotransduction frequency to nalA. Reversion of mutants taht did not produce GLPT to growth on sn-glycerol-3-phosphate resulted in strains that produce GLPT. This suggests a close relationship of GLPT to the glpT gene and to sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport. Attempts to demonstrate binding activity of GLPT in crude shock fluid towards sn-glycerol-3-phosphate have failed so far. However, all shock fluids, independent of their GLPT content, exhibited an enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes under the conditions of the binding assay, 30 to 60% of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to glycerol and inorganic orthophosphate. Images PMID:770459

  4. Structure and transcription of the Drosophila mulleri alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J A; Maniatis, T

    1985-10-11

    The D. melanogaster Adh gene is transcribed from two different promoters; a proximal (larval) promoter is active during late embryonic and larval stages, and a distal (adult) promoter is active primarily in third instar larvae and in adult flies (1). Genetic analyses suggest that several species of the mulleri subgroup (distant relatives of D. melanogaster) have two closely-linked Adh genes, Adh-1 and Adh-2, each of which expresses a different ADH protein (2). The temporal pattern of expression of Adh-1 and Adh-2 is similar to the expression of D. melanogaster Adh from the proximal and distal promoters (2,3,4). We are interested in the molecular basis for the pattern of Adh expression in the mulleri subgroup species and in the mechanism of the switch in Adh promoter utilization. For these reasons, we have studied the structure and transcription of the Adh locus of D. mulleri, a species of the mulleri subgroup. We show that the ADH-1 and ADH-2 proteins are expressed from two distinct genes separated by 2 kilobase pairs, and that Adh-1 and Adh-2 are transcribed in the expected temporal pattern. In addition, we find a pseudogene 1.2 kb upstream from Adh-2, which is transcribed in a temporal pattern similar to Adh-2.

  5. Primary structure and phylogenetic relationships of a malate dehydrogenase gene from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Roger, A J; Morrison, H G; Sogin, M L

    1999-06-01

    The lactate and malate dehydrogenases comprise a complex protein superfamily with multiple enzyme homologues found in eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. In this study we describe the sequence and phylogenetic relationships of a malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene from the amitochondriate diplomonad protist, Giardia lamblia. Parsimony, distance, and maximum-likelihood analyses of the MDH protein family solidly position G. lamblia MDH within a eukaryote cytosolic MDH clade, to the exclusion of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and peroxisomal homologues. Furthermore, G. lamblia MDH is specifically related to a homologue from Trichomonas vaginalis. This MDH topology, together with published phylogenetic analyses of beta-tubulin, chaperonin 60, valyl-tRNA synthetase, and EF-1alpha, suggests a sister-group relationship between diplomonads and parabasalids. Since these amitochondriate lineages contain genes encoding proteins which are characteristic of mitochondria and alpha-proteobacteria, their shared ancestry suggests that mitochondrial properties were lost in the common ancestor of both groups.

  6. Mapping and cloning of gldA, the structural gene of the Escherichia coli glycerol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Truniger, V; Boos, W

    1994-01-01

    gldA, the structural gene for the NAD(+)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase, was mapped at 89.2 min on the Escherichia coli linkage map, cotransducible with, but not adjacent to, the glpFKX operon encoding the proteins for the uptake and phosphorylation of glycerol. gldA was cloned, and its position on the physical map of E. coli was determined. The expression of gldA was induced by hydroxyacetone under stationary-phase growth conditions. Images PMID:8132480

  7. sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate transport in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Hengge, R; Larson, T J; Boos, W

    1983-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium contains a transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate that is inducible by growth on glycerol and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. In fully induced cells, the system exhibited an apparent Km of 50 microM and a Vmax of 2.2 nmol/min . 10(8) cells. The corresponding system in Escherichia coli exhibits, under comparable conditions, a Km of 14 microM and a Vmax of 2.2 nmol/min . 10(8) cells. Transport-defective mutants were isolated by selecting for resistance against the antibiotic fosfomycin. They mapped in glpT at 47 min in the S. typhimurium linkage map, 37% cotransducible with gyrA. In addition to the glpT-dependent system, S. typhimurium LT2 contains, like E. coli, a second, ugp-dependent transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate that was derepressed by phosphate starvation. A S. typhimurium DNA bank containing EcoRI restriction fragments in phage lambda gt7 was used to clone the glpT gene in E. coli. Lysogens that were fully active in the transport of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate with a Km of 33 microM and a Vmax of 2.0 nmol/min . 10(8) cells were isolated in a delta glpT mutant of E. coli. The EcoRI fragment harboring glpT was 3.5 kilobases long and carried only part of glpQ, a gene distal to glpT but on the same operon. The fragment was subcloned in multicopy plasmid pACYC184. Strains carrying this hybrid plasmid produced large amounts of cytoplasmic membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 33,000, which was identified as the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate permease. Its properties were similar to the corresponding E. coli permease. The presence of the multicopy glpT hybrid plasmid had a strong influence on the synthesis or assembly of other cell envelope proteins of E. coli. For instance, the periplasmic ribose-binding protein was nearly absent. On the other hand, the quantity of an unidentified E. coli outer membrane protein usually present only in small amounts increased. Images PMID:6408060

  8. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A), ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species. PMID:23146128

  9. Problem-Based Test: The Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor on Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the results of an experiment in which the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), actinomycin D (Act D; an inhibitor of transcription), and cycloheximide (CHX; an inhibitor of translation) were studied on the expression of two genes: a gene called "Fnk" and the gene coding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).…

  10. New insights into glioma classification based on isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gene status.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Ichiyo; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kanamori, Masayuki; Saito, Ryuta; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-07-01

    In glioma, mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) genes have been receiving attention. IDH1/2 mutations are frequently found in grade II and III gliomas. These genetic alterations occur very early in gliomagenesis and strongly predict favorable outcome in patients with high-grade gliomas. Despite the evolution of studies on this topic, the underlying mechanism of the IDH1/2 mutations remains unknown. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge of IDH1/2 and discuss molecular diagnostics based on IDH1/2 gene status.

  11. Molecular Analysis of the Gene Encoding F420-Dependent Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Purwantini, Endang; Daniels, Lacy

    1998-01-01

    The gene fgd, which codes for F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (FGD), was cloned from Mycobacterium smegmatis, and its sequence was determined and analyzed. A homolog of FGD which has a very high similarity to the M. smegmatis FGD-derived amino acid sequence was identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FGD showed significant homology with F420-dependent N5,N10-methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin reductase (MER) from methanogenic archaea and with several hypothetical proteins from M. tuberculosis and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, but FGD showed no significant homology with NADP-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases. Multiple alignment of FGD and MER proteins revealed four conserved consensus sequences. Multiple alignment of FGD with the hypothetical proteins also revealed portions of the same conserved sequences. Moderately high levels of FGD were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) carrying fgd in pBluescript. PMID:9555906

  12. [Hemoglobin Woodville associated with double point mutation in the gene of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase].

    PubMed

    Mansini, Adrián P; Fernández, Diego A; Aguirre, Fernando M; Pepe, Carolina; Milanesio, Berenice; Chaves, Alejandro; Eandi Eberle, Silvia; Feliú Torres, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The co-inheritance of erythrocyte defects, hemoglobinopathies, enzymopathies, and membranopathies is not an unusual event. For the diagnosis, a laboratory strategy, including screening and confirmatory tests, additional to molecular characterization, was designed. As the result of this approach, a 24-year-old man carrying a hemoglobinopathy (Hemoglobin Woodville) and an enzymopathy (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) was identified. In the heterozygous state hemoglobin Woodville, is asymptomatic, and homozygous or double heterozygous individuals have not been reported thus far. On the other hand, previously described double point mutation in the gene for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase c. [202G>A; 376A>G], p. [Val 68Met; Asn126Asp], causes hemolysis of varying severity after food or drug intake or infections. This case highlights the importance of the methodology carried out for the diagnosis, treatment, and proper genetic counseling.

  13. Genomic organization and expression of the human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (FALDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.R.; Markova, N.G.; Compton, J.G.

    1997-01-15

    Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) - a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the FALDH (proposed designation ALDH10) gene. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning about 30.5 kb. A TATA-less promoter is associated with the major transcription initiation site found to be 258 hp upstream of the ATG codon. The G4C-rich sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site encompassed regulatory elements that interacted with proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts and were able to promote transcription in vitro. FALDH is widely expressed as three transcripts of 2, 3.8, and 4.0 kb, which originate from multiple polyadenylation signals in the 3{prime} UTR. An alternatively spliced mRNA was detected that contains an extra exon and encodes an enzyme that is likely to have altered membrane-binding properties. The FALDH gene lies only 50-85 kb from ALDH3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene that has homologous sequence and intron/exon structure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhengying; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2012-03-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Active aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents an important mechanism for acetaldehyde detoxification. A yeast strain XJ-2 isolated from grape samples was found to produce acetaldehyde dehydrogenase with a high activity of 2.28 U/mg and identified as Issatchenkia terricola. The enzyme activity was validated by oxidizing acetaldehyde to acetate with NAD(+) as coenzyme based on the headspace gas chromatography analysis. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ist-ALD) was cloned by combining SiteFinding-PCR and self-formed adaptor PCR. The ist-ALD gene comprised an open reading frame of 1,578 bp and encoded a protein of 525 amino acids. The predicted protein of ist-ALD showed the highest identity (73%) to ALDH from Pichia angusta. The ist-ALD gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product (ist-ALDH) presented a productivity of 442.3 U/mL cells. The purified ist-ALDH was a homotetramer of 232 kDa consisting of 57 kDa-subunit according to the SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analysis. Ist-ALDH exhibited the optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40°C, respectively. The activity of ist-ALDH was enhanced by K(+), NH4(+), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol but strongly inhibited by Ag(+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride. In the presence of NAD(+), ist-ALDH could oxidize many aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic aldehydes, preferably acetaldehyde. Kinetic study revealed that ist-ALDH had a k (cat) value of 27.71/s and a k (cat)/K (m) value of 26.80 × 10(3)/(mol s) on acetaldehyde, demonstrating ist-ALDH, a catalytically active enzyme by comparing with other ALDHs. These studies indicated that ist-ALDH was a potential enzymatic product for acetaldehyde detoxification.

  15. Correct developmental expression of a cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene transduced into the Drosophila germ line.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D A; Posakony, J W; Maniatis, T

    1983-08-01

    We have used P-element-mediated transformation to introduce a cloned Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene into the germ line of ADH null flies. Six independent transformants expressing ADH were identified by their acquired resistance to ethanol. Each transformant carries a single copy of the cloned Adh gene in a different chromosomal location. Four of the six transformant lines exhibit normal Adh expression by the following criteria: quantitative levels of ADH enzyme activity in larvae and adults; qualitative tissue specificity; the size of stable Adh mRNA; and the characteristic developmental switch in utilization of two different Adh promoters. The remaining two transformants express ADH enzyme activity with the correct tissue specificity, but at a lower level than wild type. These results demonstrate that an 11.8 kb chromosomal fragment containing the Adh gene includes the cis-acting sequences necessary for its correct developmental expression, and that a variety of chromosomal sites permit proper Adh gene function.

  16. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  17. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  18. Ethanol utilization regulatory protein: profile alignments give no evidence of origin through aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase gene fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, H. B.; Persson, B.; Jörnvall, H.; Hempel, J.

    1995-01-01

    The suggestion that the ethanol regulatory protein from Aspergillus has its evolutionary origin in a gene fusion between aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase genes (Hawkins AR, Lamb HK, Radford A, Moore JD, 1994, Gene 146:145-158) has been tested by profile analysis with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase family profiles. We show that the degree and kind of similarity observed between these profiles and the ethanol regulatory protein sequence is that expected from random sequences of the same composition. This level of similarity fails to support the suggested gene fusion. PMID:8580855

  19. Comparative Genome-Wide Analysis of the Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Families in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Muhammad; Tang, Kai; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) play crucial roles in the physiological processes of plant growth and development. In this study, 13 and 25 MDH genes were identified from Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium hirsutum, respectively. Using these and 13 previously reported Gossypium arboretum MDH genes, a comparative molecular analysis between identified MDH genes from G. raimondii, G. hirsutum, and G. arboretum was performed. Based on multiple sequence alignments, cotton MDHs were divided into five subgroups: mitochondrial MDH, peroxisomal MDH, plastidial MDH, chloroplastic MDH and cytoplasmic MDH. Almost all of the MDHs within the same subgroup shared similar gene structure, amino acid sequence, and conserved motifs in their functional domains. An analysis of chromosomal localization suggested that segmental duplication played a major role in the expansion of cotton MDH gene families. Additionally, a selective pressure analysis indicated that purifying selection acted as a vital force in the evolution of MDH gene families in cotton. Meanwhile, an expression analysis showed the distinct expression profiles of GhMDHs in different vegetative tissues and at different fiber developmental stages, suggesting the functional diversification of these genes in cotton growth and fiber development. Finally, a promoter analysis indicated redundant but typical cis-regulatory elements for the potential functions and stress activity of many MDH genes. This study provides fundamental information for a better understanding of cotton MDH gene families and aids in functional analyses of the MDH genes in cotton fiber development. PMID:27829020

  20. Transformation of Neurospora crassa with the cloned am (glutamate dehydrogenase) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, J A; Rambosek, J A

    1984-01-01

    We used DNA containing the am gene of Neurospora crassa, cloned in the lambda replacement vector lambdaL-47 (this clone is designated lambdaC-10), and plasmid vector subclones of this DNA to transform am deletion and point mutant strains. By means of subcloning, all sequences required for transformation to am prototrophy and expression of glutamate dehydrogenase have been shown to reside on a 2.5-kilobase BamHI fragment. We also characterized several am+ strains that were obtained after transformation with lambdaC-10. These strains showed Mendelian segregation of the am+ gene, although less than 50% of the transformed strains showed the normal linkage relationship of am with inl. In all cases tested, the strains had incorporated lambda DNA as well. The lambda DNA also showed a Mendelian segregation pattern. In one case, the incorporation of am DNA in a novel position was associated with a mutagenic event producing a strain with a very tight colonial morphology. In all cases in which the am+ gene had become the resident of a new chromosome, glutamate dehydrogenase was produced to only 10 to 20% of the wild-type levels. Images PMID:6230518

  1. Sequence analysis of the oxidase/reductase genes upstream of the Rhodococcus erythropolis aldehyde dehydrogenase gene thcA reveals a gene organisation different from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, I; De Mot, R

    1999-01-01

    The sequence of the DNA region upstream of the thiocarbamate-inducible aldehyde dehydrogenase gene thcA of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI86/21 was determined. Most of the predicted ORFs are related to various oxidases/reductases, including short-chain oxidases/reductases, GMC oxidoreductases, alpha-hydroxy acid oxidases (subfamily 1 flavin oxidases/dehydrogenases), and subfamily 2 flavin oxidases/dehydrogenases. One ORF is related to enzymes involved in biosynthesis of PQQ or molybdopterin cofactors. In addition, a putative member of the TetR family of regulatory proteins was identified. The substantial sequence divergence from functionally characterized enzymes precludes a reliable prediction about the probable function of these proteins at this stage. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, most of these ORFs have homologs that are also clustered in the genome, but some striking differences in gene organization were observed between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J.; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling. PMID:27755582

  3. Distribution of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Inagaki, F

    2017-03-03

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of CO is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic CO dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment-core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308 and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively. Our results show the occurrence of diverse cooS genes from the seafloor down to about 390 m below the seafloor, suggesting that microbial communities have metabolic functions to utilize CO in anoxic microbial ecosystems beneath the ocean floor, and that the microbial community potentially responsible for anaerobic CO oxidation differs in accordance with possible energy-yielding metabolic reactions in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere.

  4. Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 butanol dehydrogenase isozyme genes.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, K A; Bennett, G N; Papoutsakis, E T

    1992-01-01

    A 4-kb segment of DNA containing two previously cloned butanol dehydrogenase (BDH) isozyme genes (D. Petersen, R. Welch, F. Rudolph, and G. Bennett, J. Bacteriol. 173:1831-1834, 1991) was sequenced. Two complete open reading frames (ORFs) were identified (bdhA and bdhB), along with a third truncated ORF (ORF1). The translation products of bdhA and bdhB corresponded to the N-terminal sequences of the purified BDH I and BDH II proteins, respectively. The two isozymes had a high amino acid identity (73%) and showed homology to a newly described class of alcohol dehydrogenases. Northern blots revealed that bdhA and bdhB did not form an operon. Primer extension experiments located single transcriptional start sites 37 and 58 bp upstream of the start codons of bdhA and bdhB, respectively. The -10 and -35 promoter regions for these genes were almost identical. bdhA and bdhB were found to be induced or derepressed immediately prior to significant butanol production in controlled pH 5.0 batch fermentations. Images PMID:1385386

  5. Coexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siqing; Dien, Bruce S; Nichols, Nancy N; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hughes, Stephen R; Cotta, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC367 was engineered to express pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes in order to increase ethanol fermentation from biomass-derived residues. First, a Gram-positive Sarcina ventriculi PDC gene (Svpdc) was introduced into L. brevis ATCC 367 to obtain L. brevis bbc03. The SvPDC was detected by immunoblot using an SvPDC oligo peptide antiserum, but no increased ethanol was detected in L. brevis bbc03. Then, an ADH gene from L. brevis (Bradh) was cloned behind the Svpdc gene that generated a pdc/adh-coupled ethanol cassette pBBC04. The pBBC04 restored anaerobic growth and conferred ethanol production of Escheirichia coli NZN111 (a fermentative defective strain incapable of growing anaerobically). Approximately 58 kDa (SvPDC) and 28 kDa (BrADH) recombinant proteins were observed in L. brevis bbc04. These results indicated that the Gram-positive ethanol production genes can be expressed in L. brevis using a Gram-positive promoter and pTRKH2 shuttle vector. This work provides evidence that expressing Gram-positive ethanol genes in pentose utilizing L. brevis will further aid manipulation of this microbe toward biomass to ethanol production.

  6. Expression of a gene encoding mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in rice increases under submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, M; Tsuji, H; Li, Y; Saisho, D; Arimura, S; Tsutsumi, N; Hirai, A

    2000-10-01

    It is known that alcoholic fermentation is important for survival of plants under anaerobic conditions. Acetaldehyde, one of the intermediates of alcoholic fermentation, is not only reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase but also can be oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). To determine whether ALDH plays a role in anaerobic metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare), we characterized a cDNA clone encoding mitochondrial ALDH from rice (Aldh2a). Analysis of sub-cellular localization of ALDH2a protein using green fluorescent protein and an in vitro ALDH assay using protein extracts from Escherichia coli cells that overexpressed ALDH2a indicated that ALDH2a functions in the oxidation of acetaldehyde in mitochondria. A Southern-blot analysis indicated that mitochondrial ALDH is encoded by at least two genes in rice. We found that the Aldh2a mRNA was present at high levels in leaves of dark-grown seedlings, mature leaf sheaths, and panicles. It is interesting that expression of the rice Aldh2a gene, unlike the expression of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Aldh2a gene, was induced in rice seedlings by submergence. Experiments with ruthenium red, which is a blocker of Ca(2+) fluxes in rice as well as maize (Zea mays), suggest that the induction of expression of Adh1 and Pdc1 by low oxygen stress is regulated by elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. However, the induction of Aldh2a gene expression may not be controlled by the cytosolic Ca(2+) level elevation. A possible involvement of ALDH2a in the submergence tolerance of rice is discussed.

  7. Isolation and characterization of full-length putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nur Athirah Abd; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2013-11-01

    Polygonum minus, locally named as Kesum is an aromatic herb which is high in secondary metabolite content. Alcohol dehydrogenase is an important enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohol and aldehyde with the presence of NAD(P)(H) as co-factor. The main focus of this research is to identify the gene of ADH. The total RNA was extracted from leaves of P. minus which was treated with 150 μM Jasmonic acid. Full-length cDNA sequence of ADH was isolated via rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE). Subsequently, in silico analysis was conducted on the full-length cDNA sequence and PCR was done on genomic DNA to determine the exon and intron organization. Two sequences of ADH, designated as PmADH1 and PmADH2 were successfully isolated. Both sequences have ORF of 801 bp which encode 266 aa residues. Nucleotide sequence comparison of PmADH1 and PmADH2 indicated that both sequences are highly similar at the ORF region but divergent in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR). The amino acid is differ at the 107 residue; PmADH1 contains Gly (G) residue while PmADH2 contains Cys (C) residue. The intron-exon organization pattern of both sequences are also same, with 3 introns and 4 exons. Based on in silico analysis, both sequences contain "classical" short chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases ((c) SDRs) conserved domain. The results suggest that both sequences are the members of short chain alcohol dehydrogenase family.

  8. Cloning, characterization, and regulation of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.A.; Huberman, E. |

    1997-01-01

    Human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. Regulated IMPDH activity is associated with cellular proliferation, transformation, and differentiation. The authors cloned and sequenced the entire gene for type II IMPDH and here provide details regarding the organization of the gene and the characterization of its promoter. The gene spans approximately 5 kb and is disrupted by 12 introns. The transcriptional start sites were determined by S1 nuclease mapping to be somewhat heterogeneous but predominated at 102 and 85 nucleotides from the translational initiation codon. Through the use of heterologous gene constructs and transient transfection assays, a minimal promoter from {minus}206 to {minus}85 was defined. This promoter is TATA-less and contains several transcription factor motifs including four potential Sp 1 binding sites. The minimal promoter is GC-rich (69%) and resembles a CpG island. Through the use of gel mobility shift assays, nuclear proteins were shown to specifically interact with this minimal promoter. Stable transfectants were used to demonstrate that the down-regulation of IMPDH gene expression in response to reduced cellular proliferation occurs by a transcriptional mechanism.

  9. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Huckle, Linda L; Lu, Shunwen; Knauber, Donna C

    2014-03-15

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in lateral buds isolated from field-grown tubers. All five putative StCKX genes encoded proteins with in vitro CKX activity. All five enzymes were maximally active at neutral to slightly alkaline pH with 2,6-dichloro-indophenol as the electron acceptor. In silico analyses indicated that four proteins were likely secreted. Substrate dependence of two of the most active enzymes varied; one exhibiting greater activity with isopentenyl-type cytokinins while the other was maximally active with cis-zeatin as a substrate. [(3)H]-isopentenyl-adenosine was readily metabolized by excised tuber buds to adenine/adenosine demonstrating that CKX was active in planta. There was no change in apparent in planta CKX activity during either natural or chemically forced dormancy progression. Similarly although expression of individual StCKX genes varied modestly during tuber dormancy, there was no clear correlation between StCKX gene expression and tuber dormancy status. Thus although CKX gene expression and enzyme activity are present in potato tuber buds throughout dormancy, they do not appear to play a significant role in the regulation of cytokinin content during tuber dormancy progression.

  10. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies.

  13. Regulation of the ald gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase by AldR in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji-A; Baek, Eun-Young; Kim, Si Wouk; Choi, Jong-Soon; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2013-08-01

    The regulatory gene aldR was identified 95 bp upstream of the ald gene encoding L-alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The AldR protein shows sequence similarity to the regulatory proteins of the Lrp/AsnC family. Using an aldR deletion mutant, we demonstrated that AldR serves as both activator and repressor for the regulation of ald gene expression, depending on the presence or absence of L-alanine. The purified AldR protein exists as a homodimer in the absence of L-alanine, while it adopts the quaternary structure of a homohexamer in the presence of L-alanine. The binding affinity of AldR for the ald control region was shown to be increased significantly by L-alanine. Two AldR binding sites (O1 and O2) with the consensus sequence GA-N₂-ATC-N₂-TC and one putative AldR binding site with the sequence GA-N₂-GTT-N₂-TC were identified upstream of the ald gene. Alanine and cysteine were demonstrated to be the effector molecules directly involved in the induction of ald expression. The cellular level of L-alanine was shown to be increased in M. smegmatis cells grown under hypoxic conditions, and the hypoxic induction of ald expression appears to be mediated by AldR, which senses the intracellular level of alanine.

  14. Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Oliveira, R; Oliveira, I C; Coruzzi, G M

    1996-05-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is ubiquitous to all organisms, yet its role in higher plants remains enigmatic. To better understand the role of GDH in plant nitrogen metabolism, we have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (gdh1-1) defective in one of two GDH gene products and have studied GDH1 gene expression. GDH1 mRNA accumulates to highest levels in dark-adapted or sucrose-starved plants, and light or sucrose treatment each repress GDH1 mRNA accumulation. These results suggest that the GDH1 gene product functions in the direction of glutamate catabolism under carbon-limiting conditions. Low levels of GDH1 mRNA present in leaves of light-grown plants can be induced by exogenously supplied ammonia. Under such conditions of carbon and ammonia excess, GDH1 may function in the direction of glutamate biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis gdh-deficient mutant allele gdh1-1 cosegregates with the GDH1 gene and behaves as a recessive mutation. The gdh1-1 mutant displays a conditional phenotype in that seedling growth is specifically retarded on media containing exogenously supplied inorganic nitrogen. These results suggest that GDH1 plays a nonredundant role in ammonia assimilation under conditions of inorganic nitrogen excess. This notion is further supported by the fact that the levels of mRNA for GDH1 and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) are reciprocally regulated by light.

  15. Heteropolymorphism of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene for the population analysis of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M; Choi, Y S; Jin, H J; Sohn, Y C; Lee, S K; Jin, D H

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) has been frequently used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies. In this study we used chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from Korea, Japan andAmerica, and compared their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) genes by DNA sequence analysis. Sequence variation was studied in the ND3 among total 11 individuals from three populations. The ND3 gene was amplified by PCR targeting parts of cytochrome oxidase III gene (COIII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L gene (ND4L). ND3 gene sequence, encoded 752 bps, presented some genetic variation in the chum salmon populations. The observed nucleotide variations inferred the distinct genetic differentiation of American salmons from Korean and Japanese chum salmons. Six sites of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were explored in the ND3 locus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis also showed a clear heterogenous band in American salmons compared to Asian salmons.

  16. Two potential fish glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A

    2015-06-01

    Winter-acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax Mitchill) produce high levels of glycerol as an antifreeze. A common pathway to glycerol involves the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), but no GPP has yet been identified in fish or any other animal. Here, two phosphatases assembled from existing EST libraries (from winter-acclimated smelt and cold-acclimated smelt hepatocytes) were found to resemble a glycerol-associated phosphatase from a glycerol-producing alga, Dunaliella salina, and a recently discovered GPP from a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recombinant proteins were generated and were found to have GPP activity on the order of a few μMol Pi/mg enzyme/min. The two enzymes have acidic pH optima (~5.5) similar to that previously determined for GPP activity in liver tissue, with about 1/3 of their peak activities at neutral pH. The two enzymes appear to account for the GPP activity of smelt liver, but due to their reduced activities at neutral pH, their contributions to glycerol production in vivo remain unclear. Similar enzymes may be active in a glycerol-producing insect, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

  17. Integrated Proteomics and Metabolomics of Arabidopsis Acclimation to Gene-Dosage Dependent Perturbation of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Craig P.; Zhu, Ning; Pang, Qiuying; Chen, Sixue

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining metabolic homeostasis is critical for plant growth and development. Here we report proteome and metabolome changes when the metabolic homeostasis is perturbed due to gene-dosage dependent mutation of Arabidopsis isopropylmalate dehydrogenases (IPMDHs). By integrating complementary quantitative proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we discovered that gradual ablation of the oxidative decarboxylation step in leucine biosynthesis caused imbalance of amino acid homeostasis, redox changes and oxidative stress, increased protein synthesis, as well as a decline in photosynthesis, which led to rearrangement of central metabolism and growth retardation. Disruption of IPMDHs involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis led to synchronized increase of both upstream and downstream biosynthetic enzymes, and concomitant repression of the degradation pathway, indicating metabolic regulatory mechanisms in controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:23533573

  18. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics of Arabidopsis acclimation to gene-dosage dependent perturbation of isopropylmalate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Dai, Shaojun; Dufresne, Craig P; Zhu, Ning; Pang, Qiuying; Chen, Sixue

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining metabolic homeostasis is critical for plant growth and development. Here we report proteome and metabolome changes when the metabolic homeostasis is perturbed due to gene-dosage dependent mutation of Arabidopsis isopropylmalate dehydrogenases (IPMDHs). By integrating complementary quantitative proteomics and metabolomics approaches, we discovered that gradual ablation of the oxidative decarboxylation step in leucine biosynthesis caused imbalance of amino acid homeostasis, redox changes and oxidative stress, increased protein synthesis, as well as a decline in photosynthesis, which led to rearrangement of central metabolism and growth retardation. Disruption of IPMDHs involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis led to synchronized increase of both upstream and downstream biosynthetic enzymes, and concomitant repression of the degradation pathway, indicating metabolic regulatory mechanisms in controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis.

  19. Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2, 3-butanediol production through insertional inactivation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Du, Jun; Li, Shuang

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol was a major byproduct of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca ME-UD-3. In order to achieve a high efficiency of 2,3-BD production, K. oxytoca mutants deficient in ethanol formation were successfully constructed by replace the aldA gene coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase with a tetracycline resistance cassette. The results suggested that inactivation of aldA led to a significantly improved 2,3-BD production. The carbon flux to 2,3-BD was enhanced by eliminating the byproducing ethanol and at the same time reducing the accumulation of another byproduct acetoin. At last, by fed-batch culturing of the mutant, the final 2,3-BD titer up to 130 g/l with the productivity of 1.63 g/l.h and the 2,3-BD yield relative to glucose of 0.48 g/g was obtained.

  20. Implication of an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene and a Phosphinothricin N-Acetyltransferase Gene in the Diversity of Pseudomonas cichorii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Wali, Ullah Md; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas cichorii harbors the hrp genes. hrp-mutants lose their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. A phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase gene (pat) is located between hrpL and an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldH) in the genome of P. cichorii. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and composition of the genes among pseudomonads suggests a common ancestor of hrp and pat between P. cichorii strains and P. viridiflava strains harboring the single hrp pathogenicity island. In contrast, phylogenetic diversification of aldH corresponded to species diversification amongst pseudomonads. In this study, the involvement of aldH and pat in P. cichorii virulence was analyzed. An aldH-deleted mutant (ΔaldH) and a pat-deleted mutant (Δpat) lost their virulence on eggplant but not on lettuce. P. cichorii expressed both genes in eggplant leaves, independent of HrpL, the transcriptional activator for the hrp. Inoculation into Asteraceae species susceptible to P. cichorii showed that the involvement of hrp, pat and aldH in P. cichorii virulence is independent of each other and has no relationship with the phylogeny of Asteraceae species based on the nucleotide sequences of ndhF and rbcL. It is thus thought that not only the hrp genes but also pat and aldH are implicated in the diversity of P. cichorii virulence on susceptible host plant species. PMID:24704843

  1. A novel Y243S mutation in the pyruvate dehydrogenase El alpha gene subunit: correlation with thiamine pyrophosphate interaction.

    PubMed

    Benelli, C; Fouque, F; Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Malgat, M; Fontan, D; Marsac, C; Dey, R

    2002-08-01

    We identified a new Y243S mutation in the X-linked E1 alpha-PDH gene in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency. The activity in cultured fibroblasts was very low even in the presence of high thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) concentrations, indicating that the defect could be due to decreased affinity of PDHc for TPP.

  2. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH), designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into three groups respectively, namely long-, medium-, and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into six medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed. PMID:27242871

  3. Regulation of IMP dehydrogenase gene expression by its end products, guanine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Glesne, D A; Collart, F R; Huberman, E

    1991-01-01

    To study the regulation of IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, we examined the effects of nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleotide analogs, or the IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA) on the steady-state levels of IMPDH mRNA. The results indicated that IMPDH gene expression is regulated inversely by the intracellular level of guanine ribonucleotides. We have shown that treatment with guanosine increased the level of cellular guanine ribonucleotides and subsequently reduced IMPDH steady-state mRNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conversely, MPA treatment diminished the level of guanine ribonucleotides and increased IMPDH mRNA levels. Both of these effects on the steady-state level of IMPDH mRNA could be negated by cotreatment with guanosine and MPA. The down regulation of IMPDH gene expression by guanosine or its up regulation by MPA was not due to major changes in transcriptional initiation and elongation or mRNA stability in the cytoplasm but rather was due to alterations in the levels of the IMPDH mRNA in the nucleus. These results suggest that IMPDH gene expression is regulated by a posttranscriptional, nuclear event in response to fluctuations in the intracellular level of guanine ribonucleotides. Images PMID:1717828

  4. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Nested in the Outspread Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, S.; Greig, S.; Davis, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the structure and expression of the outspread (osp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work showed that chromosomal breakpoints associated with mutations of the osp locus map to both sides of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh), suggesting that Adh and the adjacent gene Adh(r) are nested in osp. We extended a chromosomal walk and mapped additional osp mutations to define the maximum molecular limit of osp as 119 kb. We identified a 6-kb transcript that hybridizes to osp region DNA and is altered or absent in osp mutants. Accumulation of this RNA peaks during embryonic and pupal periods. The osp cDNAs comprise two distinct classes based on alternative splicing patterns. The 5' end of the longest cDNA was extended by PCR amplification. When hybridized to the osp walk, the 5' extension verifies that Adh and Adh(r) are nested in osp and shows that osp has a transcription unit of >=74 kb. In situ hybridization shows that osp is expressed both maternally and zygotically. In the ovary, osp is transcribed in nurse cells and localized in the oocyte. In embryos, expression is most abundant in the developing visceral and somatic musculature. PMID:8725237

  5. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene is nested in the outspread locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, S.; Greig, S.; Davis, T.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the structure and expression of the outspread (osp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work showed that chromosomal breakpoints associated with mutations of the osp locus map to both sides of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh), suggesting that Adh and the adjacent gene Adh{sup r} are nested in osp. We extended a chromosomal walk and mapped additional osp mutations to define the maximum molecular limit of osp as 119 kb. We identified a 6-kb transcript that hybridizes to osp region DNA and is altered or absent in osp mutants. Accumulation of this RNA peaks during embryonic and pupal periods. The osp cDNAs comprise two distinct classes based on alternative splicing patterns. The 5{prime} end of the longest cDNA was extended by PCR amplification. When hybridized to the osp walk, the 5{prime} extension verifies that Adh and Adh{sup r} are nested in osp and shows that osp has a transcription unit of {ge}74 kb. In situ hybridization shows that osp is expressed both maternally and zygotically. In the ovary, osp is transcribed in nurse cells and localized in the oocyte. In embryos, expression is most abundant in the developing visceral and somatic musculature. 55 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Schwanniomyces occidentalis NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, P A; Connerton, I F; Watson, D C; Johnston, J R

    1991-08-01

    The cloned NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes of Aspergillus nidulans (gdhA) and Neurospora crassa (am) have been shown to hybridize under reduced stringency conditions to genomic sequences of the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Using 5' and 3' gene-specific probes, a unique 5.1 kb BclI restriction fragment that encompasses the entire Schwanniomyces sequence has been identified. A recombinant clone bearing the unique BclI fragment has been isolated from a pool of enriched clones in the yeast/E. coli shuttle vector pWH5 by colony hybridization. The identity of the plasmid clone was confirmed by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gdh-1 mutation. The nucleotide sequence of the Schw. occidentalis GDH gene, which consists of 1380 nucleotides in a continuous reading frame of 459 amino acids, has been determined. The predicted amino acid sequence shows considerable homology with GDH proteins from other fungi and significant homology with all other available GDH sequences.

  7. Synthesis of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a key precursor of membrane lipids, in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Morbidoni, H R; de Mendoza, D; Cronan, J E

    1995-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis gpsA gene was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli gpsA strain auxotrophic for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The gene was sequenced and found to encode an NAD(P)H-dependent dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase with a deduced molecular mass of 39.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed strong conservation with that of the E. coli homolog and to other procaryotic and eucaryotic dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductases. The physical location of gpsA on the B. subtilis chromosome was at about 200 degrees. Disruption of the chromosomal gpsA gene yielded B. subtilis strains auxotrophic for glycerol, indicating that the gpsA gene product is responsible for synthesis of the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate required for phospholipid synthesis. We also found that transformation of the classical B. subtilis glycerol auxotrophs with a gpsA-containing genomic fragment yielded transformants that grew in the absence of glycerol. In agreement with prior work, our attempts to determine the reductase activity in B. subtilis extracts were unsuccessful. However, expression of the B. subtilis gpsA gene in E. coli gave reductase activity that was only slightly inhibited by sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. Since the E. coli GpsA dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase is very sensitive to allosteric inhibition by sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, these results indicate that the B. subtilis gpsA-encoded reductase differs from that of E. coli. It seems that B. subtilis regulates sn-glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis at the level of gene expression rather than through the E. coli mechanism of strong allosteric inhibition of an enzyme produced in excess. PMID:7592341

  8. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  9. Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

    2014-09-01

    Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3.

  10. Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations are Strongly Associated with Paraganglioma of the Organ of Zuckerkandl

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B; Adams, Karen T; Huynh, Thanh T; Prodanov, Tamara; Ling, Alex; Chen, Clara; Shusterman, Suzanne; Jimenez, Camilo; Merino, Maria; Hughes, Marybeth; Cradic, Kendall W; Milosevic, Dragana; Singh, Ravinder J; Stratakis, Constantine A; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Organ of Zuckerkandl paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that are derived from chromaffin cells located around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation. Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunits (SDH) B, C, and D (SDHx) have been associated with PGLs, but their contribution to PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl PGLs is not known. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl and investigate the prevalence of SDHx mutations and other genetic defects among them. The clinical characteristics of 14 patients with PGL of the organ of Zuckerkandl were analyzed retrospectively; their DNA was tested for SDHx mutations and deletions. Eleven out of 14 (79%) of patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl were found to have mutations of the SDHB (9), or SDHD (2) genes; one patient was found to have the Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS) and his PGL was discovered during surgery for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Our results show that SDHx mutations are prevalent in pediatric and adult PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl. Patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl should be screened for SDHx mutations and the CSS; in addition asymptomatic carriers of an SDHx mutation among the relatives of affected patients may benefit from tumor screening for early PGL detection. PMID:20418362

  11. Silencing of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Youl; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Succinate dehydrogenase gene mutations are strongly associated with paraganglioma of the organ of Zuckerkandl.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Adams, Karen T; Huynh, Thanh T; Prodanov, Tamara; Ling, Alex; Chen, Clara; Shusterman, Suzanne; Jimenez, Camilo; Merino, Maria; Hughes, Marybeth; Cradic, Kendall W; Milosevic, Dragana; Singh, Ravinder J; Stratakis, Constantine A; Pacak, Karel

    2010-09-01

    Organ of Zuckerkandl paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that are derived from chromaffin cells located around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation. Mutations in the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunits (SDH) B, C, and D (SDHx) have been associated with PGLs, but their contribution to PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl PGLs is not known. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl and investigate the prevalence of SDHx mutations and other genetic defects among them. The clinical characteristics of 14 patients with PGL of the organ of Zuckerkandl were analyzed retrospectively; their DNA was tested for SDHx mutations and deletions. Eleven out of 14 (79%) patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl were found to have mutations in the SDHB (9) or SDHD (2) genes; one patient was found to have the Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS), and his PGL was discovered during surgery for gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our results show that SDHx mutations are prevalent in pediatric and adult PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl. Patients with PGLs of the organ of Zuckerkandl should be screened for SDHx mutations and the CSS; in addition, asymptomatic carriers of an SDHx mutation among the relatives of affected patients may benefit from tumor screening for early PGL detection.

  13. Alcohol Dehydrogenase in the Diploid Plant STEPHANOMERIA EXIGUA (Compositae): Gene Duplication, Mode of Inheritance and Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Roose, M. L.; Gottlieb, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Study of the biochemical genetics of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the annual plant Stephanomeria exigua (Compositae) revealed that the isozymes are specified by a small family of tightly linked structural genes. One set of ADH isozymes (ADH-1) was induced in roots by flooding, and was also expressed in thickened unflooded tap roots, stems, ovaries and seeds. As in other plants, the enzymes are dimeric and form homo- and heterodimers. An electrophoretic survey of ADH-1 phenotypes in two natural populations revealed seven different ADH-1 homodimers in various phenotypes having one to eight enzyme bands. Genetic analysis of segregations from crosses involving 59 plants showed that the ADH-1 isozymes are inherited as a single Mendelian unit, Adh1. Adh1 is polymorphic for forms that specify one, two, or three different ADH-1 subunits (which combine to form homo- and heterodimers), and are expressed co-dominantly in all genotypic combinations. Staining intensity of enzymes extracted from various homozygous and heterozygous plants indicated that the different subunit types specified by Adh1 are produced in approximately equal amounts. These observations suggest that Adh1 is a compound locus consisting of one to several tightly linked (0 recombinants among 579 testcross progeny), coordinately expressed structural genes. The genes in the two triplications also occur in various duplicate complexes and thus could have originated via unequal crossing over. The ADH-2 isozyme found in pollen and seeds is apparently specified by a different gene, Adh2. Adh1 and Adh2 are tightly linked (0 recombinants among 81 testcross progeny). PMID:17249032

  14. Characterization and expression of NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Turano, F J; Thakkar, S S; Fang, T; Weisemann, J M

    1997-04-01

    Two distinct cDNA clones encoding NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD[H]-GDH) in Arabidopsis thaliana were identified and sequenced. The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated GDH1 and GDH2. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences suggest that both gene products contain putative mitochondrial transit polypeptides and NAD(H)- and alpha-ketoglutarate-binding domains. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the mitochondrial location of the NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. In addition, a putative EF-hand loop, shown to be associated with Ca2+ binding, was identified in the GDH2 gene product but not in the GDH1 gene product. GDH1 encodes a 43.0-kD polypeptide, designated alpha, and GDH2 encodes a 42.5-kD polypeptide, designated beta. The two subunits combine in different ratios to form seven NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. The slowest-migrating isoenzyme in a native gel, GDH1, is a homohexamer composed of alpha subunits, and the fastest-migrating isoenzyme, GDH7, is a homohexamer composed of beta subunits. GDH isoenzymes 2 through 6 are heterohexamers composed of different ratios of alpha and beta subunits. NAD(H)-GDH isoenzyme patterns varied among different plant organs and in leaves of plants irrigated with different nitrogen sources or subjected to darkness for 4 d. Conversely, there were little or no measurable changes in isoenzyme patterns in roots of plants treated with different nitrogen sources. In most instances, changes in isoenzyme patterns were correlated with relative differences in the level of alpha and beta subunits. Likewise, the relative difference in the level of alpha or beta subunits was correlated with changes in the level of GDH1 or GDH2 transcript detected in each sample, suggesting that NAD(H)-GDH activity is controlled at least in part at the transcriptional level.

  15. Cloning and high-level expression of the glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshimoto, T; Tsuru, D

    1994-01-01

    A DNA fragment of 485 bp was specifically amplified by PCR with primers based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified formaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.46) from Pseudomonas putida and on that of a cyanogen bromide-derived peptide. With this product as a probe, a gene coding for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (fdhA) in P. putida chromosomal DNA was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. Sequencing analysis revealed that the fdhA gene contained 1,197-bp open reading frame, encoding a protein composed of 399 amino acid residues whose calculated molecular weight was 42,082. The transformant of E. coli DH5 alpha harboring the hybrid plasmid, pFDHK3DN71, showed about 50-fold-higher formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity than P. putida. The predicted amino acid sequence contained several features characteristic of the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. Most of the glycine residues strictly conserved within the family, including a Gly-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Xaa-Gly pattern in the coenzyme binding domain, were well conserved in this enzyme. Regions around both the catalytic and the structural zinc atoms were also conserved. Analyses of structural and enzymatic characteristics indicated that P. putida FDH belongs to the medium-chain ADH family, with mixed properties of mammalian class I and III ADHs. Images PMID:8169197

  16. 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: three dimensional structure and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Penning, T M

    1996-09-01

    Mammalian 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSDs) regulate steroid hormone levels. cDNA cloning indicates that the rat and human liver isoforms display high sequence identity and that they belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. Of these the most extensively characterized is rat liver 3 alpha-HSD. The recently solved X-ray crystal structure shows that this enzyme adopts an (alpha/beta)8-barrel scaffold (Hoog et al. 1994). NAD(P)H binds in an extended anti-conformation and lies along the inner surface of the barrel. The nicotinamide ring is stabilized by interaction with Y216. The 4-pro(R)-hydrogen transferred in the reaction is in close proximity to Y55. K84, D50 and H117 which are implicated in catalysis. These residues are located at the base of a hydrophobic pocket which is presumed to be involved in binding steroid hormone. This catalytic tetrad is conserved in members of the AKR superfamily. Mutant enzymes support roles for Y55 in steroid binding and for K84 as the general acid involved in catalysis. The gene for rat 3 alpha-HSD has been cloned and is 47 kb in length and contains 9 exon-intron boundaries which are highly conserved in the human gene(s). The 5'-flanking regions of the rat and human genes contain consensus sequences for AP-1, Oct-1 and multiple copies of perfect and imperfect steroid hormone response elements (REs) (estrogen, glucocorticoid (GRE), and progesterone) which may comprise a steroid response unit (SRU) (Lin & Penning 1995). Constitutive and regulated expression of the rat 3 alpha-HSD gene has been studied by transiently transfecting reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, CAT) constructs into human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. With respect to the transcription start-site (+1), a proximal (-498 to -199bp) and distal (-20 to -4.0kb) enhancer, as well as a powerful silencer (-755 to -498 bp) were located in the promoter. Band-shift and supershift assays provide evidence that Oct-1 binds to the silencer

  17. Phylogeny and structure of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Christian; Nord-Larsen, Pia Haugaard; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis, the conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. Seven members of the CAD gene family were identified in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and five of these were isolated and cloned from genomic DNA. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR revealed differential expression of the cloned genes, with BdCAD5 being expressed in all tissues and highest in root and stem while BdCAD3 was only expressed in stem and spikes. A phylogenetic analysis of CAD-like proteins placed BdCAD5 on the same branch as bona fide CAD proteins from maize (ZmCAD2), rice (OsCAD2), sorghum (SbCAD2) and Arabidopsis (AtCAD4, 5). The predicted three-dimensional structures of both BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 resemble that of AtCAD5. However, the amino-acid residues in the substrate-binding domains of BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 are distributed symmetrically and BdCAD3 is similar to that of poplar sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (PotSAD). BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 expressed and purified from Escherichia coli both showed a temperature optimum of about 50 °C and molar weight of 49kDa. The optimal pH for the reduction of coniferyl aldehyde were pH 5.2 and 6.2 and the pH for the oxidation of coniferyl alcohol were pH 8 and 9.5, for BdCAD3 and BdCAD5 respectively. Kinetic parameters for conversion of coniferyl aldehyde and coniferyl alcohol showed that BdCAD5 was clearly the most efficient enzyme of the two. These data suggest that BdCAD5 is the main CAD enzyme for lignin biosynthesis and that BdCAD3 has a different role in Brachypodium. All CAD enzymes are cytosolic except for BdCAD4, which has a putative chloroplast signal peptide adding to the diversity of CAD functions. PMID:23028019

  18. Codon-Optimized NADH Oxidase Gene Expression and Gene Fusion with Glycerol Dehydrogenase for Bienzyme System with Cofactor Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 μM/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 μM/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 μM, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038

  19. Structure of RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase bound to substrate RNA.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kevin K; Bingman, Craig A; Cheng, Chin L; Phillips, George N; Raines, Ronald T

    2014-10-01

    RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase (RtcA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent cyclization of a 3'-phosphate to form a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate at RNA termini. Cyclization proceeds through RtcA-AMP and RNA(3')pp(5')A covalent intermediates, which are analogous to intermediates formed during catalysis by the tRNA ligase RtcB. Here we present a crystal structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii RtcA in complex with a 3'-phosphate terminated RNA and adenosine in the AMP-binding pocket. Our data reveal that RtcA recognizes substrate RNA by ensuring that the terminal 3'-phosphate makes a large contribution to RNA binding. Furthermore, the RNA 3'-phosphate is poised for in-line attack on the P-N bond that links the phosphorous atom of AMP to N(ε) of His307. Thus, we provide the first insights into RNA 3'-phosphate termini recognition and the mechanism of 3'-phosphate activation by an Rtc enzyme.

  20. Gene expression of type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in scalp hairs of hirsute women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel O; Lhullier, Cintia; Brum, Ilma S; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2003-09-01

    Androgens are the main hormonal regulators of human hair growth and they are related to clinical conditions such as hirsutism. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of androgen receptor (AR) and type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) in keratinocytes of plucked scalp hairs from hirsute patients and normal subjects. We studied 58 women with hirsutism (31 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 27 with idiopathic hirsutism (IH)); 15 control women; and 10 control men. Hirsutism was assessed by a modified Ferriman-Gallwey method. Hormonal status was assessed between days 2 and 10 of the menstrual cycle or on any day when the patients were amenorrheic. AR and type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AR expression was similar in all groups. Type 2 17 beta-HSD gene expression in untreated hirsute patients was lower (2.1+/-0.10) than in normal women (3.1+/-0.17), and similar to men (1.8+/-0.22). Comparing hirsute patients, type 2 17 beta-HSD expression was higher in treated PCOS (3.0+/-0.34 versus 2.2+/-0.13) and IH patients (2.5+/-0.19 versus 2.0+/-0.15); hirsutism score was lower (P=0.003, PCOS; P=0.003, IH); and SHBG levels were higher (P=0.001, PCOS; P=0.024, IH) in treated patients. The free androgen index was lower in treated women (P=0.024 for the IH group). In conclusion, the lower expression of type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA in scalp hairs of untreated hirsute patients suggests androgen metabolism disturbances with predominance of more potent androgens, as occurs in men. The enzyme's higher gene expression in treated hirsute patients could be an indirect evidence of restored enzyme activity and intracellular androgen metabolism.

  1. In vitro expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in acetaldehyde metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Rich, A M; Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for oral cancer, possibly via its conversion to acetaldehyde, a known carcinogen. The oral commensal yeast Candida albicans may be one of the agents responsible for this conversion intra-orally. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) family of enzymes are involved in acetaldehyde metabolism in yeast but, for C. albicans it is not known which family member is responsible for the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. In this study we determined the expression of mRNAs from three C. albicans Adh genes (CaADH1, CaADH2 and CaCDH3) for cells grown in different culture media at different growth phases by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CaADH1 was constitutively expressed under all growth conditions but there was differential expression of CaADH2. CaADH3 expression was not detected. To investigate whether CaAdh1p or CaAdh2p can contribute to alcohol catabolism in C. albicans, each gene from the reference strain C. albicans SC5314 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts from an CaAdh1p-expressing S. cerevisiae recombinant, but not an CaAdh2p-expressing recombinant, or an empty vector control strain, possessed ethanol-utilizing Adh activity above endogenous S. cerevisiae activity. Furthermore, expression of C. albicans Adh1p in a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous ScADH2 gene (known to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde in this yeast) had been deleted, conferred an NAD-dependent ethanol-utilizing, and so acetaldehyde-producing, Adh activity. We conclude that CaAdh1p is the enzyme responsible for ethanol use under in vitro growth conditions, and may contribute to the intra-oral production of acetaldehyde.

  2. The Xenopus alcohol dehydrogenase gene family: characterization and comparative analysis incorporating amphibian and reptilian genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family uniquely illustrates the concept of enzymogenesis. In vertebrates, tandem duplications gave rise to a multiplicity of forms that have been classified in eight enzyme classes, according to primary structure and function. Some of these classes appear to be exclusive of particular organisms, such as the frog ADH8, a unique NADP+-dependent ADH enzyme. This work describes the ADH system of Xenopus, as a model organism, and explores the first amphibian and reptilian genomes released in order to contribute towards a better knowledge of the vertebrate ADH gene family. Results Xenopus cDNA and genomic sequences along with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used in phylogenetic analyses and structure-function correlations of amphibian ADHs. Novel ADH sequences identified in the genomes of Anolis carolinensis (anole lizard) and Pelodiscus sinensis (turtle) were also included in these studies. Tissue and stage-specific libraries provided expression data, which has been supported by mRNA detection in Xenopus laevis tissues and regulatory elements in promoter regions. Exon-intron boundaries, position and orientation of ADH genes were deduced from the amphibian and reptilian genome assemblies, thus revealing syntenic regions and gene rearrangements with respect to the human genome. Our results reveal the high complexity of the ADH system in amphibians, with eleven genes, coding for seven enzyme classes in Xenopus tropicalis. Frogs possess the amphibian-specific ADH8 and the novel ADH1-derived forms ADH9 and ADH10. In addition, they exhibit ADH1, ADH2, ADH3 and ADH7, also present in reptiles and birds. Class-specific signatures have been assigned to ADH7, and ancestral ADH2 is predicted to be a mixed-class as the ostrich enzyme, structurally close to mammalian ADH2 but with class-I kinetic properties. Remarkably, many ADH1 and ADH7 forms are observed in the lizard, probably due to lineage-specific duplications. ADH4 is not

  3. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in melon (Cucumis melo L.): bioinformatic analysis and expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development.

  4. The Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development. PMID:25019207

  5. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A. K. M.; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh. PMID:27880809

  6. Molecular Analysis of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations in Bangladeshi Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Islam, Md Tarikul; Eckhoff, Grace; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A K M; Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Shahidullah, Mohammod; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Tahura, Sarabon; Hussain, Manzoor; Akhter, Shahida; Nahar, Nazmun; Shirin, Tahmina; Qadri, Firdausi; Mannoor, Kaiissar

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations. One hundred and sixty G6PD gene mutations, which lead to amino acid substitutions, have been described worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect G6PD gene mutations in hospital-based settings in the local population of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Qualitative fluorescent spot test and quantitative enzyme activity measurement using RANDOX G6PDH kit were performed for analysis of blood specimens and detection of G6PD-deficient participants. For G6PD-deficient samples, PCR was done with six sets of primers specific for G6PD gene. Automated Sanger sequencing of the PCR products was performed to identify the mutations in the gene. Based on fluorescence spot test and quantitative enzyme assay followed by G6PD gene sequencing, 12 specimens (11 males and one female) among 121 clinically suspected patient-specimens were found to be deficient, suggesting a frequency of 9.9% G6PD deficiency. Sequencing of the G6PD-deficient samples revealed c.C131G substitution (exon-3: Ala44Gly) in six samples, c.G487A substitution (exon-6:Gly163Ser) in five samples and c.G949A substitution (exon-9: Glu317Lys) of coding sequence in one sample. These mutations either affect NADP binding or disrupt protein structure. From the study it appears that Ala44Gly and Gly163Ser are the most common G6PD mutations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This is the first study of G6PD mutations in Bangladesh.

  7. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance.

  8. Immunoresponsive Gene 1 and Itaconate Inhibit Succinate Dehydrogenase to Modulate Intracellular Succinate Levels.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Thekla; Wallace, Martina; Michelucci, Alessandro; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Sapcariu, Sean C; Sousa, Carole; Koseki, Haruhiko; Cabrales, Pedro; Murphy, Anne N; Hiller, Karsten; Metallo, Christian M

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is emerging as a hallmark of the innate immune response, and the dynamic control of metabolites such as succinate serves to facilitate the execution of inflammatory responses in macrophages and other immune cells. Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) expression is induced by inflammatory stimuli, and its enzyme product cis-aconitate decarboxylase catalyzes the production of itaconate from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we identify an immunometabolic regulatory pathway that links Irg1 and itaconate production to the succinate accumulation that occurs in the context of innate immune responses. Itaconate levels and Irg1 expression correlate strongly with succinate during LPS exposure in macrophages and non-immune cells. We demonstrate that itaconate acts as an endogenous succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor to cause succinate accumulation. Loss of itaconate production in activated macrophages from Irg1(-/-) mice decreases the accumulation of succinate in response to LPS exposure. This metabolic network links the innate immune response and tricarboxylic acid metabolism to function of the electron transport chain.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering.

  10. Cloning and characterization of l-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Nanda Kumar, Yellapu; Venkateswara Prasad, Uppu; Swarupa, Vimjam; Koteswara rao, Valasani; Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma, Potukuchi

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus a natural inhabitant of nasopharyngeal tract survives in the host as biofilms. In the present study S. aureus ATCC12600 grown under anaerobic conditions showed biofilm units of 0.086 as compared to 0.07 when this pathogen grown in aerobic conditions with elevated lactate formation and the same was also observed with increased biofilm units of 0.06, 0.084 and 0.167 under 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% glucose supplementation in BHI broth. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene which catalyzes the formation of lactate was cloned, sequenced (Accession Numbers: JN645813) and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. The pure recombinant LDH exhibited molecular weight of 34 kDa in SDS-PAGE and the enzyme kinetics of recombinant enzyme was found to be in the direction of lactate to pyruvate Km of 2.03 ± 0.025 μM and Kcat of 1.69 ± 0.03/min and from pyruvate to lactate Km of 1.62 ± 0.10 μM and Kcat of 1.75 ± 0.03/min. In the LDH gene sequence "LKDIMA" was found to be conserved in all Gram positive bacteria and in all human LDH isoforms even though only 39% sequence homology was observed with all human LDH isoforms. However, 92% structural homology was observed with all human LDH isoforms. The molecular docking of pyruvate and lactate to the LDH structure showed -10.298 for pyruvate while -9.297 for lactate indicating higher affinity of pyruvate compared to lactate which concurred with the elevated LDH kinetics and rate of biofilm units in anaerobic conditions.

  11. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Involved in Ferulic Acid and Sinapic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Bastress, Kristen L.; Ruegger, Max O.; Denault, Jeff W.; Chapple, Clint

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall–esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes. PMID:14729911

  12. Insertion of transposon Tn5tac1 in the Sinorhizobium meliloti malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene results in conditional polar effects on downstream TCA cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Dymov, Sergiy I; Meek, David J J; Steven, Blaire; Driscoll, Brian T

    2004-12-01

    To isolate Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants deficient in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, random transposon Tn5tac1 insertion mutants were screened for conditional lethal phenotypes on complex medium. Tn5tac1 has an outward-oriented isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter (Ptac). The insertion in strain Rm30049 was mapped to the mdh gene, which was found to lie directly upstream of the genes encoding succinyl-CoA synthetase (sucCD) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (sucAB and lpdA). Rm30049 required IPTG for wild-type growth in complex media, and had a complex growth phenotype in minimal media with different carbon sources. The mdh:: Tn5tacl insertion eliminated MDH activity under all growth conditions, and activities of succinyl-CoA synthetase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase were affected by the addition of IPTG. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies confirmed that expression from Ptac was induced by IPTG and leaky in its absence. Alfalfa plants inoculated with Rm30049 were chlorotic and stunted, with small white root nodules, and had shoot dry weight and percent-N content values similar to those of uninoculated plants. Cosmid clone pDS15 restored MDH activity to Rm30049, complemented both the mutant growth and symbiotic phenotypes, and was found to carry six complete (sdhB, mdh, sucCDAB) and two partial (IpdA, sdhA) tricarboxylic acid cycle genes.

  13. The tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of two nuclear genes encoding rat mitochondrial proteins. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Gordon, J I; Alpers, R; Strauss, A W

    1989-11-15

    To study the regulation of nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism, absolute levels of mRNA encoding rat medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) were determined in developing and adult male rat tissues. MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of adult male tissues with highest steady state levels in heart, adrenal, and skeletal muscle and lowest levels in brain, lung, and testes. In comparison, steady state levels of mMDH mRNA in adult male rat tissues were similar to those of MCAD mRNA in heart, small intestine, adrenal, and skeletal muscle but markedly different in brain, stomach, and testes. Thus, the steady-state levels of MCAD and mMDH mRNA are highest in adult tissues with high energy requirements. Dot blot analysis of RNA prepared from late fetal, suckling, and weaning rat heart, liver, and brain demonstrated the presence of MCAD and mMDH mRNA during the fetal period in all three tissues. Both MCAD and mMDH mRNA levels increased 2-2.5-fold at birth followed by a decline during the first postnatal week in heart and liver. The patterns of accumulation of these mRNAs in heart and liver during the weaning and early adult periods were also similar, although the absolute levels were significantly different. Brain MCAD mRNA levels were consistently low (less than 0.1 pg/micrograms total cellular RNA) throughout the developmental stages. However, brain mMDH mRNA levels exhibited a marked increase during the weaning period, reaching a peak concentration which is higher than the level of mMDH mRNA in heart and liver at any point during development. These results indicate that the level of expression of the nuclear genes encoding MCAD and mMDH is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. The patterns of MCAD and mMDH mRNA accumulation parallel the changes in energy metabolism which occur during development and among adult tissues.

  14. Phenotypic and clinical implications of variants in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Kuilenburg, André B P van; Meijer, Judith; Tanck, Michael W T; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Zoetekouw, Lida; Dekkers, Lois-Lee; Roelofsen, Jeroen; Meinsma, Rutger; Wymenga, Machteld; Kulik, Wim; Büchel, Barbara; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2016-04-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of the pyrimidine bases uracil, thymine and the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil. Genetic variations in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD) have emerged as predictive risk alleles for 5FU-associated toxicity. Here we report an in-depth analysis of genetic variants in DPYD and their consequences for DPD activity and pyrimidine metabolites in 100 Dutch healthy volunteers. 34 SNPs were detected in DPYD and 15 SNPs were associated with altered plasma concentrations of pyrimidine metabolites. DPD activity was significantly associated with the plasma concentrations of uracil, the presence of a specific DPYD mutation (c.1905+1G>A) and the combined presence of three risk variants in DPYD (c.1905+1G>A, c.1129-5923C>G, c.2846A>T), but not with an altered uracil/dihydrouracil (U/UH2) ratio. Various haplotypes were associated with different DPD activities (haplotype D3, a decreased DPD activity; haplotype F2, an increased DPD activity). Functional analysis of eight recombinant mutant DPD enzymes showed a reduced DPD activity, ranging from 35% to 84% of the wild-type enzyme. Analysis of a DPD homology model indicated that the structural effect of the novel p.G401R mutation is most likely minor. The clinical relevance of the p.D949V mutation was demonstrated in a cancer patient heterozygous for the c.2846A>T mutation and a novel nonsense mutation c.1681C>T (p.R561X), experiencing severe grade IV toxicity. Our studies showed that the endogenous levels of uracil and the U/UH2 ratio are poor predictors of an impaired DPD activity. Loading studies with uracil to identify patients with a DPD deficiency warrants further investigation.

  15. Novel chiral tool, (R)-2-octanol dehydrogenase, from Pichia finlandica: purification, gene cloning, and application for optically active α-haloalcohols.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kudoh, Masatake

    2013-09-01

    A novel enantioselective alcohol dehydrogenase, (R)-2-octanol dehydrogenase (PfODH), was discovered among methylotrophic microorganisms. The enzyme was purified from Pichia finlandica and characterized. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 83,000 and 30,000 by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The enzyme was an NAD(+)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and showed a strict enantioselectivity, very broad substrate specificity, and high tolerance to SH reagents. A gene-encoding PfODH was cloned and sequenced. The gene consisted of 765 nucleotides, coding polypeptides of 254 amino acids. The gene was singly expressed and coexpressed together with a formate dehydrogenase as an NADH regenerator in an Escherichia coli. Ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate and (S)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol were synthesized using a whole-cell biocatalyst in more than 99 % optical purity.

  16. Regulated Expression of Three Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley Aleurone Layers 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Andrew D.; Jacobsen, John V.; Zwar, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Three genes specify alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1.; ADH) enzymes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Adh 1, Adh 2, and Adh 3). Their polypeptide products (ADH 1, ADH 2, ADH 3) dimerize to give a total of six ADH isozymes which can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis and stained for enzyme activity. Under fully aerobic conditions, aleurone layers of cv Himalaya had a high titer of a single isozyme, the homodimer containing ADH 1 monomers. This isozyme was accumulated by the aleurone tissue during the later part of seed development, and survived seed drying and rehydration. The five other possible ADH isozymes were induced by O2 deficit. The staining of these five isozymes on electrophoretic gels increased progressively in intensity as O2 levels were reduced below 5%, and were most intense at 0% O2. In vivo35S labeling and specific immunoprecipitation of ADH peptides, followed by isoelectric focusing of the ADH peptides in the presence of 8 molar urea (urea-IEF) demonstrated the following. (a) Aleurone layers incubated in air synthesized ADH 1 and a trace of ADH 2; immature layers from developing seeds behaved similarly. (b) At 5% O2, synthesis of ADH 2 increased and ADH 3 appeared. (c) At 2% and 0% O2, the synthesis of all three ADH peptides increased markedly. Cell-free translation of RNA isolated from aleurone layers, followed by immunoprecipitation and urea-IEF of in vitro synthesized ADH peptides, showed that levels of mRNA for all three ADH peptides rose sharply during 1 day of O2 deprivation. Northern hybridizations with a maize Adh 2 cDNA clone established that the clone hybridized with barley mRNA comparable in size to maize Adh 2 mRNA, and that the level of this barley mRNA increased 15- to 20-fold after 1 day at 5% or 2% O2, and about 100-fold after 1 day at 0% O2. We conclude that in aleurone layers, expression of the three barley Adh genes is maximal in the absence of O2, that regulation of mRNA level is likely to be a major controlling factor, and

  17. Functional characterization of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xu, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong; Sun, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Although a large number of AroA enzymes (EPSPS: 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been identified, cloned, and tested for glyphosate resistance, only two AroA variants, derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 and Zea mays, have been utilized to produce the commercial glyphosate-resistant crops. Here, we have used a PCR-based twostep DNA synthesis method to synthesize an aroA gene (aroAA. metalliredigens) from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens, encoding a new EPSPS. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis with the new aroAA. metalliredigens gene was obtained to confirm the potential of the novel aroA gene in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  18. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding catalytic subunit of thermostable glucose dehydrogenase from Burkholderia cepacia in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Inose, Ken; Fujikawa, Masako; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2003-02-21

    We have cloned a 1620-nucleotide gene encoding the catalytic subunit (alpha subunit) of a thermostable glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Burkholderia cepacia. The FAD binding motif was found in the N-terminal region of the alpha subunit. The deduced primary structure of the alpha subunit showed about 48% identity to the catalytic subunits of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans and 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenases (2KGDH) from Erwinia herbicola and Pantoea citrea. The alpha subunit of B. cepacia was expressed in Escherichia coli in its active water-soluble form, showing maximum dye-mediated GDH activity at 70 degrees C, retaining high thermal stability. A putative open reading frame (ORF) of 507 nucleotides was also found upstream of the alpha subunit encoding an 18-kDa peptide, designated as gamma subunit. The deduced primary structure of gamma subunit showed about 30% identity to the small subunits of the SDH from G. oxydans and 2KGDHs from E. herbicola and P. citrea.

  19. Disruption of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene improved glycerol use and dihydroxyacetone productivity in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans is an industrial form of fermentation, but some problems exist related to microbial DHA production. For example, glycerol inhibits DHA production and affects its biological activity. G. oxydans produces both DHA and glyceric acid (GA) from glycerol simultaneously, and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase and membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenases are involved in the two reactions, respectively. We discovered that the G. oxydans mutant DeltaadhA, in which the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene (adhA) was disrupted, significantly improved its ability to grow in a higher concentration of glycerol and to produce DHA compared to a wild-type strain. DeltaadhA grew on 220 g/l of initial glycerol and produced 125 g/l of DHA during a 3-d incubation, whereas the wild-type did not. Resting DeltaadhA cells converted 230 g/l of glycerol aqueous solution to 139.7 g/l of DHA during a 3-d incubation. The inhibitory effect of glycerate sodium salt on DeltaadhA was investigated. An increase in the glycerate concentration at the beginning of growth resulted in decreases in both growth and DHA production.

  20. Metabolism of L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyananda, M.K.G.S.

    1985-01-01

    E. coli is able to incorporate L-glyceraldehyde and L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into phospholipids, L-(3-/sup 3/H)Glyceraldehyde was synthesized and the purity and the chemical identity of the product were checked by paper chromatography. L-(3-/sup 3/H)Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate was synthesized from L-(3-/sup 3/H)glyceraldehyde in a reaction catalyzed by glycerokinase. E. coli extract contains a new enzyme activity which catalyzes an NADPH dependent reduction of L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. A procedure, specifically suitable for assaying the reductase activity in the crude extract, was developed. A more convenient spectrophotometric assay method was employed for the purified enzyme. At moderate concentrations sulfhydryl group inhibitors had no effect on the enzyme activity of L-GAP reductase. At 100..mu..M concentration Zn/sup +2/ inhibited the enzyme activity by about 30% while Mn/sup +2/ elevated the activity by about the same margin. Mg/sup +2/, Ca/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +2/ were without effect at this concentration. L-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is known to be bactericidal at 1.25 ..mu..M concentration and the D-enantiomer is without effect. Furthermore, methylglyoxal is known to be bactericidal at or above 0.5 mM concentration. Strains of E. coli resistant to 1 mM methylglyoxal were isolated. The cell extract prepared from the mutant possessed increased capacity to transform methylglyoxal into D-lactate via a glutathione dependent reaction. These mutants were less sensitive to 2.5 mM DL-GAP suggesting that conversion of L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into methylglyoxal may at least partly be responsible for the bactericidal activity of L-GAP.

  1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: mRNA and protein expression patterns of E1α subunit genes in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana; Silva, Maria João; Graça, Inês; Silva, Joaquina; Sá, Rosália; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Rivera, Isabel

    2012-09-10

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo a complex process of cell differentiation and morphological restructuring, which depends on the coordinated expression of different genes. Some vital examples are those involved in cell energy metabolism, namely the genes encoding the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: the somatic PDHA1 (X-linked) and the testis-specific PDHA2 (autosomal). There are no data related to the study at the RNA and protein levels of PDHA genes during human spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to describe the mRNA and protein expression patterns of the human PDHA genes during spermatogenesis. Expression profiles of the PDHA1 and PDHA2 genes were characterized using different human tissues and cells. Diploid and haploid germ cells fractions were obtained from testis tissues. The mRNA profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, whereas the protein profiles were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Expression of the PDHA1 gene was found in all somatic cells, whereas expression of PDHA2 gene was restricted to germ cells. The switch from X-linked to autosomic gene expression occurred in spermatocytes. Data suggest the activation of PDHA2 gene expression is most probably a mechanism to ensure the continued expression of the protein, thus allowing germ cell viability and functionality.

  2. Amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase, the major frog liver enzyme. Relationships to other forms and assessment of an early gene duplication separating vertebrate class I and class III alcohol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, E.; Joernvall, H. ); Peralba, J.M.; Pares, X. )

    1991-03-19

    Submammalian alcohol dehydrogenase structures can be used to evaluate the origins and functions of different types of the mammalian enzyme. Two avian forms were recently reported, and the authors now define the major amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme from the liver of the Green frog Rana perezi was purified, carboxymethylated, and submitted to amino acid sequence determination by peptide analysis of six different digest. The protein has a 375-residue subunit and is a class I alcohol dehydrogenase, bridging the gap toward the original separation of the classes that are observable in the human alcohol dehydrogenase system. In relation to the human class I enzyme, the amphibian protein has residue identities exactly halfway (68%) between those for the corresponding avian enzyme (74%) and the human class III enzyme (62%), suggesting an origin of the alcohol dehnydrogenase classes very early in or close to the evolution of the vertebrate line. This conclusion suggests that these enzyme classes are more universal among animals than previously realized and constitutes the first real assessment of the origin of the duplications leading to the alcohol dehydrogenase classes. In conclusion, the amphibian enzyme allows a rough positioning of the divergence of the alcohol dehydrogenase classes, shows that the class I type is widesprread in vertebrates, and functionally conforms with greater variations at the substrate-binding than the coenzyme-binding site.

  3. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Soares-Fernandes, João P; Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli; Cruz, Romeu; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhães, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F; Leijser, Lara M

    2008-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making.

  4. Chromosomal localization of the gene for the human trifunctional enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Barton, D; Du, J; Hum, D W; MacKenzie, R E; Francke, U

    1989-01-01

    A trifunctional protein in man, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, catalyzes three consecutive steps in the interconversion of tetrahydrofolate derivatives; these derivatives supply one-carbon units for intermediary metabolism. Somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization were used to localize the functional gene coding for this protein--to human chromosome 14q24, near the c-fos and TGF-beta 3 loci. A second hybridizing sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified near the centromere of the X chromosome, at Xp11. Images Figure 1 PMID:2786332

  5. Construction of intergeneric hybrids using bacteriophage P1CM: transfer of the Klebsiella aerogenes ribitol dehydrogenase gene to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rigby, P W; Gething, M J; Hartley, B S

    1976-02-01

    Study of many of the interesting properties of Klebsiella aerogenes is limited by the lack of a well-characterized genetic system for this organism. Our investigations of the evolution of the enzyme ribitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.56) in K. aerogenes would be greatly facilitated by the availability of such a system, and we here report two approaches to developing one. We have isolated mutants sensitive to the coliphage P1, which will efficiently tranduce genetic markers between such sensitive strains and which will thus make detailed mapping studies possible. Derivatives of K. aerogenes lysogenic for P1 can be readily isolated by using the specialized transducing particle P1CMclr100. Bacteria lysogenic for this phage are chloramphenicol resistant and temperature sensitive. Phage particles produced by temperature induction of such lysogens can be used to transfer K. aerogenes genes to the natural host of P1 phage. Escherichia coli. We have used this method to prepare derivatives of E. coli K-12 carrying the K. aerogenes genes conferring the ability to metabolize the pentitols ribitol and D-arabitol. We have shown that these E. coli-K. aerogenes hybrids synthesize a ribitol dehydrogenase with the properties of the K. aerogenes enzyme and have mapped the position of the transferred gene on the E. coli chromosome. The ramifications of this methodology are discussed.

  6. Expression of the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB) from the facultatively anaerobic paenibacillus macerans during aerobic growth

    PubMed

    Schirawski; Hankeln; Unden

    1998-10-01

    Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) macerans is capable of succinate oxidation under oxic conditions and fumarate reduction under anoxic conditions. The reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and fumarate reductase (Frd). The genes encoding Sdh (sdhCAB) were analyzed. The gene products of sdhA and sdhB were similar to the subunits of known Sdh and Frd enzymes. The hydrophobic subunit SdhC showed close sequence similarity to the class of Sdh/Frd enzymes containing diheme cytochrome b. From the sdhCAB gene cluster two transcripts were produced, one comprising sdhCAB, the other sdhAB. The transcripts were found only during aerobic growth, and the amount was directly proportional to Sdh activity, but inversely proportional to Frd activity.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of the GDH gene coding for the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nagasu, T; Hall, B D

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) by cross hybridization to the Neurospora crassa am gene, known to encode for NADP-GDH is described. Two DNA fragments selected from a yeast genomic library in phage lambda gt11 were shown by restriction analysis to share 2.5 kb of common sequence. A yeast shuttle vector (CV13) carrying either to the cloned fragments complements the gdh- strain of S. cerevisiae and directs substantial overproduction of NADP-GDH. One of the cloned fragments was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of the yeast NADP-GDH is 64% homologous to N. crassa, 51% to Escherichia coli and 24% to bovine NADP-GDHs.

  8. Identification of tissue transglutaminase-reactive lysine residues in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Orru, Stefania; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Francese, Simona; Vitagliano, Luigi; Marino, Gennaro; Esposito, Carla

    2002-01-01

    Polyglutamine domains are excellent substrates for tissue transglutaminase resulting in the formation of cross-links with polypeptides containing lysyl residues. This finding suggests that tissue transglutaminase may play a role in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases associated with polyglutamine expansion. The glycolytic enzyme GAPDH previously was shown to tightly bind several proteins involved in such diseases. The present study confirms that GAPDH is an in vitro lysyl donor substrate of tissue transglutaminase. A dansylated glutamine-containing peptide was used as probe for labeling the amino-donor sites. SDS gel electrophoresis of a time-course reaction mixture revealed the presence of both fluorescent GAPDH monomers and high molecular weight polymers. Western blot analysis performed using antitransglutaminase antibodies reveals that tissue transglutaminase takes part in the formation of heteropolymers. The reactive amino-donor sites were identified using mass spectrometry. Here, we report that of the 26 lysines present in GAPDH, K191, K268, and K331 were the only amino-donor residues modified by tissue transglutaminase.

  9. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  10. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance.

  11. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  12. Cloning and characterization of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Pantoea sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Cao, Y P

    2015-12-29

    The shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the target of the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. A novel aroA gene encoding an EPSPS from Pantoea sp was identified and subcloned into the pET-28a vector to construct the recombinant pET-AroAPantoea sp plasmid. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that AroAPantoea sp is a class I AroA enzyme. When expressed in Escherichia coli, it conveyed high tolerance to glyphosate. AroAPantoea sp may be used to generate transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants.

  13. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Mrízová, Katarína; Jiskrová, Eva; Vyroubalová, Šárka; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, Ludmila; Pospíšilová, Hana; Frébort, Ivo; Harwood, Wendy A.; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX) and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK) plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs. PMID:24260147

  14. Overexpression of cytokinin dehydrogenase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) fundamentally affects morphology and fertility.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Jiskrová, Eva; Vyroubalová, Šárka; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, Ludmila; Pospíšilová, Hana; Frébort, Ivo; Harwood, Wendy A; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX) and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK) plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs.

  15. The Bacillus subtilis ydjL (bdhA) Gene Encodes Acetoin Reductase/2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol from acetoin by fermentation, but to date, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible, acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH), has remained unknown. A search of the B. subtilis genome database with the amino acid sequences of functional AR/BDHs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus cereus resulted in the identification of a highly similar protein encoded by the B. subtilis ydjL gene. A knockout strain carrying a ydjL::cat insertion mutation was constructed, which (i) abolished 2,3-butanediol production in early stationary phase, (ii) produced no detectable AR or BDH activity in vitro, and (iii) accumulated the precursor acetoin in early stationary phase. The ydjL::cat mutation also affected the kinetics of lactate but not acetate production during stationary-phase cultivation with glucose under oxygen limitation. A very small amount of 2,3-butanediol was detected in very-late-stationary-phase (96-hour) cultures of the ydjL::cat mutant, suggesting the existence of a second gene encoding a minor AR activity. From the data, it is proposed that the major AR/BDH-encoding gene ydjL be renamed bdhA. PMID:18820069

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the gene coding for the large subunit of methylamine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus versutus.

    PubMed Central

    Huitema, F; van Beeumen, J; van Driessche, G; Duine, J A; Canters, G W

    1993-01-01

    The gene that codes for the alpha-subunit of methylamine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus versutus, madA, was cloned and sequenced. It codes for a protein of 395 amino acids preceded by a leader sequence of 31 amino acids. The derived amino acid sequence was confirmed by partial amino acid sequencing. The start of the mature protein could not be determined by direct sequencing, since the N terminus appeared to be blocked. Instead, it was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. Confirmation of the results was obtained by sequencing the N terminus after pyroglutamate aminopeptidase digestion. The sequence is homologous to the Paracoccus denitrificans nucleotide sequence. A second open reading frame, called open reading frame 3, is located immediately downstream of madA. PMID:8407797

  17. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the human HSD11K gene encoding the kidney (type 2) isozyme of 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Rogerson, F.M.; Mune, T.; White, P.C.

    1995-09-01

    11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11{beta}HSD) converts glucocorticoids to inactive products and is thus thought to confer specificity for aldosterone on the type I mineralocorticoid receptor in the kidney. Recent studies indicate the presence of at least two isozymes of 11{beta}HSD. In vitro, the NAD{sup +}-dependent kidney (type 2) isozyme catalyzes 11{beta}-dehydrogenase but not reductase reactions, whereas the NADP{sup +}-dependent liver (type 1) isozyme catalyzes both reactions. We have now characterized the human gene encoding kidney 11{beta}HSD (HSD11K). A bacteriophage P1 clone was isolated after screening a human genomic library by hybridization with sheep HSD11K cDNA. The gene consists of 5 exons spread over 6 kb. The nucleotide binding domain lies in the first exon are GC-rich (80%), suggesting that the gene may be transcriptionally regulated by factors that recognize GC-rich sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes with a positive P1 clone localized the gene to chromosome 16q22. In contrast, the HSD11L (liver isozyme) gene is located on chromosome 1 and contains 6 exons; the coding sequences of these genes are only 21% identical. HSD11K is expressed at high levels in the placenta and kidney of midgestation human fetuses and at lower levels in lung and testes. Different transcriptional start sites are utilized in kidney and placenta. These data should be applicable to genetic analysis of the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, which may represent a deficiency of 11{beta}HSD. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Regulatory region with putA gene of proline dehydrogenase that links to the lum and the lux operons in Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Yu, K Y; Chen, H Y; Weng, S F

    1996-02-27

    Nucleotide sequence of regulatory region (R & R) with putA gene (EMBL Accession No. U39227) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the putA gene encoded amino acid sequence of proline dehydrogenase is deduced. Alignment and comparison of proline dehydrogenase of P. leiognathi with the proline dehydrogenase domain in the PutA protein of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show that they are homologous. Nucleotide sequence reveals that regulatory region with the putA gene is linked to the lum and lux operons in genome; the gene order is <--putA--R & R(I)<--ter-lumQ-lumP-R & R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxE--> (R & R: regulatory region; ter:transcriptional terminator), whereas the R & R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, ter is the transcriptional terminator for the lum operon, and R & R(I) apparently is the regulatory region for the putA and related genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis illustrates the specific inverted repeat (SIR), cAMP-CRP consensus sequence, canonical -10/-35 promoter, putative operator and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence on the regulatory region R & R(I) for the putA and related genes; it suggests that the putA and related genes are simply linked to the lum and the lux operons in genome, the regulatory region R & R(I) is independent for the putA and related genes.

  19. The human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene: cDNA cloning, sequence determination, and mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.K.; Chung, S. ); Cheung, M.C. )

    1994-05-15

    The cDNA for human sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) has been cloned and sequenced. It translates into a peptide of 356 amino acid residues, one more than the sequence previously reported from peptide analysis. An extra alanine was found at the acetyl-blocked N-terminal, between positions 1 and 4. This matches the rat cDNA, which also has 356 amino acids, with an extra proline at position 3. Four other mismatches were also observed, but these are all amino acid substitutions that occur outside proposed functionally important regions. Further work must be performed to determine whether these discrepancies represent polymorphic forms of the enzyme. The SORD gene was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization and found to occupy a single site on chromosome 15q15, indicating that it is a single-copy gene. This was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. SORD is thought to be involved in the etiology of diabetic complications, and its deficiency has been linked to congenital cataracts. The cloned gene could be used as a probe to study the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of these diseases. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Isolation and DNA sequence of ADH3, a nuclear gene encoding the mitochondrial isozyme of alcohol dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Young, E T; Pilgrim, D

    1985-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene, ADH3, that encodes the mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme ADH III was cloned by virtue of its nucleotide homology to ADH1 and ADH2. Both chromosomal and plasmid-encoded ADH III isozymes were repressed by glucose and migrated heterogeneously on nondenaturing gels. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated 73 and 74% identity for ADH3 with ADH1 and ADH2, respectively. The amino acid identity between the predicted ADH III polypeptide and ADH I and ADH II was 79 and 80%, respectively. The open reading frame encoding ADH III has a highly basic 27-amino-acid amino-terminal extension relative to ADH I and ADH II. The nucleotide sequence of the presumed leader peptide has a high degree of identity with the untranslated leader regions of ADH1 and ADH2 mRNAs. A strain containing a null allele of ADH3 did not have a detectably altered phenotype. The cloned gene integrated at the ADH3 locus, indicating that this is the structural gene for ADH III. Images PMID:2943982

  1. Expression of a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in rice, a glycinebetaine nonaccumulator, and possible localization of its protein in peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Yokota, S; Muramoto, Y; Tsutsui, K; Oguri, Y; Fukui, K; Takabe, T

    1997-05-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the last step in the plant biosynthetic pathway that leads to glycinebetaine. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L.), albeit considered a typical non-glycinebetaine accumulating species, have been found to express this enzyme at low levels. This observation evokes an interest in phylogenic evolution of the enzyme in the plant kingdom. It is reported here that rice plants possess the ability to take up exogenously added betaine aldehyde through the roots and convert it to glycinebetaine, resulting in an enhanced salt-tolerance of the plants. A gene encoding a putative BADH from the rice genome was also cloned and sequenced. The gene was found to contain 14 introns, and the overall nucleotide sequence of the coding region is c. 78% identical to that of the barley BADH cDNA. Cloning of a partial BADH cDNA from rice was accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequence of the cloned fragment was found to be identical to the corresponding exon regions of the rice genomic BADH gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of rice and barley BADH both contain a C-terminal tripeptide SKL, a signal known to target preproteins to microbodies. This localization was confirmed by an immuno-gold labeling study of transgenic tobacco harboring barley cDNA, which showed BADH protein inside peroxisomes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of BADH mRNA is salt-inducible.

  2. Analysis of the promoter region of the gene encoding NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, C; Peri, K G; MacKenzie, R E

    1991-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the gene encoding NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) revealed several putative cis-regulatory elements. To delineate the function of these regulatory elements, various deletion mutants of the 5'-flanking region were connected to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and promoter activity was measured in transient transfection assays. Transfection experiments performed with the sequence extending from -508 to +59 produced a high-level transient expression of the CAT gene in BALB/c 3T3-SV-T2 and NIH 3T3 cells. Removal of the sequence from +16 to +59 which includes the second transcription start point at +43, a TATA-like box and 5'-untranslated sequences abolished the promoter activity. Deletion analysis of 5'-upstream sequences revealed that the region from positions -55 to +59 is sufficient to mediate a high CAT activity comparable to the level obtained with the construct -508/+59. Within this region are found a CAAT box, a TATA-like box and two putative GC boxes. A functional analysis of the promoter showed that the sequence from -55 to +59 is sufficient to respond to stimulation by serum. Images PMID:1843253

  3. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in Two Brothers with a Novel Mutation in the 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Ayla; Polat, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) occur frequently in adolescents and adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. There have been no reports of TART in children with 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (HSD3β). Biopsy proven TART was diagnosed in a 31/12-year-old male patient and also in his 22-month-old sibling. Hormonal and anthropometric measurements were performed during glucocorticoid and fludrocortisone treatment. The mutational analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing of the complete coding region of the HSD3β2 gene. Initially, both siblings were treated with high doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. TART regressed with dexamethasone treatment in both patients. However, growth velocity decreased and weight gain increased in both patients. Dexamethasone was changed to high-dose hydrocortisone (>20 mg/m2/d). Sequencing analyses revealed a novel homozygous p.W355R (c.763 T>C) mutation at exon 4 of the HSD3β2 gene in both siblings. These two patients are, to our knowledge, the first known cases of TARTs with a novel mutation in the HSD3β2 gene detected during childhood. High-dose hydrocortisone treatment is more reliable for TART in children. PMID:27476613

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-06-09

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, "Cuiguan" and "Cuiyu". Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in "Cuiguan" than in "Cuiyu", accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  6. Mutational Analyses of Glucose Dehydrogenase and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Reveal Their Effects on Growth and Alginate Production.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Susan; Mærk, Mali; Valla, Svein; Ertesvåg, Helga

    2015-05-15

    The biosynthesis of alginate has been studied extensively due to the importance of this polymer in medicine and industry. Alginate is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate and thus competes with the central carbon metabolism for this metabolite. The alginate-producing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens relies on the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways for glucose metabolism, and these pathways are also important for the metabolism of fructose and glycerol. In the present study, the impact of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes on growth and alginate synthesis was investigated in P. fluorescens. Mutants defective in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (Zwf-1 and Zwf-2) or glucose dehydrogenase (Gcd) were evaluated using media containing glucose, fructose, or glycerol. Zwf-1 was shown to be the most important glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for catabolism. Both Zwf enzymes preferred NADP as a coenzyme, although NAD was also accepted. Only Zwf-2 was active in the presence of 3 mM ATP, and then only with NADP as a coenzyme, indicating an anabolic role for this isoenzyme. Disruption of zwf-1 resulted in increased alginate production when glycerol was used as the carbon source, possibly due to decreased flux through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway rendering more fructose-6-phosphate available for alginate biosynthesis. In alginate-producing cells grown on glucose, disruption of gcd increased both cell numbers and alginate production levels, while this mutation had no positive effect on growth in a non-alginate-producing strain. A possible explanation is that alginate synthesis might function as a sink for surplus hexose phosphates that could otherwise be detrimental to the cell.

  7. Three overlapping lct genes involved in L-lactate utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, J M; Taylor, J S; Latour, D J; Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1993-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the lct locus at min 80 on the chromosome map is associated with ability to grow on L-lactate and to synthesize a substrate-inducible flavin-linked dehydrogenase. Similar to that of the glpD-encoded aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the level of induced enzyme activity is elevated by aerobiosis. Both of these controls are mediated by the two-component signal transduction system ArcB/ArcA, although sensitivity to the control is much more striking for L-lactate dehydrogenase. This study disclosed that the lct locus contained three overlapping genes in the clockwise order of lctD (encoding a flavin mononucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase), lctR (encoding a putative regulator), and lctP (encoding a permease) on the chromosomal map. These genes, however, are transcribed in the counterclockwise direction. No homology in amino acid sequence was found between aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L-lactate dehydrogenase. A phi (lctD-lac) mutant was inducible by L-lactate but not D-lactate. Although the mutant lost the ability to grow on L-lactate, growth on D-lactate, known to depend on a different enzyme, remained normal. Images PMID:8407843

  8. Model of early self-replication based on covalent complementarity for a copolymer of glycerate-3-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1989-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate acts as the substrate in a model of early self-replication of a phosphodiester copolymer of glycerate-3-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate. This model of self-replication is based on covalent complementarity in which information transfer is mediated by a single covalent bond, in contrast to multiple weak interactions that establish complementarity in nucleic acid replication. This replication model is connected to contemporary biochemistry through its use of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a central metabolite of glycolysis and photosynthesis.

  9. Comparative study of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Quancan; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Stresses such as drought or salinity induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which subsequently cause excessive accumulation of aldehydes in plant cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are considered as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ to eliminate toxic aldehydes caused by oxidative stress. The completion of the genome sequencing projects of the halophytes Eutrema parvulum and E. salsugineum has paved the way to explore the relationships and the roles of ALDH genes in the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana and halophyte model plants. Methods Protein sequences of all plant ALDH families were used as queries to search E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genome databases. Evolutionary analyses compared the phylogenetic relationships of ALDHs from A. thaliana and Eutrema. Expression patterns of several stress-associated ALDH genes were investigated under different salt conditions using reverse transcription–PCR. Putative cis-elements in the promoters of ALDH10A8 from A. thaliana and E. salsugineum were compared in silico. Key Results Sixteen and 17 members of ten ALDH families were identified from E. parvulum and E. salsugineum genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of ALDH protein sequences indicated that Eutrema ALDHs are closely related to those of Arabidopsis, and members within these species possess nearly identical exon–intron structures. Gene expression analysis under different salt conditions showed that most of the ALDH genes have similar expression profiles in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum, except for ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8. In silico analysis of promoter regions of ALDH10A8 revealed different distributions of cis-elements in E. salsugineum and Arabidopsis. Conclusions Genomic organization, copy number, sub-cellular localization and expression profiles of ALDH genes are conserved in Arabidopsis, E. parvulum and E. salsugineum. The different expression patterns of ALDH7B4 and ALDH10A8 in Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum suggest that E

  10. Localization of the gene (OGDH) coding for the E1k component of the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex to chromosome 7p13-p11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, P.; Cai, X.; Ali, G.; Blass, J.P. )

    1994-03-15

    [alpha]-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1k), also designated oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH; EC 1.2.4.2), is a component of the enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of [alpha]-ketogluterate to succinyl coenzyme A, a critical step in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiencies in the activity of this enzyme complex have been observed in brain and peripheral cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This finding led the authors to localize the genes for the polypeptides that compose the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KDGHC). The E1k locus was mapped to chromosome 7p13-p11.2 using a pair of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid panels. A second related sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified and mapped to chromosome 10. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Yange; Zhao, Qiping; Han, Hongyu; Zhu, Shunhai; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youling; Huang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Suaeda corniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, F W; Wang, M L; Guo, C; Wang, N; Li, X W; Chen, H; Dong, Y Y; Chen, X F; Wang, Z M; Li, H Y

    2016-06-20

    Glycine betaine is an important quaternary ammonium compound that is produced in response to several abiotic stresses in many organisms. The synthesis of glycine betaine requires the catalysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), which can convert betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine in plants, especially in halotolerant plants. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of BADH from Suaeda corniculata (ScBADH) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Next, we analyzed the expression profile of ScBADH using real-time PCR. The results showed that ScBADH expression was induced in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. corniculata seedlings under salt and drought stress. Next, ScBADH was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, resulting in the transgenic plants exhibiting enhanced tolerance over wild-type plants under salt and drought stress. We then analyzed the levels of glycine betaine and proline, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, during salt stress in WT and transgenic Arabidopsis. The results indicated that overexpression of ScBADH produced more glycine betaine and proline, and increased SOD activity under NaCl treatment. Our results suggest that ScBADH might be a positive regulator in plants during the response to NaCl.

  13. Efficient PCR-Based Amplification of Diverse Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes from Metagenomes for Improving Biocatalysis: Screening of Gene-Specific Amplicons from Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Satomi; Kurokawa, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Screening of gene-specific amplicons from metagenomes (S-GAM) has tremendous biotechnological potential. We used this approach to isolate alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes from metagenomes based on the Leifsonia species adh gene (lsadh), the enzyme product of which can produce various chiral alcohols. A primer combination was synthesized by reference to homologs of lsadh, and PCR was used to amplify nearly full-length adh genes from metagenomic DNAs. All adh preparations were fused with lsadh at the terminal region and used to construct Escherichia coli plasmid libraries. Of the approximately 2,000 colonies obtained, 1,200 clones were identified as adh positive (∼60%). Finally, 40 adh genes, Hladh-001 to Hladh-040 (for homologous Leifsonia adh), were identified from 223 clones with high efficiency, which were randomly sequenced from the 1,200 clones. The Hladh genes obtained via this approach encoded a wide variety of amino acid sequences (8 to 99%). After screening, the enzymes obtained (HLADH-012 and HLADH-021) were confirmed to be superior to LSADH in some respects for the production of anti-Prelog chiral alcohols. PMID:25085492

  14. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of budC Gene Encoding meso-2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Bian, Ya-Qian; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-02-01

    The budC gene encoding a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BlBDH) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Sequence analysis reveals that this BlBDH belongs to short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. In the presence of NADH, BlBDH catalyzes the reduction of diacetyl to (3S)-acetoin (97.3% ee), and further to (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol (97.3% ee and 96.5% de). Similar to other meso-2,3-BDHs, it shows oxidative activity to racemic 2,3-butanediol whereas no activity toward racemic acetoin in the presence of NAD(+). For diacetyl reduction and 2,3-butanediol oxidation, the pH optimum of BlBDH is 5.0 and 10.0, respectively. Unusually, it shows relatively high activity over a wide pH range from 5.0 to 8.0 for racemic acetoin reduction. BlBDH shows lower K m and higher catalytic efficiency toward racemic acetoin (K m = 0.47 mM, k cat /K m = 432 s(-1)·mM(-1)) when compared with 2,3-butanediol (K m = 7.25 mM, k cat /K m = 81.5 s(-1)·mM(-1)), indicating its physiological role in favor of reducing racemic acetoin into 2,3-butanediol. The enzymatic characterization of BlBDH provides evidence for the directed engineering of B. licheniformis for producing enantiopure 2,3-butanediol.

  15. Metabolism of L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyananda, M.K.G.S.; Engel, R.; Tropp, B.E.

    1987-06-01

    When either /sup 3/H-labeled L-glyceraldehyde or /sup 3/H-labeled L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) was added to cultures of Escherichia coli, the phosphoglycerides were labeled. More than 81% of the label appeared in the backbone of the phosphoglycerides. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled phosphoglycerides revealed that the label was normally distributed into phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. These results suggest that L-glyceraldehyde is phosphorylated and the resultant L-GAP is converted into sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) before being incorporated into the bacterial phosphoglycerides. Cell-free bacterial extracts catalyzed an NADPH-dependent reduction of L-GAP to sn-G3P. The partially purified enzyme was specific for L-GAP and recognized neither D-GAP nor dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. NADH could not replace NADPH as a coenzyme. The L-GAP:NADPH oxidoreductase had an apparent K/sub m/ of 28 and 35 ..mu..M for L-GAP and NADPH, respectively. The enzyme was insensitive to sulfhydryl reagents and had a pH optimum of approximately 6.6. The phosphonic acid analog of GAP, 3-hydroxy-4-oxobutyl-1-phosphonate, was a substrate for the reductase, with an apparent K/sub m/ of 280 ..mu..M.

  16. A Korean patient with glutaric aciduria type 1 with a novel mutation in the glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Su; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Jeehun; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Ji Hye; Shin, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Dong Kyu; Lee, Munhyang

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene can result in Glutaric aciduria type 1(GA 1) by accumulation of glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OH-GA), and glutarylcarnitine (C5DC). GA 1 is characterized by macrocephaly, subdural hemorrhage (SDH), and dystonic movement disorder after acute encephalopathic crisis. We report a Korean patient with GA1 and a novel mutation. A 16-month-old boy presented with SDH, macrocephaly, and developmental delay. In the neurologic examination, the patient had mild axial hypotonia, but otherwise normal neurologic functions. The brain MRI showed large amounts of bilateral SDH and high signal intensity in both basal ganglia and thalamus. Metabolic screening tests detected highly elevated urinary GA levels but 3-OH-glutaric acid was normal. C5DC was 0.94 μM/L (reference range < 0.3 μM/L). The patient had compound heterozygous mutations of the GCDH gene: p.Arg257Gln (c.770G>A) and p.Cys308Arg (c.922T>C). p.Cys308Arg is a novel mutation; reports of p.Arg257Gln were also rare both in Caucasians and Asian populations. In summary, we hereby report one Korean patient with GA1 with clinical, biochemical, and radiologic characteristics confirmed by genetic analysis.

  17. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-03-06

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes.

  18. The Analysis of Polymorphism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) Gene and Influence of Liver Function Status in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suhartini; Mustofa; Nurhantari, Yudha; Rianto, Bambang Udji Djoko

    2017-01-31

    Indonesian culture actually has no historical record of behaviors in consuming alcohol, but there are many recent reports of alcohol abuse among Asian people involving their traditional drink. In genotype studies, the damage of the liver caused by consuming alcohol is influenced by the presence of the polymorphism enzyme gene. The lack of study regarding such topic is a signal to further investigate ADH3 gene distribution and its effect on liver function status. The total of 197 research subjects of Javanese descent received alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) genetic polymorphism and liver status tests in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesian. An analytical study with a cross-sectional design was then conducted on the subjects, with the resulting isolated DNAs amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genotype of ADH3 was determined by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using Ssp1 restricting enzyme. Liver function status was assessed by measuring serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) using a photometric system. Gene types of ADH3*1 (2.1%), ADH3*2 (82.7%) and ADH3*1/3*2 (15.2%) on the subjects were concluded, finding that there is no difference between the gender. In conclusion most of the ADH3 gene polymorphism of the subjects were ADH3*2 (82.7%). The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the status of liver function in the subjects showed significant difference according to GGT measurement, but the same cannot be said on the other two values measuring SGOT and SGPT.

  19. Heterologous expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Ammopiptanthus nanus confers high salt and heat tolerance to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Ge; Yong, Tai-Ming; She, Yue-Hui; Fu, Feng-Ling; Li, Wan-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the synthesis of glycine betaine, a regulator of osmosis, and therefore BADH is considered to play a significant role in response of plants to abiotic stresses. Here, based on the conserved residues of the deduced amino acid sequences of the homologous BADH genes, we cloned the AnBADH gene from the xerophytic leguminous plant Ammopiptanthus nanus by using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA is 1,868 bp long without intron, and contains an open reading frame of 1512 bp, and 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions of 294 and 62 bp. It encodes a 54.71 kDa protein of 503 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology, conserved amino acid residues and sequence motifs crucial for the function with the BADHs in other leguminous species. The sequence of the open reading frame was used to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pET32a-AnBADH, and transform Escherichia coli. The transformants expressed the heterologous AnBADH gene under the induction of isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and demonstrated significant enhancement of salt and heat tolerance under the stress conditions of 700 mmol L(-1) NaCl and 55°C high temperature. This result suggests that the AnBADH gene might play a crucial role in adaption of A. nanus to the abiotic stresses, and have the potential to be applied to transgenic operations of commercially important crops for improvement of abiotic tolerance.

  20. The pca-pob supraoperonic cluster of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus contains quiA, the structural gene for quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Elsemore, D A; Ornston, L N

    1994-01-01

    An 18-kbp Acinetobacter calcoaceticus chromosomal segment contains the pcaIJFBDKCHG operon, which is required for catabolism of protocatechuate, and pobSRA, genes associated with conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. The genetic function of the 6.5 kbp of DNA between pcaG and pobS was unknown. Deletions in this DNA were designed by removal of fragments between restriction sites, and the deletion mutations were introduced into A. calcoaceticus by natural transformation. The mutations prevented growth with either quinate or shikimate, growth substrates that depend upon qui gene function for their catabolism to protocatechuate. The location of quiA, a gene encoding quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase, was indicated by its expression in one of the deletion mutants, and the position of the gene was confirmed by determination of its 2,427-bp nucleotide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of QuiA confirmed that it is a member of a family of membrane-associated, pyrrolo-quinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases, as had been suggested by earlier biochemical investigations. Catabolism of quinate and skikimate is initiated by NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases in other microorganisms, so it is evident that different gene pools were called upon to provide the ancestral enzyme for this metabolic step. Images PMID:8002591

  1. Enhanced drought and heat stress tolerance of tobacco plants with ectopically enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Macková, Hana; Hronková, Marie; Dobrá, Jana; Turečková, Veronika; Novák, Ondřej; Lubovská, Zuzana; Motyka, Václav; Haisel, Daniel; Hájek, Tomáš; Prášil, Ilja Tom; Gaudinová, Alena; Štorchová, Helena; Ge, Eva; Werner, Tomáš; Schmülling, Thomas; Vanková, Radomíra

    2013-07-01

    Responses to drought, heat, and combined stress were compared in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants ectopically expressing the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase CKX1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana L. under the control of either the predominantly root-expressed WRKY6 promoter or the constitutive 35S promoter, and in the wild type. WRKY6:CKX1 plants exhibited high CKX activity in the roots under control conditions. Under stress, the activity of the WRKY6 promoter was down-regulated and the concomitantly reduced cytokinin degradation coincided with raised bioactive cytokinin levels during the early phase of the stress response, which might contribute to enhanced stress tolerance of this genotype. Constitutive expression of CKX1 resulted in an enlarged root system, a stunted, dwarf shoot phenotype, and a low basal level of expression of the dehydration marker gene ERD10B. The high drought tolerance of this genotype was associated with a relatively moderate drop in leaf water potential and a significant decrease in leaf osmotic potential. Basal expression of the proline biosynthetic gene P5CSA was raised. Both wild-type and WRKY6:CKX1 plants responded to heat stress by transient elevation of stomatal conductance, which correlated with an enhanced abscisic acid catabolism. 35S:CKX1 transgenic plants exhibited a small and delayed stomatal response. Nevertheless, they maintained a lower leaf temperature than the other genotypes. Heat shock applied to drought-stressed plants exaggerated the negative stress effects, probably due to the additional water loss caused by a transient stimulation of transpiration. The results indicate that modulation of cytokinin levels may positively affect plant responses to abiotic stress through a variety of physiological mechanisms.

  2. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  3. Cloning and functional analysis of adhS gene encoding quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase subunit III from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108.

    PubMed

    Masud, Uraiwan; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Theeragool, Gunjana

    2010-03-31

    The adhS gene which encodes the smallest subunit, subunit III, of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108 has been cloned and characterized. The role of this subunit on the function of PQQ-ADH was investigated by construction of adhS gene disruptant and mutants. The adhS gene disruptant completely lost its PQQ-ADH activity and acetate-producing ability but retained acetic acid toleration. In contrast, this disruptant grew well, even better than the wild type, in the ethanol containing medium even though its PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability was completely lost, while NAD(+)-dependent ADH (NAD(+)-ADH) was induced. Heme staining and immunoblot analysis of both membrane and soluble fractions with anti-ADH subunit III suggested that ethanol did not affect the adhS gene expression but induced PQQ-ADH activity. Over-expressed adhS did not enhance acetic acid production in both the wild type and the adhS disruptant. In addition, deletion analysis of upstream region of adhS gene suggested that its tentative promoter(s) might be located at around 118-268 bp upstream from an initiation codon. Random mutagenesis of adhS gene revealed that complete loss of PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability were observed in the mutants' lack of the 140 and 73 amino acid residues at the C-terminal, whereas the lack of 22 amino acid residues at the C-terminal affected neither the PQQ-ADH activity nor ethanol oxidizing ability. In addition, some amino acid substitutions such as Leu18Gln, Ala26Val, Val36Ile, Val54Ile, Gly55Asp, Val70Ala and Val107Ala did not show any affect on PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. Interestingly, alteration of Thr104Lys led to a complete loss of ethanol oxidizing ability. However, point mutation at the possible promoter region also exhibited low PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. This result suggests that 104Thr might be involved in molecular coupling with subunit I in order

  4. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  5. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  6. The chromatin structure at the promoter of a glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reflects its functional state.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, B; Hörz, W

    1988-01-01

    The chromatin structure of TDH3, one of three genes encoding glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was analyzed by nuclease digestion. A large hypersensitive region was found at the TDH3 promoter extending from the RNA initiation site at position -40 to position -560. This hypersensitive domain is nucleosome free and includes all putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements. It is equally present in cells grown on fermentable as well as nonfermentable carbon sources. In a mutant which lacks the trans-activating protein GCR1 and which as a consequence expresses TDH3 at less than 5% of the wild-type level, the chromatin structure is different. Hypersensitivity between -40 and -370 is lost, due to the deposition of nucleosomes on a stretch that is nucleosome free in wild-type cells. Hypersensitivity is retained, however, further upstream (from -370 to -560). A similarly altered chromatin structure, as in a ger1 mutant, is found in wild-type cells when they approach stationary phase. This is the first evidence for a growth-dependent regulation of the TDH3 promoter. Images PMID:2854200

  7. A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

    2014-07-01

    Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124.

  8. Gene cloning and expression of Leifsonia alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH) involved in asymmetric hydrogen-transfer bioreduction to produce (R)-form chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kousuke; Makino, Yoshihide; Dairi, Tohru; Itoh, Nobuya

    2006-02-01

    The gene encoding Leifsonia alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH), a useful biocatalyst for producing (R)-chiral alcohols, was cloned from the genomic DNA of Leifsonia sp. S749. The gene contained an opening reading frame consisting of 756 nucleotides corresponding to 251 amino acid residues. The subunit molecular weight was calculated to be 24,999, which was consistent with that determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity by three column chromatographies. The predicted amino acid sequence displayed 30-50% homology to known short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs); moreover, the NADH-binding site and the three catalytic residues in SDRs were conserved. The recombinant E. coli cells which overexpressed lsadh produced (R)-form chiral alcohols from ketones using 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor with the highest level of productivity ever reported and enantiomeric excess (e.e.).

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-associated genes in rat liver: regional coinduction of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 and glutathione transferase Ya.

    PubMed

    Lindros, K O; Oinonen, T; Kettunen, E; Sippel, H; Muro-Lupori, C; Koivusalo, M

    1998-02-15

    The tumor-associated aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 (ALDH3) and the glutathione transferase (GST)Ya form are coded by members of the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) battery group of genes activated in the liver by polycyclic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The physiological role of the Ah receptor (AHR), its gene-activating mechanism and its endogenous ligands are still poorly clarified. We had previously observed that 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) induced the AHR-associated CYP1A1/1A2 pair in different liver regions, an effect not explained by the acinar distribution of the AHR protein. Here, we investigated AHR-associated regional induction by comparing the expression patterns of ALDH3 and GSTYa. Analysis of samples from periportal and perivenous cell lysates from 3MC-treated animals revealed that ALDH3 mRNA, protein and benzaldehyde-NADP associated activity were all confined to the perivenous region. In contrast, such regio-specific induction was not seen after beta-NF induction. Immunohistochemically, a peculiar mono- or oligocellular induction pattern of ALDH3 was seen, consistently surrounding terminal hepatic veins after 3MC but mainly in the midzonal region after betaNF. A ligand-specific difference in regional induction of GSTYa1 mRNA was also observed: The constitutive perivenous dominance was preserved after 3MC while induction by betaNF was mainly periportal. A 3MC-betaNF difference was also seen by immunohistochemistry and at the GSTYa protein level, in contrast to that of the AHR-unassociated GSTYb protein. However, experiments with hepatocytes isolated from the periportal or perivenous region to replicate these inducer-specific induction responses in vitro were unsuccessful. These data demonstrate that the different acinar induction patterns by 3MC and betaNF previously observed for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are seen also for two other Ah battery genes, GSTYa1 and ALDH3, but in a modified, gene-specific form. We

  10. Improved production of homo-D-lactic acid via xylose fermentation by introduction of xylose assimilation genes and redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-Lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    The production of optically pure d-lactic acid via xylose fermentation was achieved by using a Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase genes were replaced with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 60 h of fermentation, 41.2 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of xylose.

  11. Association between aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and the phenomenon of field cancerization in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Muto, Manabu; Nakane, Mari; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Ebihara, Satoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu

    2002-10-01

    Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma in the head and neck (HNSCC) often develop second primary esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas (ESCC). In addition, widespread epithelial oncogenic alterations are also frequently observed in the esophagus and can be made visible as multiple Lugol-voiding lesions (multiple LVL) by Lugol chromoendoscopy. Multiple occurrences of neoplastic change in the upper aerodigestive tract have been explained by the concept of 'field cancerization', usually associated with repeated exposure to carcinogens such as alcohol and cigarette smoke. However, the etiology of second ESCC in HNSCC patients remains unclear and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been implicated as the ultimate carcinogen in alcohol-related carcinogenesis. We first investigated the relation between second ESCC and multiple LVL in 78 HNSCC patients. Multiple LVL and second ESCC were observed in 29 (37%) and 21 (27%) patients, respectively. All of the second ESCC were accompanied by multiple LVL. This may indicate that episodes of multiple LVL are precursors for second ESCC. We then examined the association of multiple LVL with the patients' characteristics, including genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2). We also investigated acetaldehyde concentrations in the breath of 52 of the 78 patients. All the patients with multiple LVL were both drinkers and smokers. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that the inactive ALDH2 allele (ALDH2-2) was the strongest contributing factor for the development of multiple LVL (odds ratio 17.6; 95% confidence intervals 4.7-65.3). After alcohol ingestion, acetaldehyde in the breath was elevated to a significantly higher level in all patients with the ALDH2-2 allele than in those without it. The high levels of breath acetaldehyde were significantly modified by the slow-metabolizing ADH3-2 allele. These results reveal strong

  12. Characterization of new medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases adds resolution to duplications of the class I/III and the sub-class I genes.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Ella; Hedlund, Joel; Hjelmqvist, Lars; Jonsson, Andreas; Shafqat, Jawed; Norin, Annika; Keung, Wing-Ming; Persson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans

    2011-05-30

    Four additional variants of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases have been purified and functionally characterized, and their primary structures have been determined. The results allow conclusions about the structural and evolutionary relationships within the large family of MDR alcohol dehydrogenases from characterizations of the pigeon (Columba livia) and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) major liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The pigeon enzyme turns out to be of class I type and the dogfish enzyme of class III type. This result gives a third type of evidence, based on purifications and enzyme characterization in lower vertebrates, that the classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase originated by a gene duplication early in the evolution of vertebrates. It is discernable as the major liver form at about the level in-between cartilaginous and osseous fish. The results also show early divergence within the avian orders. Structures were determined by Edman degradations, making it appropriate to acknowledge the methodological contributions of Pehr Edman during the 65 years since his thesis at Karolinska Institutet, where also the present analyses were performed.

  13. Targeted Disruption of the kstD Gene Encoding a 3-Ketosteroid Δ1-Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme of Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain SQ1

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; Hessels, G. I.; van Gerwen, R.; Vrijbloed, J. W.; van der Meijden, P.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Microbial phytosterol degradation is accompanied by the formation of steroid pathway intermediates, which are potential precursors in the synthesis of bioactive steroids. Degradation of these steroid intermediates is initiated by Δ1-dehydrogenation of the steroid ring structure. Characterization of a 2.9-kb DNA fragment of Rhodococcus erythropolis SQ1 revealed an open reading frame (kstD) showing similarity with known 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase genes. Heterologous expression of kstD yielded 3-ketosteroid Δ1-dehydrogenase (KSTD) activity under the control of the lac promoter in Escherichia coli. Targeted disruption of the kstD gene in R. erythropolis SQ1 was achieved, resulting in loss of more than 99% of the KSTD activity. However, growth on the steroid substrate 4-androstene-3,17-dione or 9α-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione was not abolished by the kstD gene disruption. Bioconversion of phytosterols was also not blocked at the level of Δ1-dehydrogenation in the kstD mutant strain, since no accumulation of steroid pathway intermediates was observed. Thus, inactivation of kstD is not sufficient for inactivation of the Δ1-dehydrogenase activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell extracts stained for KSTD activity showed that R. erythropolis SQ1 in fact harbors two activity bands, one of which is absent in the kstD mutant strain. PMID:10788377

  14. Anaerobic energy-yielding reaction associated with transhydrogenation from glycerol 3-phosphate to fumarate by an Escherichia coli system.

    PubMed

    Miki, K; Lin, E C

    1975-12-01

    A particulate subcellular fraction from Escherichia coli K-12 induced in anaerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase can catalyze under anaerobic conditions the transfer of hydrogens from G3P to fumarate, with attendant generation of high-energy phosphate. The phsophorylation process is more sensitive than the transhydrogenation process to inhibition by the detergent Triton X-100. The same is true with respect to sensitivity to sodium azide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Such a preparation derived from cells with beta-galactoside permease can accumulate thiomethyl beta-D-galactoside anaerobically, and the accumulation can be stimulated twofold by adding G3P and fumarate. Mutants lacking the membrane-associated Mg2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase cannot grow anaerobically on glycerol with fumarate as the hydrogen acceptor, although they can grow aerobically on glycerol alone.

  15. Anaerobic energy-yielding reaction associated with transhydrogenation from glycerol 3-phosphate to fumarate by an Escherichia coli system.

    PubMed Central

    Miki, K; Lin, E C

    1975-01-01

    A particulate subcellular fraction from Escherichia coli K-12 induced in anaerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase can catalyze under anaerobic conditions the transfer of hydrogens from G3P to fumarate, with attendant generation of high-energy phosphate. The phsophorylation process is more sensitive than the transhydrogenation process to inhibition by the detergent Triton X-100. The same is true with respect to sensitivity to sodium azide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Such a preparation derived from cells with beta-galactoside permease can accumulate thiomethyl beta-D-galactoside anaerobically, and the accumulation can be stimulated twofold by adding G3P and fumarate. Mutants lacking the membrane-associated Mg2+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase cannot grow anaerobically on glycerol with fumarate as the hydrogen acceptor, although they can grow aerobically on glycerol alone. PMID:127785

  16. Crystal structure of the MJ0490 gene product of the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Methanococcus jannaschii, a novel member of the lactate/malate family of dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Lee, B I; Chang, C; Cho, S J; Eom, S H; Kim, K K; Yu, Y G; Suh, S W

    2001-04-13

    The MJ0490 gene, one of the only two genes of Methanococcus jannaschii showing sequence similarity to the lactate/malate family of dehydrogenases, was classified initially as coding for a putative l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It has been re-classified as a malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, because it shows significant sequence similarity to MT0188, MDH II from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain DeltaH. The three-dimensional structure of its gene product has been determined in two crystal forms: a "dimeric" structure in the orthorhombic crystal at 1.9 A resolution and a "tetrameric" structure in the tetragonal crystal at 2.8 A. These structures share a similar subunit fold with other LDHs and MDHs. The tetrameric structure resembles typical tetrameric LDHs. The dimeric structure is equivalent to the P-dimer of tetrameric LDHs, unlike dimeric MDHs, which correspond to the Q-dimer. The structure reveals that the cofactor NADP(H) is bound at the active site, despite the fact that it was not intentionally added during protein purification and crystallization. The preference of NADP(H) over NAD(H) has been supported by activity assays. The cofactor preference is explained by the presence of a glycine residue in the cofactor binding pocket (Gly33), which replaces a conserved aspartate (or glutamate) residue in other NAD-dependent LDHs or MDHs. Preference for NADP(H) is contributed by hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of the monophosphate group and the ribose sugar of adenosine in NADP(H) and the side-chains of Ser9, Arg34, His36, and Ser37. The MDH activity of MJ0490 is made possible by Arg86, which is conserved in MDHs but not in LDHs. The enzymatic assay showed that the MJ0490 protein possesses the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated LDH activity (reduction). Thus the MJ0490 gene product appears to be a novel member of the lactate/malate dehydrogenase family, displaying an LDH scaffold and exhibiting a relaxed substrate and cofactor specificities in NADP

  17. Mutational study in the PDHA1 gene of 40 patients suspected of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Quintana, E; Gort, L; Busquets, C; Navarro-Sastre, A; Lissens, W; Moliner, S; Lluch, M; Vilaseca, M A; De Meirleir, L; Ribes, A; Briones, P

    2010-05-01

    We screened for PDHA1 mutations in 40 patients with biochemically demonstrated PDHc deficiency or strong clinical suspicion, and found changes with probable pathological significance in 20. Five patients presented new mutations: p.A169V, c.932_938del, c.1143_1144 ins24, c.1146_1159dup and c.510-30G> A, this latter is a new undescribed cause of exon 6 skipping. Another four mutations have been found, and previously reported, in our patients: p.H113D, p.P172L, p.Y243del and p.Y369Q. Eleven patients presented seven known mutations: p.R127Q, p.I166I, p.A198T, p.R263G, p.R302C, p.R378C and c.1142_1145dup. The latter three were found in more than one unrelated patient: p.R302C was detected in a heterozygous girl and a mosaic male, p.R378C in two males and finally, c.1142_1145dup in three females; only one in 20 mothers was found to be a carrier (p.R263G). Apart from those 20 patients, the only alteration detected in one girl with clear PDHc and PDH-E1 deficiency was the silent change c.396A> C (p.R132R), and other eight PDHc deficient patients carry combinations of known infrequent polymorphisms that are overrepresented among our 20 unsolved patients. The importance of these changes on PDH activity is unclear. Investigations in the other PDHc genes are in course in order to elucidate the genetic defect in the unresolved patients.

  18. Co-expression of two heterologous lactate dehydrogenases genes in Kluyveromyces marxianus for l-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; In, Jung Hoon; Park, Joon-Bum; Shin, Jonghyeok; Park, Jin Hwan; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Jin-Byoung; Kim, Soo Rin; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2017-01-10

    Lactic acid (LA) is a versatile compound used in the food, pharmaceutical, textile, leather, and chemical industries. Biological production of LA is possible by yeast strains expressing a bacterial gene encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging non-conventional yeast with various phenotypes of industrial interest. However, it has not been extensively studied for LA production. In this study, K. marxianus was engineered to express and co-express various heterologous LDH enzymes that were reported to have different pH optimums. Specifically, three LDH enzymes originating from Staphylococcus epidermidis (SeLDH; optimal at pH 5.6), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LaLDH; optimal at pH 5.3), and Bos taurus (BtLDH; optimal at pH 9.8) were functionally expressed individually and in combination in K. marxianus, and the resulting strains were compared in terms of LA production. A strain co-expressing SeLDH and LaLDH (KM5 La+SeLDH) produced 16.0g/L LA, whereas the strains expressing those enzymes individually produced only 8.4 and 6.8g/L, respectively. This co-expressing strain produced 24.0g/L LA with a yield of 0.48g/g glucose in the presence of CaCO3. Our results suggest that co-expression of LDH enzymes with different pH optimums provides sufficient LDH activity under dynamic intracellular pH conditions, leading to enhanced production of LA compared to individual expression of the LDH enzymes.

  19. Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with over 60,000 non-redundant sequences in the database, many of which need a correct functional assignment. Among them, the gene AAC16202.1 (NCBI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 has been assigned in Uniprot both as a sorbitol dehydrogenase (#D5AUY1) and, as an N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (#O66112), both enzymes being of biotechnological interest. When the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLys, the purified enzyme was not active toward N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, whereas it was active toward d-sorbitol and d-fructose. However, the relative activities toward xylitol and l-iditol (0.45 and 6.9%, respectively) were low compared with that toward d-sorbitol. Thus, the enzyme could be considered sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) with very low activity toward xylitol, which could increase its biotechnological interest for determining sorbitol without the unspecific cross-determination of added xylitol in food and pharma compositions. The tetrameric enzyme (120 kDa) showed similar catalytic efficiency (2.2 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) to other sorbitol dehydrogenases for d-sorbitol, with an optimum pH of 9.0 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The enzyme was also more thermostable than other reported SDH, ammonium sulfate being the best stabilizer in this respect, increasing the melting temperature (T(m)) up to 52.9 °C. The enzyme can also be considered as a new member of the Zn(2+) independent SDH family since no effect on activity was detected in the presence of divalent cations or chelating agents. Finally, its in silico analysis enabled the specific conserved sequence blocks that are the fingerprints of bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases and mainly located at C-terminal of the protein, to be determined for the first time. This knowledge will facilitate future data curation of present databases and a better functional assignment of newly described

  20. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of ArabidopsisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Gregory; Pollet, Brigitte; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise; Séguin, Armand

    2005-01-01

    During lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms, coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes are believed to be converted into their corresponding alcohols by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and by sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively. This work clearly shows that CAD-C and CAD-D act as the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis thaliana by supplying both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. An Arabidopsis CAD double mutant (cad-c cad-d) resulted in a phenotype with a limp floral stem at maturity as well as modifications in the pattern of lignin staining. Lignin content of the mutant stem was reduced by 40%, with a 94% reduction, relative to the wild type, in conventional β-O-4–linked guaiacyl and syringyl units and incorportion of coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that both xylem vessels and fibers were affected. GeneChip data and real-time PCR analysis revealed that transcription of CAD homologs and other genes mainly involved in cell wall integrity were also altered in the double mutant. In addition, molecular complementation of the double mutant by tissue-specific expression of CAD derived from various species suggests different abilities of these genes/proteins to produce syringyl-lignin moieties but does not indicate a requirement for any specific SAD gene. PMID:15937231

  1. Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang-Jeong; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD+ regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose. PMID:27279026

  2. Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sang-Jeong; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-06-09

    Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD(+) regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose.

  3. Homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose by redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-08-01

    Optically pure d-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose was achieved by using the Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase gene was substituted with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 27 h of fermentation, 38.6 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of arabinose.

  4. Characterization of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kelly A; Grove, Theresa J; Oldham, Corey A; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2017-02-01

    Hearts of Antarctic icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei, family Channichthyidae) have higher densities of mitochondria, and mitochondria have higher densities of phospholipids, compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. There are four isoforms of GPAT in vertebrates; GPAT1 and GPAT2 are localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, whereas GPAT3 and GPAT4 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We hypothesized that transcript levels of GPAT1 and/or GPAT2 would mirror densities of mitochondrial phospholipids and be higher in the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus compared to the red-blooded species Notothenia coriiceps. Transcript levels of GPAT1 were quantified in heart ventricles and liver using qRT-PCR. Additionally, GPAT1 cDNA was sequenced in the Antarctic notothenioids, C. aceratus and N. coriiceps, and in the sub-Antarctic notothenioid, Eleginops maclovinus, to identify amino acid substitutions that may maintain GPAT1 function at cold temperature. Transcript levels of GPAT1 were higher in liver compared to heart ventricles but were not significantly different between the two species. In contrast, transcripts of GPAT2 were only detected in ventricle where they were 6.6-fold higher in C. aceratus compared to N. coriiceps. These data suggest GPAT1 may be more important for synthesizing triacylglycerol, whereas GPAT2 may regulate synthesis of phospholipids. GPAT1 amino acid sequences are highly conserved among the three notothenioids with 97.9-98.7% identity. Four amino acid substitutions within the cytosolic region of Antarctic notothenioid GPAT1 may maintain conformational changes necessary for binding and catalysis at cold temperature.

  5. Molecular cloning, partial genomic structure and functional characterization of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase genes from the parasitic insects Lucilia cuprina and Ctenocephalides felis.

    PubMed

    Rothacker, B; Werr, M; Ilg, T

    2008-06-01

    The enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; EC1.2.1.24) is a component of the gamma-aminobutyric acid degradation pathway in mammals and is essential for development and function of the nervous system. Here we report the identification, cDNA cloning and functional expression of SSADH from the parasitic insects Lucilia cuprina and Ctenocephalides felis. The recombinant proteins possess potent NAD+-dependent SSADH activity, while their catalytic efficiency for other aldehyde substrates is lower. A genomic copy of the L. cuprina SSADH gene contains two introns, while a genomic gene version of C. felis is devoid of introns. In contrast to the single copy SSADH genes in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, in L. cuprina and C. felis, multiple SSADH gene copies are present in the genome.

  6. Genetic improvement of Escherichia coli for ethanol production: Chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Beall, D.S.; Mejia, J.P.; Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O. )

    1991-04-01

    Zymomonas mobilis genes for pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) were integrated into the Escherichia coli chromosome within or near the pyruvate formate-lyase gene (pfl). Integration improved the stability of the Z. mobilis genes in E. coli, but further selection was required to increase expression. Spontaneous mutants were selected for resistance to high levels of chloramphenicol that also expressed high levels of the Z. mobilis genes. Analogous mutants were selected for increased expression of alcohol dehydrogenase on aldehyde indicator plates. These mutants were functionally equivalent to the previous plasmid-based strains for the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol. Ethanol concentrations of 54.4 and 41.6 g/liter were obtained from 10% glucose and 8% xylose, respectively. The efficiency of conversion exceeded theoretical limits (0.51 g of ethanol/g of sugar) on the basis of added sugars because of the additional production of ethanol from the catabolism of complex nutrients. Further mutations were introduced to inactivate succinate production (frd) and to block homologous recombination (recA).

  7. Transport of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, an analogue of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Z; Engel, R; Tropp, B E

    1977-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate (DHBP), an analogue of glycerol 3-phosphate, is actively transported by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli strain 8. The Km for the transport of DHBP is 200 microM. PMID:400804

  8. Direct nonchromatographic assay for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekharan, R.; Ray, T.K.; Cronan, J.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) which catalyzes the acylation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid is generally assayed by the use of a radioactive substrate followed by a time-consuming chromatographic separation of substrate and product. We report a direct and highly sensitive nonchromatographic assay for this enzyme based on the ability of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not phosphatidic acid. This selective hydrolysis coupled with the use of /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as substrate permits measurement of the product, /sup 32/P-labeled phosphatidic acid by solvent extraction or precipitation. We also report a series of enzymatic reactions for the efficient conversion of /sup 32/Pi to /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  9. D-arabitol metabolism in Candida albicans: studies of the biosynthetic pathway and the gene that encodes NAD-dependent D-arabitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, B; Murray, J S; Castellanos, M; Croen, K D

    1993-01-01

    Candida albicans produces large amounts of the pentitol D-arabitol in culture and in infected mammalian hosts, but the functional and pathogenic significance of D-arabitol in C. albicans is not known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the pathway by which C. albicans synthesizes D-arabitol and to identify and characterize key enzymes in this pathway. C. albicans B311 produced D-[14C-1]arabitol from [14C-2]glucose; this finding implies on structural grounds that D-ribulose-5-PO4 from the pentose pathway is the major metabolic precursor of D-arabitol. NAD- or NADP-dependent pentitol dehydrogenases catalyze the final steps in D-arabitol biosynthesis in other fungi; therefore, lysates of C. albicans B311 were tested for enzymes of this class and were found to contain a previously unknown NAD-dependent D-arabitol dehydrogenase (ArDH). The ArDH structural gene was cloned by constructing a new D-arabitol utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. The C. albicans ArDH gene expressed in E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction D-arabitol + NAD <-->D-ribulose + NADH; this gene was present as a single copy per haploid genome, and its deduced peptide sequence was homologous with sequences of several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase family of enzymes. These results suggest that (i) C. albicans synthesizes D-arabitol by dephosphorylating and reducing the pentose pathway intermediate D-ribulose-5-PO4 and (ii) ArDH catalyzes the final step in this pathway. Images PMID:8407803

  10. Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the upstream region of the GDH2 gene, which encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for elements important for the regulation of the gene by the nitrogen source. The levels of this enzyme are high in cells grown with glutamate as the sole source of nitrogen and low in cells grown with glutamine or ammonium. We found that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription and that a total of six sites are required to cause a CYC1-lacZ fusion to the GDH2 gene to be regulated in the same manner as the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. Two sites behaved as upstream activation sites (UASs). The remaining four sites were found to block the effects of the two UASs in such a way that the GDH2-CYC1-lacZ fusion was not expressed unless the cells containing it were grown under conditions favorable for the activity of both UASs. This complex regulatory system appears to account for the fact that GDH2 expression is exquisitely sensitive to glutamine, whereas the expression of GLN1, coding for glutamine synthetase, is not nearly as sensitive. Images PMID:1682801

  11. Expression of the murine retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10) gene correlates with many sites of retinoid signalling during embryogenesis and organ differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cammas, Laura; Romand, Raymond; Fraulob, Valérie; Mura, Carole; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-10-01

    Retinoic acid acts as a signalling molecule regulating many developmental events in vertebrates. As this molecule directly influences gene expression by activating nuclear receptors, its patterns of synthesis have to be tightly regulated, and it is well established that at least three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) are involved in such tissue-specific synthesis. Whereas embryos from oviparous species can obtain retinaldehyde by metabolizing carotenoids stored in the yolk, placental embryos rely on retinol transferred from the maternal circulation. Here, we show that the gene encoding one of the murine retinol dehydrogenases, Rdh10, is expressed according to complex profiles both during early embryogenesis and organ differentiation. Many of its expression sites correlate with regions of active retinoid signalling and Raldh gene expression, especially with Raldh2 in the early presomitic and somitic mesoderm, retrocardiac and posterior branchial arch region, or later in the pleural mesothelium and kidney cortical region. Rdh10 also shows cell-type and/or regional specificity during development of the palate, teeth, and olfactory system. During limb bud development, it may participate in retinoic acid production in proximal/posterior cells, and eventually in interdigital mesenchyme. These data implicate the retinol to retinaldehyde conversion as the first step in the tissue-specific regulation of retinoic acid synthesis, at least in mammalian embryos.

  12. A new regulatory element mediates ethanol repression of KlADH3, a Kluyveromyces lactis gene coding for a mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Saliola, Michele; Getuli, Claudia; Mazzoni, Cristina; Fantozzi, Ivana; Falcone, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    KlADH3 is a Kluyveromyces lactis alcohol dehydrogenase gene induced in the presence of all respiratory carbon sources except ethanol, which specifically represses this gene. Deletion analysis of the KlADH3 promoter revealed the presence of both positive and negative elements. However, by site-directed mutagenesis and gel retardation experiments, we identified a 15-bp element responsible for the transcriptional repression of this gene by ethanol. In particular, this element showed putative sites required for the sequential binding of ethanol-induced factors responsible for the repressed conditions, and the binding of additional factors relieved repression. In addition, we showed that the ethanol element was required for in vivo repression of KlAdh3 activity.

  13. Lignin and lignans in plant defence: insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus.

    PubMed

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Barakat, Abdelali; Lakomy, Piotr; Smoliński, Dariusz J; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella. The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes (PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

  14. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae.

  15. Compound heterozygous mutations of ACADS gene in newborn with short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: case report and literatures review

    PubMed Central

    An, Se Jin; Kim, Sook Za; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is a rare autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder of fatty acid β-oxidation, and is associated with mutations in the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADS) gene. Recent advances in spectrometric screening for inborn errors of metabolism have helped detect several metabolic disorders, including SCADD, without symptoms in the neonate period. This allows immediate initiation of treatment and monitoring, so they remain largely symptomless metabolic disease. Here, we report a 15-month-old asymptomatic male, who was diagnosed with SCADD by newborn screening. Spectrometric screening for inborn errors of metabolism 72 hours after birth revealed an elevated butyrylcarnitine (C4) concentration of 2.25 µmol/L (normal, <0.99 µmol/L). Urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid was also elevated, as detected by urine organic acid analysis. To confirm the diagnosis of SCADD, direct sequencing analysis of 10 coding exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the ACADS gene were performed. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed compound heterozygous missense mutations c.164C>T (p.Pro55Leu) and c.1031A>G (p.Glu344Gly) on exons 2 and 9, respectively. The patient is now growing up, unretarded by symptoms such as seizure and developmental delay. PMID:28018444

  16. Construction of a genomic library of the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and isolation of the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene (ZbLEU2).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, F; Zeeman, A M; Alves, C; Sousa, M J; Steensma, H Y; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2001-04-01

    A genomic library of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 was constructed in pRS316, a shuttle vector for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. The library has an average insert size of 6 kb and covers the genome more than 20 times assuming a genome size similar to that of S. cerevisiae. This new tool has been successfully used, by us and others, to isolate Z. bailii genes. One example is the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene (ZbLEU2) of Z. bailii, which was cloned by complementation of a leu2 mutation in S. cerevisiae. An open reading frame encoding a protein with a molecular mass of 38.7 kDa was found. The nucleotide sequence of ZbLEU2 and the deduced amino acid sequence showed a significant degree of identity to those of beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenases from several other yeast species. The sequence of ZbLEU2 has been deposited in the EMBL data library under accession number AJ292544.

  17. Uptake of glycerol 3-phosphate and some of its analogs by the hexose phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Guth, A; Engel, R; Tropp, B E

    1980-01-01

    The hexose phosphate transport system transported glycerol 3-phosphate and its analogs 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and 3-hydroxy-4-oxobutyl-1-phosphonate. PMID:6995450

  18. A Novel de novo Mutation in the G6PD Gene in a Korean Boy with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Ki-O; Kim, Sun-Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hemolytic anemia caused by a mutation in the G6PD gene on Xq28. Herein, we describe a Korean boy with G6PD deficiency resulting from a novel mutation in G6PD. A 20-month-old boy with hemolytic anemia was referred for molecular diagnosis. He had no relevant family history. The G6PD activity was severely decreased at 0.2 U/g Hb (severe deficiency). Direct sequencing analyses on the G6PD gene revealed that he was hemizygous for a novel missense variant, c.1187C>G (p.Pro396Arg), in exon 10 of G6PD. Family study involving his parents revealed the de novo occurrence of the mutation. This is the first report of genetically confirmed G6PD deficiency in Korea.

  19. Three human glutamate dehydrogenase genes (GLUD1, GLUDP2, and GLUDP3) are located on chromosome 10q, but are not closely physically linked

    SciTech Connect

    Deloukas, P.; Loon, A.P.G.M. van ); Dauwerse, J.G.; Ommen, G.J.B. van ); Moschonas, N.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) of 340 and 370 kb that contain the functional human glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD1) and the pseudogene GLUDP2, respectively, were isolated. These genes were not physically linked to each other nor to any other sequences homologous to the exons of GLUD1. No additional GLUD sequences were found within at least 70 kb of the 5[prime] and 175 kb of the 3[prime] end of GLUD1 or 150 kb of either end of GLUDP2. By in situ hybridization, GLUD1 was located at 10q23.3, GLUDP2 at 10q11.2, and another pseudogene of the GLUD gene family, GLUDP3, at 10q22.1. DNA fragments of these three genes showed cross-hybridization to the loci assigned to the other two genes, but not to any other chromosomal locus. Thus, these three genes are located at distinct positions on chromosome 10q. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Pharmacological activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reduces statin-mediated upregulation of FOXO gene targets and protects against statin myopathy in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Joanne E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Glaves, Philip D; Martin, Elizabeth A; Davies, Wendy J; Westwood, F Russell; Sidaway, James E; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2012-12-15

    We previously reported that statin myopathy is associated with impaired carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in fast-twitch rodent skeletal muscle, which we hypothesised occurred as a result of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) gene transcription. Upregulation of FOXO gene targets known to regulate proteasomal and lysosomal muscle protein breakdown was also evident. We hypothesised that increasing CHO oxidation in vivo, using the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activator, dichloroacetate (DCA), would blunt activation of FOXO gene targets and reduce statin myopathy. Female Wistar Hanover rats were dosed daily for 12 days (oral gavage) with either vehicle (control, 0.5% w/v hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose 0.1% w/v polysorbate-80; n = 9), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin (n = 8), 88 mg( )kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9) or 88 mg kg(-1) day(-1) simvastatin + 40 mg kg(-1) day(-1) DCA (n = 9). Compared with control, simvastatin reduced body mass gain and food intake, increased muscle fibre necrosis, plasma creatine kinase levels, muscle PDK4, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and cathepsin-L mRNA expression, increased PDK4 protein expression, and proteasome and cathepsin-L activity, and reduced muscle PDC activity. Simvastatin with DCA maintained body mass gain and food intake, abrogated the myopathy, decreased muscle PDK4 mRNA and protein, MAFbx and cathepsin-L mRNA, increased activity of PDC and reduced proteasome activity compared with simvastatin. PDC activation abolished statin myopathy in rodent skeletal muscle, which occurred at least in part via inhibition of FOXO-mediated transcription of genes regulating muscle CHO utilisation and protein breakdown.

  1. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation constants (Kd) of the complexes of RALDH3 with octanal, NAD+ and NADH were determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The similarity of the Kd values for the complexes with NAD+ and with octanal suggests a random kinetic mechanism for RALDH3, in contrast with the ordered sequential mechanism often associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation. Mechanistic implications of the kinetically influential ionizations with macroscopic pKa values of 5.0 and 7.5 revealed by the pH-dependence of kcat are discussed. Analogies with data for non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans, together with the present modelled structure of the thioacyl RALDH3, suggest (a) that kcat characterizes deacylation of this intermediate for specific substrates and (b) the assignment of the pKa of the major ionization (approximating to 7.5) to the perturbed carboxy group of Glu280 whose conjugate base is envisaged as supplying general base catalysis to attack of a water molecule. The macroscopic pKa of the minor ionization (5.0) is considered to approximate to that of the carboxy group of Glu488. PMID:16241904

  2. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  3. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  4. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  5. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  6. 40 CFR 174.523 - CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate... CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the CP4 Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (CP4 EPSPS) synthase...

  7. Negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate levels in early-to-late endosome conversion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Jian, Youli; Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Chengkui; Gao, Zhiyang; Zhang, Zhili; Liu, Xuezhao; Li, Yang; Xu, Jing; Jing, Yudong; Mitani, Shohei; He, Sudan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) plays a central role in endosome fusion, recycling, sorting, and early-to-late endosome conversion, but the mechanisms that determine how the correct endosomal PtdIns3P level is achieved remain largely elusive. Here we identify two new factors, SORF-1 and SORF-2, as essential PtdIns3P regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of sorf-1 or sorf-2 leads to greatly elevated endosomal PtdIns3P, which drives excessive fusion of early endosomes. sorf-1 and sorf-2 function coordinately with Rab switching genes to inhibit synthesis of PtdIns3P, allowing its turnover for endosome conversion. SORF-1 and SORF-2 act in a complex with BEC-1/Beclin1, and their loss causes elevated activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. In mammalian cells, inactivation of WDR91 and WDR81, the homologs of SORF-1 and SORF-2, induces Beclin1-dependent enlargement of PtdIns3P-enriched endosomes and defective degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. WDR91 and WDR81 interact with Beclin1 and inhibit PI3K complex activity. These findings reveal a conserved mechanism that controls appropriate PtdIns3P levels in early-to-late endosome conversion. PMID:26783301

  8. Inactivation of the Kluyveromyces lactis KlPDA1 gene leads to loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, impairs growth on glucose and triggers aerobic alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, A M; Luttik, M A; Thiele, C; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T; Steensma, H Y

    1998-12-01

    The KlPDA1 gene, encoding the E1alpha subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex was isolated from a Kluyveromyces lactis genomic library by screening with a 1.1 kb internal fragment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDA1 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by KlPDA1 showed 87% similarity and 79% identity to its S. cerevisiae counterpart. Disruption of KIPDA1 resulted in complete absence of PDH activity in cell extracts. The maximum specific growth rate on glucose of null mutants was 3.5-fold lower than that of the wild-type, whereas growth on ethanol was unaffected. Wild-type K. lactis CBS 2359 exhibits a Crabtree-negative phenotype, i.e. no ethanol was produced in aerobic batch cultures grown on glucose. In contrast, substantial amounts of ethanol and acetaldehyde were produced in aerobic cultures of an isogenic Klpda1 null mutant. A wild-type specific growth rate was restored after introduction of an intact KlPDA1 gene but not, as previously found for S. cerevisiae pda1 mutants, by cultivation in the presence of leucine. The occurrence of aerobic fermentation and slow growth of the Klpda1 null mutant indicate that, although present, the enzymes of the PDH bypass (pyruvate decarboxylase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA synthetase) could not efficiently replace the PDH complex during batch cultivation on glucose. Only at relatively low growth rates (D = 0.10 h(-1)) in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures, could the PDH bypass completely replace the PDH complex, thus allowing fully respiratory growth. This resulted in a lower biomass yield [g biomass (g glucose)-1] than in the wild-type due to a higher consumption of ATP in the PDH bypass compared to the formation of acetyl-CoA via the PDH complex.

  9. The Genetics of a Small Autosomal Region of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Containing the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase. II. Lethal Mutations in the Region

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, R. C.; Ashburner, M.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-seven lethal mutations and alleles of nine visible loci (including alcohol dehydrogenase) have been mapped by both deficiency mapping and, in most cases, by recombination mapping to a small region (34D-35C) of chromosome arm 2L of Drosophila melanogaster. The lethals fall into approximately 21 complementation groups, and we estimate that the total number of lethal plus visible complementation groups within the 34-band deficiency, Df(2L)64j, is approximately 34, a remarkable numerical coincidence. The possible genetic significance of this coincidence is discussed. Lethals mapping close to the structural gene for alcohol dehydrogenase, both distally and proximally, have been identified and will be used for the construction of selective crosses for the study of exchange within this locus. Despite many abnormal cytological features (e.g., ectopic pairing, weak points) region 35 of chromosome arm 2L does not display any unusual genetic features; indeed, in terms of the amount of recombination per band and the average map distance between adjacent loci, this region is similar to that between zeste and white on the X chromosome. PMID:115744

  10. Expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and crystallization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Naegleria gruberi, the first one from phylum Percolozoa.

    PubMed

    Machado, Agnes Thiane Pereira; Silva, Marcio; Iulek, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Naegleria gruberi had its genome sequenced by Fritz-Laylin and collaborators in 2010. It is not pathogenic, but has characteristics similar to those of Naegleria fowleri, opportunistic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. N. gruberi genome has contributed to a better understanding of the primitive eukaryotic metabolism and revealed the complexity of several metabolic pathways. In this paper we describe the expression, purification, enzyme characterization and crystallization of N. gruberi GAPDH, the first one for an organism belonging to phylum Percolozoa. The results indicated that 10 mM, 8.0 and 25 °C are the optimum arsenate concentration, pH and temperature, respectively. The enzyme presents allosteric positive cooperativity for substrates NAD(+) and G3P as indicated by the Hill coefficients. The phylogenetic proximity between N. fowleri and N. gruberi suggests that contributions from the study of the latter might provide information to assist the search for treatments of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, especially, in this work, taking into account that GAPDH is identified as a therapeutic target.

  11. Defects in the HSD11 gene encoding 11[beta]-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase are not found in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess or 11-oxoreductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkila, H.; White, P.C. ); Tannin, G.M. ); New, M.I.; Taylor, N.F. ); Kalaitzoglou, G.; Monder, C. )

    1993-09-01

    The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a form of low renin hypertension that is thought to be caused by congenital deficiency of 11[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD) activity. This enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and apparently prevents cortisol from acting as a ligand for the mineralocorticoid (type I) receptor. It also catalyzes the reverse oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) reaction. Four patients with AME and the parents of the first patient described (now deceased) were analyzed for mutations in the cloned HSD11 gene encoding an 11HSD enzyme. A patient with suspected cortisone reductase deficiency was also studied. No gross deletions or rearrangements in the HSD11 gene were apparent on hybridizations of blot of genomic DNA. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments corresponding to the coding sequences, intronexon junctions, and proximal untranslated regions of this gene revealed no mutations. AME may involve mutations in a gene for another enzyme with 11HSD activity or perhaps another cortisol metabolizing enzyme. 48 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The plastid ndh genes code for an NADH-specific dehydrogenase: isolation of a complex I analogue from pea thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Sazanov, L A; Burrows, P A; Nixon, P J

    1998-02-03

    The plastid genomes of several plants contain ndh genes-homologues of genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, or complex I, involved in respiration in mitochondria and eubacteria. From sequence similarities with these genes, the ndh gene products have been suggested to form a large protein complex (Ndh complex); however, the structure and function of this complex remains to be established. Herein we report the isolation of the Ndh complex from the chloroplasts of the higher plant Pisum sativum. The purification procedure involved selective solubilization of the thylakoid membrane with dodecyl maltoside, followed by two anion-exchange chromatography steps and one size-exclusion chromatography step. The isolated Ndh complex has an apparent total molecular mass of approximately 550 kDa and according to SDS/PAGE consists of at least 16 subunits including NdhA, NdhI, NdhJ, NdhK, and NdhH, which were identified by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting. The Ndh complex showed an NADH- and deamino-NADH-specific dehydrogenase activity, characteristic of complex I, when either ferricyanide or the quinones menadione and duroquinone were used as electron acceptors. This study describes the isolation of the chloroplast analogue of the respiratory complex I and provides direct evidence for the function of the plastid Ndh complex as an NADH:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. Our results are compatible with a dual role for the Ndh complex in the chlororespiratory and cyclic photophosphorylation pathways.

  13. Efficient production of L-Lactic acid by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a genome-integrated L-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Matsuyama, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2005-04-01

    We developed a metabolically engineered yeast which produces lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant strain, the coding region for pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) on chromosome XII is substituted for that of the l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH) through homologous recombination. The expression of mRNA for the genome-integrated LDH is regulated under the control of the native PDC1 promoter, while PDC1 is completely disrupted. Using this method, we constructed a diploid yeast transformant, with each haploid genome having a single insertion of bovine LDH. Yeast cells expressing LDH were observed to convert glucose to both lactate (55.6 g/liter) and ethanol (16.9 g/liter), with up to 62.2% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid under neutralizing conditions. This transgenic strain, which expresses bovine LDH under the control of the PDC1 promoter, also showed high lactic acid production (50.2 g/liter) under nonneutralizing conditions. The differences in lactic acid production were compared among four different recombinants expressing a heterologous LDH gene (i.e., either the bovine LDH gene or the Bifidobacterium longum LDH gene): two transgenic strains with 2microm plasmid-based vectors and two genome-integrated strains.

  14. Engineering the α-ketoglutarate overproduction from raw glycerol by overexpression of the genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Aurich, Andreas; Mauersberger, Stephan; Barth, Gerold

    2014-03-01

    To establish and develop a biotechnological process of α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica, it is necessary to increase the KGA productivity and to reduce the amounts of by-products, e.g. pyruvic acid (PA) as major by-product and fumarate, malate and succinate as minor by-products. The aim of this study was the improvement of KGA overproduction with Y. lipolytica by a gene dose-dependent overexpression of genes encoding NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDP1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC1) under KGA production conditions from the renewable carbon source raw glycerol. Recombinant Y. lipolytica strains were constructed, which harbour multiple copies of the respective IDP1, PYC1 or IDP1 and PYC1 genes together. We demonstrated that a selective increase in IDP activity in IDP1 multicopy transformants changes the produced amount of KGA. Overexpression of the gene IDP1 in combination with PYC1 had the strongest effect on increasing the amount of secreted KGA. About 19% more KGA compared to strain H355 was produced in bioreactor experiments with raw glycerol as carbon source. The applied cultivation conditions with this strain significantly reduced the main by-product PA and increased the KGA selectivity to more than 95% producing up to 186 g l(-1) KGA. This proved the high potential of this multicopy transformant for developing a biotechnological KGA production process.

  15. The Genetics of a Small Autosomal Region of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Containing the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase. I. Characterization of Deficiencies and Mapping of ADH and Visible Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, R. C.; Ashburner, M.

    1979-01-01

    The position of the structural gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be within polytene chromosome bands 35B1 and 35B3, most probably within 35B2. The genetic and cytological properties of twelve deficiencies in polytene chromosome region 34–35 have been characterized, eleven of which include Adh. Also mapped cytogenetically are seven other recessive visible mutant loci. Flies heterozygous for overlapping deficiencies that include both the Adh locus and that for the outspread mutant (osp: a recessive wing phenotype) are homozygous viable and show a complete ADH negative phenotype and strong osp phenotype. These deficiencies probably include two polytene chromosome bands, 35B2 and 35B3. PMID:115743

  16. Cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of plastidial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; E.C. 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first step of glycerolipid assembly within the stroma of the chloroplast. In the present study, the sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) stromal GPAT was cloned, sequenced and characterized. We identified a single ORF of 1344base pairs that encoded a GPAT sharing strong sequence homology with the plastidial GPAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATS1, At1g32200). Gene expression studies showed that the highest transcript levels occurred in green tissues in which chloroplasts are abundant. The corresponding mature protein was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and biochemical characterization. In vitro assays using radiolabelled acyl-ACPs and glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates revealed a strong preference for oleic versus palmitic acid, and weak activity towards stearic acid. The positional fatty acid composition of relevant chloroplast phospholipids from sunflower leaves did not reflect the in vitro GPAT specificity, suggesting a more complex scenario with mixed substrates at different concentrations, competition with other acyl-ACP consuming enzymatic reactions, etc. In summary, this study has confirmed the affinity of this enzyme which would partly explain the resistance to cold temperatures observed in sunflower plants.

  17. Bioinformatics based structural characterization of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and growth promoting activity of Leclercia sp. QAU-66.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

    2014-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.1. 5.2) is the member of quinoproteins group that use the redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinoine, calcium ions and glucose as substrate for its activity. In present study, Leclercia sp. QAU-66, isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was characterized for phosphate solubilization and the role of GDH in plant growth promotion of Phaseolus vulgaris. The strain QAU-66 had ability to solubilize phosphorus and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) promoted the shoot and root lengths of Phaseolus vulgaris. The structural determination of GDH protein was carried out using bioinformatics tools like Pfam, InterProScan, I-TASSER and COFACTOR. These tools predicted the structural based functional homology of pyrroloquinoline quinone domains in GDH. GDH of Leclercia sp. QAU-66 is one of the main factor that involved in plant growth promotion and provides a solid background for further research in plant growth promoting activities.

  18. Disruption of the pdhB pyruvate dehydrogenase [corrected] gene affects colony morphology, in vitro growth and cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shivanand; Rosengarten, Renate; Chopra-Dewasthaly, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of available substrates, the metabolic potential and the growth rates of bacteria can play significant roles in their pathogenicity. This study concentrates on Mycoplasma agalactiae, which causes significant economic losses through its contribution to contagious agalactia in small ruminants by as yet unknown mechanisms. This lack of knowledge is primarily due to its fastidious growth requirements and the scarcity of genetic tools available for its manipulation and analysis. Transposon mutagenesis of M. agalactiae type strain PG2 resulted in several disruptions throughout the genome. A mutant defective in growth in vitro was found to have a transposon insertion in the pdhB gene, which encodes a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This growth difference was quite significant during the actively dividing logarithmic phase but a gradual recovery was observed as the cells approached stationary phase. The mutant also exhibited a different and smaller colony morphology compared to the wild type strain PG2. For complementation, pdhAB was cloned downstream of a strong vpma promoter and upstream of a lacZ reporter gene in a newly constructed complementation vector. When transformed with this vector the pdhB mutant recovered its normal growth and colony morphology. Interestingly, the pdhB mutant also had significantly reduced invasiveness in HeLa cells, as revealed by double immunofluorescence staining. This deficiency was recovered in the complemented strain, which had invasiveness comparable to that of PG2. Taken together, these data indicate that pyruvate dehydrogenase might be an important player in infection with and colonization by M. agalactiae.

  19. A Functional myo-Inositol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Required for Efficient Nitrogen Fixation and Competitiveness of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191 To Nodulate Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqiao; Krishnan, Ammulu Hari; Kim, Yong-Woong; Wacek, Thomas J.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2001-01-01

    Inositol derivative compounds provide a nutrient source for soil bacteria that possess the ability to degrade such compounds. Rhizobium strains that are capable of utilizing certain inositol derivatives are better colonizers of their host plants. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the myo-inositol dehydrogenase gene (idhA) of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191, the first enzyme responsible for inositol catabolism. The deduced IdhA protein has a molecular mass of 34,648 Da and shows significant sequence similarity with protein sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti IdhA and MocA; Bacillus subtilis IolG, YrbE, and YucG; and Streptomyces griseus StrI. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutants revealed no detectable myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity and failed to grow on myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Northern blot analysis and idhA-lacZ fusion expression studies indicate that idhA is inducible by myo-inositol. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutant was drastically affected in its ability to reduce nitrogen and revealed deteriorating bacteroids inside the nodules. The number of bacteria recovered from such nodules was about threefold lower than the number of bacteria isolated from nodules initiated by S. fredii USDA191. In addition, the idhA mutant was also severely affected in its ability to compete with the wild-type strain in nodulating soybean. Under competitive conditions, nodules induced on soybean roots were predominantly occupied by the parent strain, even when the idhA mutant was applied at a 10-fold numerical advantage. Thus, we conclude that a functional idhA gene is required for efficient nitrogen fixation and for competitive nodulation of soybeans by S. fredii USDA191. PMID:11274120

  20. Identification and characterization of genes, encoding the 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and a putative lipase, in an avirulent spontaneous Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 mutant.

    PubMed

    Scaturro, Maria; Barello, Cristina; Giusti, Melania De; Fontana, Stefano; Pinci, Federica; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2015-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a pathogen widespread in aquatic environment, able to multiply both within amoebae and human macrophages. The aim of this study was to identify genes differently expressed in a spontaneous avirulent Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 mutant, named Vir-, respect the parental strain (Vir+), and to determine their role in the loss of virulence. Protein profiles revealed some differences in Vir- proteomic maps, and among the identified proteins the undetectable 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BdhA) and a down-produced lipase. Both Legionella enzymes were studied before and were here further characterized at genetic level. A significant down-regulation of both genes was observed in Vir- at the transcriptional level, but the use of defined mutants demonstrated that they did not affect the intracellular multiplication. A mutant (MS1) showed an accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules suggesting a role of bdhA gene in its degradation process. The lipase deduced amino acid sequence revealed a catalytic triad, typical of the 'lipase box' characteristic of PHB de-polymerase enzymes, that let us suppose a possible involvement of lipase in the PHB granule degradation process. Our results revealed unexpected alterations in secondary metabolic pathways possibly linking the loss of virulence to Legionella lack of energy sources.

  1. Cellulose production from glucose using a glucose dehydrogenase gene (gdh)-deficient mutant of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and its use for bioconversion of sweet potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Toru; Takamine, Kazunori; Kitazato, Masaya; Morita, Tetsuya; Naritomi, Takaaki; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2005-04-01

    A gene fragment encoding a putative pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ GDH) was cloned from a bacterial cellulose (BC)-forming acetic acid bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus (=Acetobacter xylinum) strain BPR 2001, which was isolated as a high BC producer when using fructose as the carbon source. A GDH-deficient mutant of strain BPR 2001, namely GD-I, was then generated via gene disruption using the cloned gene fragment. Strain GD-I produced no gluconic acid but produced 4.1 g.l(-1) of BC aerobically in medium containing glucose as the carbon source. The ability of strain GD-I to convert glucose to BC was approximately 1.7-fold higher than that of the wild type. Strain GD-I was also able to produce 5.0 g.l(-1) of BC from a saccharified solution, which was derived from sweet potato pulp by enzymatic saccharification. Supplementation of ethanol during aerobic cultivation further increased the concentration of BC produced by strain GD-I to 7.0 g.l(-1). The rate of conversion from glucose to BC under these cultivation conditions was equivalent to that of strain BPR 2001 cultivated with fructose as the carbon source.

  2. Model-assisted formate dehydrogenase-O (fdoH) gene knockout for enhanced succinate production in Escherichia coli from glucose and glycerol carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Mienda, Bashir Sajo; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Md Illias, Rosli

    2016-11-01

    Succinic acid is an important platform chemical that has broad applications and is been listed as one of the top twelve bio-based chemicals produced from biomass by the US Department of Energy. The metabolic role of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase-O (fdoH) under anaerobic conditions in relation to succinic acid production remained largely unspecified. Herein we report, what are to our knowledge, the first metabolic fdoH gene knockout that have enhanced succinate production using glucose and glycerol substrates in E. coli. Using the most recent E. coli reconstruction iJO1366, we engineered its host metabolism to enhance the anaerobic succinate production by deleting the fdoH gene, which blocked H(+) conduction across the mutant cell membrane for the enhanced succinate production. The engineered mutant strain BMS4 showed succinate production of 2.05 g l(-1) (41.2-fold in 7 days) from glycerol and .39 g l(-1) (6.2-fold in 1 day) from glucose. This work revealed that a single deletion of the fdoH gene is sufficient to increase succinate production in E. coli from both glucose and glycerol substrates.

  3. Experimental Horizontal Gene Transfer of Methylamine Dehydrogenase Mimics Prevalent Exchange in Nature and Overcomes the Methylamine Growth Constraints Posed by the Sub-Optimal N-Methylglutamate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Dipti D.; Marx, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylamine plays an important role in the global carbon and nitrogen budget; microorganisms that grow on reduced single carbon compounds, methylotrophs, serve as a major biological sink for methylamine in aerobic environments. Two non-orthologous, functionally degenerate routes for methylamine oxidation have been studied in methylotrophic Proteobacteria: Methylamine dehydrogenase and the N-methylglutamate pathway. Recent work suggests the N-methylglutamate (NMG) pathway may be more common in nature than the well-studied methylamine dehydrogenase (MaDH, encoded by the mau gene cluster). However, the distribution of these pathways across methylotrophs has never been analyzed. Furthermore, even though horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is commonly invoked as a means to transfer these pathways between strains, the physiological barriers to doing so have not been investigated. We found that the NMG pathway is both more abundant and more universally distributed across methylotrophic Proteobacteria compared to MaDH, which displays a patchy distribution and has clearly been transmitted by HGT even amongst very closely related strains. This trend was especially prominent in well-characterized strains of the Methylobacterium extroquens species, which also display significant phenotypic variability during methylamine growth. Strains like Methylobacterium extorquens PA1 that only encode the NMG pathway grew on methylamine at least five-fold slower than strains like Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 that also possess the mau gene cluster. By mimicking a HGT event through the introduction of the M. extorquens AM1 mau gene cluster into the PA1 genome, the resulting strain instantaneously achieved a 4.5-fold increase in growth rate on methylamine and a 11-fold increase in fitness on methylamine, which even surpassed the fitness of M. extorquens AM1. In contrast, when three replicate populations of wild type M. extorquens PA1 were evolved on methylamine as the sole carbon and energy

  4. Regulation Mechanism of the ald Gene Encoding Alanine Dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Lrp/AsnC Family Regulator AldR

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji-A; Hyun, Jaekyung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the presence of alanine, AldR, which belongs to the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators and regulates ald encoding alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis, changes its quaternary structure from a homodimer to an octamer with an open-ring conformation. Four AldR-binding sites (O2, O1, O4, and O3) with a consensus sequence of GA/T-N2-NWW/WWN-N2-A/TC were identified upstream of the M. smegmatis ald gene by means of DNase I footprinting analysis. O2, O1, and O4 are required for the induction of ald expression by alanine, while O3 is directly involved in the repression of ald expression. In addition to O3, both O1 and O4 are also necessary for full repression of ald expression in the absence of alanine, due to cooperative binding of AldR dimers to O1, O4, and O3. Binding of a molecule of the AldR octamer to the ald control region was demonstrated to require two AldR-binding sites separated by three helical turns between their centers and one additional binding site that is in phase with the two AldR-binding sites. The cooperative binding of AldR dimers to DNA requires three AldR-binding sites that are aligned with a periodicity of three helical turns. The aldR gene is negatively autoregulated independently of alanine. Comparative analysis of ald expression of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conjunction with sequence analysis of both ald control regions led us to suggest that the expression of the ald genes in both mycobacterial species is regulated by the same mechanism. IMPORTANCE In mycobacteria, alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) is the enzyme required both to utilize alanine as a nitrogen source and to grow under hypoxic conditions by maintaining the redox state of the NADH/NAD+ pool. Expression of the ald gene was reported to be regulated by the AldR regulator that belongs to the Lrp/AsnC (feast/famine) family, but the underlying mechanism was unknown. This study revealed the regulation mechanism of ald in Mycobacterium

  5. Mapping of a genetic locus that affects glycerol 3-phosphate transport in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, V

    1978-01-01

    Two types of fosfomycin-resistant mutants of Bacillus subtilis were isolated. Mutants of the first type (GlpT mutants) were resistant to at least 200 microgram of fosfomycin per ml and failed to take up exogenous glycerol 3-phosphate. Mutants of the second type were resistant to lower concentrations of fosfomycin and transported glycerol-3-phosphate as efficiently as wild-type bacteria. The glpT mutations, but not the mutations in the second type of fosfomycin-resistant mutants, map in the cysA-aroI region of the B. subtilis chromosome. PMID:415047

  6. Evidence for Lateral Transfer of Genes Encoding Ferredoxins, Nitroreductases, NADH Oxidase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 from Anaerobic Prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Julie E. J.; Wang, Amy; Field, Jessica; Morrison, Hilary G.; McArthur, Andrew G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Loftus, Brendan J.; Samuelson, John

    2002-01-01

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are amitochondriate, microaerophilic protists which use fermentation enzymes like those of bacteria to survive anaerobic conditions within the intestinal lumen. Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (amitochondriate fossil hypothesis), a mitochondrial endosymbiont (hydrogen hypothesis), or anaerobic bacteria (lateral transfer hypothesis). The goals here were to complete the molecular characterization of giardial and amebic fermentation enzymes and to determine the origins of the genes encoding them, when possible. A putative giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin which had a hypothetical organelle-targeting sequence at its N terminus showed similarity to mitochondrial ferredoxins and the hydrogenosomal ferredoxin of Trichomonas vaginalis (another luminal protist). However, phylogenetic trees were star shaped, with weak bootstrap support, so we were unable to confirm or rule out the endosymbiotic origin of the giardia [2Fe-2S]ferredoxin gene. Putative giardial and amebic 6-kDa ferredoxins, ferredoxin-nitroreductase fusion proteins, and oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases each tentatively supported the lateral transfer hypothesis. Although there were not enough sequences to perform meaningful phylogenetic analyses, the unique common occurrence of these peptides and enzymes in giardia organisms, amebae, and the few anaerobic prokaryotes suggests the possibility of lateral transfer. In contrast, there was more robust phylogenetic evidence for the lateral transfer of G. lamblia genes encoding an NADH oxidase from a gram-positive coccus and a microbial group 3 alcohol dehydrogenase from thermoanaerobic prokaryotes. In further support of lateral transfer, the G. lamblia NADH oxidase and adh3 genes appeared to have an evolutionary history distinct from those of E. histolytica. PMID

  7. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenases from the thermophile Thermoanaerobacter brockii and the mesophile Clostridium beijerinckii.

    PubMed

    Peretz, M; Bogin, O; Tel-Or, S; Cohen, A; Li, G; Chen, J S; Burstein, Y

    1997-08-01

    Proteins play a pivotal role in thermophily. Comparing the molecular properties of homologous proteins from thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria is important for understanding the mechanisms of microbial adaptation to extreme environments. The thermophile Thermoanaerobacter (Thermoanaerobium) brockii and the mesophile Clostridium beijerinckii contain an NADP(H)-linked, zinc-containing secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH and CBADH) showing a similarly broad substrate range. The structural genes encoding the TBADH and the CBADH were cloned, sequenced, and highly expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequences of the TB adh and the CB adh genes are, respectively, 1056 and 1053 nucleotides long. The TB adh gene encoded an amino acid sequence identical to that of the purified TBADH. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the TB and CB adh genes showed a 76% identity and a 86% similarity, and the two genes had a similar preference for codons with A or T in the third position. Multiple sequence alignment of ADHs from different sources revealed that two (Cys-46 and His-67) of the three ligands for the catalytic Zn atom of the horse-liver ADH are preserved in TBADH and CBADH. Both the TBADH and CBADH were homotetramers. The substrate specificities and thermostabilities of the TBADH and CBADH expressed inE. coli were identical to those of the enzymes isolated from T. brockii and C. beijerinckii, respectively. A comparison of the amino acid composition of the two ADHs suggests that the presence of eight additional proline residues in TBADH than in CBADH and the exchange of hydrophilic and large hydrophobic residues in CBADH for the small hydrophobic amino acids Pro, Ala, and Val in TBADH might contribute to the higher thermostability of the T. brockii enzyme.

  8. Aberrant expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A) subfamily genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a common feature of T-lineage tumours.

    PubMed

    Longville, Brooke A C; Anderson, Denise; Welch, Mathew D; Kees, Ursula R; Greene, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    The class 1A aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A) subfamily of genes encode enzymes that function at the apex of the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway. We detected aberrant expression of ALDH1A genes, particularly ALDH1A2, in a majority (72%) of primary paediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) specimens. ALDH1A expression was almost exclusive to T-lineage, but not B-lineage, ALL. To determine whether ALDH1A expression may have relevance to T-ALL cell growth and survival, the effect of inhibiting ALDH1A function was measured on a panel of human ALL cell lines. This revealed that T-ALL proliferation had a higher sensitivity to modulation of ALDH1A activity and RA signalling as compared to ALL cell lines of B-lineage. Consistent with these findings, the genes most highly correlated with ALDH1A2 expression were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Evidence that such genes may be targets of regulation via RA signalling initiated by ALDH1A activity was provided by the TNFRSF10B gene, encoding the apoptotic death receptor TNFRSF10B (also termed TRAIL-R2), which negatively correlated with ALDH1A2 and showed elevated transcription following treatment of T-ALL cell lines with the ALDH1A inhibitor citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal). These data indicate that ALDH1A expression is a common event in T-ALL and supports a role for these enzymes in the pathobiology of this disease.

  9. Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in barley in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, M; Nakamura, T; Han, S Y; Takabe, T

    1995-01-01

    When subjected to salt stress or drought, some vascular plants such as barley respond with an increased accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (betaine), being the last step of betaine synthesis catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). We report here cloning and characterization of BADH cDNA from barley, a monocot, and the expression pattern of a BADH transcript. An open reading frame of 1515 bp encoded a protein which showed high homology to BADH enzymes present in other plants (spinach and sugar-beet) and in Escherichia coli. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring the clone expressed high levels of both BADH protein and its enzymatic activity. Northern blot analyses indicated that BADH mRNA levels increased almost 8-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in leaves and roots of barley plants grown in high-salt conditions, and that these levels decreased upon release of the stress, whereas they did not decrease under continuous salt stress. BADH transcripts also accumulate in response to water stress or drought, indicating a common response of the plant to osmotic changes that affect its water status. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to plants during growth also increased the levels of BADH transcripts dramatically, although the response was delayed when compared to that found for salt-stressed plants. Removal of plant roots before transferring the plants to high-salt conditions reduced only slightly the accumulation of BADH transcripts in the leaves.

  10. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  11. Cloning and sequencing of a 2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diol dehydrogenase gene involved in the degradation of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in Pseudomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Y; Ohtomo, R; Miyauchi, K; Fukuda, M; Yano, K; Takagi, M

    1994-01-01

    In Pseudomonas paucimobilis UT26, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) is converted to 2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diol (2,5-DDOL), which is then metabolized to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone. Here, we isolated from the genomic library of UT26 two genes which expressed 2,5-DDOL dehydrogenase activity when they were transformed into P. putida and Escherichia coli. Both gene products had an apparent molecular size of 28 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The first gene, named linC, located separately from the two genes (linA and linB) which we had already cloned as genes involved in the gamma-HCH degradation. The other, named linX, located about 1 kb upstream of the linA gene encoding gamma-HCH dehydrochlorinase. A gamma-HCH degradation-negative mutant, named UT72, which lacked the whole linC gene but had the intact linX gene was isolated. The linC gene given in a plasmid could complement UT72. These results strongly suggest that the linC gene but not the linX gene is essential for the assimilation of gamma-HCH in UT26. Deduced amino acid sequences of LinC and LinX show homology to those of members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. Images PMID:7515041

  12. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kil S; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Guindalini, Camila; Andersen, Monica L; Castro, Rosa MRPS; Tufik, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD) on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT). Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1) was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results. PMID:19445681

  13. Molecular cloning of alcohol dehydrogenase genes of the yeast Pichia stipitis and identification of the fermentative ADH.

    PubMed

    Passoth, V; Schäfer, B; Liebel, B; Weierstall, T; Klinner, U

    1998-10-01

    Two Pichia stipitis ADH genes (PsADH1 and PsADH2) were isolated by complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh(-)-mutant. The genes enabled the transformants to grow in the presence of antimycin A on glucose, to use ethanol as sole carbon source and made them sensitive to allylalcohol. The sequences of the genes showed similarities of 70-77% to sequences of ADH genes of Candida albicans, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, and S. cerevisiae and about 60% homology to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus flavus. Southern hybridization experiments suggested that P. stipitis has only these two ADH genes. Both genes are located on the largest chromosome of P. stipitis. PsADH2 encodes for the ADH activity that is responsible for ethanol formation at oxygen limitation. The gene is regulated at the transcriptional level. Moreover, also in cells grown on ethanol, only PsADH2 transcript was found. PsADH1 transcript was detected under aerobic conditions on fermentable carbon sources.

  14. Gene ercA, Encoding a Putative Iron-Containing Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Is Involved in Regulation of Ethanol Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported. PMID:23813731

  15. Significant improvement of stress tolerance in tobacco plants by overexpressing a stress-responsive aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Huang, Weizao; Ma, Xinrong; Wang, Qilin; Gao, Yongfeng; Xue, Ying; Niu, Xiangli; Yu, Guirong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a central role in detoxification processes of aldehydes generated in plants when exposed to the stressed conditions. In order to identify genes required for the stresses responses in the grass crop Zea mays, an ALDH (ZmALDH22A1) gene was isolated and characterized. ZmALDH22A1 belongs to the family ALDH22 that is currently known only in plants. The ZmALDH22A1 encodes a protein of 593 amino acids that shares high identity with the orthologs from Saccharum officinarum (95%), Oryza sativa (89%), Triticum aestivum (87%) and Arabidopsis thaliana (77%), respectively. Real-time PCR analysis indicates that ZmALDH22A1 is expressed differentially in different tissues. Various elevated levels of ZmALDH22A1 expression have been detected when the seedling roots exposed to abiotic stresses including dehydration, high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato stable transformation of construct expressing the ZmALDH22A1 signal peptide fused with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) driven by the CaMV35S-promoter reveals that the fusion protein is targeted to plastid. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ZmALDH22A1 shows elevated stresses tolerance. Stresses tolerance in transgenic plants is accompanied by a reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) derived from cellular lipid peroxidation.

  16. NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120: purification and characterization of the enzyme and cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the icd gene.

    PubMed Central

    Muro-Pastor, M I; Florencio, F J

    1994-01-01

    NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-IDH) from the dinitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was purified to homogeneity. The native enzyme is composed of two identical subunits (M(r), 57,000) and cross-reacts with antibodies obtained against the previously purified NADP(+)-IDH from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH resembles in its physicochemical and kinetic parameters the typical dimeric IDHs from prokaryotes. The gene encoding Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli icd mutant with an Anabaena genomic library. The complementing DNA was located on a 6-kb fragment. It encodes an NADP(+)-IDH that has the same mobility as that of Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. The icd gene was subcloned and sequenced. Translation of the nucleotide sequence gave a polypeptide of 473 amino acids that showed high sequence similarity to the E. coli enzyme (59% identity) and with IDH1 and IDH2, the two subunits of the heteromultimeric NAD(+)-IDH from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (30 to 35% identity); however, a low level of similarity to NADP(+)-IDHs of eukaryotic origin was found (23% identity). Furthermore, Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH contains a 44-residue amino acid sequence in its central region that is absent in the other IDHs so far sequenced. Attempts to generate icd mutants by insertional mutagenesis were unsuccessful, suggesting an essential role of IDH in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Images PMID:8169222

  17. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-01-01

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition. PMID:26179843

  18. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  19. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  20. Group II intron-mediated deletion of lactate dehydrogenase gene in an isolated 1,3-propanediol producer Hafnia alvei AD27.

    PubMed

    Celińska, Ewelina; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Wita, Agnieszka; Juzwa, Wojciech; Białas, Wojciech; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2016-03-03

    Our previous studies showed that glycerol fermentation by Hafnia alvei AD27 strain was accompanied by formation of high quantities of lactate. The ultimate aim of this work was the elimination of excessive lactate production in the 1,3-propanediol producer cultures. Group II intron-mediated deletion of ldh (lactate dehydrogenase) gene in an environmental isolate of H. alvei AD27 strain was conducted. The effect of the Δldh genotype in H. alvei AD27 strain varied depending on the culture medium applied. Under lower initial glycerol concentration (20 gL(-1)), lactate and 1,3-propanediol production was fully abolished, and the main carbon flux was directed to ethanol synthesis. On the other hand, at higher initial glycerol concentrations (40 gL(-1)), 1,3-propanediol and lactate production was recovered in the recombinant strain. The final titers of 1,3-propanediol and ethanol were similar for the recombinant and the WT strains, while the Δldh genotype displayed significantly decreased lactate titer. The by-products profile was altered upon ldh gene deletion, while glycerol utilization and biomass accumulation remained unaltered. As indicated by flow-cytometry analyses, the internal pH was not different for the WT and the recombinant Δldh strains over the culture duration, however, the WT strain was characterized by higher redox potential.

  1. [Overexpression of Spinacia oleracea betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH) gene confers the salt and cold tolerant in Gossypium hirsutum L].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoli; Xiao, Juanli; Wang, Zhian; Zhang, Anhong; Tian, Yingchuan; Wu, Jiahe

    2008-08-01

    The open reading frame of Spinacia oleracea Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (SoBADH) was retrieved from Spinacia oleracea and inserted into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector pBin438, which was driven by CaMV35S promoter, and produced the new binary vector pBSB. A. tumefaciens LBA4404 carrying this plasmid was used in genetic transformation of plants. Forty-five primary transgenic plants were detected by PCR and verified by the Southern blotting from 65 regenerated plants, of which 27 transgenic plants had only one copy of T-DNA. The Northern blotting and Western blotting analysis indicated that the SoBADH gene had been transcribed mRNA and expression protein in the transgenic cotton lines. The testing of SoBADH activity of transgenic plant leaves showed that the enzyme activity was much higher than that of the non-transgenic cotton. The growth of transgenic plants was well under the salinity and freezing stress, whereas the non-transgenic plant grew poorly and even died. Challenging with salinity, the height and fresh weight of transgenic plants was higher compared with those of non-transgenic plants. Under the freezing stress, the relative conductivity of leaf electrolyte leakage of the transgenic cotton lines was lower than that of non-transgenic plants. These results demonstrated that the SoBADH gene could over express in the exogenous plants, and could be used in genetic engineering for cotton stress resistance.

  2. Diverse point mutations in the human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene cause enzyme deficiency and mild or severe hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Vulliamy, T J; D'Urso, M; Battistuzzi, G; Estrada, M; Foulkes, N S; Martini, G; Calabro, V; Poggi, V; Giordano, R; Town, M

    1988-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) deficiency is a common genetic abnormality affecting an estimated 400 million people worldwide. Clinical and biochemical analyses have identified many variants exhibiting a range of phenotypes, which have been well characterized from the hematological point of view. However, until now, their precise molecular basis has remained unknown. We have cloned and sequenced seven mutant G6PD alleles. In the nondeficient polymorphic African variant G6PD A we have found a single point mutation. The other six mutants investigated were all associated with enzyme deficiency. In one of the commonest, G6PD Mediterranean, which is associated with favism among other clinical manifestations, a single amino acid replacement was found (serine----phenylalanine): it must be responsible for the decreased stability and the reduced catalytic efficiency of this enzyme. Single point mutations were also found in G6PD Metaponto (Southern Italy) and in G6PD Ilesha (Nigeria), which are asymptomatic, and in G6PD Chatham, which was observed in an Indian boy with neonatal jaundice. In G6PD "Matera," which is now known to be the same as G6PD A-, two separate point mutations were found, one of which is the same as in G6PD A. In G6PD Santiago, a de novo mutation (glycine----arginine) is associated with severe chronic hemolytic anemia. The mutations observed show a striking predominance of C----T transitions, with CG doublets involved in four of seven cases. Thus, diverse point mutations may account largely for the phenotypic heterogeneity of G6PD deficiency. Images PMID:3393536

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cossard, Raynald; Esposito, Michela; Sellem, Carole H.; Pitayu, Laras; Vasnier, Christelle; Delahodde, Agnès; Dassa, Emmanuel P.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabditis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction and whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression. We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny, and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content. We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g., NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8, or GRIM-19 human orthologs) in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm. All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly, or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression. PMID:26124772

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  5. A second transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Argast, M; Ludtke, D; Silhavy, T J; Boos, W

    1978-01-01

    Strains containing phage Mucts inserted into glpT were isolated as fosfomycin-resistant clones. These mutants did not transport sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, and they lacked GLPT, a protein previously shown to be a product of the glpT operon. By plating these mutants on sn-glycerol-3-phosphate at 43 degrees C, we isolated revertants that regained the capacity to grow on G3P. Most of these revertants did not map in glpT and did not regain GLPT. These revertants exhibited a highly efficient uptake system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate within an apparent Km of 5 micron. In addition, three new proteins (GP 1, 2, and 3) appeared in the periplasm of these revertants. None of these proteins were antigentically related to GLPT. However, like GLPT, GP1 exhibits abnormal behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. GP 2 is an efficient binding protein. The new uptake system showed different characteristics than the system that is coded for by the glpT operon. It was inhibited neither by phosphate nor fosfomycin. So far, none of the systems that transport organic acids in Escherichia coli could be implicated in the new sn-glycerol-3-phosphate uptake activity. The mutation ugp+, which was responsible for the appearance of the new transport system and the appearance of GP 1, 2, and 3 in the periplasm was cotransducible with araD by phage P1 transduction and was recessive in merodiploids. Images PMID:363686

  6. Chemical and enzymatic methodologies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Dominik; Schoenenberger, Bernhard; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2014-05-07

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates are important intermediates of many central metabolic pathways in a large number of living organisms. d-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (d-GAP) is a key intermediate during glycolysis and can as well be found in a variety of other metabolic pathways. The opposite enantiomer, l-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (l-GAP), has been found in a few exciting new pathways. Here, improved syntheses of enantiomerically pure glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates are reported. While d-GAP was synthesized by periodate cleavage of d-fructose 6-phosphate, l-GAP was obtained by enzymatic phosphorylation of l-glyceraldehyde. (1)H- and (31)P NMR spectroscopy was applied in order to examine pH-dependent behavior of GAP over time and to identify potential degradation products. It was found that GAP is stable in acidic aqueous solution below pH 4. At pH 7, methylglyoxal is formed, whereas under alkaline conditions, the formation of lactic acid could be observed.

  7. Glycerol-3-phosphate is a critical mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is an important metabolite that contributes to the growth and disease-related physiologies of prokaryotes, plants, animals and humans alike. Here we show that G3P serves as the inducer of an important form of broad-spectrum immunity in plants, termed systemic acquired resi...

  8. Cloning and overexpression of an NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Candida maris involved in (R)-selective reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shigeru; Yano, Miho; Hasegawa, Junzo; Yasohara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    5-((R)-1-Hydroxyethyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine ((R)-FPH) is a useful chiral building block in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. An NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (AFPDH) isolated from Candida maris catalyzed the reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine (AFP) to (R)-FPH with 100% enantiomeric excess. The gene encoding AFPDH was cloned and sequenced. The AFPDH gene comprises 762 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 27,230 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. The AFPDH gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter. One L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant coexpressing AFPDH and the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) gene reduced 250 g of AFP to (R)-FPH in an organic solvent two-phase system. Under coupling with NADH regeneration using 2-propanol, 1 L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant expressing the AFPDH gene reduced 150 g of AFP to (R)-FPH. The optical purity of the (R)-FPH formed was 100% enantiomeric excess under both reaction conditions.

  9. Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Fernández, Maria R; Biosca, Josep A; Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2009-05-01

    Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing GPD1, which codes for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lacking the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald6 display large-scale diversion of the carbon flux from ethanol toward glycerol without accumulating acetate. Although GPD1 ald6 strains have great potential for reducing the ethanol contents in wines, one major side effect is the accumulation of acetoin, having a negative sensory impact on wine. Acetoin is reduced to 2,3-butanediol by the NADH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Bdh1. In order to investigate the influence of potential factors limiting this reaction, we overexpressed BDH1, coding for native NADH-dependent Bdh1, and the engineered gene BDH1(221,222,223), coding for an NADPH-dependent Bdh1 enzyme with the amino acid changes 221 EIA 223 to 221 SRS 223, in a glycerol-overproducing wine yeast. We have shown that both the amount of Bdh1 and the NADH availability limit the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase reaction. During wine fermentation, however, the major limiting factor was the level of synthesis of Bdh1. Consistent with this finding, the overproduction of native or engineered Bdh1 made it possible to redirect 85 to 90% of the accumulated acetoin into 2,3-butanediol, a compound with neutral sensory characteristics. In addition, the production of diacetyl, a compound causing off-flavor in alcoholic beverages, whose production is increased in glycerol-overproducing yeast cells, was decreased by half. The production of higher alcohols and esters, which was slightly decreased or unchanged in GPD1 ald6 cells compared to that in the control cells, was not further modified in BDH1 cells. Overall, rerouting carbons toward glycerol and 2,3-butanediol represents a new milestone in the engineering of a low-alcohol yeast with desirable organoleptic features, permitting the decrease of the ethanol contents in wines by up to 3 degrees.

  10. Genes for selenium dependent and independent formate dehydrogenase in the gut microbial communities of three lower, wood-feeding termites and a wood-feeding roach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinning; Matson, Eric G; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2011-02-01

    The bacterial Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis is important for the nutritional mutualism occurring between wood-feeding insects and their hindgut microbiota. A key step in this pathway is the reduction of CO(2) to formate, catalysed by the enzyme formate dehydrogenase (FDH). Putative selenocysteine- (Sec) and cysteine- (Cys) containing paralogues of hydrogenase-linked FDH (FDH(H)) have been identified in the termite gut acetogenic spirochete, Treponema primitia, but knowledge of their relevance in the termite gut environment remains limited. In this study, we designed degenerate PCR primers for FDH(H) genes (fdhF) and assessed fdhF diversity in insect gut bacterial isolates and the gut microbial communities of termites and cockroaches. The insects examined herein represent three wood-feeding termite families, Termopsidae, Kalotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae (phylogenetically 'lower' termite taxa); the wood-feeding roach family Cryptocercidae (the sister taxon to termites); and the omnivorous roach family Blattidae. Sec and Cys FDH(H) variants were identified in every wood-feeding insect but not the omnivorous roach. Of 68 novel alleles obtained from inventories, 66 affiliated phylogenetically with enzymes from T. primitia. These formed two subclades (37 and 29 phylotypes) almost completely comprised of Sec-containing and Cys-containing enzymes respectively. A gut cDNA inventory showed transcription of both variants in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (family Termopsidae). The gene patterns suggest that FDH(H) enzymes are important for the CO(2)-reductive metabolism of uncultured acetogenic treponemes and imply that the availability of selenium, a trace element, shaped microbial gene content in the last common ancestor of dictyopteran, wood-feeding insects, and continues to shape it to this day.

  11. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Larroy, Carol; Fernández, M Rosario; González, Eva; Parés, Xavier; Biosca, Josep A

    2002-01-01

    YMR318C represents an open reading frame from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown function. It possesses a conserved sequence motif, the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) signature, specific to the medium-chain zinc-containing ADHs. In the present study, the YMR318C gene product has been purified to homogeneity from overexpressing yeast cells, and found to be a homodimeric ADH, composed of 40 kDa subunits and with a pI of 5.0-5.4. The enzyme was strictly specific for NADPH and was active with a wide variety of substrates, including aliphatic (linear and branched-chain) and aromatic primary alcohols and aldehydes. Aldehydes were processed with a 50-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that for the corresponding alcohols. The highest k(cat)/K(m) values were found with pentanal>veratraldehyde > hexanal > 3-methylbutanal >cinnamaldehyde. Taking into consideration the substrate specificity and sequence characteristics of the YMR318C gene product, we have proposed this gene to be called ADH6. The disruption of ADH6 was not lethal for the yeast under laboratory conditions. Although S. cerevisiae is considered a non lignin-degrading organism, the catalytic activity of ADHVI can direct veratraldehyde and anisaldehyde, arising from the oxidation of lignocellulose by fungal lignin peroxidases, to the lignin biodegradation pathway. ADHVI is the only S. cerevisiae enzyme able to significantly reduce veratraldehyde in vivo, and its overexpression allowed yeast to grow under toxic concentrations of this aldehyde. The enzyme may also be involved in the synthesis of fusel alcohols. To our knowledge this is the first NADPH-dependent medium-chain ADH to be characterized in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11742541

  12. Opossum alcohol dehydrogenases: Sequences, structures, phylogeny and evolution: evidence for the tandem location of ADH genes on opossum chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S

    2009-03-16

    BLAT (BLAST-Like Alignment Tool) analyses and interrogations of the recently published opossum genome were undertaken using previously reported rat ADH amino acid sequences. Evidence is presented for six opossum ADH genes localized on chromosome 5 and organized in a comparable ADH gene cluster to that reported for human and rat ADH genes. The predicted amino acid sequences and secondary structures for the opossum ADH subunits and the intron-exon boundaries for opossum ADH genes showed a high degree of similarity with other mammalian ADHs, and four opossum ADH classes were identified, namely ADH1, ADH3, ADH6 and ADH4 (for which three genes were observed: ADH4A, ADH4B and ADH4C). Previous biochemical analyses of opossum ADHs have reported the tissue distribution and properties for these enzymes: ADH1, the major liver enzyme; ADH3, widely distributed in opossum tissues with similar kinetic properties to mammalian class 3 ADHs; and ADH4, for which several forms were localized in extrahepatic tissues, especially in the digestive system and in the eye. These ADHs are likely to perform similar functions to those reported for other mammalian ADHs in the metabolism of ingested and endogenous alcohols and aldehydes. Phylogenetic analyses examined opossum, human, rat, chicken and cod ADHs, and supported the proposed designation of opossum ADHs as class I (ADH1), class III (ADH3), class IV (ADH4A, ADH4B and ADH4C) and class VI (ADH6). Percentage substitution rates were examined for ADHs during vertebrate evolution which indicated that ADH3 is evolving at a much slower rate to that of the other ADH classes.

  13. Long-term Correction of Very Long-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Mice Using AAV9 Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Allison M; Conlon, Thomas; Walter, Glenn; Zeng, Huadong; Shaffer, Scott A; Dungtao, Fu; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Tang, Qiushi; Mueller, Christian; Flotte, Terence R

    2012-01-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. VLCAD-deficient mice and patients clinical symptoms stem from not only an energy deficiency but also long-chain metabolite accumulations. VLCAD-deficient mice were treated systemically with 1 × 1012 vector genomes of recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9)-VLCAD. Biochemical correction was observed in vector-treated mice beginning 2 weeks postinjection, as characterized by a significant drop in long-chain fatty acyl accumulates in whole blood after an overnight fast. Changes persisted through the termination point around 20 weeks postinjection. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed normalization of intramuscular lipids in treated animals. Correction was not observed in liver tissue extracts, but cardiac muscle extracts showed significant reduction of long-chain metabolites. Disease-specific phenotypes were characterized, including thermoregulation and maintenance of euglycemia after a fasting cold challenge. Internal body temperatures of untreated VLCAD−/− mice dropped below 20 °C and the mice became lethargic, requiring euthanasia. In contrast, all rAAV9-treated VLCAD−/− mice and the wild-type controls maintained body temperatures. rAAV9-treated VLCAD−/− mice maintained euglycemia, whereas untreated VLCAD−/− mice suffered hypoglycemia following a fasting cold challenge. These promising results suggest rAAV9 gene therapy as a potential treatment for VLCAD deficiency in humans. PMID:22395529

  14. Enhanced production of epsilon-caprolactone by overexpression of NADPH-regenerating glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2007-08-01

    Whole-cell conversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone was attempted by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB 9871. High concentrations of cyclohexanone and epsilon-caprolactone reduced CHMO-mediated bioconversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in the resting recombinant E. coli cells. Metabolically active cells were employed by adopting a fed-batch culture to improve the production of epsilon-caprolactone from cyclohexanone. A glucose-limited fed-batch Baeyer-Villiger oxidation where a cyclohexanone level was maintained less than 6 g/l resulted in a maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration of 11.0 g/l. The maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration was improved further to 15.3 g/l by coexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an NADPH-generating enzyme encoded by the zwf gene which corresponded to a 39% enhancement in epsilon-caprolactone concentration compared with the control experiment performed under the same conditions.

  15. A T-DNA Insertion Knockout of the Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Gene Elevates Lysine Levels in Arabidopsis Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Tang, Guiliang; Granier, Fabienne; Bouchez, David; Galili, Gad

    2001-01-01

    Plants possess both anabolic and catabolic pathways for the essential amino acid lysine (Lys). However, although the biosynthetic pathway was clearly shown to regulate Lys accumulation in plants, the functional significance of Lys catabolism has not been experimentally elucidated. To address this issue, we have isolated an Arabidopsis knockout mutant with a T-DNA inserted into exon 13 of the gene encoding Lys ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase. This bifunctional enzyme controls the first two steps of Lys catabolism. The phenotype of the LKR/SDH knockout was indistinguishable from wild-type plants under normal growth conditions, suggesting that Lys catabolism is not an essential pathway under standard growth conditions. However, mature seeds of the knockout mutant over-accumulated Lys compared with wild-type plants. This report provides the first direct evidence for the functional significance of Lys catabolism in regulating Lys accumulation in seeds. Such a knockout mutant may also provide new perspectives to improve the level of the essential amino acid Lys in plant seeds. PMID:11500552

  16. Birth of Archaeal Cells: Molecular Phylogenetic Analyses of G1P Dehydrogenase, G3P Dehydrogenases, and Glycerol Kinase Suggest Derived Features of Archaeal Membranes Having G1P Polar Lipids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and Eukarya have cell membranes with sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), whereas archaeal membranes contain sn-glycerol-1-phosphate (G1P). Determining the time at which cells with either G3P-lipid membranes or G1P-lipid membranes appeared is important for understanding the early evolution of terrestrial life. To clarify this issue, we reconstructed molecular phylogenetic trees of G1PDH (G1P dehydrogenase; EgsA/AraM) which is responsible for G1P synthesis and G3PDHs (G3P dehydrogenase; GpsA and GlpA/GlpD) and glycerol kinase (GlpK) which is responsible for G3P synthesis. Together with the distribution of these protein-encoding genes among archaeal and bacterial groups, our phylogenetic analyses suggested that GlpA/GlpD in the Commonote (the last universal common ancestor of all extant life with a cellular form, Commonote commonote) acquired EgsA (G1PDH) from the archaeal common ancestor (Commonote archaea) and acquired GpsA and GlpK from a bacterial common ancestor (Commonote bacteria). In our scenario based on this study, the Commonote probably possessed a G3P-lipid membrane synthesized enzymatically, after which the archaeal lineage acquired G1PDH followed by the replacement of a G3P-lipid membrane with a G1P-lipid membrane. PMID:27774041

  17. The gdhB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an arginine-inducible NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase which is subject to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, C D; Abdelal, A T

    2001-01-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was purified, and its amino-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence information was used in identifying and cloning the encoding gdhB gene and its flanking regions. The molecular mass predicted from the derived sequence for the encoded NAD-GDH was 182.6 kDa, in close agreement with that determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme (180 kDa). Cross-linking studies established that the native NAD-GDH is a tetramer of equal subunits. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of NAD-GDH from P. aeruginosa with the GenBank database showed the highest homology with hypothetical polypeptides from Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazakii, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Shewanella putrefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Caulobacter crescentus. A moderate degree of homology, primarily in the central domain, was observed with the smaller tetrameric NAD-GDH (protomeric mass of 110 kDa) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Neurospora crassa. Comparison with the yet smaller hexameric GDH (protomeric mass of 48 to 55 kDa) of other prokaryotes yielded a low degree of homology that was limited to residues important for binding of substrates and for catalytic function. NAD-GDH was induced 27-fold by exogenous arginine and only 3-fold by exogenous glutamate. Primer extension experiments established that transcription of gdhB is initiated from an arginine-inducible promoter and that this induction is dependent on the arginine regulatory protein, ArgR, a member of the AraC/XyIS family of regulatory proteins. NAD-GDH was purified to homogeneity from a recombinant strain of P. aeruginosa and characterized. The glutamate saturation curve was sigmoid, indicating positive cooperativity in the binding of glutamate. NAD-GDH activity was subject to allosteric control by arginine and citrate, which

  18. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Is a Prognostic Marker for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Cytosine Deaminase Gene and 5-Fluorocytosine Prodrug Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taemoon; Na, Juri; Kim, Young-il; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Ho Eun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Paek, Sun Ha; Youn, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a therapeutic strategy for recurrent malignant gliomas using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), expressing cytosine deaminase (CD), and prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a more specific and less toxic option. MSCs are emerging as a novel cell therapeutic agent with a cancer-targeting property, and CD is considered a promising enzyme in cancer gene therapy which can convert non-toxic 5-FC to toxic 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore, use of prodrug 5-FC can minimize normal cell toxicity. Analyses of microarrays revealed that targeting DNA damage and its repair is a selectable option for gliomas after the standard chemo/radio-therapy. 5-FU is the most frequently used anti-cancer drug, which induces DNA breaks. Because dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was reported to be involved in 5-FU metabolism to block DNA damage, we compared the survival rate with 5-FU treatment and the level of DPD expression in 15 different glioma cell lines. DPD-deficient cells showed higher sensitivity to 5-FU, and the regulation of DPD level by either siRNA or overexpression was directly related to the 5-FU sensitivity. For MSC/CD with 5-FC therapy, DPD-deficient cells such as U87MG, GBM28, and GBM37 showed higher sensitivity compared to DPD-high U373 cells. Effective inhibition of tumor growth was also observed in an orthotopic mouse model using DPD- deficient U87MG, indicating that DPD gene expression is indeed closely related to the efficacy of MSC/CD-mediated 5-FC therapy. Our results suggested that DPD can be used as a biomarker for selecting glioma patients who may possibly benefit from this therapy. PMID:27446484

  19. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Is a Prognostic Marker for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Cytosine Deaminase Gene and 5-Fluorocytosine Prodrug Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Taemoon; Na, Juri; Kim, Young-Il; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Ho Eun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Paek, Sun Ha; Youn, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a therapeutic strategy for recurrent malignant gliomas using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), expressing cytosine deaminase (CD), and prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a more specific and less toxic option. MSCs are emerging as a novel cell therapeutic agent with a cancer-targeting property, and CD is considered a promising enzyme in cancer gene therapy which can convert non-toxic 5-FC to toxic 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore, use of prodrug 5-FC can minimize normal cell toxicity. Analyses of microarrays revealed that targeting DNA damage and its repair is a selectable option for gliomas after the standard chemo/radio-therapy. 5-FU is the most frequently used anti-cancer drug, which induces DNA breaks. Because dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was reported to be involved in 5-FU metabolism to block DNA damage, we compared the survival rate with 5-FU treatment and the level of DPD expression in 15 different glioma cell lines. DPD-deficient cells showed higher sensitivity to 5-FU, and the regulation of DPD level by either siRNA or overexpression was directly related to the 5-FU sensitivity. For MSC/CD with 5-FC therapy, DPD-deficient cells such as U87MG, GBM28, and GBM37 showed higher sensitivity compared to DPD-high U373 cells. Effective inhibition of tumor growth was also observed in an orthotopic mouse model using DPD- deficient U87MG, indicating that DPD gene expression is indeed closely related to the efficacy of MSC/CD-mediated 5-FC therapy. Our results suggested that DPD can be used as a biomarker for selecting glioma patients who may possibly benefit from this therapy.

  20. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  1. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in postnatal development of rat testis: gene expression, localization and regulation by luteinizing hormone and androgens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xin-Xin; Lin, Han; Fei, Ai-Li; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2014-01-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis.

  2. Disrupting the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 gene (BdCAD1) leads to altered lignification and improved saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Madeleine; Bouchabke-Coussa, Oumaya; Voorend, Wannes; Antelme, Sébastien; Cézard, Laurent; Legée, Frédéric; Lebris, Philippe; Legay, Sylvain; Whitehead, Caragh; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Gomez, Leonardo D; Jouanin, Lise; Lapierre, Catherine; Sibout, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been proposed as a model for grasses, but there is limited knowledge regarding its lignins and no data on lignin-related mutants. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes involved in lignification are promising targets to improve the cellulose-to-ethanol conversion process. Down-regulation of CAD often induces a reddish coloration of lignified tissues. Based on this observation, we screened a chemically induced population of Brachypodium mutants (Bd21-3 background) for red culm coloration. We identified two mutants (Bd4179 and Bd7591), with mutations in the BdCAD1 gene. The mature stems of these mutants displayed reduced CAD activity and lower lignin content. Their lignins were enriched in 8-O-4- and 4-O-5-coupled sinapaldehyde units, as well as resistant inter-unit bonds and free phenolic groups. By contrast, there was no increase in coniferaldehyde end groups. Moreover, the amount of sinapic acid ester-linked to cell walls was measured for the first time in a lignin-related CAD grass mutant. Functional complementation of the Bd4179 mutant with the wild-type BdCAD1 allele restored the wild-type phenotype and lignification. Saccharification assays revealed that Bd4179 and Bd7591 lines were more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than wild-type plants. Here, we have demonstrated that BdCAD1 is involved in lignification of Brachypodium. We have shown that a single nucleotide change in BdCAD1 reduces the lignin level and increases the degree of branching of lignins through incorporation of sinapaldehyde. These changes make saccharification of cells walls pre-treated with alkaline easier without compromising plant growth.

  3. Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Contributes to Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis, Lipid Droplet Formation, and Host Invasion in Metarhizium robertsii

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Huang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes involved in the triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis have been well studied in the model organisms of yeasts and animals. Among these, the isoforms of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) redundantly catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in glycerolipid synthesis. Here, we report the functions of mrGAT, a GPAT ortholog, in an insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii. Unlike in yeasts and animals, a single copy of the mrGAT gene is present in the fungal genome and the gene deletion mutant is viable. Compared to the wild type and the gene-rescued mutant, the ΔmrGAT mutant demonstrated reduced abilities to produce conidia and synthesize TAG, glycerol, and total lipids. More importantly, we found that mrGAT is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and directly linked to the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) in fungal cells. Insect bioassay results showed that mrGAT is required for full fungal virulence by aiding fungal penetration of host cuticles. Data from this study not only advance our understanding of GPAT functions in fungi but also suggest that filamentous fungi such as M. robertsii can serve as a good model to elucidate the role of the glycerol phosphate pathway in fungal physiology, particularly to determine the mechanistic connection of GPAT to LD formation. PMID:24077712

  4. RNAi knock-downs support roles for the mucin-like (AeIMUC1) gene and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) gene in Aedes aegypti susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Berois, M; Romero-Severson, J; Severson, D W

    2012-03-01

    The mosquito midgut represents the first barrier encountered by the Plasmodium parasite (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) when it is ingested in blood from an infected vertebrate. Previous studies identified the Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mucin-like (AeIMUC1) and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) genes as midgut-expressed candidate genes influencing susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum (Brumpt). We used RNA inference (RNAi) by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injections to examine ookinete survival to the oocyst stage following individual gene knock-downs. Double-stranded RNA gene knock-downs were performed 3 days prior to P. gallinaceum infection and oocyst development was evaluated at 7 days post-infection. Mean numbers of parasites developing to the oocyst stage were significantly reduced by 52.3% in dsAeIMUC1-injected females and by 36.5% in dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with a dsβ-gal control. The prevalence of infection was significantly reduced in dsAeIMUC1- and dsSDR-injected females compared with females injected with dsβ-gal; these reductions resulted in a two- and three-fold increase in the number of uninfected individuals, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that both AeIMUC1 and SDR play a role in Ae. aegypti vector competence to P. gallinaceum.

  5. Phosphate closes the solution structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Júlio C; Pereira, José H; Vasconcelos, Igor B; dos Santos, Giovanni C; Olivieri, Johnny R; Ramos, Carlos H I; Palma, Mário S; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2006-08-15

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase catalyses the sixth step of the shikimate pathway that is responsible for synthesizing aromatic compounds and is absent in mammals, which makes it a potential target for drugs development against microbial diseases. Here, we report the phosphate binding effects at the structure of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This enzyme is formed by two similar domains that close on each other induced by ligand binding, showing the occurrence of a large conformation change. We have monitored the phosphate binding effects using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle X-ray scattering and, circular dichroism techniques. The low resolution results showed that the enzyme in the presence of phosphate clearly presented a more compact structure. Thermal-induced unfolding experiments followed by circular dichroism suggested that phosphate rigidified the enzyme. Summarizing, these data suggested that the phosphate itself is able to induce conformational change resulting in the closure movement in the M. tuberculosis 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

  6. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  7. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  8. Clustered Genes Encoding 2-Keto-l-Gulonate Reductase and l-Idonate 5-Dehydrogenase in the Novel Fungal d-Glucuronic Acid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Arvas, Mikko; Richard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    D-Glucuronic acid is a biomass component that occurs in plant cell wall polysaccharides and is catabolized by saprotrophic microorganisms including fungi. A pathway for D-glucuronic acid catabolism in fungal microorganisms is only partly known. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the enzymes that are known to be part of the pathway are the NADPH requiring D-glucuronic acid reductase forming L-gulonate and the NADH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate. With the aid of RNA sequencing we identified two more enzymes of the pathway. The first is a NADPH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate, GluD. The second is a NAD(+) requiring L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase forming 5-keto-gluconate, GluE. The genes coding for these two enzymes are clustered and share the same bidirectional promoter. The GluD is an enzyme with a strict requirement for NADP(+)/NADPH as cofactors. The kcat for 2-keto-L-gulonate and L-idonate is 21.4 and 1.1 s(-1), and the Km 25.3 and 12.6 mM, respectively, when using the purified protein. In contrast, the GluE has a strict requirement for NAD(+)/NADH. The kcat for L-idonate and 5-keto-D-gluconate is 5.5 and 7.2 s(-1), and the Km 30.9 and 8.4 mM, respectively. These values also refer to the purified protein. The gluD deletion resulted in accumulation of 2-keto-L-gulonate in the liquid cultivation while the gluE deletion resulted in reduced growth and cessation of the D-glucuronic acid catabolism.

  9. Clustered Genes Encoding 2-Keto-l-Gulonate Reductase and l-Idonate 5-Dehydrogenase in the Novel Fungal d-Glucuronic Acid Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Arvas, Mikko; Richard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    D-Glucuronic acid is a biomass component that occurs in plant cell wall polysaccharides and is catabolized by saprotrophic microorganisms including fungi. A pathway for D-glucuronic acid catabolism in fungal microorganisms is only partly known. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the enzymes that are known to be part of the pathway are the NADPH requiring D-glucuronic acid reductase forming L-gulonate and the NADH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate. With the aid of RNA sequencing we identified two more enzymes of the pathway. The first is a NADPH requiring 2-keto-L-gulonate reductase that forms L-idonate, GluD. The second is a NAD+ requiring L-idonate 5-dehydrogenase forming 5-keto-gluconate, GluE. The genes coding for these two enzymes are clustered and share the same bidirectional promoter. The GluD is an enzyme with a strict requirement for NADP+/NADPH as cofactors. The kcat for 2-keto-L-gulonate and L-idonate is 21.4 and 1.1 s-1, and the Km 25.3 and 12.6 mM, respectively, when using the purified protein. In contrast, the GluE has a strict requirement for NAD+/NADH. The kcat for L-idonate and 5-keto-D-gluconate is 5.5 and 7.2 s-1, and the Km 30.9 and 8.4 mM, respectively. These values also refer to the purified protein. The gluD deletion resulted in accumulation of 2-keto-L-gulonate in the liquid cultivation while the gluE deletion resulted in reduced growth and cessation of the D-glucuronic acid catabolism. PMID:28261181

  10. Prolactin receptor-associated protein/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 gene (Hsd17b7) plays a crucial role in embryonic development and fetal survival.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Aurora; Mao, Jifang; Gibori, Gil B; Halperin, Julia; Le, Jamie; Devi, Y Sangeeta; Merrill, Bradley; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Gibori, Geula

    2008-10-01

    Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified a protein named PRAP (prolactin receptor-associated protein) that was shown to be a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) enzyme with dual activity. This enzyme, renamed HSD17B7 or PRAP/17beta-HSD7, converts estrone to estradiol and is also involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The major site of its expression is the corpus luteum of a great number of species including rodents and humans. To examine the functional significance of HSD17B7 in pregnancy, we generated a knockout mouse model with targeted deletions of exons 1-4 of this gene. We anticipated a mouse with a severe fertility defect due to its inability to regulate estrogen levels during pregnancy. The heterozygous mutant mice are normal in their development and gross anatomy. The females cycle normally, and both male and female are fertile with normal litter size. To our surprise, the breeding of heterozygous mice yielded no viable HSD17B7 null mice. However, we found HSD17B7 null embryo alive in utero on d 8.5 and d 9.5. By d 10.5, the fetuses grow and suffer from severe brain malformation and heart defect. Because the brain depends on in situ cholesterol biosynthesis for its development beginning at d 10, the major cause of fetal death appears to be due to the cholesterol synthetic activity of this enzyme. By ablating HSD17B7 function, we have uncovered, in vivo, an important requirement for this enzyme during fetal development.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of adhE2, the Gene Encoding the NADH-Dependent Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Butanol Production in Alcohologenic Cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Lisa; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Girbal, Laurence; Yang, Xinghong; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The adhE2 gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AADH), was characterized from molecular and biochemical points of view. The 2,577-bp adhE2 codes for a 94.4-kDa protein. adhE2 is expressed, as a monocistronic operon, in alcohologenic cultures and not in solventogenic cultures. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 160 and 215 bp upstream of the adhE2 start codon. The expression of adhE2 from a plasmid in the DG1 mutant of C. acetobutylicum, a mutant cured of the pSOL1 megaplasmid, restored butanol production and provided elevated activities of NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenases. The recombinant AdhE2 protein expressed in E. coli as a Strep-tag fusion protein and purified to homogeneity also demonstrated NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenase activities. This is the second AADH identified in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and to our knowledge this is the first example of a bacterium with two AADHs. It is noteworthy that the two corresponding genes, adhE and adhE2, are carried by the pSOL1 megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. PMID:11790753

  12. Mutation by DNA shuffling of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Malus domestica for improved glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xu, Hu; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Hong-Juan; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-09-01

    A new 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Malus domestica (MdEPSPS) was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify an EPSPS gene appropriate for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants. However, wild-type MdEPSPS is not suitable for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants because of its poor glyphosate resistance. Thus, we performed DNA shuffling on MdEPSPS, and one highly glyphosate-resistant mutant with mutations in eight amino acids (N63D, N86S, T101A, A187T, D230G, H317R, Y399R and C413A.) was identified after five rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Among the eight amino acid substitutions on this mutant, only two residue changes (T101A and A187T) were identified by site-directed mutagenesis as essential and additive in altering glyphosate resistance, which was further confirmed by kinetic analyses. The single-site A187T mutation has also never been previously reported as an important residue for glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, transgenic rice was used to confirm the potential of MdEPSPS mutant in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  13. Biochemical genetics of opossum aldehyde dehydrogenase 3: evidence for three ALDH3A-like genes and an ALDH3B-like gene.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S

    2010-04-01

    Mammalian ALDH3 isozymes participate in peroxidic and fatty aldehyde metabolism, and in anterior eye tissue UV-filtration. BLAT analyses were undertaken of the opossum genome using rat ALDH3A1, ALDH3A2, ALDH3B1, and ALDH3B2 amino acid sequences. Two predicted opossum ALDH3A1-like genes and an ALDH3A2-like gene were observed on chromosome 2, as well as an ALDH3B-like gene, which showed similar intron-exon boundaries with other mammalian ALDH3-like genes. Opossum ALDH3 subunit sequences and structures were highly conserved, including residues previously shown to be involved in catalysis and coenzyme binding for rat ALDH3A1. Eleven glycine residues were conserved for all of the opossum ALDH3-like sequences examined, including two glycine residues previously located within the stem of the rat ALDH3A1 active site funnel. Phylogeny studies of human, rat, opossum, and chicken ALDH3-like sequences indicated that the common ancestor for ALDH3A- and ALDH3B-like genes predates the appearance of birds during vertebrate evolution.

  14. An EPSP synthase inhibitor joining shikimate 3-phosphate with glyphosate: synthesis and ligand binding studies.

    PubMed

    Marzabadi, M R; Gruys, K J; Pansegrau, P D; Walker, M C; Yuen, H K; Sikorski, J A

    1996-04-02

    A novel EPSP synthase inhibitor 4 has been designed and synthesized to probe the configurational details of glyphosate recognition in its herbicidal ternary complex with enzyme and shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P). A kinetic evaluation of the new 3-dephospho analog 12, as well as calorimetric and (31)P NMR spectroscopic studies of enzyme-bound 4, now provides a more precise quantitative definition for the molecular interactions of 4 with this enzyme. The very poor binding, relative to 4, displayed by the 3-dephospho analog 12 is indicative that 4 has a specific interaction with the S3P site. A comparison of Ki(calc) for 12 versus the Ki(app) for 4 indicates that the 3-phosphate group in 4 contributes about 4.8 kcal/mol to binding. This compares well with the 5.2 kcal/mol which the 3-phosphate group in S3P contributes to binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that 4 binds to free enzyme with an observed Kd of 0.53 +/- 0.04 microM. As such, 4 binds only 3-fold weaker than glyphosate and about 150-fold better than N-methylglyphosate. Consequently, 4 represents the most potent N-alkylglyphosate derivative identified to date. However, the resulting thermodynamic binding parameters clearly demonstrate that the formation of EPSPS x 4 is entropy driven like S3P. The binding characteristics of 4 are fully consistent with a primary interaction localized at the S3P subsite. Furthermore, (31)P NMR studies of enzyme-bound 4 confirm the expected interaction at the shikimate 3-phosphate site. However, the chemical shift observed for the phosphonate signal of EPSPS x 4 is in the opposite direction than that observed previously when glyphosate binds with enzyme and S3P. Therefore, when 4 occupies the S3P binding site, there is incomplete overlap at the glyphosate phosphonate subsite. As a glyphosate analog inhibitor, the potency of 4 most likely arises from predominant interactions which occur outside the normal glyphosate binding site. Consequently, 4 is best described

  15. Extranuclear expression of the bacterial xylose isomerase (xylA) and the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (hasB) genes in yeast with Kluyveromyces lactis linear killer plasmids as vectors.

    PubMed

    Schründer, J; Gunge, N; Meinhardt, F

    1996-11-01

    On the basis of the linear killer plasmid pGKL1 from Kluyveromyces lactis, two new linear hybrid plasmids were constructed. One of these, pRSC126, carried the xylA gene from Streptomyces rubiginosus encoding the xylose isomerase. The other linear hybrid molecule, pRSC128, carried the hasB gene of Streptococcus pyogenes encoding the UDP glucose dehydrogenase. Construction was performed in a way that the putative cytoplasmic promoter element of ORF5 of pGKL2 was fused to the coding region of the heterologous genes. After transformation, in vivo recombination led to the establishment of linear hybrid vectors. Though efficiency of expression was low when compared with bacterial systems, cytoplasmic expression of both genes was clearly demonstrated.

  16. Gene-environment interactions on the risk of esophageal cancer among Asian populations with the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 gene: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Jiang, Yingjiu; Wu, Qingcheng; Li, Qiang; Chen, Dan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Min; Ye, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the gene-environment interactions between the G48A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) gene and environmental factors in determining the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to indentify eligible studies published before November 1, 2013. We performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies with a total of 8,906 EC patients and 13,712 controls. The overall analysis suggested that individuals with the GG genotype were associated with a 2.77-fold increased risk of EC, compared with carriers of the GA and AA genotypes. In a stratified analysis by ethnic group, Japanese, Mainland Chinese, and Taiwan Chinese with the GG genotype had a significantly higher risk of EC, compared with Thai and Iranian populations, indicating ethnic variance in EC susceptibility. An analysis of combined effect indicated that GG genotype of ADH2 G48A was associated with the highest risk of EC in heavy drinkers and smokers. A striking difference was found to exist between males and females, showing gender variance for the association between ADH2 G48A and EC risk. This meta-analysis shows that the GG genotype of ADH2 G48A may be associated with an increased risk of EC in Asian populations. In addition, significant gene-environment interactions were found. Heavy drinkers, smokers, and males with the GG genotype may have a higher EC risk. Thus, our results shed new light on the complex gene-environment interactions that exist between environmental factors and ADH2 G48A polymorphism in EC risk.

  17. Deficiency of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 decreases triacylglycerol storage and induces fatty acid oxidation in insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Ramos, Isabela B; De Paula, Iron F; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect. RhoprGPAT1 contributes 15% of the total GPAT activity in anterior midgut, 50% in posterior midgut and fat body, and 70% in the ovary. The RhoprGpat1 gene is the predominant transcript in the midgut and fat body. To evaluate the physiological relevance of RhoprGPAT1, we generate RhoprGPAT1-deficient insects. The knockdown of RhoprGpat1 results in 50% and 65% decrease in TAG content in the posterior midgut and fat body, respectively. RhoprGpat1-deficient insects also exhibits impaired lipid droplet expansion and a 2-fold increase in fatty acid β-oxidation rates in the fat body. We propose that the RhoprGPAT1 mitochondrial-like isoform is required to channel fatty acyl chains towards TAG synthesis and away from β-oxidation. Such a process is crucial for the insect lipid homeostasis.

  18. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of a novel class II 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase from the deep-sea bacterium Alcanivorax sp. L27.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Yi, Licong; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Lili; Shao, Zongze; Liu, Ziduo

    2014-09-01

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway in microorganisms and plants, which catalyzes the formation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) from shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). In this study, a novel AroA-encoding gene was identified from the deep sea bacterium Alcanivorax sp. L27 through screening the genomic library and termed as AroAA.sp. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that AroAA.sp (1317 bp and 438 amino acids) is a class II AroA. This enzyme exhibited considerable activity between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0 and notable activity at low temperatures. The KM for PEP and IC50 [glyphosate] values (the concentration of glyphosate that inhibited enzyme activity by 50%) of AroAA.sp were 78 μM and 1.5 mM, respectively. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the G100A mutant had a 30-fold increase in the IC50 [glyphosate] value; while the L105P mutant showed only 20% catalytic activity compared to wild-type AroAA.sp. The specific activity of the wild-type AroAA.sp, the G100A mutant and the L105P mutant were 7.78 U/mg, 7.26 U/mg and 1.76 U/mg, respectively. This is the first report showing that the G100A mutant of AroA displays considerably improved glyphosate resistance and demonstrates that Leu105 is essential for the enzyme's activity.

  19. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  20. SHORT-COMMUNICATION Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A R; Silva, G F; Gualberto, G F; Almeida, F L

    2016-12-23

    Tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the main native freshwater fish in Brazilian aquaculture. Therefore, intensive research pressure has been applied to the species to support new technologies for tambaqui farming. Molecular biology represents a tool that can be used to investigate every field of applied biology, from fish physiology to the effects of climate change. Based on the importance of reference genes for the relative or absolute quantification of gene transcripts, we cloned and sequenced three candidate reference genes in tambaqui (18S ribossomal RNA - 18s, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase - gapdh, and actin beta - β-actin), and validated a set of primers for each gene for use in real-time quantitative PCR. The results were evaluated by RefFinder, which indicated that β-actin is the most suitable reference gene for tambaqui among those studied, followed by 18s.

  1. Metabolic Engineering of an ATP-Neutral Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Growth Restoration by an Adaptive Point Mutation in NADH Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Komati Reddy, Gajendar; Lindner, Steffen N.

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis and gains 2 mol of ATP per mol of glucose by substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). To engineer glycolysis without net ATP formation by SLP, endogenous phosphorylating NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was replaced by nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which irreversibly converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) without generating ATP. As shown recently (S. Takeno, R. Murata, R. Kobayashi, S. Mitsuhashi, and M. Ikeda, Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7154–7160, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01464-10), this ATP-neutral, NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway did not allow for the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum with glucose as the sole carbon source unless hitherto unknown suppressor mutations occurred; however, these mutations were not disclosed. In the present study, a suppressor mutation was identified, and it was shown that heterologous expression of udhA encoding soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli partly restored growth, suggesting that growth was inhibited by NADPH accumulation. Moreover, genome sequence analysis of second-site suppressor mutants that were able to grow faster with glucose revealed a single point mutation in the gene of non-proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-II) leading to the amino acid change D213G, which was shared by these suppressor mutants. Since related NDH-II enzymes accepting NADPH as the substrate possess asparagine or glutamine residues at this position, D213G, D213N, and D213Q variants of C. glutamicum NDH-II were constructed and were shown to oxidize NADPH in addition to NADH. Taking these findings together, ATP-neutral glycolysis by the replacement of endogenous NAD-dependent GAPDH with NADP-dependent GapN became possible via oxidation of NADPH formed in this pathway by mutant NADPH

  2. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-11-13

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

  3. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  4. Evaluation of housekeeping genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in the equine kidney

    PubMed Central

    AZARPEYKAN, Sara; DITTMER, Keren E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are used as internal controls for normalising and calculating the relative expression of target genes in RT-qPCR experiments. There is no unique universal HKG and HKGs vary among organisms and tissues, so this study aimed to determine the most stably expressed HKGs in the equine kidney. The evaluated HKGs included 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1). The HKGs expression stability data were analysed with two software packages, geNorm and NormFinder. The lowest stability values for geNorm suggests that YWHAZ and HPRT1 would be most optimal (M=0.31 and 0.32, respectively). Further, these two genes had the best pairwise stability value using NormFinder (geNorm V=0.085). Therefore, these two genes were considered the most useful for RT-qPCR studies in equine kidney. PMID:27974876

  5. Atomic-level characterization of transport cycle thermodynamics in the glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Enkavi, Giray; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2015-09-01

    Membrane transporters actively translocate their substrate by undergoing large-scale structural transitions between inward- (IF) and outward-facing (OF) states (`alternating-access' mechanism). Despite extensive structural studies, atomic-level mechanistic details of such structural transitions, and as importantly, their coupling to chemical events supplying the energy, remain amongst the most elusive aspects of the function of these proteins. Here we present a quantitative, atomic-level description of the functional thermodynamic cycle for the glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter GlpT by using a novel approach in reconstructing the free energy landscape governing the IF<-->OF transition along a cyclic transition pathway involving both apo and substrate-bound states. Our results provide a fully atomic description of the complete transport process, offering a structural model for the alternating-access mechanism and substantiating the close coupling between global structural transitions and local chemical events.

  6. Atomic-level characterization of transport cycle thermodynamics in the glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Enkavi, Giray; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transporters actively translocate their substrate by undergoing large-scale structural transitions between inward- (IF) and outward-facing (OF) states (‘alternating-access' mechanism). Despite extensive structural studies, atomic-level mechanistic details of such structural transitions, and as importantly, their coupling to chemical events supplying the energy, remain amongst the most elusive aspects of the function of these proteins. Here we present a quantitative, atomic-level description of the functional thermodynamic cycle for the glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter GlpT by using a novel approach in reconstructing the free energy landscape governing the IF↔OF transition along a cyclic transition pathway involving both apo and substrate-bound states. Our results provide a fully atomic description of the complete transport process, offering a structural model for the alternating-access mechanism and substantiating the close coupling between global structural transitions and local chemical events. PMID:26417850

  7. Role of intragenic binding of cAMP responsive protein (CRP) in regulation of the succinate dehydrogenase genes Rv0249c-Rv0247c in TB complex mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Gwendowlyn S; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Peterson, Matthew W; Gomes, Antonio L C; Ma, Zhuo; Galagan, James E; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2015-06-23

    Bacterial pathogens adapt to changing environments within their hosts, and the signaling molecule adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) facilitates this process. In this study, we characterized in vivo DNA binding and gene regulation by the cAMP-responsive protein CRP in M. bovis BCG as a model for tuberculosis (TB)-complex bacteria. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep-sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed that CRP associates with ∼900 DNA binding regions, most of which occur within genes. The most highly enriched binding region was upstream of a putative copper transporter gene (ctpB), and crp-deleted bacteria showed increased sensitivity to copper toxicity. Detailed mutational analysis of four CRP binding sites upstream of the virulence-associated Rv0249c-Rv0247c succinate dehydrogenase genes demonstrated that CRP directly regulates Rv0249c-Rv0247c expression from two promoters, one of which requires sequences intragenic to Rv0250c for maximum expression. The high percentage of intragenic CRP binding sites and our demonstration that these intragenic DNA sequences significantly contribute to biologically relevant gene expression greatly expand the genome space that must be considered for gene regulatory analyses in mycobacteria. These findings also have practical implications for an important bacterial pathogen in which identification of mutations that affect expression of drug target-related genes is widely used for rapid drug resistance screening.

  8. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  9. Variation of expression levels of seven housekeeping genes at different life-history stages in Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojie; Huang, Aiyou; Xu, Meiling; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; Wang, Guangce; Niu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal internal control for relative real-time PCR when studying target gene expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we quantified the expression of seven housekeeping genes (18S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S8, Polyubiquitin-2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Elongation factor 1-alpha, Beta-tubulin and Actin 3) at different life-history stages. Absolute quantification was done by normalization to total RNA quantity and by normalization to genomic DNA quantity. We used these two normalization approaches, comparing the differences of expression levels of all candidate housekeeping genes between any two generations and across three life-history stages (filamentous sporophytes, leafy gametophytes and conchospores). We found GAPDH had the best stability in all cases and we recommend that GAPDH be considered as a potential internal control for gene expression studies at different life-history stages in P. yezoensis.

  10. A strong promoter, PMagpd, provides a tool for high gene expression in entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yueqing; Jiao, Run; Xia, Yuxian

    2012-03-01

    A glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter (PMagpd) was obtained from Metarhizium acridum and its active region analyzed by 5'-deletion strategy using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter. Sequence analysis revealed that typical regulatory elements of PMagpd were included in the 1.7 kb region upstream of the start codon of the Magpd gene. Deletion of the region from -1,691 bp to -1,463 bp, where the gpd box is harbored, did not significantly affect the PMagpd activity. Deletions of the regions upstream of -946 bp and upstream of -684 bp caused a major decrease of GUS activity. Compared with PgpdA (2.2 kb) in Aspergillus nidulans, PMagpd (1.4 kb) had a shorter sequence and significantly higher activity in M. acridum. This study provides an applicable promoter for over-expression of target genes in M. acridum.

  11. A shuttle vector which facilitates the expression of transfected genes in Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J M; Ward, H M; Miles, M A; Kendall, G

    1992-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi expression vector has been constructed using sequences derived from the flanking regions of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. The neomycin phosphotransferase (neor) gene was incorporated as a selectable marker. Using electroporation we have introduced this vector into both T. cruzi and Leishmania cells and conferred G418 resistance. Transformation is mediated by large extrachromosomal circular elements composed of head-to-tail tandem repeats of the vector. The transformed phenotype is stable for at least 6 months in the absence of G418 and can be maintained during passage through the T. cruzi life-cycle. Foreign genes inserted into an expression site within the vector (pTEX) can be expressed at high levels in transformed cells. To our knowledge this paper describes the first trypanosome shuttle vector and the first vector which functions in both trypanosomes and Leishmania. Images PMID:1324472

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) and combined analyses of Adh and nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequences for inferring species relationships.

    PubMed

    Roalson, Eric H; Friar, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    We analyzed sequence variation for the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene family in Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) to reconstruct Adh gene trees for Acrocystis species and to characterize the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex. Two Adh loci were included with ITS and ETS sequences in a combined Bayesian inference analysis of Carex section Acrocystis to gain a better understanding of species relationships in the section. In addition, we comment on how the results presented here contribute to our knowledge of the birth-death process of the Adh gene family in angiosperms. It appears that the structure of the Adh gene family in Carex is complex with possibly six loci present in the gene family. Additionally, variation among Acrocystis species within loci is quite low, and there is little phylogenetic resolution in the individual datasets. Bayesian inference analysis of the combined ITS, ETS, Adh1, and Adh2 datasets resulted in a moderately well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships in the section which is discussed in relation to previous hypotheses of relationships.

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis of Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferases in Opisthokonts Reveals Unexpected Ancestral Complexity and Novel Modern Biosynthetic Components

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Heather C.; Mast, Fred D.; Chilije, Maxwell F. J.; Tavassoli, Marjan; Dacks, Joel B.; Zaremberg, Vanina

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid synthesis represents a central metabolic process of all forms of life. In the last decade multiple genes coding for enzymes responsible for the first step of the pathway, catalyzed by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), have been described, and characterized primarily in model organisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mice. Notoriously, the fungal enzymes share low sequence identity with their known animal counterparts, and the nature of their homology is unclear. Furthermore, two mitochondrial GPAT isoforms have been described in animal cells, while no such enzymes have been identified in Fungi. In order to determine if the yeast and mammalian GPATs are representative of the set of enzymes present in their respective groups, and to test the hypothesis that metazoan orthologues are indeed absent from the fungal clade, a comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis was performed including organisms spanning the breadth of the Opisthokonta supergroup. Surprisingly, our study unveiled the presence of ‘fungal’ orthologs in the basal taxa of the holozoa and ‘animal’ orthologues in the basal holomycetes. This includes a novel clade of fungal homologues, with putative peroxisomal targeting signals, of the mitochondrial/peroxisomal acyltransferases in Metazoa, thus potentially representing an undescribed metabolic capacity in the Fungi. The overall distribution of GPAT homologues is suggestive of high relative complexity in the ancestors of the opisthokont clade, followed by loss and sculpting of the complement in the descendent lineages. Divergence from a general versatile metabolic model, present in ancestrally deduced GPAT complements, points to distinctive contributions of each GPAT isoform to lipid metabolism and homeostasis in contemporary organisms like humans and their fungal pathogens. PMID:25340523

  14. A land-plant-specific glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family in Arabidopsis: substrate specificity, sn-2 preference, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Simpson, Jeffrey P; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John B

    2012-10-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has eight glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) genes that are members of a plant-specific family with three distinct clades. Several of these GPATs are required for the synthesis of cutin or suberin. Unlike GPATs with sn-1 regiospecificity involved in membrane or storage lipid synthesis, GPAT4 and -6 are unique bifunctional enzymes with both sn-2 acyltransferase and phosphatase activity resulting in 2-monoacylglycerol products. We present enzymology, pathway organization, and evolutionary analysis of this GPAT family. Within the cutin-associated clade, GPAT8 is demonstrated as a bifunctional sn-2 acyltransferase/phosphatase. GPAT4, -6, and -8 strongly prefer C16:0 and C18:1 ω-oxidized acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) over unmodified or longer acyl chain substrates. In contrast, suberin-associated GPAT5 can accommodate a broad chain length range of ω-oxidized and unsubstituted acyl-CoAs. These substrate specificities (1) strongly support polyester biosynthetic pathways in which acyl transfer to glycerol occurs after oxidation of the acyl group, (2) implicate GPAT specificities as one major determinant of cutin and suberin composition, and (3) argue against a role of sn-2-GPATs (Enzyme Commission 2.3.1.198) in membrane/storage lipid synthesis. Evidence is presented that GPAT7 is induced by wounding, produces suberin-like monomers when overexpressed, and likely functions in suberin biosynthesis. Within the third clade, we demonstrate that GPAT1 possesses sn-2 acyltransferase but not phosphatase activity and can utilize dicarboxylic acyl-CoA substrates. Thus, sn-2 acyltransferase activity extends to all subbranches of the Arabidopsis GPAT family. Phylogenetic analyses of this family indicate that GPAT4/6/8 arose early in land-plant evolution (bryophytes), whereas the phosphatase-minus GPAT1 to -3 and GPAT5/7 clades diverged later with the appearance of tracheophytes.

  15. Structure and topological symmetry of the glyphosate target 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase: a distinctive protein fold.

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, W C; Abdel-Meguid, S S; Lim, L W; Shieh, H S; Dayringer, H E; Leimgruber, N K; Stegeman, R A; Anderson, K S; Sikorski, J A; Padgette, S R; Kishore, G M

    1991-01-01

    5-enol-Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP synthase; phosphoenolpyruvate:3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.19) is an enzyme on the pathway toward the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria and is the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from Escherichia coli has been determined by crystallographic techniques. The polypeptide backbone chain was traced by examination of an electron density map calculated at 3-A resolution. The two-domain structure has a distinctive fold and appears to be formed by 6-fold replication of a protein folding unit comprising two parallel helices and a four-stranded sheet. Each domain is formed from three of these units, which are related by an approximate threefold symmetry axis; in each domain three of the helices are completely buried by a surface formed from the three beta-sheets and solvent-accessible faces of the other three helices. The domains are related by an approximate dyad, but in the present crystals the molecule does not display pseudo-symmetry related to the symmetry of point group 32 because its approximate threefold axes are almost normal. A possible relation between the three-dimensional structure of the protein and the linear sequence of its gene will be described. The topological threefold symmetry and orientation of each of the two observed globular domains may direct the binding of substrates and inhibitors by a helix macrodipole effect and implies that the active site is located near the interdomain crossover segments. The structure also suggests a rationale for the glyphosate tolerance conferred by sequence alterations. Images PMID:11607190

  16. Maple syrup urine disease. Complete primary structure of the E1 beta subunit of human branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deduced from the nucleotide sequence and a gene analysis of patients with this disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nobukuni, Y; Mitsubuchi, H; Endo, F; Akaboshi, I; Asaka, J; Matsuda, I

    1990-01-01

    A defect in the E1 beta subunit of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex is one cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In an attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of MSUD, we isolated and characterized a 1.35 kbp cDNA clone encoding the entire precursor of the E1 beta subunit of BCKDH complex from a human placental cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the isolated cDNA clone (lambda hBE1 beta-1) contained a 5'-untranslated sequence of four nucleotides, the translated sequence of 1,176 nucleotides and the 3'-untranslated sequence of 169 nucleotides. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of the clone with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified mature bovine BCKDH-E1 beta subunit showed that the cDNA insert encodes for a 342-amino acid subunit with a Mr = 37,585. The subunit is synthesized as the precursor with a leader sequence of 50 amino acids and is processed at the NH2 terminus. A search for protein homology revealed that the primary structure of human BCKDH-E1 beta was similar to the bovine BCKDH-E1 beta and to the E1 beta subunit of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, in all regions. The structures and functions of mammalian alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes are apparently highly conserved. Genomic DNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from normal and five MSUD patients, in whom E1 beta was not detected by immunoblot analysis, gave the same restriction maps on Southern blot analysis. The gene has at least 80 kbp. Images PMID:2365818

  17. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) gene deletion boosts glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli under oxygen-limited culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Soya; Shimizu, Kumiko; Kihira, Chie; Iwabu, Yuki; Kato, Ryuichi; Sugimoto, Makoto; Fukiya, Satoru; Wada, Masaru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) is a transcriptional regulator that negatively regulates formation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), NADH dehydrogenase (NDH)-2, and cytochrome bo3 oxidase in Escherichia coli. To investigate the effects of a PdhR defect on glucose metabolism, a pdhR deletion mutant was derived from the wild-type E. coli W1485 strain by λ Red-mediated recombination. While no difference in the fermentation profiles was observed between the two strains under oxygen-sufficient conditions, under oxygen-limited conditions, the growth level of the wild-type strain was significantly decreased with retarded glucose consumption accompanied by by-production of substantial amounts of pyruvic acid and acetic acid. In contrast, the mutant grew and consumed glucose more efficiently than did the wild-type strain with enhanced respiration, little by-production of pyruvic acid, less production yield and rates of acetic acid, thus displaying robust metabolic activity. As expected, increased activities of PDHc and NDH-2 were observed in the mutant. The increased activity of PDHc may explain the loss of pyruvic acid by-production, probably leading to decreased acetic acid formation, and the increased activity of NDH-2 may explain the enhanced respiration. Measurement of the intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio in the mutant revealed more oxidative or more reductive intracellular environments than those in the wild-type strain under oxygen-sufficient and -limited conditions, respectively, suggesting another role of PdhR: maintaining redox balance in E. coli. The overall results demonstrate the biotechnological advantages of pdhR deletion in boosting glucose metabolism and also improve our understanding of the role of PdhR in bacterial physiology.

  18. Modeling of glycerol-3-phosphate transporter suggests a potential 'tilt' mechanism involved in its function.

    PubMed

    Tsigelny, Igor F; Greenberg, Jerry; Kouznetsova, Valentina; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2008-10-01

    Many major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters have similar 12-transmembrane alpha-helical topologies with two six-helix halves connected by a long loop. In humans, these transporters participate in key physiological processes and are also, as in the case of members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, of pharmaceutical interest. Recently, crystal structures of two bacterial representatives of the MFS family--the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) and lac-permease (LacY)--have been solved and, because of assumptions regarding the high structural conservation of this family, there is hope that the results can be applied to mammalian transporters as well. Based on crystallography, it has been suggested that a major conformational "switching" mechanism accounts for ligand transport by MFS proteins. This conformational switch would then allow periodic changes in the overall transporter configuration, resulting in its cyclic opening to the periplasm or cytoplasm. Following this lead, we have modeled a possible "switch" mechanism in GlpT, using the concept of rotation of protein domains as in the DynDom program17 and membranephilic constraints predicted by the MAPAS program.(23) We found that the minima of energies of intersubunit interactions support two alternate positions consistent with their transport properties. Thus, for GlpT, a "tilt" of 9 degrees -10 degrees rotation had the most favorable energetics of electrostatic interaction between the two halves of the transporter; moreover, this confirmation was sufficient to suggest transport of the ligand across the membrane. We conducted steered molecular dynamics simulations of the GlpT-ligand system to explore how glycerol-3-phosphate would be handled by the "tilted" structure, and obtained results generally consistent with experimental mutagenesis data. While biochemical data remain most consistent with a single-site alternating access model, our results raise the possibility that, while the

  19. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica and phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial (nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) genes from the North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Reaghi, Saber; Haghighi, Ali; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Spotin, Adel; Arzamani, Kourosh; Rouhani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Fascioliasis is one of the most zoonotic diseases with global extension. As the epidemiological distribution of Fasciola may lead to various genetic patterns of the parasite, the aim of this study is to identify Fasciola hepatica based on spermatogenesis, and phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial (nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I [ND1] and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) gene marker. Materials and Methods: In this study, 90 F. hepatica collected from 30 cattle at slaughterhouse located in three different geographical locations in the North-East of Iran were evaluated based on spermatogenetic ability and internal transcribed spacer 1 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship using mtDNA gene marker for the isolates from the North-East of Iran, and other countries were then analyzed. Results: Partial sequences of mtDNA showed eight haplotypes in both genes. The phylogenic analysis using neighbor joining as well as maximum likelihood methods showed similar topologies of trees. Pairwise fixation index between different F. hepatica populations calculated from the nucleotide data set of ND1 gene are statistically significant and show the genetic difference. Conclusion: F. hepatica found in this region of Iran has different genetic structures through the other Fasciola populations in the world. PMID:27733809

  20. A point mutation in the putative TATA box, detected in nondiseased individuals and patients with hereditary breast cancer, decreases promoter activity of the 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene 2 (EDH17B2) in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Peltoketo, H.; Piao, Y.; Isomaa, V.

    1994-09-01

    EDH17B2, the gene encoding 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, has been suggested as a candidate for the familial breast cancer gene, BRCA1, located on 17q12-q21. We analyzed the promoter region of EDH17B2 in DNA from 20 control individuals and 40 patients with familial breast cancer. Two frequent (designated vI and vIII) and two rare (vII and vIV) nucleotide variations were present in both the breast cancer patients and the controls, except the alteration vII, which was found only in one patient. Although the data do not support the identification of EDH17B2 as the BRCA1 gene, it is of interest that point mutation vIV (A {yields} C) was located in the putative TATA box of the EDH17B2 gene. Reporter gene analysis showed that the mutation vIV decreases EDH17B2 promoter activity by an average of 45% in in vitro assays, suggesting that nucleotide A at position -27 is significant for efficient transcription. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Expression of 3beta-HSD and P5betaR, genes respectively coding for Delta5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and progesterone 5beta-reductase, in leaves and cell cultures of Digitalis lanata EHRH.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; de Padua, Rodrigo Maia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Plants of the genus Digitalis produce 5 beta-cardenolides that are used in the therapy of cardiac insufficiency in humans. 3 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and progesterone 5 beta-reductase (P5 betaR) are both supposed to be important enzymes in the biosynthesis of these natural products. Activity and gene expression were demonstrated for both enzymes in cardenolide-accumulating leaves of Digitalis lanata but also in cardenolide-free permanent cell suspension cultures initiated from D. lanata leaf tissue. Enzyme activities were determined and quantified by HPLC and GC-MS methods. Expression of the respective genes, namely AY585867.1 (P5betaR gene) and DQ466890.1 (3beta-HSD gene), was made evident by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. We demonstrate for the first time that the P5betaR gene, encoding an enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in cardenolide-free tissues of cardenolide-containing plants.

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of (R)-phenylephrine using recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene from Serratia marcescens BCRC 10948.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guan-Jhih; Kuan, Yi-Chia; Chou, Hsiao-Yi; Fu, Tze-Kai; Lin, Jia-Shin; Hsu, Wen-Hwei; Yang, Ming-Te

    2014-01-20

    (R)-Phenylephrine [(R)-PE] is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist and is widely used as a nasal decongestant to treat the common cold without the side effects of other ephedrine adrenergic drugs. We identified a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SM_SDR) from Serratia marcescens BCRC 10948 that was able to convert 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino) ethanone (HPMAE) into (R)-PE. The SM_SDR used NADPH and NADH as cofactors with specific activities of 17.35±0.71 and 5.57±0.07mU/mg protein, respectively, at 30°C and pH 7.0, thereby indicating that this enzyme could be categorized as an NADPH-preferring short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) expressing SM_SDR could convert HPMAE into (R)-PE with more than 99% enantiomeric excess. The productivity and conversion yield were 0.57mmolPE/lh and 51.06%, respectively, using 10mM HPMAE. Fructose was the most effective carbon source for the conversion of HPMAE to (R)-PE.

  3. Overexpression of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum enhances glucose metabolism and alanine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159-165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 42. Read More Enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Hemoglobin Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics G6PD Deficiency Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  5. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia.

  6. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internalization of oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors’ cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants ...

  7. The Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Biosynthetic Enzyme Has Distinct Catalytic and Metabolic Roles

    PubMed Central

    Frej, Anna D.; Clark, Jonathan; Le Roy, Caroline I.; Lilla, Sergio; Thomason, Peter A.; Otto, Grant P.; Churchill, Grant; Insall, Robert H.; Claus, Sandrine P.; Hawkins, Phillip; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in an inositol auxotrophy that can be rescued only partially by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1− mutant resulted in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis, and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalized decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 that is independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterize this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) and having homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins was identified. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism. PMID:26951199

  8. Bioreaction Engineering Leading to Efficient Synthesis of L-Glyceraldehyd-3-Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getachew S; Kinfu, Birhanu M; Chow, Jennifer; Streit, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Liese, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Enantiopure L-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (L-GAP) is a useful building block in natural biological and synthetic processes. A biocatalytic process using glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. (EC 2.7.1.30) catalyzed phosphorylation of L-glyceraldehyde (L-GA) by ATP is used for the synthesis of L-GAP. L-GAP has a half-life of 6.86 h under reaction conditions. The activity of this enzyme depends on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio showing maximum activity at the optimum molar ratio of 0.7. A kinetic model is developed and validated showing a 2D correlation of 99.9% between experimental and numerical data matrices. The enzyme exhibits inhibition by ADP, AMP, methylglyoxal and Ca(2+) , but not by L-GAP and inorganic orthophosphate. Moreover, equal amount of Ca(2+) exerts a different degree of inhibition relative to the activity without the addition of Ca(2+) depending on the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio. If the Mg(2+) to ATP molar ratio is set to be at the optimum value or less, inorganic hexametaphosphate (PPi6) suppresses the enzyme activity; otherwise PPi6 enhances the enzyme activity. Based on reaction engineering parameters such as conversion, selectivity and specific productivity, evaluation of different reactor types reveals that batchwise operation via stirred-tank reactor is the most efficient process for the synthesis of L-GAP.

  9. Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate acts as a timer for reactive oxygen species production in the phagosome.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi Min; Bouchab, Leïla; Hudik, Elodie; Le Bars, Romain; Nüsse, Oliver; Dupré-Crochet, Sophie

    2017-01-17

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the phagosome by the NADPH oxidase is critical for mammalian immune defense against microbial infections and phosphoinositides are important regulators in this process. Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) regulates ROS production at the phagosome via p40(phox) by an unknown mechanism. This study tested the hypothesis that PI(3)P controls ROS production by regulating the presence of p40(phox) and p67(phox) at the phagosomal membrane. Pharmacologic inhibition of PI(3)P synthesis at the phagosome decreased the ROS production both in differentiated PLB-985 cells and human neutrophils. It also releases p67(phox), the key cytosolic subunit of the oxidase, and p40(phox) from the phagosome. The knockdown of the PI(3)P phosphatase MTM1 or Rubicon or both increases the level of PI(3)P at the phagosome. That increase enhances ROS production inside the phagosome and triggers an extended accumulation of p67(phox) at the phagosome. Furthermore, the overexpression of MTM1 at the phagosomal membrane induces the disappearance of PI(3)P from the phagosome and prevents sustained ROS production. In conclusion, PI(3)P, indeed, regulates ROS production by maintaining p40(phox) and p67(phox) at the phagosomal membrane.

  10. Endosomal Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate Promotes Gephyrin Clustering and GABAergic Neurotransmission at Inhibitory Postsynapses*♦

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hong Jun; Subramanian, Devaraj; Paraskevopoulou, Foteini; Mueller, Rainer; Schultz, Carsten; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Betz, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The formation of neuronal synapses and the dynamic regulation of their efficacy depend on the proper assembly of the postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor apparatus. Receptor recruitment to inhibitory GABAergic postsynapses requires the scaffold protein gephyrin and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor collybistin (Cb). In vitro, the pleckstrin homology domain of Cb binds phosphoinositides, specifically phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). However, whether PI3P is required for inhibitory postsynapse formation is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the role of PI3P at developing GABAergic postsynapses by using a membrane-permeant PI3P derivative, time-lapse confocal imaging, electrophysiology, as well as knockdown and overexpression of PI3P-metabolizing enzymes. Our results provide the first in cellula evidence that PI3P located at early/sorting endosomes regulates the postsynaptic clustering of gephyrin and GABAA receptors and the strength of inhibitory, but not excitatory, postsynapses in cultured hippocampal neurons. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, stimulation of gephyrin cluster formation by PI3P depends on Cb. We therefore conclude that the endosomal pool of PI3P, generated by the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is important for the Cb-mediated recruitment of gephyrin and GABAA receptors to developing inhibitory postsynapses and thus the formation of postsynaptic membrane specializations. PMID:27941024

  11. U(VI) Sequestration in Hydroxyapatite Produced by Microbial Glycerol 3-Phosphate Metabolism▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Roden, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for removal of U(VI) from solution via precipitation of U(VI)-bearing calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) minerals coupled to microbial hydrolysis of glycerol phosphate compounds. We evaluated this process in circumneutral-pH groundwater from Area 2 of the U.S. Department of Energy Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Area 2 groundwater contains high concentrations of dissolved calcium (ca. 4 mM), and thus, release of phosphate during glycerol phosphate metabolism has the potential to create conditions favorable for U(VI) sequestration in Ca-P minerals. Microbial enumeration and isolation studies verified the presence of aerobic and nitrate-reducing glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P)-metabolizing microorganisms in Area 2 sediments. Coprecipitation of U(VI) with Ca-P minerals coupled to microbial G3P hydrolysis was demonstrated in artificial groundwater under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. Transmission electron microscopy analysis and mineral-washing experiments demonstrated that U(VI) was incorporated into the structure of the insoluble Ca-P mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH]. Our results support the idea that U(VI) can be effectively removed from solution in contaminated aquifers through stimulation of microbial organophosphate metabolism. PMID:19633115

  12. Chemical Synthesis and Molecular Recognition of Phosphatase-Resistant Analogues of Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Lee, Stephanie A.; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.; Sbrissa, Diego; Shisheva, Assia; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2008-01-01

    The remodeling of phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates in cellular membranes by phosphatases and kinases orchestrates the signaling by these lipids in space and time. In order to provide chemical tools to study of the changes in cell physiology mediated by these lipids, three new metabolically-stabilized (ms) analogues of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P were synthesized. We describe herein the total asymmetric synthesis of 3-methylphosphonate, 3-monofluoromethylphosphonate and 3-phosphorothioate analogues of PtdIns(3)P. From differentially protected D-myo-inositol key intermediates, a versatile phosphoramidite reagent was employed in the synthesis of PtdIns(3)P analogues with diacylglyceryl moieties containing dioleoyl, dipalmitoyl and dibutyryl chains. In addition, we introduce a new phosphorlyation reagent, monofluoromethylphosphonyl chloride, which has general applications for the preparation of “pKa-matched” monofluorophosphonates. These ms-PtdIns(3)P analogues exhibited reduced binding activities with 15N-labelled FYVE and PX domains, as significant 1H and 15N chemical shift changes in the FYVE domain were induced by titrating ms-PtdIns(3)Ps into membrane-mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. In addition, the PtdIns(3)P analogues with dioleyl and dipalmitoyl chains were substrates for the 5-kinase enzyme PIKfyve; the corresponding phosphorylated ms-PI(3,5)P2 products were detected by radio-TLC analysis. PMID:16417379

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated gene expression in the immature rat thymus.

    PubMed

    Olnes, M J; Verma, M; Kurl, R N

    1994-01-01

    To examine the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on thymic gene expression in vitro, freshly isolated rat thymocytes were incubated with 10 nM TCDD, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments were performed using primers specific for prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. TCDD selectively repressed PGHS gene expression, with maximal inhibition occurring within 60 min. Gel retardation assays demonstrated that dioxin transiently induced binding of the ubiquitous transcription factor NF kappa B to its cognate response element at early time points. However, TCDD had little ability to induce transformation of the Ah receptor to the xenobiotic responsive element in thymic cytosol. These results indicate that TCDD exerts changes in thymocyte gene expression prior to inducing toxicity.

  14. Catecholamine regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in rat brain cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    1980-03-25

    The mechanism of catecholamine induction of the soluble cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) was studied in the rat glial tumor cell line, C6. Lactate dehydrogenase was partially purified from extracts of (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled cells by affinity gel chromatography and quantitatively immunoprecipitated with anti-lactate dehydrogenase-5 IgG and with antilactate dehydrogenase-1 IgG. The immunoprecipitates were dissociated and electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Using this methodology, the increased enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase in norepinephrine-treated C6 cells was observed to be concomitant with the increased synthesis of enzyme molecules. Despite the continued presence of norepinephrine, the specific increase in the rate of synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase was transient. It was first detected at 4 h, was maximum at 9 h, and returned to basal levels by 24 h. The half-life of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was 36 h during the induction and 40 h during deinduction. The half-life for decay of /sup 3/H-labeled lactate dehydrogenase was 41 h. These observations suggest that the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in norepinephrine-treated cells does not involve any change in the rate of degradation. Norepinephrine increased the specific rate of synthesis of both lactate dehydrogenase-5 (a tetramer of four M subunits) and lactate dehydrogenase-1 (a tetramer of four H subunits), although to different extents. Since these subunits are coded for by two separate genes on separate chromosomes, it suggests that the regulatory mechanism involves at least two separate sites of action.

  15. The glpD gene is a novel reporter gene for E. coli that is superior to established reporter genes like lacZ and gusA.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Marius; Vogtmann, Kristina; Huber, Madeleine; Laass, Sebastian; Soppa, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    Reporter genes facilitate the characterization of promoter activities, transcript stabilities, translational efficiencies, or intracellular localization. Various reporter genes for Escherichia coli have been established, however, most of them have drawbacks like transcript instability or the inability to be used in genetic selections. Therefore, the glpD gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was introduced as a novel reporter gene for E. coli. The enzymatic assay was optimized, and it was verified that growth on glycerol strictly depends on the presence of GlpD. The 5'-UTRs of three E. coli genes were chosen and cloned upstream of the new reporter gene glpD as well as the established reporter genes lacZ and gusA. Protein and transcript levels were quantified and translational efficiencies were calculated. The lacZ transcript was very unstable and its level highly depended on its translation, compromising its use as a reporter. The results obtained with gusA and glpD were similar, however, only glpD can be used for genetic selections. Therefore, glpD was found to be a superior novel reporter gene compared to the established reporter genes lacZ and gusA.

  16. Fundamental molecular differences between alcohol dehydrogenase classes.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Atrian, S; Luque, T; Hjelmqvist, L; Gonzàlez-Duarte, R; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase in separate protein families are the "medium-chain" zinc enzymes (including the classical liver and yeast forms) and the "short-chain" enzymes (including the insect form). Although the medium-chain family has been characterized in prokaryotes and many eukaryotes (fungi, plants, cephalopods, and vertebrates), insects have seemed to possess only the short-chain enzyme. We have now also characterized a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila. The enzyme is identical to insect octanol dehydrogenase. It is a typical class III alcohol dehydrogenase, similar to the corresponding human form (70% residue identity), with mostly the same residues involved in substrate and coenzyme interactions. Changes that do occur are conservative, but Phe-51 is of functional interest in relation to decreased coenzyme binding and increased overall activity. Extra residues versus the human enzyme near position 250 affect the coenzyme-binding domain. Enzymatic properties are similar--i.e., very low activity toward ethanol (Km beyond measurement) and high selectivity for formaldehyde/glutathione (S-hydroxymethylglutathione; kcat/Km = 160,000 min-1.mM-1). Between the present class III and the ethanol-active class I enzymes, however, patterns of variability differ greatly, highlighting fundamentally separate molecular properties of these two alcohol dehydrogenases, with class III resembling enzymes in general and class I showing high variation. The gene coding for the Drosophila class III enzyme produces an mRNA of about 1.36 kb that is present at all developmental stages of the fly, compatible with the constitutive nature of the vertebrate enzyme. Taken together, the results bridge a previously apparent gap in the distribution of medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases and establish a strictly conserved class III enzyme, consistent with an important role for this enzyme in cellular metabolism. Images PMID:8197167

  17. Stably Expressed Housekeeping Genes across Developmental Stages in the Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring mRNA expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is mandatory. In this study, ten housekeeping genes, including beta-actin (Actin) , elongation factor 1 α (EF1A) , glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) , ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13) , ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) , α-tubulin (Tubulin) , vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) , succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) , 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) , and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were selected as the candidate reference genes. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the performance of these candidates as endogenous controls across different developmental stages. In addition, RefFinder, which integrates the above-mentioned software tools, provided the overall ranking of the stability/suitability of these candidate reference genes. Among them, PRL13 and v-ATPase were the two most stable housekeeping genes across different developmental stages. This work is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in T. urticae following the MIQE guideline. With the recent release of the T. urticae genome, results from this study provide a critical piece for the subsequent genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging model system. PMID:25822495

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  19. Reference gene for primary culture of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Souza, Aline Francielle Damo; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Neto, Brasil Silva; Berger, Milton; Branchini, Gisele

    2013-04-01

    Selection of reference genes to normalize mRNA levels between samples is critical for gene expression studies because their expression can vary depending on the tissues or cells used and the experimental conditions. We performed ten cell cultures from samples of prostate cancer. Cells were divided into three groups: control (with no transfection protocol), cells transfected with siRNA specific to knockdown the androgen receptor and cells transfected with inespecific siRNAs. After 24 h, mRNA was extracted and gene expression was analyzed by Real-time qPCR. Nine candidates to reference genes for gene expression studies in this model were analyzed (aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 (ALAS1); beta-actin (ACTB); beta-2-microglobulin (B2M); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1); succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) (SDHA); TATA box binding protein (TBP); ubiquitin C (UBC); tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ)). Expression stability was calculated NormFinder algorithm to find the most stable genes. NormFinder calculated SDHA as the most stable gene and the gene with the lowest intergroup and intragroup variation, and indicated GAPDH and SDHA as the best combination of two genes for the purpose of normalization. Androgen receptor mRNA expression was evaluated after normalization by each candidate gene and showed statistical difference in the transfected group compared to control group only when normalized by combination of GAPDH and SDHA. Based on the algorithm analysis, the combination of SDHA and GAPDH should be used to normalize target genes mRNA levels in primary culture of prostate cancer cells submitted to transfection with siRNAs.

  20. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  1. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Schlossman, D M; Bell, R M

    1978-01-01

    Yeast acyl-coenzyme A:dihydroxyacetone-phosphate O-acyltransferase (DHAP acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.42) was investigated to (i) determine whether its activity and that of acyl-coenzyme A:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (glycerol-P acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.15) represent dual catalytic functions of a single membranous enzyme, (ii) estimate the relative contributions of the glycerol-P and DHAP pathways for yeast glycerolipid synthesis, and (iii) evaluate the suitability of yeast for future genetic investigations of the eucaryotic glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities. The membranous DHAP acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.79 mM for DHAP, with a Vmax of 5.3 nmol/min per mg, whereas the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.05 mM for glycerol-P, with a Vmax of 3.4 nmol/min per mg. Glycerol-P was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.07 mM) of the DHAP acyltransferase activity, and DHAP was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.91 mM) of the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity. The two acyltransferase activities exhibited marked similarities in their pH dependence, acyl-coenzyme A chain length preference and substrate concentration dependencies, thermolability, and patterns of inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide, trypsin, and detergents. Thus, the data strongly suggest that yeast glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities represent dual catalytic functions of a single membrane-bound enzyme. Furthermore, since no acyl-DHAP oxidoreductase activity could be detected in yeast membranes, the DHAP pathway for glycerolipid synthesis may not operate in yeast. PMID:25265

  2. Amperometric triglyceride bionanosensor based on nanoparticles of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pundir, C S; Aggarwal, V

    2017-01-15

    The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of lipase from porcine pancreas, glycerol kinase (GK) from Cellulomonas sp. and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) from Aerococcus viridanss were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The functionalzed ENPs aggregates were co-immobilized covalently onto polycrystalline Au electrode through thiolated bond. An improved amperometric triglyceride (TG) bionanosensor was constructed using this ENPs modified Au electrode as working electrode. Biosensor showed optimum current at 1.2 V within 5s, at pH 6.5 and 35 °C.A linear relationship was obtained between current (mA) and triolein concentration in lower concentration range,10-100 mg/dL and higher concentration range, 100-500 mg/dL. Limit of detection (LOD) of bionanosensor was 1.0 μg/ml. Percent analytical recovery of added trolein (50 and 100 mg/dL) in serum was 95.2 ± 0.5 and 96.0 ± 0.17. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.33% and 2.15% respectively. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.99) was obtained between TG values in sera measured by present biosensor and standard enzymic colorimetric method with the regression equation: y= (0.993x + 0.967). ENPs/Au electrode was used 180 times over a period of 3 months with 50% loss in its initial activity, when stored dry at 4 °C.

  3. Glyphosate inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthease from suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.L.; Gaines, C.G.; Jensen, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    Treatment of isogenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris Speg, et Comes with glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) led to elevated levels of intracellular shikimate (364-fold increase by 1.0 millimolar glyphosate). In the presence of glyphosate, it is likely that most molecules of shikimate originate from the action of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase-Mn since this isozyme, in contrast to the DAHP synthase-Co isozyme, is insensitive to inhibition by glyphosate. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) from N. silvestris was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of glyphosate and possessed a single inhibitor binding site. Rigorous kinetic studies of EPSP synthase required resolution from the multiple phosphatase activities present in crude extracts, a result achieved by ion-exchange column chromatography. Although EPSP synthase exhibited a broad pH profile (50% of maximal activity between pH 6.2 and 8.5), sensitivity to glyphosate increased dramatically with increasing pH within this range. In accordance with these data and the pK/sub a/ values of glyphosate, it is likely that the ionic form of glyphosate inhibiting EPSP synthase is COO/sup -/CH/sub 2/NH/sub 2//sup +/CH/sub 2/PO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and that a completely ionized phosphono group is essential for inhibition. At pH 7.0, inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate (K/sub i/ = 1.25 micromolar) and uncompetitive with respect to shikimate-3-P (K/sub i/ = 18.3 micromolar). All data were consistent with a mechanism of inhibition in which glyphosate competes with PEP for binding to an (enzyme:shikimate-3-P) complex and ultimately forms the dead-end complex of (enzyme:shikimate-3-P:glyphosate). 36 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  4. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn under Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments and Different Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yucheng; Luo, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Han, Chao; Chen, Yijun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn is one of the main traditional Chinese medicines producing coumarins and plenty of literatures are focused on the biosynthesis of coumarins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in studying the biosynthesis pathway and the selection of reference genes plays a crucial role in accurate normalization. To facilitate biosynthesis study of coumarins, twelve candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome database of P. praeruptorum according to previous studies. Then, BestKeeper, geNoFrm and NormFinder were used for selecting stably expressed reference genes in different tissues and under various stress treatments. The results indicated that, among the twelve candidate reference genes, the SAND family protein (SAND), actin 2 (ACT2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), protein phosphatase 2A gene (PP2A) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) were the most stable reference genes under different experimental treatments, while glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tubulin beta-6 (TUB6) were the least stable genes. In addition, the suitability of SAND, TIP41-like protein (TIP41), UBC9, ACT2, TUB6 and their combination as reference genes were confirmed by normalizing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) in different treatments. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in P. praeruptorum and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate qRT-PCR results in P. praeruptorum and other plant species.

  5. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn under Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments and Different Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yucheng; Luo, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Han, Chao; Chen, Yijun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn is one of the main traditional Chinese medicines producing coumarins and plenty of literatures are focused on the biosynthesis of coumarins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in studying the biosynthesis pathway and the selection of reference genes plays a crucial role in accurate normalization. To facilitate biosynthesis study of coumarins, twelve candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome database of P. praeruptorum according to previous studies. Then, BestKeeper, geNoFrm and NormFinder were used for selecting stably expressed reference genes in different tissues and under various stress treatments. The results indicated that, among the twelve candidate reference genes, the SAND family protein (SAND), actin 2 (ACT2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), protein phosphatase 2A gene (PP2A) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) were the most stable reference genes under different experimental treatments, while glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tubulin beta-6 (TUB6) were the least stable genes. In addition, the suitability of SAND, TIP41-like protein (TIP41), UBC9, ACT2, TUB6 and their combination as reference genes were confirmed by normalizing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) in different treatments. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in P. praeruptorum and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate qRT-PCR results in P. praeruptorum and other plant species. PMID:27022972

  6. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Clonostachys rosea 67-1 under sclerotial induction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Reference genes are important to precisely quantify gene expression by real-time PCR. In order to identify sta